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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended January 3, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ______________ to ______________

Commission file number 001-34166


SPWR-20210103_G1.GIF
SunPower Corporation
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware 94-3008969
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
51 Rio Robles San Jose California 95134
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)

(408) 240-5500
(Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

_________________________________________

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock $0.001 par value SPWR Nasdaq Global Select Market
d
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None


_________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  ☒ No  ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  ☒ No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒  No  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Emerging growth company Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes ☒  No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes  ☐    No  ☒

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 28, 2020 (the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was $579.5 million. Such aggregate market value was computed by reference to the closing price of the common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 28, 2020. For purposes of determining this amount only, the registrant has defined affiliates as including Total Solar INTL SAS, formerly known as Total Solar International SAS, Total Energies Nouvelles Activités USA and Total Gas & Power USA, SAS and the executive officers and directors of the registrant on June 28, 2020.

The total number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock as of February 12, 2021 was 170,555,340.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Parts of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the registrant’s 2021 annual meeting of stockholders are incorporated by reference in Items 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 of Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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INTRODUCTORY NOTES

Trademarks

The following terms, among others, are our trademarks and may be used in this report: SunPower®, EnergyLink™, InvisiMount®, Helix™, Equinox™, PowerGuard®, PowerLight™, SunVault™, OneRoof™, Demand Better Solar™, Supo Solar™, Sunrente™, and The Power of One™. Other trademarks appearing in this report are the property of their respective owners.

Unit of Power

When referring to our solar power systems, and total sales, the unit of electricity in watts for kilowatts ("KW"), megawatts ("MW"), and gigawatts ("GW") is direct current ("DC"), unless otherwise noted as alternating current ("AC").

Levelized Cost of Energy ("LCOE")

LCOE is an evaluation of the life-cycle energy cost and life-cycle energy production of an energy producing system. It allows alternative technologies to be compared to different scales of operation, investment or operating time periods. It captures capital costs and ongoing system-related costs, along with the amount of electricity produced, and converts them into a common metric. Key drivers for LCOE reduction for photovoltaic products include panel efficiency, capacity factors, reliable system performance, and the life of the system.

Customer Cost of Energy ("CCOE")

Our customers are focused on reducing their overall cost of energy by intelligently integrating solar and other distributed generation, energy efficiency, energy management, and energy storage systems with their existing utility-provided energy. The CCOE measurement is an evaluation of a customer’s overall cost of energy, taking into account the cost impact of each individual generation source (including the utility), energy storage systems, and energy management systems. The CCOE measurement includes capital costs and ongoing operating costs, along with the amount of electricity produced, stored, saved, or re-sold, and converts all of these variables into a common metric. The CCOE metric allows a customer to compare different portfolios of generation sources, energy storage, and energy management, and to tailor towards optimization.  

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are statements that do not represent historical facts and the assumptions underlying such statements. We use words such as "anticipate," "believe," "continue," "could," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "plan," "predict," "project," "potential," "will," "would," "should," and similar expressions to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include, but are not limited to, our plans and expectations regarding future financial results, expected operating results, business strategies, the sufficiency of our cash and our liquidity, projected costs and cost reduction measures, development of new products and improvements to our existing products, the impact of recently adopted accounting pronouncements, our manufacturing capacity and manufacturing costs, the adequacy of our agreements with our suppliers, our ability to monetize our solar projects, legislative actions and regulatory compliance, competitive positions, management's plans and objectives for future operations, our ability to obtain financing, our ability to comply with debt covenants or cure any defaults, our ability to repay our obligations as they come due, our ability to continue as a going concern, trends in average selling prices, the success of our joint ventures and acquisitions, warranty matters, outcomes of litigation, our exposure to foreign exchange, interest, and credit risk, general business and economic conditions in our markets, industry trends, the impact of changes in government incentives, expected restructuring charges, risks related to privacy and data security, statements regarding the anticipated impact on our business of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health measures, macroeconomic trends, and uncertainties, and the likelihood of any impairment of project assets, long-lived assets, and investments. These forward-looking statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and current expectations, forecasts, and assumptions and involve a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated by these forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include a variety of factors, some of which are beyond our control. Please see "Item 1A. Risk Factors" herein and our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") for additional information on risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ. These forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date, and we are under no obligation to, and expressly disclaim any responsibility to, update or alter our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.
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The following information should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our fiscal year ends on the Sunday closest to the end of the applicable calendar year. All references to fiscal periods apply to our fiscal quarter or year, which end on the Sunday closest to the calendar month end.

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Corporate History

SunPower has been a leader in the solar industry for over 30 years, originally incorporated in California in 1985 and reincorporated in Delaware in 2004 in connection with our initial public offering. In November 2011, our stockholders approved the reclassification of all outstanding former class A common stock and class B common stock into a single class of common stock listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "SPWR." In fiscal 2011, we became a majority owned subsidiary of Total Solar INTL SAS, formerly known as Total Solar International SAS, Total Gas & Power USA, SAS and Total Energies Nouvelles Activités USA ("Total"), a subsidiary of TOTAL SE ("TOTAL SE").

Company Overview

SunPower Corporation (together with its subsidiaries, "SunPower," "the Company," "we," "us," or "our") is a leading solar energy company that delivers complete solar solutions to customers primarily in United States and Canada through an array of hardware, software, and financing options, and "Smart Energy" solutions. Our Smart Energy initiative is designed to add layers of intelligent control to homes, buildings, and grids—all personalized through easy-to-use customer interfaces. We are a leader in the U.S. downstream Distributed Generation (“DG”) market, providing an affordable and sustainable source of electricity compared to traditional utility energy to residential homeowners and commercial customers through multiple financing options. Our sales channels include a strong network of dealers and resellers that operate in both, residential and commercial markets, as well a group of talented and driven in-house sales team within each segment engaged in direct sales to end customers.

Recent Developments

Maxeon Solar Spin-Off Transaction

On August 26, 2020, we completed the spin-off (the “Spin-Off”) of Maxeon Solar Technologies, Ltd., a Singapore public company limited by shares (“Maxeon Solar”), consisting of certain non-U.S. operations and assets of our former SunPower Technologies business unit. The Spin-Off was completed by way of a pro rata distribution of all of the then-issued and outstanding ordinary shares, no par value, of Maxeon Solar to holders of record of our common stock (the “Distribution”) as of the close of business on August 17, 2020.

In connection with the Spin-Off, and as contemplated by the Separation and Distribution Agreement entered into by us and Maxeon Solar, we and Maxeon Solar entered into certain ancillary agreements that govern the relationships between the Company and Maxeon Solar following the Distribution, including: a tax matters agreement, employee matters agreement, transition services agreement, back-to-back agreement, brand framework agreement, cross license agreement, collaboration agreement, and supply agreement (collectively, the “Ancillary Agreements”), each as previously described in our announcement of the contemplated transaction.

Sale of Operations and Maintenance Business

On May 14, 2020, we sold the substantial majority of our O&M ("Operations & Maintenance") services contracts for utility, commercial, and industrial scale photovoltaic power projects and related assets and liabilities to NovaSource Power Services ("NovaSource”) for total consideration of $36.3 million.

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Upon closing, we received net cash consideration of $16.0 million, excluding certain hold-backs totaling in aggregate $15.0 million for certain retained obligations and contracts not novated as of closing. We assessed the recoverability of these hold-backs and included our best estimate of the amount recoverable in the future in our calculation of net gain on sale. Additionally, we also agreed to retain and subcontract certain O&M contracts for selected large utility scale power plant projects in North America at a fixed price to NovaSource. The contracts were deemed loss-making on the closing date and accordingly, we recorded a liability for the expected loss to be recognized for these contracts that will be amortized over the expected period of loss of three years.

Segments Overview

In the third quarter of fiscal 2020, and concurrent with the Spin-Off, we reorganized our business into new segments to align our focus on the U.S. downstream DG market and new business model driven by financial offerings, solar energy systems storage, solutions, and software services. Previously, we operated under two end-customer segments, comprised of our (i) SunPower Energy Services and (ii) SunPower Technologies. The SunPower Energy Services segment referred to our downstream business consisting of sales of solar energy solutions to residential and commercial end-customers, and the SunPower Technologies segment referred to global manufacturing and our large-scale solar products and systems and international component sales.

Under the new segmentation, Residential, Light Commercial ("RLC") refers to sales of solar energy solutions previously included in the legacy SunPower Energy Services segment, including sales to our third-party dealer network and resellers, storage solutions, cash and loan sales, and long-term leases directly to end customers. The Commercial and Industrial Solutions segment ("C&I Solutions") refers to direct sales of turn-key engineering, procurement, and construction ("EPC") services, and sales of energy under power purchase agreements ("PPAs"). Certain legacy businesses consisting of worldwide power plant project development, project sales, and U.S. manufacturing, which we are winding down, are not significant to overall operations, and are deemed non-core to our other businesses and classified as "Others." Certain key cross-functional support functions and responsibilities including corporate strategy, treasury, tax and accounting support and services, among others, continue to be centrally managed within the Corporate function.

Each segment is managed by a business general manager that reports to our Chief Executive Officer, as the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”), who reviews our business, manages resource allocations, and measures performance of our activities across the RLC, C&I Solutions, and Other segments. The CODM further views the business performance of each segment under two key sources of revenue - Dev Co and Power Co. Dev Co refers to our solar origination and installation revenue stream within each segment such as sale of solar power systems with our dealers and resellers network as well as installation and EPC revenues, while Power Co refers to our post-system sale recurring services revenues, mainly from asset management services and O&M services through our SunStrong partnership dealer services for RLC and our commercial dealer network for C&I. The risk profile of each of the revenue streams is different and, therefore, the segregation of Dev Co and Power Co provides the CODM with appropriate information to review business performance and allocate resources to each segment.

Impact of COVID-19 on our Business

The COVID-19 pandemic has driven our organizations across the globe to operate virtually to a large extent, and support remote workforces at a faster speed and greater scale than ever before. Following the first shelter-in-place orders, we expanded our internal virtual salesforce and helped enable our dealers to complete sales consultations in a virtual setting. We have seen leads through our online and virtual sales channels at attractive customer acquisition costs. We believe that a virtual sales model will position us and our dealers to reduce customer acquisition costs in the future.

The health and safety of our employees, contractors, and customers are a top priority for us. In an effort to protect our employees and contractors, we took and continue to take proactive and aggressive actions, starting with the earliest signs of the outbreak, to adopt social distancing policies at our locations around the world, including working from home and suspending employee travel. We have transitioned to work from home with flexible work policies, and most of our non-installation workforce is working from home and is expected to continue to do so until at least July 2021.

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As the installation of solar systems is considered an essential business in many jurisdictions, employees and contractors who are working onsite are required to adhere to strict safety measures, including the use of masks and sanitizer, wellness screenings prior to accessing work sites, staggered break times to prevent congregation, prohibitions on physical contact with co-workers or customers, restrictions on access through only a single point of entry and exit, eliminating carpooling, and utilizing video conferencing, where possible. We have also incorporated other rules such as restricting visitors to any of our facilities that remain open and proactively providing employees with hand sanitizer and disinfectant wipes. Also, we developed a COVID-19 Response Team that meets regularly to develop tailored action plans and protocols to protect our employees and publishes these actions, guidelines, and rules on our intranet available to all employees.

At the onset of the pandemic, across the organization, we took specific measures to sustain our business and operations as well as protect our employees. These measures included temporary reductions in the salaries of certain of our executive officers and the fees payable to our independent directors, as well as temporary reductions in salaries and reduced work week schedules for certain of our employees to address reduced demand and workloads, with exceptions for certain groups, including those supporting customer and asset services. In June 2020, most of our employees resumed a full work week and returned to full salary during the last week of July. In September 2020, our executive officers and independent directors returned to full salary.

As of February 2021, COVID-19 cases continue to rise in certain areas of the United States and worldwide, and as a result, many jurisdictions are restricting or planning to restrict businesses and economic activities. It is not clear what the potential effects any such future developments, including any new government restrictions, may have on our business, including the effects on our customers, employees, and prospects, or on our financial results. We will continue to actively monitor the situation and may take further actions altering our business operations that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, partners, suppliers, and stakeholders, and as required by federal, state, or local authorities.

Outlook

We believe the execution of our strategy will provide attractive opportunities for profitable growth over the long term. We believe the most significant elements of uncertainty are the intensity and duration of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on project installation and commercial and consumer spending as well as the ability of our sales channels, supply chain, and distribution centers to operate with minimal disruption in the near term, especially if local governments impose new measures and restrictions in jurisdictions in which we operate. The disruptions noted above could negatively impact our financial position, results of operations, cash flows, and outlook.

Solutions

We are focused on delivering complete solar power generation solutions to our customers. As part of our solutions-based approach, we focus on SunPower Helix products for our commercial business customers and our SunPower Equinox product for our residential business customers. The Equinox and Helix systems are pre-engineered modular solutions for residential and commercial applications, respectively, that combine our high-efficiency solar module technology with integrated plug-and-play power stations, cable management systems, and mounting hardware that enable our customers to quickly and easily complete system installations and manage their energy production. Our Equinox systems utilize our latest A-Series cell and alternating-current photovoltaic technology for residential applications, where we are also working to expand our initiatives on storage and Smart Energy solutions. Our Helix products are available for carport, ground, and roof installations and provide seamless solar solutions at low cost. Additionally, we continue to focus on installing our lower cost, high efficiency Performance Line and our A-Series product line, which we believe will enhance our ability to rapidly expand our global footprint with minimal capital cost.

We continue to see significant and increasing opportunities in technologies and capabilities adjacent to our core product offerings that can significantly reduce our customers' CCOE, including the integration of energy storage and energy management functionality into our systems, and have made investments to realize those opportunities, enabling our customers to make intelligent energy choices by addressing how they buy energy, how they use energy, and when they use it. We have added advanced module-level control electronics to our portfolio of technology designed to enable longer series strings and significant balance of system components cost reductions in large arrays. We offer solar panels that use micro-inverters designed to eliminate the need to mount or assemble additional components on the roof or the side of a building and enable optimization and monitoring at the solar panel level to ensure maximum energy production by the solar system.

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Our all-in-one solutions include a full suite of solar power systems including storage, software, and services. Our RLC segment offers its solutions in three distinct categories to Residential, Light Commercial, and New Homes. Our comprehensive platform is designed to drive loyalty, and potential gross margin growth. This Power of One® platform is a key element of our strategy to attack the “long-tail” of the market. Our complete, all-in-one solutions generate favorable customer reviews.

OneRoof™

Our latest roofing system, OneRoof™, is a Class A fire-rated, UL-certified roofing system that replaces concrete roofing tiles for a fully integrated roof-plus-solar solution. With flexible design configurations, integrated panel clips, and built-in grounding, installation is simple and designed specifically for new homes. With direct-to-deck attachments, self-aligning modules, and snap-in-place module attachments, OneRoof™ installs two to three times faster than conventional mounting. Kynar-coated metal components add a rugged layer of roof protection that lasts longer than typical composite shingles and are covered by our 25-year Complete Confidence Warranty. OneRoof™ sits seamlessly with the rest of the roof for a sleek, low-profile look with virtually no visible parts. Interlocking flashings and pans with individually sealed screws create a watertight barrier against harsh conditions— including wind-driven rain. Our OneRoof™ system is watertight, Class A fire-rated and built to last. And for extra peace of mind, our Complete Confidence Warranty covers products, parts, and service for 25 years, monitoring hardware for 10 years and the Kynar-coated-steel finish for 5 years. OneRoof™ is the only roof-integrated solar system, paired with the world’s best solar. The solution is designed specifically for new construction, generally installs much faster than conventional solar, and is cost efficient by replacing roof materials.

SunVault™ Storage

Our new SunVault™ storage solution is primarily designed for residential customers and its two-box solution fits in indoor or outdoor areas. Homeowners get seamless backup power during an outage and the system provides the flexibility to manage energy as they deem fit. SunVault™ storage integrates with SunPower solar systems, creating the only home solar + storage solution designed, installed, and warranted by one company. Its intelligent software shifts when drawing power from the grid, maximizing the use of solar, as well as provides real-time updates as to home solar usage and storage, through customized settings. With only 0.1% of homes in the United States having storage and power outages continuing to rise, our storage solutions provide an attractive way to use solar.

Flexible Financing Options

We have a long track record of attracting low-cost capital from diverse sources, including tax equity and debt investors. Since inception we have raised tax equity investment funds to finance the installation of solar energy systems.

Advances in financing are playing a big part in driving increased profits and dealer loyalty. We sell our residential solar energy solutions to end customers through a variety of means, including cash and financed systems sales directly to end customers and sales to resellers, including our third-party dealer network.

We offer financing programs that are designed to offer customers a variety of options to obtain high-efficiency solar products and systems, including loans arranged through our third-party lending partners, in some cases for no money down, or leases at competitive energy rates. Since its launch in 2011, our residential lease program, in partnership with third-party investors, provides U.S. customers SunPower systems under typically 20-year lease agreements that include system maintenance and warranty coverage, including warranties on system performance. SunPower residential lease customers have the option to purchase their leased solar systems upon the sale or transfer of their home. These financing options enhance our ability to provide individually tailored solar solutions to a broad range of residential customers.

Commercial Roof, Carport, and Ground Mounted Systems

As part of our complete solution product approach, we offer our Helix commercial market product. The Helix system is a pre-engineered, modular solution that combines our industry-leading solar module technology with integrated plug-and-play power stations, cable management systems, and mounting hardware that is built to last and fast to install, enabling customers to scale their solar programs quickly with minimal business disruption. The Helix platform is standardized across rooftop, carport, and ground installations and designed to lower system cost while improving performance. The Helix platform is also bundled with our Smart Energy software analytics, which provides our customers with information about their energy consumption and production, enabling them to further reduce their energy costs.

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We also offer a variety of commercial solutions designed to address a wide range of site requirements for commercial rooftop, parking lot, and open space applications, including a portfolio of solutions utilizing framed panels and a variety of internally or externally developed mounting methods for flat roof and high tilt roof applications. Our commercial flat rooftop systems are designed to be lightweight and to interlock, enhancing wind resistance, and providing for secure, rapid installations.

We offer parking lot structures designed specifically for SunPower panels, balance of system components, and inverters and in 2015 expanded our capability to design and install innovative solar structures and systems for carport applications. These systems are typically custom design-build projects that utilize standard templates and design best practices to create a solution tailored to unique site conditions. SunPower's highest efficiency panels are especially well suited to stand-alone structures, such as those found in parking lot applications, because our systems require less steel and other materials per unit of power or energy produced as compared with our competitors.

Community Solar

SunPower’s Community Solar program is a way for customers to obtain the benefits of solar without having any panels installed on their roofs. This enables people who live in apartments, condominiums, and other residences to go solar. These customers are part of a community of solar energy supporters who obtain their power from large solar projects built within their utility district rather than from panels on their respective rooftops.

SunPower has a large commercial and residential customer base to leverage opportunities to expand our community solar footprint. We believe our community solar market offering fits well into long-term growth strategy, and provides a significant opportunity for growth by leveraging the existing installation base and software platform.

Supply

The solar power panels used in our systems and solutions are entirely sourced from Maxeon Solar during the exclusivity period under the terms of the supply agreement that we entered into with Maxeon Solar in connection with the Spin-Off.

We also work with our suppliers and partners to ensure the reliability of our supply chain. We have contracted with some of our suppliers for multi-year supply agreements, under which we have annual minimum purchase obligations. For more information about our purchase commitments and obligations, see "Liquidity and Capital Resources—Contractual Obligations" and "Note 10. Commitments and Contingencies" in the Notes to the consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Technology

Smart Energy

We see “Smart Energy” as a way to harness our world’s energy potential by connecting the most powerful and reliable solar systems on the market with an increasingly vast array of actionable data that can help our customers make smarter decisions about their energy use. Our Smart Energy initiative is designed to add layers of intelligent control to homes, buildings, and grids—all personalized through easy-to-use customer interfaces. In order to enhance the portfolio of Smart Energy solutions we offer, we plan to continue to invest in integrated technology solutions to help customers manage and optimize their CCOE measurement.

We have also negotiated several agreements with residential and commercial energy storage providers to integrate storage technology into our residential and commercial solar solutions. By combining storage with energy management, we lower our customers' cost of energy through improvements in self-consumption, rate arbitrage, demand management, and grid and market participation. We plan to continue to work to make combined solar and storage solutions broadly commercially available.

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Inverters

Every solar power system needs an inverter to transform the direct current electricity collected from the solar panels into utility-grade AC power that is ready for use. We sell inverters manufactured by third parties, some of which are SunPower-branded for both residential and commercial customers. Subsequent to the sale of our microinverter business in August 2018, we exclusively procure microinverters for the manufacture and distribution of AC modules and discrete MLPE system solutions for the U.S. residential market from Enphase. Panels with these factory-integrated microinverters perform better in shaded applications compared to conventional string inverters and allow for optimization and monitoring at the solar panel level, enabling maximum energy production by the solar system.

We are working with Enphase to develop next generation microinverters for use with our high efficiency solar panels in order to enhance our portfolio of Smart Energy solutions. Panels with these factory-integrated microinverters can convert direct current generated by the solar panel into alternating current, enabling optimization and monitoring at the solar panel level to ensure maximum energy production by the solar system.

Warranties

SunPower provides a workmanship warranty of up to 25 years from installation and a 25-year standard warranty for previously SunPower-manufactured microinverters. We also warrant our installed systems for defective materials and workmanship for periods ranging up to 25 years as well as provide a separate system output performance warranty to customers that have subscribed to our post-installation monitoring and maintenance services. We pass through to customers warranties from the original equipment manufacturers of certain system components such as solar panels, monitoring equipment and inverters. For such components, our warranties may exceed the warranty coverage from the original equipment manufacturers. For solar energy systems we do not install directly, we receive workmanship warranties from our solar partners.

Customers

Our scope and scale allow us to deliver solar solutions across all segments, ranging from consumer homeowners to the largest commercial and governmental entities. Our customers typically include investors, financial institutions, project developers, electric utilities, independent power producers, commercial and governmental entities, production home builders, residential owners, and small commercial building owners. We leverage a combination of direct sales as well as a broad partner ecosystem to efficiently reach our global customer base.

We work with development, construction, system integration, and financing companies to deliver our solar power products and solutions to wholesale sellers, retail sellers, and retail users of electricity. In the United States, commercial and electric utility customers typically choose to purchase solar electricity under a PPA with an investor or financing company that buys the system from us. End-user customers typically pay the investors and financing companies over an extended period of time based on energy they consume from the solar power systems, rather than paying for the full capital cost of purchasing the solar power systems. Our utility-scale solar power systems are typically purchased by an investor or financing company, and operated as central-station solar power plants. In addition, our third-party dealer network and our new homes division have deployed thousands of SunPower rooftop solar power systems to residential customers. See "Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Revenue" for our significant customers.

Competition

The market for solar electric power technologies is competitive and continually evolving. In the last year, we faced increased competition, resulting in price reductions in the market which may continue and could lead to loss of market share. Our solar power products and systems compete with many competitors in the solar power market, including, but not limited to:

GAF Energy, Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., NRG Energy, Inc., Panasonic Corporation, REC Group, SunRun, Inc., Sunnova Energy International Inc., Tesla, Inc., Borrego, EDF Renewables, Mortenson, Ameresco, and Standard Solar.

We also face competition from resellers that have developed related offerings that compete with our product and service offerings, or have entered into strategic relationships with other existing solar power system providers. We compete for limited government funding for research and development contracts, customer tax rebates and other programs that promote the use of solar, and other renewable forms of energy with other renewable energy providers and customers.

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In addition, universities, research institutions, and other companies have brought to market alternative technologies, such as thin-film solar technology, which compete with our PV technology in certain applications. Furthermore, the solar power market in general competes with other energy providers such as electricity produced from conventional fossil fuels supplied by utilities and other sources of renewable energy such as wind, hydro, biomass, solar thermal, and emerging distributed generation technologies such as micro-turbines, sterling engines and fuel cells.

We believe that the key competitive factors in the market for solar energy management solutions, including systems, storage, and software are:

total system price;

levelized cost of energy (LCOE) evaluation;

customer cost of energy (CCOE) evaluation;

power, efficiency, and performance under realistic operating conditions;

aesthetic appearance of solar panels and systems;

wind, snow, and structural load capability;

speed and ease of installation through modular solutions such as our Helix system;

dealer and installer training and operational excellence;

high-productivity sales and commissioning software tools for dealers;

leveraging extensive fleet data for reliability;

engagement with end customer community;

strength of distribution relationships;

availability of third-party financing and investments;

established sales channels to customers;

bankability, strength, and reputation of our company; and

warranty protection, quality, and customer service.

We believe that we can compete favorably with respect to each of these elements, although we may be at a disadvantage in comparison to larger companies with broader product lines, greater technical service, and support capabilities, and financial resources. For more information on risks related to our competition, please see the risk factors set forth under the caption "Item 1A. Risk Factors" including "Risks Related to Our Sales Channels—The increase in the global supply of solar cells and panels, and increasing competition, may cause substantial downward pressure on the prices of such products, limiting our ability to sell our differentiated panels at a premium, causing us to lose sales or market share, resulting in lower revenues, earnings, and cash flows."

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Intellectual Property

We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trade secret, trademark, and contractual protections to establish and protect our proprietary rights. "SunPower" and the "SunPower" logo are our registered trademarks in countries throughout the world for use with solar cells, solar panels, energy monitoring systems, inverters, and mounting systems. We also hold registered trademarks for, among others, “SunPower Equinox,” “SunPower Giving,” “SunPower Horizons,” “Bottle the Sun,” “Demand Better Solar,” “EDDiE,” “EnergyLink,” “Equinox,” “Experiential Learning. Expanding Opportunities.,” “Helix,” “InvisiMount,” “Light on Land,” “PowerGuard,” “PowerLight,” “Powering a Brighter Tomorrow,” “Smarter Solar,” “Solar Showdown,” “Sol,” “SunTile,” "SunVault," "OneRoof," “The Planet's Most Powerful Solar,” and “The Power of One” in certain countries. We are seeking and will continue to seek registration of the "SunPower" trademark and other trademarks in additional countries as we believe is appropriate. As of January 3, 2021, we held registrations for 26 trademarks in the United States, and had 6 trademark registration applications pending. We also held 26 trademark registrations and had no trademark applications pending in foreign jurisdictions. We typically require our business partners to enter into confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements before we disclose any sensitive aspects of our solar cells, technology, or business plans. We typically enter into proprietary information agreements with employees, consultants, vendors, customers, and joint venture partners.

We own multiple patents and patent applications that cover aspects of the technology in the solar panels, mounting products, and electrical and electronic systems that we sell. We continue to file for and receive new patent rights on a regular basis. The lifetime of a utility patent typically extends for 20 years from the date of filing with the relevant government authority. We assess appropriate opportunities for patent protection of those aspects of our technology, designs, methodologies, and processes that we believe provide significant competitive advantages to us, and for licensing opportunities of new technologies relevant to our business. As of January 3, 2021, we held 565 patents in the United States (353 licensed to Maxeon Solar Technologies, Ltd.), which will expire at various times through 2039, and had 200 U.S. patent applications pending (152 licensed to Maxeon Solar Technologies, Ltd.). We also held 149 patents and had 50 patent applications pending in foreign jurisdictions. While patents are an important element of our intellectual property strategy, our business as a whole is not dependent on any one patent or any single pending patent application. We additionally rely on trade secret rights to protect proprietary information and know-how. We therefore typically require employees and consultants to enter into confidentiality agreements to protect them.

When appropriate, we enforce our intellectual property rights against other parties. For more information about risks related to our intellectual property, please see the risk factors set forth under the caption "Item 1A. Risk Factors" including "Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property—We depend on our intellectual property, and we may face intellectual property infringement claims that could be time-consuming and costly to defend and could result in the loss of significant rights," "Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property—We rely substantially upon trade secret laws and contractual restrictions to protect our proprietary rights, and, if these rights are not sufficiently protected, our ability to compete and generate revenue could suffer," and "Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property—We may not obtain sufficient patent protection on the technology embodied in the solar products we currently manufacture and market, which could harm our competitive position and increase our expenses."

Regulations

Public Policy Considerations

Different public policy mechanisms have been used by governments to accelerate the adoption and use of solar power and energy storage. Examples of customer-focused financial mechanisms include capital cost rebates, performance-based incentives, feed-in tariffs, tax credits, and net energy metering. Some of these government mandates and economic incentives are scheduled to be reduced or to expire, or could be eliminated altogether, while others are scheduled to be extended or expanded. Capital cost rebates provide funds to customers based on the cost and size of a customer’s solar power or energy storage system. Performance-based incentives provide funding to a customer based on the energy produced by their solar power system or stored by their energy storage system. Feed-in tariffs pay customers for solar power system generation based on energy produced, at a rate generally guaranteed for a period of time. Tax credits reduce a customer’s taxes at the time the taxes are due. Net energy metering allows customers to deliver to the electric grid any excess electricity produced by their on-site solar power systems, and to be credited for that excess electricity at or near the full retail price of electricity.

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In addition to the mechanisms described above, new market development mechanisms to encourage the use of renewable energy sources continue to emerge. For example, many states in the United States have adopted (and subsequently expanded) renewable portfolio standards which mandate that a certain portion of electricity delivered to customers come from eligible renewable energy resources. Some states additionally mandate that a certain portion of that eligible renewable energy must be distributed generation. In addition, many states have adopted community solar programs and energy storage mandates. For more information about how we avail ourselves of the benefits of public policies and the risks related to public policies, please see the risk factors set forth under the caption "Item 1A. Risk Factors" including "Risks Related to Our Sales Channels—The reduction, modification or elimination of government incentives could cause our revenue to decline and harm our financial results," "Risks Related to Our Sales Channels—Existing regulations and policies and changes to these regulations and policies may present technical, regulatory, and economic barriers to the purchase and use of solar power products, which may significantly reduce demand for our products and services," and "Changes in international trade policies, tariffs, or trade disputes could significantly and adversely affect our business, revenues, margins, results of operations, and cash flows."

Environmental Regulations

We use, generate, and discharge toxic, volatile, or otherwise hazardous chemicals and wastes in our research and development, and construction activities. We are subject to a variety of U.S. federal and state laws and regulations related to the purchase, storage, use, and disposal of hazardous materials. We believe that we have all environmental permits necessary to conduct our business and expect to obtain all necessary environmental permits for future activities. We believe that we have properly handled our hazardous materials and wastes and have appropriately remediated any contamination at any of our premises. We are currently not subject to any litigation pertaining to environment regulations and cost of compliance with applicable regulations is expected to be commensurate with our historical spend and other companies in the industry.

In addition to the Company’s existing environmental compliance initiatives, we have also appointed new roles and engaged additional resources to provide comprehensive oversight, and reporting, of the Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) components across all processes and business units. Additionally, as part of our commitment to energy sustainability, we are targeting to publish our sustainability report during the second quarter of fiscal 2021. This report will describe the Company's energy sustainability strategies and address other environmental matters such as waste minimization, minimization of impact on natural resources, and recycling.

Information concerning certain limited activities related to Iran

All the information concerning the activities of our affiliate TOTAL SE and its affiliated companies (collectively, the “Total Group”) related to Iran that took place in 2020 provided in this section is disclosed pursuant to Section 13(r) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “U.S. Exchange Act”).

The Total Group believes that these activities are not subject to sanctions under applicable international economic sanctions regimes, including those adopted by the United States and the European Union.

The Total Group’s operational activities related to Iran were stopped in 2018 following the withdrawal of the United States from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (“JCPOA”) in May 2018 and prior to the re-imposition of U.S. secondary sanctions on the oil industry as of November 5, 2018.

Statements in this section concerning affiliates of TOTAL SE intending or expecting to continue activities described below are subject to such activities continuing to be permissible under applicable international economic sanctions regimes and are based on information provided to us by the Total Group.

Exploration & Production

The Tehran branch office of Total E&P South Pars S.A.S. (a wholly-owned subsidiary), which opened in 2017 for the purposes of the development and production of phase 11 of the South Pars gas field, ceased all operational activities prior to November 1, 2018. In addition, since November 2018, Total Iran BV maintains a local representative office in Tehran with four employees solely for non-operational functions.

Concerning payments to Iranian entities in 2020, Total Iran BV and Elf Petroleum Iran collectively made payments of approximately IRR 5.42 billion (approximately €115,007(converted using the average exchange rate for fiscal year 2020, as published by the Central Bank of Iran.)) to the Iranian administration for taxes and social security contributions concerning the staff of this representative office. None of these payments were executed in US dollars.

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Since November 30, 2018, Total E&P UK Limited (“TEP UK”), a wholly owned subsidiary, holds a 1% interest in a joint-venture relating to the Bruce field in the United Kingdom (the “Bruce Field Joint-Venture”) with Serica Energy (UK) Limited (“Serica”) (98%, operator) and BP Exploration Operating Company Limited (“BPEOC”) (1%), following the completion of the sale of 42.25% of TEP UK’s interest in the Bruce Field Joint-Venture on November 30, 2018 pursuant to a sale and purchase agreement dated August 2, 2018 entered into between TEP UK and Serica.

The Bruce Field Joint-Venture is party to an agreement governing certain transportation, processing, and operation services provided to another joint-venture at the Rhum field in the UK (the “Bruce Rhum Agreement”). The licensees of the Rhum field are Serica (50%, operator) and the Iranian Oil Company UK Ltd (“IOC UK”), a subsidiary of NIOC (50%), an Iranian government-owned corporation. Under the terms of the Bruce Rhum Agreement, the Rhum field owners pay a proportion of the operating costs of the Bruce field facilities calculated on a gas throughput basis.

In November 2018, the US Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Asset Control (“OFAC”) granted a conditional license to BPEOC and Serica authorizing provision of services to the Rhum field following the re-imposition of US secondary sanctions. The principal condition of the license is that the ownership of shares in IOC UK by Naftiran Intertrade Company Limited (the trading branch of the NIOC) are transferred into and held in a Jersey-based trust, thereby ensuring that the Iranian government does not derive any economic benefit from the Rhum field so long as US sanctions against these entities remain in place. IOC UK’s interest is managed by an independent management company established by the trust and referred to as the “Rhum Management Company” (“RMC”). Where necessary TEP UK liaises with RMC in relation to the Bruce Rhum Agreement and TEP UK expects to continue liaising with RMC on the same basis in 2021.

In January 2021, OFAC renewed the conditional license to Serica authorizing the provision of services to the Rhum field, until January 31, 2023, subject to early termination if the trust arrangements described above should terminate. In addition, OFAC confirmed that, to the extent that the license remains valid and Serica represents that the conditions set out in the license are met, activities and transactions of non-US persons involving the Rhum field or the Bruce field, including in relation to the operation of the trust, IOC UK and RMC will not be exposed to US secondary sanctions with respect to Iran.

IOC UK’s share of costs incurred under the Bruce Rhum Agreement have been paid to TEP UK in 2020 by RMC. In 2020, based upon TEP UK’s 1% interest in the Bruce Field Joint Venture and income from the net cash flow sharing arrangement with Serica, gross revenue to TEP UK from IOC UK’s share of the Rhum field resulting from the Bruce Rhum Agreement was approximately £5.18 million. This amount was used to offset operating costs on the Bruce field and as such, generated no net profit to TEP UK. TEP UK expects to continue this activity in 2021.

TEP UK is also party to an agreement with Serica whereby TEP UK uses reasonable endeavors to evacuate Rhum NGL from the St Fergus Terminal (the “Rhum NGL Agreement”). TEP UK provides this service subject to Serica having title to all of the Rhum NGL to be evacuated and Serica having a valid license from OFAC for the activity. The service is provided on a cost basis, and TEP UK charges a monthly handling fee that generates an income of approximately £35,400 per annum relating to IOC UK’s 50% stake in the Rhum field. After costs, TEP UK realizes little profit from this arrangement. TEP UK expects to continue this activity in 2021.

Gas, Renewables & Power

In 2020, Total Direct Energie, a wholly owned subsidiary, supplied electricity to the Iranian Embassy in Paris (France). This activity generated a gross turnover of €41,997 and a net margin of € approximately 2,650 in 2020. The Total Group expects to continue this activity in 2021.

Marketing & Services

In 2020, Total Marketing France (“TMF”), a wholly owned subsidiary, provided fuel payment cards to be used in the Total Group’s service stations to the Iranian embassy and the Iranian delegation to UNESCO located in Paris (France). This activity generated a gross turnover of approximately €17,500 and a net profit of approximately €1,900 in 2020. TMF does not expect to continue this activity in 2021.

In 2020, Total Belgium, a wholly owned subsidiary, provided fuel payment cards to be used in the Total Group’s service stations to the Iranian embassy located in Brussels (Belgium). This activity generated a gross turnover of approximately €8,500 and a net profit of approximately €1,300 (without tax) in 2020. Total Belgium expects to continue this activity in 2021.

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Patents & Trademarks

The Total Group paid approximately €5,000 to Iranian authorities related to various patents. These patents have since been abandoned so that no payment should be made in 2021. In addition, the Total Group could make small payments in 2021 to Iranian authorities related to the maintenance and protection of trademarks and designs in this country. These payments are made in accordance with US regulation (Section 560.509 of the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations).

Human Capital Management

SunPower had a team of about 2,200 full-time employees worldwide as of January 3, 2021. About 1,300 of these employees are located in the United States, and about 900 are located in the Philippines. Of these employees, approximately 1,260 were engaged in construction projects, 170 in research and development, 300 in sales and marketing, 300 in general and administrative services, and 170 in manufacturing. Our employees are not represented by labor unions on an ongoing basis, we have not experienced a work stoppage, and we believe our relations with our employees to be good. Our employees who are engaged in manufacturing are all located at our Hillsboro, Oregon manufacturing facility, and will be terminated due to the facility closure as announced on January 7, 2021. See also “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data-Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements-Note 19. Subsequent Events.

We have a strong management team, and believe they have the right experience to effectively implement our growth strategies and lead SunPower for long-lasting success.

How SunPower develops, attracts and retains personnel

With our mission To Change the Way Our World is Powered, we work to attract top talent to join the SunPower team. Given the technical nature of our business, our success depends on our ability to attract and retain skilled employees through a focus on university recruiting, experienced mid-career talent, and working with technical trade partners. We are dedicated to creating a diverse, inclusive, and safe work environment where each person delivers their best every day. We believe our work environment fosters a rich, equitable culture that allows us to make an impact on our world.

SunPower employees are responsible for understanding our vision and values, and how their actions support the achievement of our vision on a daily basis. We drive high levels of performance and improvement on a quarterly basis through our long-standing tradition of management by objective, with a clear link back to our core values: Deliver a Superior experience, Be Accountable, Do The Right Thing, Innovate Relentlessly, and Act Fast and Nimble. Our employees generally receive feedback and coaching from their managers on at least a quarterly basis, ensuring ongoing development and providing opportunities to outline career aspirations and development plans.

Attraction and retention of key employees contributes to our ability to remain competitive, and we have a comprehensive total rewards system to help ensure we are compensating and rewarding our employees in line with market practice, providing a competitive benefits programs, and providing flexibility through programs like our Volunteer Time Off initiative. Our pay for performance philosophy helps align employee interests with those of our stockholders by rewarding achievements that meet or exceed corporate goals, and grants of stock-based awards under our 2015 Omnibus Incentive Plan are intended to align compensation with the price performance of our common stock.

The importance of diversity, equity, and inclusion

SunPower is an equal opportunity employer, and we are committed to maintaining a diverse and inclusive work environment, and creating a strong culture of diversity, equity, and inclusion.

Our differences make us stronger. We are diverse in race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, faith, veteran status, ability, and much more. We celebrate these differences. The way we identify ourselves also extends beyond these foundations to diversity of thought and perspective, a range of approaches to problem-solving, and different life experiences. The value we place on diversity is reflected in the way we treat each other and our communities.

Together we are powerful. The power of inclusion is in valuing everyone and their unique contribution. It is important for all our employees to be respected, welcomed, and feel that they are part of something bigger. A culture of inclusion leads to more innovation, healthier working relationships, better decision-making, more fulfilled employees, a better ability to serve our customers, and ultimately a company that does well by doing good.

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We lead with intention. SunPower values diversity of all kinds, and our people and leadership are encouraged to foster inclusion. Our leaders are expected to lead by example. This starts with building awareness on the part of every SunPower employee and holding ourselves accountable. We are committed to never stop listening, learning, and improving.

More information about SunPower’s diversity, equity, and inclusion programs is available on our website.

A strong safety culture

We are committed to protecting the environment, providing a safe workplace, and protecting the health and safety of our employees, contractors, customers, and other stakeholders. We pursue continual improvement by setting targets and objectives to promote health and safety while aiming to conserve natural resources, minimize waste, and provide an environmentally friendly workplace. We work to ensure that all jobs and processes are planned and performed in a safe, healthy, and environmentally friendly manner.

The health and safety of our employees and contractors continues to be a top priority even more so with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. In an effort to protect our employees and contractors, we took and continue to take proactive and aggressive actions, starting with the earliest signs of the outbreak to adopt social distancing policies at all our locations, including working from home and suspending travel. We transitioned to work from home with flexible work policies, and most of our non-installation workforce has been working from home since March 2020, and is expected to continue to do so until at least July 2021.

Seasonal Trends and Economic Incentives

Our business is subject to industry-specific seasonal fluctuations including changes in weather patterns and economic incentives, such as changes to the amount and timing of ITC, among others. Sales have historically reflected these seasonal trends with the largest percentage of total revenues realized during the last two quarters of our fiscal year. The construction of solar power systems or installation of solar power components and related revenue may decline during cold winter months. In the United States, many customers make purchasing decisions towards the end of the year in order to take advantage of tax credits or for other budgetary reasons. In addition, revenues may fluctuate due to the timing of project sales, construction schedules, and revenue recognition of certain projects, which may significantly impact the quarterly profile of our results of operations. We may also retain certain development projects on our balance sheet for longer periods of time than in preceding periods in order to optimize the economic value we receive at the time of sale in light of market conditions, which can fluctuate after we have committed to projects. Delays in disposing of projects, or changes in amounts realized on disposition, may lead to significant fluctuations to the period-over-period profile of our results of operations and our cash available for working capital needs.

Available Information

We make available our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act") free of charge on our website at www.sunpower.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. The contents of our website are not incorporated into, or otherwise to be regarded as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Copies of such material may be obtained, free of charge, upon written request submitted to our corporate headquarters: SunPower Corporation, Attn: Investor Relations, 51 Rio Robles, San Jose, California, 95134. Copies of materials we file with the SEC may also be accessed on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Our business is subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those described below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition. Although we believe that we have identified and discussed below certain key risk factors affecting our business, there may be additional risks and uncertainties that are not currently known to us or that are not currently believed by us to be material that may also harm our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

RISK FACTOR SUMMARY

The following is a summary of the principal risks that could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition:
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Risks Related to COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic and associated economic and other impacts adversely affected our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition, as well as the business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition of many of our suppliers, dealers, and customers. We are unable to predict the extent to which the pandemic and related impacts will continue to adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition, and the achievement of our strategic objectives.

Risks Related to the Spin-Off

If the distribution of Maxeon Solar ordinary shares in the Spin-off does not qualify as a tax‑free distribution under the Internal Revenue Code, then the distribution could be treated as a dividend to our stockholders and we could have a potential withholding obligation with respect to that dividend and under certain circumstances we may have indemnification obligations to Maxeon Solar.

The Spin-Off may not achieve some or all of the anticipated benefits.

We may have divergent interests with respect to the transition services agreement and other ancillary agreements that we entered into with Maxeon Solar, which could negatively impact the scope, duration or effectiveness of such agreements in a manner that negatively impacts our business and operations.

We might not be able to engage in certain strategic transactions because we have agreed to certain restrictions to comply with U.S. federal income tax requirements for a tax‑free spin‑off.

Risks Related to Our Sales Channels

Our results of operations are subject to significant fluctuations and are inherently unpredictable.

Changes in international trade policies, tariffs, or trade disputes could significantly and adversely affect our business, revenues, margins, results of operations, and cash flows.

The execution of our growth strategy is dependent upon the continued availability of third-party financing arrangements for our projects, including our residential lease and loan programs, and is affected by general economic conditions and other factors.

If we fail to successfully execute our cost reduction roadmap, or fail to develop and introduce new and enhanced products and services, we may be unable to compete effectively, and our ability to generate revenues, cash flows and profits would suffer.

The increase in the global supply of solar cells and panels, and increasing competition, may cause substantial downward pressure on the prices of such products, limiting our ability to sell our differentiated panels at a premium, causing us to lose sales or market share, resulting in lower revenues, earnings, and cash flows.

The reduction, modification or elimination of government incentives could cause our revenue to decline and harm our business results..

Existing regulations and policies and changes to these regulations and policies may present technical, regulatory, and economic barriers to the purchase and use of solar power products, which may significantly reduce demand for our products and services.

We may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits of our restructuring plans and our restructuring may adversely affect our business results.

We do not typically maintain long-term agreements with our customers and accordingly we could lose customers without warning, which could adversely affect our business results.

Our business could be adversely affected by seasonal trends and construction cycles.
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The competitive environment in which we operate often requires us to undertake customer obligations or provide indemnifications, which may turn out to be costlier than anticipated and, in turn, materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

Risks Related to Our Supply Chain

We depend on Maxeon Solar as a sole source supplier for certain critical components and products, including our solar cells and modules. Any supply interruption or delay could adversely affect our business. In addition, we continue to be dependent on limited third-party suppliers for certain raw materials and other components for our products. Supply delays or interruptions could prevent us from delivering products to our customers within required timeframes, and could in turn result in sales and installation delays, cancellations, penalty payments, and loss of market share.

We utilize construction loans, term loans, sale-leaseback, partnership flip, preferred equity, and other financing structures to fund acquisition, development, construction, and expansion of certain solar projects, and such funds may or may not continue to be available as required to further our plans. Furthermore, such project financing increases our consolidated debt and may be structurally senior to other debt such as our outstanding convertible debentures.

Risks Related to Our Operations

If we have quality issues with our solar and related products, our sales could decrease and our relationships with our customers and our reputation may be harmed.

A change in the solar investment tax credit could adversely affect our business, revenues, margins, results of operations, and cash flows.

If we cannot offer residential lease customers an attractive value proposition due to an inability to continue to monetize tax benefits in connection with our residential lease arrangements, an inability to obtain financing for our residential lease programs, challenges implementing our third-party ownership model in new jurisdictions, declining costs of retail electricity, or other reasons, we may be unable to continue to increase the size of our residential lease program, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

We act as the general contractor for many of our customers in connection with the installations of our solar power systems and are subject to risks associated with construction, cost overruns, delays, and other contingencies tied to performance bonds and letters of credit, indemnifications, or other required credit and liquidity support guarantees, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, and results of operations.

Risks Related to COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic and associated economic and other impacts adversely affected our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition, as well as business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition of many of our suppliers, dealers, and customers. We are unable to predict the extent to which the pandemic and related impacts will continue to adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition, and the achievement of our strategic objectives.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an adverse impact on most aspects of our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition, and the impact is ongoing and will likely continue. The pandemic has affected our employees and their ability to work, our ability to conduct our business operations around the globe, demand for our products, our supply chains, the ability of some of our customers to purchase and pay for our products, and caused us to reallocate and prioritize our planned spending in our strategic initiatives. These impacts are substantial and may make it more difficult for us to generate cash flow to meet our own obligations under the terms of our outstanding indebtedness.

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Employees. The safety and well-being of our employees is paramount and could impact our ability to address the uncertainties associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. We have modified our business practices in response to the pandemic, instituting health and safety measures such as limiting employee travel, implementing social distancing and remote work measures, and cancelling physical participation in meetings, events, and conferences. Despite these efforts, such measures may not be sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by the COVID-19 pandemic to our employees, dealers, customers, and suppliers. Our employees may be unable to work effectively due to sheltering-in-place arrangements, illness, quarantine, travel restrictions, lack of public transportation, or other restrictions required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, which may harm our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

Adverse manufacturing, supply, and strategic transaction and investment impacts. The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely affecting, and is expected to continue to adversely affect, our business and operations, including our manufacturing operations, bookings, and sales, and may adversely affect our ability to continue to invest in all of our planned research and development and other initiatives. In addition, new governmental orders and restrictions may be issued in some locations if the pandemic recurs or worsens. During a prolonged reduction in manufacturing operations or demand, the business and financial condition of our suppliers and customers may deteriorate, resulting in liquidity challenges, bankruptcies, permanent discontinuation of operations, or an inability to make timely deliveries or payments to us. Our suppliers and vendors may also request new or changed credit terms, which could effectively increase the prices we pay for raw materials and supplies and affect our cash flows.

Decline in demand for products. We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, a decline in demand for our solar panels in light of the global economic slowdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated decrease in consumer spending, which we expect will have a near-term adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows. Additionally, if credit markets become more challenging, customers may be unable or unwilling to finance the cost of our products, and the parties that have historically provided this financing may cease to do so, or only do so on terms that are substantially less favorable for our customers, any of which could adversely affect our revenue and growth of our business. Cancellations or rescheduling of customer orders could result in the delay or loss of anticipated sales without allowing us sufficient time to reduce, or delay the incurrence of, our corresponding inventory and operating expenses. In addition, changes in forecasts or the timing of orders from these or other customers expose us to the risks of inventory shortages or excess inventory.

Impacts on our ability to meet our own financial commitments. Our ability to meet our payment and other obligations under our debt instruments depends on our ability to generate significant cash flows. In light of reduced demand and general economic uncertainty related to the COVID-19 pandemic, we cannot assure you that our business will generate cash flows from operations, or that future borrowings will be available to us under our existing or any future credit facilities or otherwise, in an amount sufficient to enable us to meet our payment obligations under our debt and to fund other liquidity needs. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flows to service our debt obligations, we may need to refinance or restructure our debt, sell assets, reduce or delay capital investments, or seek to raise additional capital. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in any sale of assets, refinancing, restructuring, or capital raising effort.

Impact on other risks inherent in our business. The overall effect that the COVID-19 pandemic will have on our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition will depend on future developments, including the ultimate duration and scope of the pandemic, the timing of lifting or easing of various governmental restrictions, the impact on our suppliers, dealers, and customers, and how quickly economic conditions, operations, and the demand for our products return to prior levels.

In addition to the risks described above, the pandemic and associated economic and other impacts may also have the effect of heightening the other risks described in this risk factors section; in particular, see the “Risks Related to our Sales Channels,” “Risks Related to our Liquidity,” “Risks Related to our Supply Chain,” and “Risks Related to our Operations.” The ultimate effect that the pandemic may have on our results of operations is not presently known to us or may present unanticipated risks that cannot be determined at this time.

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Risks Related to the Spin-Off

If the distribution of Maxeon Solar ordinary shares in the Spin-Off does not qualify as a tax‑free distribution under the Internal Revenue Code, then the distribution could be treated as a dividend to our stockholders and we could have a potential withholding obligation with respect to that dividend and under certain circumstances we may have indemnification obligations to Maxeon Solar.

We received a tax opinion from our counsel as to the tax‑free nature of the Spin-Off to our stockholders. We did not obtain a private letter ruling from the IRS with respect to the distribution of Maxeon Solar ordinary shares and instead are relying solely on the tax opinion for comfort that the distribution qualifies for tax‑free treatment to our stockholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes under the Internal Revenue Code.

The tax opinion was based on, among other things, certain undertakings made by us and Maxeon Solar, as well as certain representations and assumptions as to factual matters made by parties to the distribution. The failure of any factual representation or assumption to be true, correct, and complete, or any undertaking to be fully complied with, could affect the validity of the tax opinion. An opinion of counsel represents counsel’s best legal judgment, is not binding on the IRS or the courts, and the IRS or the courts may not agree with the conclusions set forth in the tax opinion. In addition, the tax opinion was based on current law, and cannot be relied upon if current law changes with retroactive effect.

If the Spin-Off distribution does not qualify as a tax‑free distribution to our stockholders under Section 355 of the Internal Revenue Code, then the distribution could be treated as a dividend to our stockholders, and we could have a potential withholding obligation with respect to such dividend, and we could be required to indemnify Maxeon Solar for any taxes and related costs if the failure of the distribution to so qualify is the result of certain actions or misrepresentations by us, but we will not be required to indemnify any of our stockholders. In the event we are required to indemnify Maxeon Solar for taxes incurred in connection with the Spin-Off, the indemnification obligation could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial conditions, and cash flow.

The Spin-Off may not achieve some or all of the anticipated benefits.

We may not realize some or all of the anticipated strategic, financial, operational, marketing or other benefits from the Spin-Off. We cannot predict with certainty when the benefits expected from the Spin-Off will occur or the extent to which they will be achieved. Our operational and financial profile changed following the completion of the Spin-Off, and we face new risks. As a smaller, less-diversified company with narrower business focus, we may be more vulnerable to changing market conditions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

Following the Spin-Off, each of SunPower and Maxeon Solar operate as an independent publicly-traded company with its own business goals, objectives and commercial relationships.

Following the Spin-Off, we and Maxeon Solar operate as independent publicly-traded companies. Accordingly, our business goals, objectives, and commercial relationships are different from those of Maxeon Solar. In that respect, we may not have exclusive access to next-generation solar cells and panels that may be produced by Maxeon Solar, including Maxeon 5 solar cells and A-Series (Maxeon 5) modules, following the applicable exclusivity periods in the supply agreement we entered into with Maxeon, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition and our ability to execute our business strategy.

We may have divergent interests with respect to the transition services agreement and other ancillary agreements that we entered into with Maxeon Solar, which could negatively impact the scope, duration or effectiveness of such agreements in a manner that negatively impacts our businesses and operations.

We and Maxeon Solar entered into a transition services agreement and other ancillary agreements in connection with the Spin-Off pursuant to which we and Maxeon Solar are providing each other, on an interim, transitional basis, various services related to finance, accounting, business technology, human resources information systems, human resources, facilities, document management and record retention, relationship and strategy management and module operations, technical and quality support. Nevertheless, our interests and those of Maxeon Solar could differ with respect to these agreements, which could negatively impact the scope, duration or effectiveness of such agreements. In addition, if we or Maxeon Solar do not satisfactorily perform our obligations under these agreements, the non-performing party may be held liable for any resulting losses suffered by the other party. Also, during the periods of these agreements, our management and employees may be required to divert their attention away from our and their respective business in order to provide services pursuant to the agreements. Any of these factors could negatively impact our business and operations.
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We might not be able to engage in certain strategic transactions because we have agreed to certain restrictions to comply with U.S. federal income tax requirements for a tax‑free spin‑off.

To preserve the intended tax treatment of the distribution of Maxeon Solar ordinary shares in the Spin-Off, we are undertaking to comply with certain restrictions under current U.S. federal income tax laws for spin‑offs, including (i) continuing to own and manage our historic business and (ii) limiting sales or redemptions of our common stock. These restrictions could prevent us from pursuing otherwise attractive business opportunities, result in our inability to respond effectively to competitive pressures, industry developments and future opportunities and may otherwise harm our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition. If these restrictions, among others, are not followed, the Spin-Off distribution could be treated as dividend to our stockholders and subject us to a potential withholding tax obligation. In addition, we could be required to indemnify Maxeon Solar for any tax liability incurred by Maxeon Solar as a result of our non‑compliance with these restrictions, and such indemnity obligations could be substantial.

Certain members of our Board of Directors and management may have actual or potential conflicts of interest because of their ownership of shares of Maxeon Solar and SunPower or their relationships with Maxeon Solar following the Spin-Off.

Certain members of our Board of Directors and management own shares of Maxeon Solar and/or options to purchase shares of Maxeon Solar, which could create, or appear to create, potential conflicts of interest when our directors and executive officers are faced with decisions that could have different implications for SunPower and Maxeon Solar.

Risks Related to Our Sales Channels

Our results of operations are subject to significant fluctuations and are inherently unpredictable.

We do not know whether our revenue will continue to grow, or if it will continue to grow sufficiently to outpace our expenses, which we also expect to grow. As a result, we may not be profitable on a quarterly or annual basis. Our revenue and results of operations are difficult to predict and have in the past fluctuated significantly from quarter to quarter. The principal reason for these significant fluctuations in our results is that, at times, we may derive a substantial portion of our total revenues from our large commercial customers, consequently:

the amount, timing and mix of sales to our large commercial customers, often for a single medium- or large-scale project, may cause large fluctuations in our revenue and other results of operations because, at any given time, a single medium- or large-scale project can account for a material portion of our total revenue in a given quarter;

our inability to monetize our projects as planned, or any delay in obtaining the required government support or initial payments to begin recognizing revenue under the relevant recognition criteria, and the corresponding revenue impact, may similarly cause large fluctuations in our revenue and other results of operations;

our ability to monetize projects as planned is also subject to market conditions, including fluctuations in demand based on the availability of regulatory incentives and other factors, changes in the internal rate of return expected by customers in light of market conditions, the increasing number of power plants being constructed or available for sale, and competition for financing, which can make both financing and disposition more challenging and may significantly affect project sales prices;

market conditions may deteriorate after we have committed to projects, resulting in delays in disposing of projects, or changes in amounts realized on disposition, which may lead to significant fluctuations in the period-over-period profile of our results of operations and our cash available for working capital needs;

in the event a project is subsequently canceled, abandoned, or is deemed unlikely to occur, we will charge all prior capital costs as an operating expense in the quarter in which such determination is made, which could materially adversely affect results of operations;

a delayed disposition of a project could require us to recognize a gain on the sale of assets instead of recognizing revenue;

our agreements with these large significant customers may be canceled if we fail to meet certain product specifications or materially breach these agreements;
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in the event of a customer bankruptcy, our customers may seek to terminate or renegotiate the terms of current agreements or renewals; and

the failure by any significant customer to pay for orders, whether due to liquidity issues or otherwise, could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

Any decrease in revenue from our large commercial customers, whether due to a loss or delay of projects or an inability to collect, could have a significant negative impact on our business. See also "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk." See also under this section "Risks Related to Our Sales Channels—Revenues from a limited number of customers and large projects are expected to continue to comprise a significant portion of our total revenues and any decrease in revenues from those customers or projects, payment of liquidated damages, or an increase in related expenses, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition."

Sales to our residential and light commercial customers are similarly susceptible to fluctuations in volumes and revenue, as well as fluctuations in demand based on the availability of regulatory incentives and other factors. In addition, demand from our residential and light commercial customers may fluctuate based on the perceived cost-effectiveness of the electricity generated by our solar power systems as compared to conventional energy sources, such as natural gas and coal (which fuel sources are subject to significant price swings from time to time), and other non-solar renewable energy sources, such as wind. Declining average selling prices immediately affect our residential and light commercial sales volumes, and therefore lead to large fluctuations in revenue.

Further, our revenue mix of materials sales versus project sales can fluctuate dramatically from quarter to quarter, which may adversely affect our margins and results of operations in any given period.

Any of the foregoing may cause us to miss our financial guidance for a given period, which could adversely impact the market price for our common stock and our liquidity.

We base our planned operating expenses in part on our expectations of future revenue and a significant portion of our expenses is fixed in the short term. If revenue for a particular quarter is lower than we expect, we likely will be unable to proportionately reduce our operating expenses for that quarter, which would materially adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows for that quarter. See also under this section, “Risks Related to Our Sales Channels—Our business could be adversely affected by seasonal trends and construction cycles,” “Risks Related to Our Sales Channels—The reduction, modification or elimination of government incentives could cause our revenue to decline and harm our results of operations,” and “Risks Related to Our Sales Channels—Existing regulations and policies and changes to these regulations and policies may present technical, regulatory, and economic barriers to the purchase and use of solar power products, which may significantly reduce demand for our products and services.

Changes in international trade policies, tariffs, or trade disputes could significantly and adversely affect our business, revenues, margins, results of operations, and cash flows.

On February 7, 2018, safeguard tariffs on imported solar cells and modules went into effect pursuant to Proclamation 9693, which approved recommendations to provide relief to U.S. manufacturers and impose safeguard tariffs on imported solar cells and modules, based on the investigations, findings, and recommendations of the U.S. International Trade Commission (the “International Trade Commission”). Modules are subject to a four-year tariff at a rate of 30% in the first year, declining 5% in each of the three subsequent years, to a final tariff rate of 18% in 2021. Cells are subject to a tariff-rate quota, under which the first 2.5 GW of cell imports each year will be exempt from tariffs; and cells imported after the 2.5 GW quota has been reached will be subject to the same 30% tariff as modules in the first year, with the same 5% decline in each of the three subsequent years. The tariff-free cell quota applies globally, without any allocation by country or region.

The tariffs could materially and adversely affect our business, cash flows, and results of operations. While solar cells and modules based on interdigitated back contact ("IBC") technology, like Maxeon Solar’s X-Series (Maxeon 3), E-Series (Maxeon 2), A-Series (Maxeon 5), and related products were granted exclusion from these safeguard tariffs on September 19, 2018, solar products based on other technologies continue to be subject to the safeguard tariffs. Although we are actively engaged in efforts to mitigate the effect of these tariffs and we filed an assessment with the International Trade Commission that the existing quota on cells will eventually be insufficient to supply the domestic industry and should be increased, there is no guarantee that these efforts will be successful.

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Additionally, the Office of the United States Trade Representative (“USTR”) initiated an investigation under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 into the Chinese government’s acts, policies, and practices related to technology transfer, intellectual property, and innovation. In notices published June 20, 2018, August 16, 2018, and September 21, 2018, the USTR imposed additional import duties of up to 25% on certain Chinese products covered by the Section 301 remedy. These tariffs include certain solar power system components and finished products, including those purchased from our suppliers for use in our products and used in our business. The United States and China may continue taking additional retaliatory measures in response to actions taken by the other country, which may result in changes to existing trade agreements and terms including additional tariffs on imports from China or other countries.

Trade tensions between China and the United States, the imposition of tariffs, and continuing uncertainty surrounding the trade and tariff environment have caused, and could continue to cause, market volatility, price fluctuations, supply shortages, and project delays, any of which could harm our business, and our pursuit of mitigating actions may divert substantial resources from other projects. In addition, future tariffs could materially increase the price of our solar products and result in significant additional costs to us, our resellers, and our resellers’ customers, which could cause a significant reduction in demand for our solar power products and greatly reduce our competitive advantage.

The execution of our growth strategy is dependent upon the continued availability of third-party financing arrangements for our projects, including our residential lease and loan programs, and is affected by general economic conditions and other factors.

Our growth strategy depends on third-party financing arrangements. We often require project financing for development and construction of certain of our projects, which require significant investments before the equity is later sold to investors. Many purchasers of our systems projects have entered into third-party arrangements to finance their systems over an extended period of time, while many end-customers have chosen to purchase solar electricity under a power purchase agreement ("PPA") with an investor or financing company that purchases the system from us or our authorized dealers. We often execute PPAs directly with the end-user, with the expectation that we will later assign the PPA to a financier. Under such arrangements, the financier separately contracts with us to acquire and build the solar power system, and then sells the electricity to the end-user under the assigned PPA. When executing PPAs with end-users, we seek to mitigate the risk that financing will not be available for the project by allowing termination of the PPA in such event without penalty. However, we may not always be successful in negotiating for penalty-free termination rights for failure to obtain financing, and certain end-users have required substantial financial penalties in exchange for such rights. These structured finance arrangements are complex and may not be feasible in many situations.

Global economic conditions, including conditions that may make it more difficult or expensive for us to access credit and liquidity, could materially and adversely affect our business and financial results. Credit markets are unpredictable, and if they become more challenging, we may be unable to obtain project financing for our projects, customers may be unable or unwilling to finance the cost of our products, we may have difficulties in reaching agreements with financiers to finance the construction of our solar power systems, or the parties that have historically provided this financing may cease to do so, or only do so on terms that are substantially less favorable for us or our customers, any of which could materially and adversely affect our revenue and growth in both segments of our business. Our plans to continue to grow our residential lease program may be delayed if credit conditions prevent us from obtaining or maintaining arrangements to finance the program. We are actively arranging additional third-party financing for our residential lease program; however, if we encounter challenging credit markets, we may be unable to arrange additional financing partners for our residential lease and loan programs in future periods, which could have a negative impact on our sales. In the event we enter into a material number of additional leases without obtaining corresponding third-party financing, our cash, working capital, and results of operations could be negatively affected. In addition, a rise in interest rates would likely increase our customers’ cost of financing or leasing our products and could reduce their profits and expected returns on investment in our products. The general reduction in available credit to would-be borrowers or lessees, worldwide economic uncertainty, and the condition of worldwide housing markets could delay or reduce our sales of products to new homebuilders and authorized resellers. For more information, see "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data-Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements-Note 7. Solar Services."

The availability of financing depends on many factors, including market conditions, tax rates, the demand for and supply of solar projects, and resulting risks of refinancing or disposing of such projects. It also depends in part on government incentives, such as tax incentives. In the long term, as we look toward markets not supported (or supported less) by government incentives, we will continue to need to identify financiers willing to finance residential solar systems without such incentives. Our failure to effectively do so could materially and adversely affect our business and financial results.

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The lack of project financing, due to tighter credit markets or other reasons, could delay the development and construction of our solar power plant projects, thus reducing our revenues from the sale of such projects. We may in some cases seek to pursue partnership arrangements with financing entities to assist residential and other customers to obtain financing for the purchase or lease of our systems, which would expose us to credit or other risks. We face competition for financing partners and if we are unable to continue to offer a competitive investment profile, we may lose access to financing partners or they may offer financing on less favorable terms than to our competitors, which could materially and adversely affect our business and financial results.

If we and our partners fail to successfully execute our cost reduction roadmap, or fail to develop and introduce new and enhanced products and services, we may be unable to compete effectively, and our ability to generate revenues, cash flows, and profits would suffer.

Our solar panels, and the solar panels we exclusively source from Maxeon, are competitive in the market as compared with lower cost conventional solar cells, such as thin-film, due to our products’ higher efficiency, among other things. Given the general downward pressure on prices for solar panels driven by increasing supply and technological change, a component of our business strategy, working through our collaboration agreement with Maxeon, is reducing manufacturing costs to remain competitive. We and Maxeon also focus on standardizing products with the goal of driving down our installation costs. If our competitors are able to drive down their manufacturing and installation costs or increase the efficiency of their products faster than we can, or if competitor products are exempted from tariffs and quotas and ours are not, our products may become less competitive even when adjusted for efficiency. Further, if raw materials costs and other third-party component costs were to increase, we and Maxeon may not meet our cost reduction targets. If we and our partners cannot effectively execute our cost reduction roadmap, our competitive position will suffer, we could lose market share, and our margins may be adversely affected as we face downward pricing pressure.

The solar power market is characterized by continually changing technology and improving features, such as increased efficiency, higher power output, and enhanced aesthetics. Technologies developed by our direct competitors, including thin-film solar panels, concentrating solar cells, solar thermal electric, and other solar technologies, may provide energy at lower costs than our products. We also face competition in some markets from other energy generation sources, including conventional fossil fuels, wind, biomass, and hydro. In addition, other companies could potentially develop a highly reliable renewable energy system that mitigates the intermittent energy production drawback of many renewable energy systems. Companies could also offer other value-added improvements from the perspective of utilities and other system owners, in which case such companies could compete with us even if the cost of electricity associated with any such new system is higher than that of our systems. We also compete with traditional utilities that supply energy to our potential customers. Such utilities have greater financial, technical, operational, and other resources than we do. If electricity rates decrease and our products become less competitive by comparison, our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition will be adversely affected.

Our failure to further refine our technology, reduce costs in our manufacturing process, and develop and introduce new solar power products and related system components could cause the products we offer to become less competitive or obsolete, which could reduce our market share and cause our sales to decline. This risk requires us to work continuously, including through our collaboration agreement with Maxeon, to develop new solar power products and enhancements for existing solar power products to keep pace with evolving industry standards, competitive pricing and changing customer preferences, expectations, and requirements. It is difficult to successfully predict the products and services our customers will demand. If we cannot continually improve the efficiency and prove the reliability of our solar panels and solutions as compared with those of our competitors, our pricing will become less competitive, we could lose market share, and our margins would be adversely affected.

As we introduce new or enhanced products or integrate new technology and components into our products, we will face risks relating to such transitions including, among other things, the incurrence of high fixed costs, technical challenges, acceptance of products by our customers, disruption in customers’ ordering patterns, insufficient supplies of new products to meet customers’ demand, possible product and technology defects arising from the integration of new technology, and a potentially different sales and support environment relating to any new technology. Our failure to manage the transition to newer products or the integration of newer technology and components into our products could adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition. See also under this section, “Risks Related to Our Sales Channels-Changes in international trade policies, tariffs, or trade disputes could significantly and adversely affect our business, revenues, margins, results of operations, and cash flows.”
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The increase in the global supply of solar cells and panels, and increasing competition, may cause substantial downward pressure on the prices of such products, limiting our ability to sell our differentiated panels at a premium, causing us to lose sales or market share, resulting in lower revenues, earnings, and cash flows.

Global solar cell and panel production capacity has been materially increasing overall, and solar cell and solar panel manufacturers currently have excess capacity, particularly in China. Excess capacity and industry competition have resulted in the past, and may again result, in substantial downward pressure on the price of solar cells and panels, including differentiated, premium products we offer. Intensifying competition could also cause us to lose sales or market share. Such price reductions or loss of sales or market share could have a negative impact on our revenue and earnings, and could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows. In addition, our internal pricing forecasts may not be accurate in such a market environment, which could cause our results of operations to be different than forecasted. Uncertainty with respect to Chinese government policies, including subsidies or other incentives for solar projects, may cause increased, decreased, or volatile supply and/or demand for solar products, which could negatively impact our revenue and earnings. Finally, the imposition by the United States of tariffs and quotas could materially adversely affect our ability to compete with other suppliers and developers in the U.S. market. See also under this section, “Risks Related to Our Sales Channels-If we fail to successfully execute our cost reduction roadmap, or fail to develop and introduce new and enhanced products and services, we may be unable to compete effectively, and our ability to generate revenues and profits would suffer,” and “Risks Related to Our Sales Channels-Changes in international trade policies, tariffs, or trade disputes could significantly and adversely affect our business, revenues, margins, results of operations, and cash flows.”

The reduction, modification or elimination of government incentives could cause our revenue to decline and harm our financial results.

The market for on-grid applications, where solar power is used to supplement a customer’s electricity purchased from the utility network or sold to a utility under tariff, depends in large part on the availability and size of government mandates and economic incentives because, at present, the cost of solar power generally exceeds retail electric rates in many locations and wholesale peak power rates in some locations. Incentives and mandates vary by geographic market. Various government bodies in most of the countries where we do business have provided incentives in the form of feed-in tariffs, rebates, and tax credits and other incentives and mandates, such as renewable portfolio standards and net metering, to end-users, distributors, system integrators, and manufacturers of solar power products to promote the use of solar energy in on-grid applications and to reduce dependency on other forms of energy. These various forms of support for solar power are subject to change (as, for example, occurred in 2015 with Nevada’s decision to change net energy metering; and in 2017 with California's adoption of new time-of-use rates that reduced the price paid to solar system owners for mid-day electricity production; and in 2020 with California's adoption of building standards requiring the installation of solar systems on new homes), and are expected in the longer term to decline. Even changes that may be viewed as positive (such as extensions of U.S. tax credits related to solar power) can have negative effects if they result, for example, in delaying purchases that otherwise might have been made before expiration or scheduled reductions in such credits. Governmental decisions regarding the provision of economic incentives often depend on political and economic factors that we cannot predict and that are beyond our control. The reduction, modification, or elimination of grid access, government mandates, or economic incentives in one or more of our customer markets would materially and adversely affect the growth of such markets or result in increased price competition, either of which could cause our revenue to decline and materially adversely affect our business and financial results.

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Existing regulations and policies and changes to these regulations and policies may present technical, regulatory, and economic barriers to the purchase and use of solar power products, which may significantly reduce demand for our products and services.

The market for electric generation products is heavily influenced by federal, state, and local government laws, regulations, and policies concerning the electric utility industry in the United States and abroad, as well as policies promulgated by electric utilities. These regulations and policies often relate to electricity pricing and technical interconnection of customer-owned electricity generation, and changes that make solar power less competitive with other power sources could deter investment in the research and development of alternative energy sources as well as customer purchases of solar power technology, which could in turn result in a significant reduction in the demand for our solar power products. The market for electric generation equipment is also influenced by trade and local content laws, regulations, and policies that can discourage growth and competition in the solar industry and create economic barriers to the purchase of solar power products, thus reducing demand for our solar products. In addition, on-grid applications depend on access to the grid, which is also regulated by government entities. We anticipate that our solar power products and their installation will continue to be subject to oversight and regulation in accordance with federal, state, local, and foreign regulations relating to construction, safety, environmental protection, utility interconnection and metering, trade, and related matters. It is difficult to track the requirements of individual states or local jurisdictions and design equipment to comply with the varying standards. Any new regulations or policies pertaining to our solar power products may result in significant additional expenses to us, our resellers and our resellers’ customers, which could cause a significant reduction in demand for our solar power products. See also under this section, “Risks Related to Our Sales Channels-Changes in international trade policies, tariffs, or trade disputes could significantly and adversely affect our business, revenues, margins, results of operations, and cash flows.”

We may incur unexpected warranty and product liability claims that could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, cash flows, and results of operations.

In our project installations, our current standard warranty for our solar power systems differs by geography and end-customer application and usually includes a limited warranty of up to 10 years for defects in workmanship, after which the customer may typically extend the period covered by its warranty for an additional fee. We also typically provide a system output performance warranty, separate from our standard solar panel product warranty, to customers that have subscribed to our post-installation O&M services. The long warranty period and nature of the warranties create a risk of extensive warranty claims long after we have completed a project and recognized revenues. Warranty and product liability claims may also result from defects or quality issues in certain technology and components (whether manufactured by us or third parties) that we incorporate into our solar power systems, such as solar cells, panels, inverters, and microinverters, over which we may have little or no control. See also under this section “Risks Related to Our Supply Chain-We will continue to be dependent on a limited number of third-party suppliers for certain raw materials and components for our products, which could prevent us from delivering our products to our customers within required time frames and could in turn result in sales and installation delays, cancellations, penalty payments and loss of market share.” While we generally pass through to our customers the manufacturer warranties we receive from our suppliers, in some circumstances, we may be responsible for repairing or replacing defective parts during our warranty period, often including those covered by manufacturers’ warranties, or incur other non-warranty costs. If a manufacturer disputes or otherwise fails to honor its warranty obligations, we may be required to incur substantial costs before we are compensated, if at all, by the manufacturer. Furthermore, our warranties may exceed the period of any warranties from our suppliers covering components, such as third-party solar cells, third-party panels, and third-party inverters, included in our systems. In addition, manufacturer warranties may not fully compensate us for losses associated with third-party claims caused by defects or quality issues in their products. For example, most manufacturer warranties exclude certain losses that may result from a system component’s failure or defect, such as the cost of de-installation, re-installation, shipping, lost electricity, lost renewable energy credits or other solar incentives, personal injury, property damage, and other losses. In certain cases, the direct warranty coverage we provide to our customers, and therefore our financial exposure, may exceed our recourse available against cell, panel, or other manufacturers for defects in their products. In addition, in the event we seek recourse through warranties, we will also be dependent on the creditworthiness and continued existence of the suppliers to our business. In the past, certain of our suppliers have entered bankruptcy and our likelihood of a successful warranty claim against such suppliers is minimal.

Increases in the defect rate of SunPower or third-party products, including components, could cause us to increase the amount of warranty reserves and have a corresponding material, negative impact on our results of operations. Further, potential future product or component failures could cause us to incur substantial expense to repair or replace defective products or components, and we have agreed in some circumstances to indemnify our customers and our distributors against liability from some defects in our solar products. A successful indemnification claim against us could require us to make significant damage payments. Repair and replacement costs, as well as successful indemnification claims, could materially and negatively impact our financial condition, cash flows, and results of operations.
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Like other retailers, distributors, and manufacturers of products that are used by customers, we face an inherent risk of exposure to product liability claims in the event that the use of the solar power products into which solar cells, solar panels, and microinverters are incorporated results in injury, property damage, or other damages. We may be subject to warranty and product liability claims in the event that our solar power systems fail to perform as expected or if a failure of our solar power systems or any component thereof results, or is alleged to result, in bodily injury, property damage, or other damages. Since our solar power products are electricity-producing devices, it is possible that our systems could result in injury, whether by product malfunctions, defects, improper installation or other causes. In addition, since we only began selling our solar cells and solar panels in the early 2000s and the products we are developing incorporate new technologies and use new installation methods, we cannot predict the extent to which product liability claims may be brought against us in the future or the effect of any resulting negative publicity on our business. Moreover, we may not have adequate resources to satisfy a successful claim against us. We rely on our general liability insurance to cover product liability claims. A successful warranty or product liability claim against us that is not covered by insurance or is in excess of our available insurance limits could require us to make significant payments of damages. In addition, quality issues can have various other ramifications, including delays in the recognition of revenue, loss of revenue, loss of future sales opportunities, increased costs associated with repairing or replacing products, and a negative impact on our goodwill and reputation, any of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

As our sales to residential customers have grown, we have increasingly become subject to substantial financing and consumer protection laws and regulations.

As we continue to seek to expand our retail customer base, our activities with customers - and in particular, our financing activities with our residential customers - are subject to consumer protection laws that may not be applicable to our commercial business, such as federal truth-in-lending, consumer leasing, telephone and digital marketing, and equal credit opportunity laws and regulations, as well as state and local finance laws and regulations. Claims arising out of actual or alleged violations of law may be asserted against us by individuals or governmental entities and may expose us to significant damages or other penalties, including fines. In addition, our affiliations with third-party dealers may subject us to alleged liability in connection with actual or alleged violations of law by such dealers, whether or not actually attributable to us, which may expose us to significant damages and penalties, and we may incur substantial expenses in defending against legal actions related to third-party dealers, whether or not we are ultimately found liable.

We may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits of our restructuring plans and our restructuring may adversely affect our business.

We announced restructuring plans in February 2018 and December 2019 to realign and optimize workforce requirements in light of recent changes to our business, to reduce operating expenses and cost of revenue overhead in light of the known shorter-term impact of U.S. tariffs imposed on PV solar cells and modules pursuant to Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974, and to broaden our initiatives to control costs and improve cash flow. While the February 2018 plan is substantially complete, and we expect the December 2019 plan to be substantially completed by end of 2022, additional actions may be costly and disruptive to our business, and we may not be able to obtain the cost savings and benefits that were initially anticipated in connection with our restructuring. Additionally, we may experience a loss of continuity, loss of accumulated knowledge, or inefficiency during transitional periods associated with our restructurings. Reorganization and restructuring can require a significant amount of management and other employees’ time and focus, which may divert attention from operating and growing our business. If we fail to achieve some or all of the expected benefits of the restructurings, it could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows. For more information about our restructuring plan, see "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data-Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements-Note 9. Restructuring."

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We do not typically maintain long-term agreements with our customers and accordingly we could lose customers without warning, which could adversely affect our business results.

Our product sales to residential dealers typically are not made under long-term agreements. We often contract to construct or sell large projects with no assurance of repeat business from the same customers in the future. Although cancellations of our purchase orders to date have been infrequent, our customers may cancel or reschedule purchase orders with us on relatively short notice. Cancellations or rescheduling of customer orders could result in the delay or loss of anticipated sales without allowing us sufficient time to reduce, or delay the incurrence of, our corresponding inventory and operating expenses. In addition, changes in forecasts or the timing of orders from these or other customers expose us to the risks of inventory shortages or excess inventory. These circumstances, in addition to the completion and non-repetition of large projects, declining average selling prices, changes in the relative mix of sales of solar equipment versus solar project installations, and the fact that our supply agreements are generally long-term in nature and many of our other operating costs are fixed, could cause our results to fluctuate and may result in a material adverse effect in our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

Our business could be adversely affected by seasonal trends and construction cycles.

Our business is subject to significant industry-specific seasonal fluctuations. Our sales have historically reflected these seasonal trends, with the largest percentage of our total revenues realized during the second half of each fiscal year. There are various reasons for this seasonality, mostly related to economic incentives, such as changes to the amount and timing of ITC, and weather patterns. For example, in the United States, many customers make purchasing decisions towards the end of the year in order to take advantage of tax credits. In addition, sales in the new home development market are often tied to construction market demands, which tend to follow national trends in construction, including declining sales during cold weather months.

The competitive environment in which we operate often requires us to undertake customer obligations or provide indemnifications, which may turn out to be costlier than anticipated and, in turn, materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

We are often required, as a condition of financing or at the request of our end customer, to undertake certain obligations such as:

system output performance warranties;

system maintenance;

penalty payments or customer termination rights if the system we are constructing is not commissioned within specified time frames or other construction milestones are not achieved;

guarantees of certain minimum residual value of the system at specified future dates;

system put-rights whereby we could be required to buy back a customer’s system at fair value on a future date if certain minimum performance thresholds are not met;

indemnification for site damage or environmental impacts that we may be required to provide for certain commercial projects; and
indemnification against losses customers may suffer as a result of reductions in benefits received under the solar commercial investment tax credit (“ITC”) and of the Treasury grant programs under Section 1603 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

Such financing arrangements and customer obligations involve complex accounting analyses and judgments regarding the timing of revenue and expense recognition, and in certain situations these factors may require us to defer revenue or profit recognition until projects are completed or until contingencies are resolved, which could adversely affect our revenues and profits in a particular period.
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Risks Related to Our Liquidity

We may be unable to generate sufficient cash flows or obtain access to external financing necessary to fund our operations and make adequate capital investments as planned due to the general economic environment and the continued market pressure driving down the average selling prices of our solar power products, among other factors.

To develop new products, support future growth, achieve operating efficiencies, and maintain product quality, we must make significant capital investments in manufacturing technology, facilities and capital equipment, research and development, and product and process technology. In addition, we expect to invest a significant amount of capital to develop solar power systems for sale to customers. Developing and constructing solar power projects requires significant time and substantial initial investment. The delayed disposition of such projects, or the inability to realize the full anticipated value of such projects on disposition, could have a negative impact on our liquidity. See also under this section, “Risks Related to Our Operations-Project development or construction activities may not be successful and we may make significant investments without first obtaining project financing, which could increase our costs and impair our ability to recover our investments" and "Risks Related to Our Sales Channels-Revenues from a limited number of customers and large projects are expected to continue to comprise a significant portion of our total revenues and any decrease in revenues from those customers or projects, payment of liquidated damages, or an increase in related expenses, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition," and "Changes in international trade policies, tariffs, or trade disputes could significantly and adversely affect our business, revenues, margins, results of operations, and cash flows."

Certain of our customers also require performance bonds issued by a bonding agency, or bank guarantees or letters of credit issued by financial institutions, which are returned to us upon satisfaction of contractual requirements. If there is a contractual dispute with the customer, the customer may withhold the security or make a draw under the security, which could have an adverse impact on our liquidity.

We manage our working capital requirements and fund our committed capital expenditures, including the development and construction of our planned solar power projects, with our current cash and cash equivalents, cash generated from operations, and funds available from our construction financing providers. Following our termination of the 2019 Revolver, we may be unable to find adequate credit support in replacement, on acceptable terms, or at all. In such case, our ability to obtain adequate amounts of debt financing may be harmed. The lenders under our credit facilities and holders of our debentures may also require us to repay our indebtedness to them in the event that our obligations under other indebtedness or contracts in excess of the applicable threshold amount, are accelerated and we fail to discharge such obligations. If our capital resources are insufficient to satisfy our liquidity requirements, for example, due to cross acceleration of indebtedness, we may seek to sell additional equity investments or debt securities or obtain other debt financings. Market conditions, however, could limit our ability to raise capital by issuing new equity or debt securities on acceptable terms, or at all, and lenders may be unwilling to lend funds on acceptable terms, or at all. The sale of additional equity investments or convertible debt securities may result in additional dilution to our stockholders. Additional debt would result in increased expenses and could impose new restrictive covenants that may be different from those restrictions contained in the covenants under certain of our current debt agreements and debentures. Financing arrangements, including project financing for our solar power projects and letters of credit facilities, may not be available to us, or may not be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us. If additional financing is not available, we may be forced to seek to sell assets or reduce or delay capital investments, any of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

If we cannot generate sufficient cash flows, find other sources of capital to fund our operations and projects, make adequate capital investments to remain technologically and price competitive, or provide bonding or letters of credit required by our projects, we may need to sell additional equity investments or debt securities, or obtain other debt financings. If adequate funds from these or and other sources are not available on acceptable terms or at all, our ability to fund our operations, develop and construct solar power projects, develop and expand our distribution network, maintain our research and development efforts, provide collateral for our projects, meet our debt service obligations, or otherwise respond to competitive pressures would be significantly impaired. Our inability to do any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

We have a significant amount of debt outstanding. Our substantial indebtedness and other contractual commitments could adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition, as well as our ability to meet our payment obligations under the debentures and our other debt.

We currently have a significant amount of debt and debt service requirements. As of January 3, 2021, we had approximately $638.5 million of outstanding debt.

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This level of debt could have material consequences on our future operations, including:

making it more difficult for us to meet our payment and other obligations under the debentures and our other outstanding debt;

resulting in an event of default if we fail to comply with the financial and other restrictive covenants contained in our debt agreements (with certain covenants becoming more restrictive over time), which event of default could result in all or a significant portion of our debt becoming immediately due and payable;

reducing the availability of our cash flows to fund working capital, capital expenditures, project development, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes, and limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for these purposes;

subjecting us to the risk of increased sensitivity to interest rate increases on our indebtedness with variable interest rates, including borrowings under our Loan and Security Agreement with Bank of America, N.A.;

limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, and increasing our vulnerability to, changes in our business, the industry in which we operate, and the general economy; and

placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared with our competitors that have less debt or have lower leverage ratios.

In the event, expected or unexpected, that any of our joint ventures is consolidated with our financial statements, such consolidation could significantly increase our indebtedness.

Our ability to meet our payment and other obligations under our debt instruments depends on our ability to generate significant cash flows, which, to some extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, and regulatory factors as well as other factors that are beyond our control. We cannot assure you that our business will generate cash flows from operations, or that future borrowings will be available to us under our existing or any future credit facilities or otherwise, in an amount sufficient to enable us to meet our payment obligations under our debentures and our other debt and to fund other liquidity needs. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flows to service our debt obligations, we may need to refinance or restructure our debt, including our debentures, sell assets, reduce or delay capital investments, or seek to raise additional capital. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in any sale of assets, refinancing, or restructuring effort. See also under this section, "Risks Related to Our Operations-We may in the future be required to consolidate the assets, liabilities, and results of operations of certain of our existing or future joint ventures, which could have an adverse impact on our financial position, gross margin and results of operations", "Risks Related to Our Sales Channels-Changes in international trade policies, tariffs, or trade disputes could significantly and adversely affect our business, revenues, margins, results of operations, and cash flows," and "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data-Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements-Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies-Liquidity.”

Although we are currently in compliance with the covenants contained in our debt agreements, we cannot assure you that we will be able to remain in compliance with such covenants in the future. We may not be able to cure future violations or obtain waivers from our creditors in order to avoid a default. An event of default under any of our debt agreements could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our credit and other agreements contain restrictions that may limit our ability to operate our business.

We may be unable to respond to changes in business and economic conditions, engage in transactions that might otherwise be beneficial to us, or obtain additional financing, because our debt agreements, our Affiliation Agreement with Total, foreign exchange hedging agreements and equity derivative agreements contain, and any of our other future similar agreements may contain, restrictions that limit our ability to, among other things:

incur additional debt, assume obligations in connection with letters of credit, or issue guarantees;

create liens;

make certain investments or acquisitions;

enter into transactions with our affiliates;
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sell certain assets;

redeem capital stock or make other restricted payments;

declare or pay dividends or make other distributions to stockholders; and

merge or consolidate with any person.

Our ability to comply with these covenants is dependent on our future performance, which will be subject to many factors, some of which are beyond our control, including prevailing economic conditions. In addition, our failure to comply with these covenants could result in a default under our other debt instruments, which could permit the holders to accelerate such debt. If any of our debt is accelerated, we may not have sufficient funds available to repay such debt, which could materially and negatively affect our results of operations and financial condition.


Risks Related to Our Supply Chain

We depend on Maxeon Solar as a sole source supplier for certain critical components and products, including our solar cells and modules. Any supply interruption or delay could adversely affect our business. In addition, we continue to be dependent on limited third-party suppliers for certain raw materials and other components for our products. Supply delays or interruptions could prevent us from delivering products to our customers within required timeframes, and could in turn result in sales and installation delays, cancellations, penalty payments, and loss of market share.

In connection with the Spin-Off, we entered into a supply agreement pursuant to which Maxeon Solar will exclusively supply us with certain products (the “Supply Agreement”), including solar cells and panels, for use in residential and commercial solar applications in the Domestic Territory (as defined in the Supply Agreement). The Supply Agreement has a two-year term, subject to customary early termination provisions triggered by a breach of the other party (with or without the right to cure depending on the breach) and insolvency events affecting the other party. Under the Supply Agreement, we are required to purchase, and Maxeon Solar is required to supply, certain minimum volumes of products during each calendar quarter of the term. The Supply Agreement also includes reciprocal exclusivity provisions that, subject to certain exceptions, will prohibit us from purchasing the products (or competing products) from anyone other than Maxeon Solar for the Domestic Territory. For products designated for installation on a residence or by a third party for the exclusive use of a specific customer, the exclusivity provisions will last until August 26, 2022 (or the entire initial term). For products designated for other applications (including multiple-user, community solar products), the exclusivity provisions will last until August 26, 2021. The exclusivity provisions will not apply to off-grid applications, certain portable or mobile small-scale applications (including applications where solar cells are integrated into consumer products), or power plant, front-of-the-meter applications where the electricity generated is sold to a utility or other reseller. Because Maxeon Solar is our sole supplier of such critical products, any delay or failure of Maxeon Solar to supply the necessary products, or supply such products in a manner that meets our quality and quantity requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

To the extent the processes and technologies that our suppliers, including Maxeon Solar, use to manufacture components are proprietary, we may be unable to obtain comparable components from alternative suppliers, and the exclusivity provisions of the supply agreement may prevent us from seeking alternative suppliers except in certain very limited circumstances. In addition, the financial markets could limit our suppliers’ ability to raise capital if required to expand their production or satisfy their operating capital requirements. As a result, they could be unable to supply necessary products, raw materials, inventory, and capital equipment which we would require to support our planned sales operations to us, which would in turn negatively impact our sales volume, profitability, and cash flows. The failure of a supplier to supply raw materials or components in a timely manner, or to supply raw materials or components that meet our quality, quantity, and cost requirements, could impair our ability to manufacture our products or could increase our cost of production. If we cannot obtain substitute materials or components on a timely basis or on acceptable terms, we could be prevented from delivering our products to our customers within required time frames.

Any such delays could result in sales and installation delays, cancellations, penalty payments, or loss of revenue and market share, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

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We utilize construction loans, term loans, sale-leaseback, partnership flip, preferred equity, and other financing structures to fund acquisition, development, construction, and expansion of certain solar projects, and such funds may or may not continue to be available as required to further our plans. Furthermore, such project financing increases our consolidated debt and may be structurally senior to other debt such as our outstanding convertible debentures.

Certain of our subsidiaries and other affiliates are separate and distinct legal entities and, except in limited circumstances, have no obligation to pay any amounts due with respect to our indebtedness or indebtedness of other subsidiaries or affiliates, and do not guarantee the payment of interest on or principal of such indebtedness. Such subsidiaries may borrow funds to finance particular projects. In the event of a default under a project financing which we do not cure, the lenders or lessors generally have rights to the power plant project and related assets. In the event of foreclosure after a default, we may not be able to retain any interest in the power plant project or other collateral supporting such financing. In addition, any such default or foreclosure may trigger cross default provisions in our other financing agreements, including our corporate debt obligations, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition. In the event of our bankruptcy, liquidation, or reorganization (or the bankruptcy, liquidation, or reorganization of a subsidiary or affiliate), such subsidiaries’ or other affiliates’ creditors, including trade creditors and holders of debt issued by such subsidiaries or affiliates, will generally be entitled to payment of their claims from the assets of those subsidiaries or affiliates before any assets are made available for distribution to us or the holders of our indebtedness. As a result, holders of our corporate indebtedness will be effectively subordinated to all present and future debts and other liabilities (including trade payables) of certain of our subsidiaries. As of January 3, 2021 our subsidiaries had $15.1 million in subsidiary project financing, which is effectively senior to our corporate debt, such as our 2019 Revolver, our 4.00% debentures due 2023 and our 0.875% debentures due 2021.

Risks Related to Our Operations

If we have quality issues with our solar and related products, our sales could decrease and our relationships with our customers and our reputation may be harmed.

Products as complex as ours may contain undetected errors or defects, especially when first introduced. For example, our solar panels may contain defects that are not detected until after they are shipped or are installed because we and our suppliers cannot test for all possible scenarios. These defects could cause us to incur significant warranty, non-warranty, and re-engineering costs, which may not be covered by manufacturer warranties, and could significantly affect our customer relations and business reputation. If we deliver products with errors or defects, or if there is a perception that such products contain errors or defects, our credibility and the market acceptance and sales of our products could be harmed. In addition, some of our arrangements with customers include termination or put rights for non-performance. In certain limited cases, we could incur liquidated damages or even be required to buy back a customer’s system at fair value on specified future dates if certain minimum performance thresholds are not met.

A change in the solar investment tax credit could adversely affect our business, revenues, margins, results of operations and cash flows.

We have incorporated into our financial planning and agreements with our customers certain assumptions regarding the future level of U.S. tax incentives, including the ITC, which is administered by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”). The ITC allows qualified applicants to claim an amount equal to 26% of the eligible cost basis for qualifying solar energy property. We hold projects and have sold projects to certain customers based on certain underlying assumptions regarding the ITC. We have also accounted for certain projects and programs in our business using the same assumptions.

Owners of our qualifying projects and our residential lease program have applied or will apply for the ITC and the assumptions regarding expected tax benefits, both in timing and amount, are made in accordance with the guidance provided by the IRS. Any changes to the IRS guidance which we relied upon in structuring our projects, failure to comply with the requirements, including the safe harbor guidance, lower levels of incentives granted, or changes in assumptions including the estimated residual values and the estimated fair market value of financed and installed systems for the purposes of the ITC, could materially and adversely affect our business and financial results. If the IRS disagrees, as a result of any future review or audit, with the fair market value of, or other assumptions concerning, our solar projects or systems that we have constructed or that we construct in the future, including the systems for which tax incentives have already been paid, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition. We also have obligations to indemnify certain of our customers and investors for the loss of tax incentives. We may have to recognize impairments or lower margins than initially anticipated for certain of our projects or our residential lease program. Additionally, if the amount or timing of ITCs received varies from what we have projected, our revenues, margins and cash flows could be adversely affected and we may have to recognize losses, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

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There are continuing developments in the interpretation and application of how companies should calculate their eligibility and level of ITC incentives. There have been recent cases in the U.S. district courts that challenge the criteria for a true lease, which could impact whether the structure of our residential lease program qualifies under the ITC. If the IRS redetermines the amount of the ITC, investors may be required to make corresponding adjustments to their taxable income or other changes. Such adjustments may provide us with an indication of IRS practice regarding the valuation of residential leased solar assets, and we would consider such adjustments in our accounting for our indemnification obligations to investors who receive ITCs.

Acquisitions of other companies, project development pipelines and other assets, or investments in joint ventures with other companies could materially and adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition, and dilute our stockholders’ equity.

To expand our business and maintain our competitive position, we have acquired a number of other companies and entered into joint ventures in past years, including our acquisition of Solaire Generation, Inc. in fiscal 2015, our SunStrong and Solar Sail joint ventures with Hannon Armstrong, and our acquisition of SolarWorld Americas in fiscal 2018. In the future, we may acquire additional companies, project pipelines, products, or technologies or enter into additional joint ventures or other strategic initiatives.

Acquisitions and joint ventures involve a number of risks that could harm our business and result in the acquired business or joint venture not performing as expected, including:

insufficient experience with technologies and markets in which the acquired business or joint venture is involved, which may be necessary to successfully operate and/or integrate the business or the joint venture;

problems integrating the acquired operations, personnel, IT infrastructure, technologies, or products with the existing business and products;

diversion of management time and attention from the core business to the acquired business or joint venture;

potential failure to retain or hire key technical, management, sales, and other personnel of the acquired business or joint venture;

difficulties in retaining or building relationships with suppliers and customers of the acquired business or joint venture, particularly where such customers or suppliers compete with us;

potential failure of the due diligence processes to identify significant issues with product quality and development or legal and financial liabilities, among other things;

potential inability to obtain, or obtain in a timely manner, approvals from governmental authorities or work councils, which could delay or prevent acquisitions, delay our ability to achieve synergies, or adversely impact our successful operation of acquired companies or joint ventures;

potential necessity to re-apply for permits of acquired projects;

problems managing joint ventures with our partners, meeting capital requirements for expansion, potential litigation with joint venture partners and reliance upon joint ventures which we do not control;

differences in philosophy, strategy, or goals with our joint venture partners;

subsequent impairment of the acquired assets, including intangible assets; and

assumption of liabilities including, but not limited to, lawsuits, tax examinations, warranty issues, environmental matters, and liabilities associated with compliance with laws (for example, the FCPA).

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Additionally, we may decide that it is in our best interests to enter into acquisitions or joint ventures that are dilutive to earnings per share or that negatively impact margins as a whole. In an effort to reduce our cost of revenue, we have and may continue to enter into acquisitions or joint ventures involving suppliers or manufacturing partners, which would expose us to additional supply chain risks. Acquisitions or joint ventures could also require investment of significant financial resources and require us to obtain additional equity financing, which may dilute our stockholders’ equity, or require us to incur additional indebtedness. Such equity or debt financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all. In addition, we could in the future make additional investments in our joint ventures or guarantee certain financial obligations of our joint ventures, which could reduce our cash flows, increase our indebtedness, and expose us to the credit risk of our joint ventures.

To the extent that we invest in upstream suppliers or downstream channel capabilities, we may experience competition or channel conflict with certain of our existing and potential suppliers and customers. Specifically, existing and potential suppliers and customers may perceive that we are competing directly with them by virtue of such investments and may decide to reduce or eliminate their supply volume to us or order volume from us.

Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities, the use of our available cash, or the incurrence of debt, which could harm our financial results.

If we cannot offer residential lease customers an attractive value proposition due to an inability to continue to monetize tax benefits in connection with our residential lease arrangements, an inability to obtain financing for our residential lease programs, challenges implementing our third-party ownership model in new jurisdictions, declining costs of retail electricity, or other reasons, we may be unable to continue to increase the size of our residential lease program, which could have a material, adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

Our residential lease program has been, and continues to be, eligible for the ITC. We have relied on, and expect to continue to rely on, financing structures that monetize a substantial portion of those benefits. If we were unable to continue to monetize the tax benefits in our financing structures or such tax benefits were reduced or eliminated, we might be unable to provide financing or pricing that is attractive to our customers. Under current law, the ITC was reduced from approximately 30% of the cost of the solar power systems to approximately 26% for solar power systems that commenced construction after December 31, 2019. With the recent extension of the ITC passed in January 2021, the current 26% ITC will continue for solar power systems that commence construction before December 31, 2022, before being reduced to 22% for solar power systems that commence construction after December 31, 2022, and permanently reduced to 10% for commercial projects and 0% for residential projects for solar power systems that commence construction after December 31, 2023.

Changes in existing law and interpretations by the IRS and the courts could reduce the willingness of financing partners to invest in funds associated with our residential lease program. Additionally, benefits under the ITC programs are tied, in part, to the fair market value of our systems, as ultimately determined by the federal agency administering the benefit program. This means that, in connection with implementing financing structures that monetize such benefits, we need to, among other things, assess the fair market value of our systems in order to arrive at an estimate of the amount of tax benefit expected to be derived from the benefit programs. We incorporate third-party valuation reports that we believe to be reliable into our methodology for assessing the fair market value of our systems, but these reports or other elements of our methodology may cause our fair market value estimates to differ from those ultimately determined by the federal agency administering the applicable benefit program. If the amount or timing of the ITC received in connection with our residential lease program varies from what we have projected, due to discrepancies in our fair value assessments or otherwise, our revenues, cash flows, and margins could be adversely affected.

Additionally, if any of our financing partners that currently provide financing for our solar systems decide not to continue to provide financing due to general market conditions, changes in tax benefits associated with our solar systems, concerns about our business or prospects, or any other reason, or if they materially change the terms under which they are willing to provide future financing, we will need to identify new financing partners and negotiate new financing terms.

See also under this section, “Risks Related to Our Supply Chain—A change in the solar investment tax credit could adversely affect our business, revenues, margins, results of operations, and cash flows.”

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We have to continuously build and improve infrastructure to support our residential lease program, and any failure or delay in implementing the necessary processes and infrastructure could adversely affect our results of operations. We establish credit approval limits based on the credit quality of our customers. We may be unable to collect rent payments from our residential lease customers in the event they enter into bankruptcy or otherwise fail to make payments when due. If we experience higher customer default rates than we currently experience or if we lower credit rating requirements for new customers, it could be more difficult or costly to attract future financing. See also under this section, “Risks Related to Our Sales Channels—The execution of our growth strategy is dependent upon the continued availability of third-party financing arrangements for our solar power plants, our residential lease and loan programs, and our customers, and is affected by general economic conditions.

We make certain assumptions in accounting for our residential lease program, including, among others, assumptions in accounting for our residual value of the leased systems. As our residential lease program grows, if the residual value of leased systems does not materialize as assumed, it will adversely affect our results. At the end of the term of the lease, our customers have the option to extend the lease and certain of those customers may either purchase the leased systems at fair market value or return them to us. Should there be a large number of returns, we may incur de-installation costs in excess of amounts reserved.

We believe that, as with our other customers, retail electricity prices factor significantly into the value proposition of our products for our residential lease customers. If prices for retail electricity or electricity from other renewable sources decrease, our ability to offer competitive pricing in our residential lease program could be jeopardized because such decreases would make the purchase of our solar systems or the purchase of energy under our lease agreements and PPAs less economically attractive.

Our leases are third-party ownership arrangements. Sales of electricity by third parties face regulatory challenges in some states and jurisdictions. Other challenges pertain to whether third-party owned systems qualify for the same levels of rebates or other non-tax incentives available for customer-owned solar energy systems. Reductions in, or eliminations of, this treatment of these third-party arrangements could reduce demand for our residential lease program.

Project development or construction activities may not be successful, and we may make significant investments without first obtaining project financing, which could increase our costs and impair our ability to recover our investments.

The development and construction of solar power electric generation facilities and other energy infrastructure projects involve numerous risks. We may be required to spend significant sums for preliminary engineering, permitting, legal, and other expenses before we can determine whether a project is feasible, economically attractive, or capable of being built. In addition, we will often choose to bear the costs of such efforts prior to obtaining project financing, prior to getting final regulatory approval, and prior to our final sale to a customer, if any.

Successful completion of a particular project may be adversely affected by numerous factors, including:

failures or delays in obtaining desired or necessary land rights, including ownership, leases and/or easements;

failures or delays in obtaining necessary permits, licenses, or other governmental support or approvals, or in overcoming objections from members of the public or adjoining land owners;

unforeseen engineering problems;

uncertainties relating to access to available transmission for electricity generated by our solar power systems and delays in interconnection of such systems;

construction delays and contractor performance shortfalls;

work stoppages or labor disruptions and compliance with labor regulations;

cost over-runs;

availability of products and components from suppliers;

adverse weather conditions;

environmental, archaeological, and geological conditions; and
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availability of construction and permanent financing.

If we are unable to complete the development of a solar power project, or fail to meet one or more agreed target construction milestone dates, we may be subject to liquidated damages and/or penalties under the EPC agreement or other agreements relating to the power plant, and we typically will not be able to recover our investment in the project. We expect to invest a significant amount of capital to develop projects initially owned by us or ultimately owned by third parties. If we are unable to complete the development of a solar power project, we may write-down or write-off some or all of these capitalized investments, which would have an adverse impact on our net income in the period in which the loss is recognized.

We act as the general contractor for many of our customers in connection with the installations of our solar power systems and are subject to risks associated with construction, cost overruns, delays, and other contingencies tied to performance bonds and letters of credit, indemnifications, or other required credit and liquidity support guarantees, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.

We act as the general contractor for many of our customers in connection with the installation of our solar power systems. Some customers require performance bonds issued by a bonding agency or letters of credit issued by financial institutions, or may require other forms of liquidity support. Due to the general performance risk inherent in construction activities, it has become increasingly difficult to attain suitable bonding agencies willing to provide performance bonding. Obtaining letters of credit may require collateral. In the event we are unable to obtain bonding, sufficient letters of credit, or other liquidity support, we will be unable to bid on, or enter into, sales contracts requiring such bonding.

Almost all of our EPC contracts are fixed price contracts. We attempt to estimate all essential costs at the time of entering into the EPC contract for a particular project, and these are reflected in the overall price that we charge our customers for the project. These cost estimates are preliminary and may or may not be covered by contracts between us or the subcontractors, suppliers, and any other parties that may become necessary to complete the project. In addition, we require qualified, licensed subcontractors to install most of our systems. Thus, if the cost of materials or skilled labor were to rise dramatically, or if financing costs were to increase, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.

In addition, the contracts with some of our larger customers obligate us to pay substantial penalty payments for each day or other period beyond an agreed target date that a solar installation for any such customer is not completed, up to and including the return of the entire project sale price. We face material financial penalties in the event we fail to meet the completion deadlines, including but not limited to a full refund of the contract price paid by the customers. In certain cases we do not control all of the events which could give rise to these penalties, such as reliance on the local utility to timely complete electrical substation construction.

Furthermore, investors often require that the solar power system generate specified levels of electricity in order to maintain their investment returns, allocating substantial risk and financial penalties to us if those levels are not achieved, up to and including the return of the entire project sale price. Also, our customers often require protections in the form of conditional payments, payment retentions or hold-backs, and similar arrangements that condition its future payments on performance. Delays in solar panel or other supply shipments, other construction delays, unexpected performance problems in electricity generation or other events could cause us to fail to meet these performance criteria, resulting in unanticipated and severe revenue and earnings losses and financial penalties. Construction delays are often caused by inclement weather, failure to timely receive necessary approvals and permits, or delays in obtaining necessary solar panels, inverters, or other materials. Additionally, we sometimes purchase land in connection with project development and assume the risk of project completion. All such risks could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.    

We have significant supplier relationships outside the United States, as well as certain international activities and customers, which may subject us to additional business risks, including logistical complexity and political instability.

A portion of our supply agreements are with manufacturers and equipment vendors located outside of the United States, and, although our business is primarily U.S.-focused, we do have customers and assets located outside of the United States.

Risks we face in conducting business internationally include:

multiple, conflicting, and changing laws and regulations relating to employment, environmental protection, international trade, and other government approvals, permits, and licenses and regulatory requirements;

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financial risks, such as longer sales and payment cycles, greater difficulty enforcing rights and remedies under, including collecting accounts receivable, and capital controls or other restrictions on the transfer of funds;

currency fluctuations, government-fixed foreign exchange rates, the effects of currency hedging activity, and the potential inability to hedge currency fluctuations;

political and economic instability, including wars, acts of terrorism, political unrest, boycotts, curtailments of trade, nationalization of assets, and other business restrictions;

trade barriers such as import and export requirements or restrictions, licensing requirements, tariffs, taxes and other restrictions and expenses for which we may have responsibility, which could increase the prices of our products and make us less competitive in some countries; and

liabilities associated with compliance with laws (for example, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) in the United States and similar laws outside of the United States).

We have a complex organizational structure that includes global entities. This increases the potential impact of adverse changes in laws, rules, and regulations affecting the free flow of goods and personnel, and therefore heightens some of the risks noted above. Further, we must work with our suppliers to effectively manage the flow of products in light of these risks. If we fail to do so, our available inventory may not correspond with product demand. If we are unable to successfully manage any such risks, any one or more could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

Fluctuations in capitalized costs or the demand for our products may cause impairment of our project assets and other long-lived assets or cause us to write off equipment or inventory, and each of these events would adversely affect our financial results.

We have tangible project assets on our Consolidated Balance Sheets related to capitalized costs incurred in connection with the development of solar power systems. Project assets consist primarily of capitalized costs relating to solar power system projects in various stages of development that we incur prior to the sale of the solar power system to a third party. These costs include costs for land and costs for developing and constructing a solar power system. These project assets could become impaired if there are changes in the fair value of these capitalized costs. If these project assets become impaired, we may write-off some or all of the capitalized project assets, which would have an adverse impact on our results of operations in the period in which the loss is recognized.

We may not be able to expand our business or manage our future growth effectively.

We may not be able to expand our business or manage future growth. We plan to continue to improve our operations and processes and expand our sales and operations, which will require:

enhancing our customer resource management and other systems;

implementing and improving additional and existing administrative, financial and operations systems, procedures and controls, including the need to centralize, update and integrate our global financial internal control;

hiring additional employees and expanding our contractor relationships;

expanding and upgrading our technological capabilities;

managing numerous relationships with our customers, suppliers and other third parties;

maintaining adequate liquidity and financial resources; and

continuing to increase our revenues from operations.

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Maintaining adequate liquidity is dependent upon a variety of factors including continued revenues from operations, working capital improvements, and compliance with our indentures and credit agreements. If we are unsuccessful in any of these areas, we may not be able to achieve our growth strategy as planned during the foreseeable future. In addition, we need to manage our organizational growth, including rationalizing reporting structures, support teams, and enabling efficient decision making. For example, the administration of the residential lease program requires processes and systems to support this business model. If we are not successful or if we delay our continuing implementation of such systems and processes, we may adversely affect the anticipated volumes in our residential lease business. If we are unable to manage our growth effectively, we may not be able to take advantage of market opportunities, develop new products, satisfy customer requirements, execute our business plan, or respond to competitive pressures.

Our success depends on the continuing contributions of our key personnel.

We rely heavily on the services of our key executive officers and the loss of services of any principal member of our management team could adversely affect our operations. We have experienced significant turnover in our management team in the recent past, and we are investing significant resources in developing new members of management as we complete our restructuring and strategic transformation. In connection with our recent separation into two public companies through the Spin-Off, certain members of SunPower’s management team accepted roles with Maxeon Solar, and it is possible that we could experience increased difficulties in attracting, retaining, and motivating employees during the period following the Spin-Off. We also anticipate that over time we will need to hire a number of highly skilled technical, sales, marketing, administrative, and accounting personnel. In recent years, we have conducted several restructurings, which may negatively affect our ability to execute our strategy and business model, and may impair our ability to retain key talent required to provide transition services during such restructurings. The competition for qualified personnel is intense in our industry. We may not be successful in attracting and retaining sufficient numbers of qualified personnel to support our anticipated growth. We cannot guarantee that any employee will remain employed with us for any definite period of time since all of our employees, including our key executive officers, serve at-will and may terminate their employment at any time for any reason.

We may in the future be required to consolidate the assets, liabilities, and results of operations of certain of our existing or future joint ventures, which could have an adverse impact on our results of operations, financial position, and gross margin.

The Financial Accounting Standards Board has issued accounting guidance regarding variable interest entities (“VIEs”) that affects our accounting treatment of our existing and future joint ventures. To ascertain whether we are required to consolidate an entity, we determine whether it is a VIE and if we are the primary beneficiary in accordance with the accounting guidance. Factors we consider in determining whether we are the VIE’s primary beneficiary include the decision making authority of each partner, which partner manages the day-to-day operations of the joint venture and each partner’s obligation to absorb losses or right to receive benefits from the joint venture in relation to that of the other partner. Changes in the financial accounting guidance, or changes in circumstances at each of these joint ventures, could lead us to determine that we have to consolidate the assets, liabilities and results of operations of such joint ventures. The consolidation of our VIEs would significantly increase our indebtedness and could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial position, and gross margin. In addition, we may enter into future joint ventures or make other equity investments, which could have an adverse impact on us because of the financial accounting guidance regarding VIEs.

Our affiliation with TOTAL SE may require us to join in certain tax filings with TOTAL SE in the future. The allocation of tax liabilities between us and TOTAL SE, and any future agreements with TOTAL SE regarding tax indemnification and certain tax liabilities may adversely affect our financial position.

We have not joined in tax filings on a consolidated, combined, or unitary basis with TOTAL SE, and no tax sharing agreement is currently in place. We may in the future become required to join in certain tax filings with TOTAL SE on a consolidated, combined, or unitary basis in certain jurisdictions, at which point we may seek to enter into a tax sharing agreement with TOTAL SE, which would allocate the tax liabilities among the parties. The entry into any future agreement with TOTAL SE may result in less favorable allocation of certain liabilities than we experienced before becoming subject to consolidated, combined, or unitary filing requirements, and may adversely affect our financial position.

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Our headquarters and other facilities, as well as the facilities of certain subcontractors and suppliers, are located in regions that are subject to epidemics, earthquakes, floods, fires, and other natural disasters, and climate change and climate change regulation could have an adverse effect on our operations.

Our headquarters and research and development operations are located in California, and we have significant operations in Texas and the Philippines, as well as offices and operations in several other U.S. states. Any significant epidemic, earthquake, flood, fire, or other natural disaster in these areas or in countries where our suppliers are located could materially disrupt our management operations and/or our production capabilities, could result in damage or destruction of all portion of our facilities or could result in our experiencing a significant delay in delivery, or substantial shortage, of our products and services.

In addition, the potential physical impacts of climate change on our operations may include changes in weather patterns (including floods, fires, tsunamis, drought, and rainfall levels), water availability, storm patterns and intensities, and temperature levels. These potential physical effects may adversely affect the cost, sales, and financial performance of our operations.

We sell our solar products to agencies of the U.S. government, and as a result, we are subject to a number of procurement rules and regulations, and our business could be adversely affected by an audit by the U.S. government if it were to identify errors or a failure to comply with regulations.

We have sold and continue to sell our solar power systems to various U.S. government agencies. In connection with these contracts, we must comply with and are affected by laws and regulations relating to the award, administration, and performance of U.S. government contracts, which may impose added costs on our business. We are expected to perform in compliance with a vast array of federal laws and regulations, including, without limitation, the Federal Acquisition Regulation, the Truth in Negotiations Act, the Federal False Claims Act, the Anti-Kickback Act of 1986, the Trade Agreements Act, the Buy American Act, the Procurement Integrity Act, and the Davis Bacon Act. A violation of specific laws and regulations, even if prohibited by our policies, could result in the imposition of fines and penalties, reductions of the value of our contracts, contract modifications or termination, or suspension or debarment from government contracting for a period of time.

In some instances, these laws and regulations impose terms or rights that are more favorable to the government than those typically available to commercial parties in negotiated transactions. For example, the U.S. government may terminate any of our government contracts either at its convenience or for default based on performance. A termination arising out of our default may expose us to liability and have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete for future contracts.

U.S. government agencies may audit and investigate government contractors. These agencies review a contractor’s performance under its contracts, cost structure, and compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and standards. If an audit or investigation uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil or criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines, and suspension or prohibition from doing business with the U.S. government. In addition, we could suffer reputational harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us.

Compliance with environmental regulations can be expensive, and noncompliance with these regulations may result in adverse publicity and potentially significant monetary damages and fines.

We are required to comply with all foreign, U.S. federal, state and local laws and regulations regarding pollution control and protection of the environment. In addition, under some statutes and regulations, a government agency, or other parties, may seek recovery and response costs from owners or operators of property where releases of hazardous substances have occurred or are ongoing, even if the owner or operator was not responsible for such release or otherwise at fault. We use, generate, and discharge toxic, volatile and otherwise hazardous chemicals and wastes in our research and development. Any failure by us to control the use of, or to restrict adequately the discharge of, hazardous substances could subject us to, among other matters, potentially significant monetary damages and fines or liabilities or suspensions in our business operations. In addition, if more stringent laws and regulations are adopted in the future, the costs of compliance with these new laws and regulations could be substantial. If we fail to comply with present or future environmental laws and regulations, we may be required to pay substantial fines, suspend production or cease operations, or be subjected to other sanctions.

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In addition, U.S. legislation includes disclosure requirements regarding the use of “conflict” minerals mined from the Democratic Republic of Congo and adjoining countries and procedures regarding a manufacturer’s efforts to prevent the sourcing of such “conflict” minerals. We have incurred and will incur additional costs to comply with the disclosure requirements, including costs related to determining the source of any of the relevant minerals and metals used in our products. The implementation of these requirements could affect the sourcing and availability of minerals used in the manufacture of solar products. As a result, there may only be a limited pool of suppliers who provide conflict free minerals, and we cannot be certain that we will be able to obtain products in sufficient quantities or at competitive prices. Since our supply chain is complex, we have not been able to sufficiently verify, and in the future we may not be able to sufficiently verify, the origins for these conflict minerals used in our products. As a result, we may face reputational challenges with our customers and other stakeholders if we are unable to sufficiently verify the origins for all minerals used in our products.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

We depend on our intellectual property, and we may face intellectual property infringement claims that could be time-consuming and costly to defend and could result in the loss of significant rights.

From time to time, we, our customers, or our third parties with whom we work may receive letters, including letters from other third parties, and may become subject to lawsuits with such third parties alleging infringement of their patents. Additionally, we are required by contract to indemnify some of our customers and our third-party intellectual property providers for certain costs and damages of patent infringement in circumstances where our products are a factor creating the customer’s or these third-party providers’ infringement liability. This practice may subject us to significant indemnification claims by our customers and our third-party providers. We cannot assure investors that indemnification claims will not be made or that these claims will not harm our business, results of operations, cash flows, and/or financial condition. Intellectual property litigation is very expensive and time-consuming and could divert management’s attention from our business and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, and/or financial condition. If there is a successful claim of infringement against us, our customers or our third-party intellectual property providers, we may be required to pay substantial damages to the party claiming infringement, stop selling products or using technology that contains the allegedly infringing intellectual property, or enter into royalty or license agreements that may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. Parties making infringement claims may also be able to bring an action before the International Trade Commission that could result in an order stopping the importation into the United States of solar products for our use. Any of these judgments could materially damage our business. We may have to develop non-infringing technology, and our failure in doing so or in obtaining licenses to the proprietary rights on a timely basis could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We have filed, and may continue to file, claims against other parties for infringing our intellectual property that may be very costly and may not be resolved in our favor.

To protect our intellectual property rights and to maintain our competitive advantage, we have filed, and may continue to file, suits against parties who we believe infringe or misappropriate our intellectual property. Intellectual property litigation is expensive and time consuming, could divert management’s attention from our business, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, or financial condition, and our enforcement efforts may not be successful. In addition, the validity of our patents may be challenged in such litigation. Our participation in intellectual property enforcement actions may negatively impact our results.

We rely substantially upon trade secret laws and contractual restrictions to protect our proprietary rights, and, if these rights are not sufficiently protected, our ability to compete and generate revenue could suffer.

We seek to protect our proprietary manufacturing processes, documentation, and other written materials primarily under trade secret and copyright laws. We also typically require employees, consultants, and third parties, such as our vendors and customers, with access to our proprietary information to execute confidentiality agreements. The steps we take to protect our proprietary information may not be adequate to prevent misappropriation of our technology. Our systems may be subject to intrusions, security breaches, or targeted theft of our trade secrets. In addition, our proprietary rights may not be adequately protected because:

others may not be deterred from misappropriating our technologies despite the existence of laws or contracts prohibiting such misappropriation and information security measures designed to deter or prevent misappropriation of our technologies;

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policing unauthorized use of our intellectual property may be difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, the remedy obtained may be inadequate to restore protection of our intellectual property, and moreover, we may be unable to determine the extent of any unauthorized use; and

reports we file in connection with government-sponsored research contracts are generally available to the public and third parties may obtain some aspects of our sensitive confidential information.

Reverse engineering, unauthorized copying, or other misappropriation of our proprietary technologies could enable third parties to benefit from our technologies without compensating us for doing so. Any such activities or any other inabilities to adequately protect our proprietary rights could harm our ability to compete, to generate revenue, and to grow our business.

We may not obtain sufficient patent protection on the technology embodied in the solar and other products we currently manufacture and market, which could harm our competitive position and increase our expenses.

Although we substantially rely on trade secret laws and contractual restrictions to protect the technology in the solar and other products we currently manufacture and market, our success and ability to compete in the future may also depend to a significant degree upon obtaining patent protection for our proprietary technology. We currently own multiple patents and patent applications which cover aspects of the technology in the solar and energy storage systems, software, and mounting systems that we currently manufacture and market. Material patents that relate to our systems products and services primarily relate to our software offerings for our dealers and customers, energy storage products, rooftop mounting products and ground-mounted tracking products. We intend to continue to seek patent protection for those aspects of our technology, designs, and methodologies and processes that we believe provide significant competitive advantages.

Our patent applications may not result in issued patents, and even if they result in issued patents, the patents may not have claims of the scope we seek or we may have to refile patent applications due to newly discovered prior art. In addition, any issued patents may be challenged, invalidated, or declared unenforceable, or even if we obtain an award of damages for infringement by a third party, such award could prove insufficient to compensate for all damages incurred as a result of such infringement.

The term of any issued patent is generally 20 years from its earliest filing date and if our applications are pending for a long time period, we may have a correspondingly shorter term for any patent that may issue. Our present and future patents may provide only limited protection for our technology and may be insufficient to provide competitive advantages to us. For example, competitors could develop similar or more advantageous technologies on their own or design around our patents. Also, patent protection in certain foreign countries may not be available or may be limited in scope and any patents obtained may not be readily enforceable because of insufficient judicial effectiveness, making it difficult for us to aggressively protect our intellectual property from misuse or infringement by other companies in these countries. Our inability to obtain and enforce our intellectual property rights in some countries may harm our business. In addition, given the costs of obtaining patent protection, we may choose not to protect certain innovations that later turn out to be important.

We may not be able to prevent others from using the term SunPower or similar terms, or other trademarks which we hold, in connection with their solar power products which could adversely affect the market recognition of our name and our revenue.

“SunPower” and the SunPower logo are our registered trademarks in the United States for uses that include solar cells and solar panels. We hold registered trademarks for SunPower, EnergyLink, InvisiMount, The Power of One, and many more marks, in certain countries, including the United States. We have not registered, and may not be able to register, these trademarks in other key countries. In addition, if there are jurisdictions where another proprietor has already established trademark rights in marks containing “SunPower,” or our other chosen brands, we may face trademark disputes and may have to market our products with other trademarks or without our trademarks, which may undermine our marketing efforts. We may encounter trademark disputes with companies using marks which are confusingly similar to the SunPower mark, or our other marks, which if not resolved favorably, could cause our branding efforts to suffer. In addition, we may have difficulty in establishing strong brand recognition with consumers if others use similar marks for similar products.

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Our past and possible future reliance on government programs to partially fund our research and development programs could impair our ability to commercialize our solar power products and services.

Government funding of some of our research and development efforts imposed certain restrictions on our ability to commercialize results and could grant commercialization rights to the government. In some funding awards, the government is entitled to intellectual property rights arising from the related research. Such rights include a nonexclusive, nontransferable, irrevocable, paid-up license to practice or have practiced each subject invention developed under an award throughout the world by or on behalf of the government. Other rights include the right to require us to grant a license to the developed technology or products to a third party or, in some cases, if we refuse, the government may grant the license itself, if the government determines that action is necessary because we fail to achieve practical application of the technology, because action is necessary to alleviate health or safety needs, to meet requirements of federal regulations, or to give the United States industry preference. Accepting government funding can also require that manufacturing of products developed with federal funding be conducted in the United States.

Risks Related to Our Debt and Equity Securities

Our debentures are effectively subordinated to our existing and any future secured indebtedness and structurally subordinated to existing and future liabilities and other indebtedness of our current and any future subsidiaries.

Our convertible debentures are general, unsecured obligations and rank equally in right of payment with all of our existing and any future unsubordinated, unsecured indebtedness. As of January 3, 2021, we and our subsidiaries had $488.0 million in principal amount of senior convertible debentures. Our debentures are effectively subordinated to our existing and any future secured indebtedness we may have, including for example, our Loan and Security Agreement with Bank of America, N.A., to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness, and structurally subordinated to our existing and any future liabilities and other indebtedness of our subsidiaries. In addition to our unsecured indebtedness described above, as of January 3, 2021, we and our subsidiaries had $156.0 million in principal amount of other indebtedness outstanding, which includes $15.1 million in non-recourse project debt. These liabilities may also include other indebtedness, trade payables, guarantees, lease obligations, and letter of credit obligations. Our debentures do not restrict us or our current or any future subsidiaries from incurring indebtedness, including senior secured indebtedness, in the future, nor do they limit the amount of indebtedness we can issue that is equal in right of payment. For a discussion of the impact of our liquidity on our ability to meet our payment obligations under our debentures, see also “Risks Related to Our Liquidity-We have a significant amount of debt outstanding. Our substantial indebtedness and other contractual commitments could adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows, and results of operations, as well as our ability to meet our payment obligations under our debentures and our other debt.

Total’s majority ownership of our common stock may adversely affect the liquidity and value of our common stock.

As of January 3, 2021, Total owned approximately 52% of our outstanding common stock, excluding common stock issuable upon conversion of our 0.875% debentures and 4.00% debentures.

The Board of Directors of SunPower includes five designees from Total, giving Total majority control of our Board. As a result, subject to the restrictions in the Affiliation Agreement, Total possesses significant influence and control over our affairs. Our non-Total stockholders have reduced ownership and voting interest in our company and, as a result, have less influence over the management and policies of our company than they exercised prior to Total’s tender offer. As long as Total controls us, the ability of our other stockholders to influence matters requiring stockholder approval is limited. Total’s stock ownership and relationships with members of our Board of Directors could have the effect of preventing minority stockholders from exercising significant control over our affairs, delaying or preventing a future change in control, impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover, or other business combination or discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us, limiting our financing options. These factors in turn could adversely affect the market price of our common stock or prevent our stockholders from realizing a premium over the market price of our common stock. The Affiliation Agreement limits Total and any member of the Total affiliated companies (“Total Group”) from effecting, seeking, or entering into discussions with any third party regarding any transaction that would result in the Total Group beneficially owning our shares in excess of certain thresholds during a standstill period. The Affiliation Agreement also imposes certain limitations on the Total Group’s ability to seek to effect a tender offer or merger to acquire 100% of our outstanding voting power. Such provisions may not be successful in preventing the Total Group from engaging in transactions which further increase their ownership and negatively impact the price of our common stock. See also “Risks Related to Our Liquidity-We may be unable to generate sufficient cash flows or obtain access to external financing necessary to fund our operations and make adequate capital investments as planned due to the general economic environment and the continued market pressure driving down the average selling prices of our solar power products, among other factors.” Finally, the market for our common stock has become less liquid and more thinly traded as a result of the Total tender offer. The lower number of
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shares available to be traded could result in greater volatility in the price of our common stock and affect our ability to raise capital on favorable terms in the capital markets.

If we cease to be considered a “controlled company” within the meaning of the NASDAQ corporate governance rules, we will be subject to additional corporate governance requirements.

If we cease to be considered a “controlled company” under the NASDAQ corporate governance rules, we will be subject to additional corporate governance requirements, including the requirements that:

a majority of our Board of Directors consist of independent directors;

our Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee be composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities;

our Compensation Committee be composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities; and

there be an annual performance evaluation of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and the Compensation Committee.

The NASDAQ listing rules provide for phase-in periods for these requirements (including that each such committee consist of a majority of independent directors within 90 days of ceasing to be a “controlled company”), but we must be fully compliant with the requirements within one year of the date on which we cease to be a “controlled company.” Currently, we do not have a majority of independent directors on our Board of Directors and only two of the four members of each of our Nominating and Governance Committee and our Compensation Committee are independent. During this transition period, our stockholders may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the NASDAQ corporate governance rules and the ability of our independent directors to influence our business policies and affairs may be reduced. In addition, we may not be able to attract and retain the number of independent directors needed to comply with NASDAQ corporate governance rules during the transition period.

In addition, as a result of potentially no longer being a “controlled company,” we may need to obtain certain consents, waivers, and amendments in connection with our existing debt agreements. Any failure to obtain such consents, waivers, and amendments might cause cross defaults under other agreements and may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

The issuance of shares of common stock, conversion of our outstanding 0.875% and 4.00% debentures, and future substantial issuances or dispositions of our common stock or other securities, could dilute ownership and earnings per share or cause the market price of our stock to decrease.

In our equity offering in 2019, we sold an aggregate of 25,300,000 shares of common stock, and we may in the future seek to sell additional common stock or other securities. Sales of our common stock in the public market or sales of any of our other securities will or could, as applicable, dilute ownership and earnings per share, and even the perception that such sales could occur could cause the market prices of our common stock to decline.

To the extent we issue common stock upon conversion of our outstanding 0.875% and 4.00% debentures, the conversion of some or all of such debentures will dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders, including holders who had previously converted their debentures. Any sales in the public market of the common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of our outstanding debentures may encourage short selling of our common stock by market participants who expect that the conversion of the debentures could depress the prices of our common stock.

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Future sales of our common stock in the public market could lower the market price for our common stock and adversely impact the trading price of our debentures.

In the future, we may sell additional shares of our common stock to raise capital. We cannot predict the size of future issuances or the effect, if any, that they may have on the market price for our common stock. In addition, a substantial number of shares of our common stock is reserved for issuance upon the exercise of stock options, restricted stock awards, restricted stock units, warrants, and upon conversion of our outstanding 0.875% and 4.00% debentures. The issuance and sale of substantial amounts of common stock, or the perception that such issuances and sales may occur, could adversely affect the trading price of our debentures and the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity or equity-linked securities.

The price of our common stock, and therefore of our outstanding 0.875% and 4.00% debentures, may fluctuate significantly.

Our common stock has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. The trading price of our common stock could be subject to further wide fluctuations due to many factors, including the factors discussed in this risk factors section. In addition, the stock market in general, and The NASDAQ Global Select Market and the securities of technology companies and solar companies in particular, have experienced severe price and volume fluctuations. These trading prices and valuations, including our own market valuation and those of companies in our industry generally, may not be sustainable. These broad market and industry factors may decrease the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. Because the 0.875% and 4.00% debentures are convertible into our common stock (and/or cash equivalent to the value of our common stock), volatility or depressed prices of our common stock could have a similar effect on the trading price of the debentures. In the past, stockholders have initiated class action lawsuits against companies following periods of volatility in the market prices of their stock. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could cause us to incur substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources from our business.

We do not intend to pay cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends. For the foreseeable future, we intend to retain any earnings, after considering any dividends on any preferred stock, to finance the development of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock. Any future determination to pay cash dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will be dependent upon then-existing conditions, including our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, business prospects, and other factors that our Board of Directors considers relevant. Accordingly, holders of our common stock must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize a return on their shares of common stock.

Delaware law and our certificate of incorporation and by-laws contain anti-takeover provisions and our outstanding 0.875% and 4.00% debentures provide for a right to convert upon certain events, and our Board of Directors entered into a rights agreement and declared a rights dividend, any of which could delay or discourage takeover attempts that stockholders may consider favorable.

Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and by-laws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. These provisions include the following:

the right of the Board of Directors to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the Board of Directors;

the prohibition of cumulative voting in the election of directors, which would otherwise allow less than a majority of stockholders to elect director candidates;

the requirement for advance notice for nominations for election to the Board of Directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting;

our Board of Directors is divided into three classes of directors, with the classes to be as nearly equal in number as possible;

stockholders may not call special meetings of the stockholders, except by Total under limited circumstances; and

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our Board of Directors is able to alter our by-laws without obtaining stockholder approval.

Certain provisions of our outstanding debentures could make it more difficult or more expensive for a third party to acquire us. Upon the occurrence of certain transactions constituting a fundamental change, including an entity (such as Total) becoming the beneficial owner of 75% of our voting stock, holders of our outstanding debentures will have the right, at their option, to require us to repurchase, at a cash repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest on the debentures, all or a portion of their debentures. We may also be required to issue additional shares of our common stock upon conversion of such debentures in the event of certain fundamental changes.

Our ability to use our net operating loss and credit carryforwards to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

As of January 3, 2021, we had federal net operating loss carryforwards of $498.0 million for tax purposes, California state net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $863.1 million for tax purposes, credit carryforwards of approximately $69.9 million for federal tax purposes, and California credit carryforwards of $4.0 million for state tax purposes. Our ability to utilize a portion of the net operating loss and credit carryforwards is dependent upon our being able to generate taxable income in future periods or being able to carryback net operating losses to prior year tax returns. Our ability to utilize net operating losses may be limited due to restrictions imposed on utilization of net operating loss and credit carryforwards under federal and state laws upon a change in ownership, such as transaction with Cypress Semiconductor Corporation ("Cypress") while we were deemed to be a member and subsidiary of the Cypress consolidated group or tax attributes from acquired companies.

Section 382 of the Code imposes restrictions on the use of a corporation’s net operating losses, as well as certain recognized built-in losses and other carryforwards, after an “ownership change” occurs. A Section 382 “ownership change” occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of our stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within the prior three-year period (calculated on a rolling basis). A conversion of our outstanding convertible notes debentures, and/or other issuances or sales of our stock (including certain transactions involving our stock that are outside of our control) could result in an ownership change under Section 382. If an “ownership change” occurs, Section 382 would impose an annual limit on the amount of pre-change net operating losses and other losses we can use to reduce our taxable income generally equal to the product of the total value of our outstanding equity immediately prior to the “ownership change” and the applicable federal long-term tax-exempt interest rate for the month of the “ownership change” (subject to certain adjustments).

The majority of our U.S. federal net operating losses were generated prior to 2018, and these losses may be carried forward for up to 20 years. The annual limitation may effectively provide a cap on the cumulative amount of pre-ownership change losses, including certain recognized built-in losses that may be utilized. Such pre-ownership change losses in excess of the cap may be lost. In addition, if an ownership change were to occur, it is possible that the limitations imposed on our ability to use pre-ownership change losses and certain recognized built-in losses could cause a net increase in our U.S. federal income tax liability and require U.S. federal income taxes to be paid earlier than otherwise would be paid if such limitations were not in effect. Further, if for financial reporting purposes the amount or value of these deferred tax assets is reduced, such reduction would have a negative impact on the book value of our common stock.

On June 29, 2020, the California Assembly Bill (“AB 85”) suspended the use of California net operating loss deduction and limited the maximum business incentive tax credit utilization to $5.0 million annually starting with tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2020 through December 31, 2022. In addition, states legislatures are considering limitations on tax attributes in order to raise tax revenues. As a result, our state income tax may increase if more states adopt restrictions on the use of tax attributes.

As discussed in “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Spin-Off,” the Spin-Off has resulted in a fully taxable event to SunPower, for which we recognized taxable gain that was offset with prior year losses, thus resulting in a significant reduction in our net operating loss carryforwards.

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General Risk Factors

A change in our effective tax rate could have a significant adverse impact on our business, and an adverse outcome resulting from examination of our income or other tax returns could adversely affect our results.

A number of factors may adversely affect our future effective tax rates, such as the jurisdictions in which our profits are determined to be earned and taxed; changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities; adjustments to estimated taxes upon finalization of various tax returns; adjustments to our interpretation of transfer pricing standards; changes in available tax credits, grants and other incentives; changes in stock-based compensation expense; the availability of loss or credit carryforwards to offset taxable income; changes in tax laws or the interpretation of such tax laws (for example federal and state taxes); and changes in U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP). A change in our effective tax rate due to any of these factors may adversely affect our future results from operations.

Significant judgment is required to determine the recognition and measurement attributes prescribed in the accounting guidance for uncertainty in income taxes. The accounting guidance for uncertainty in income taxes applies to all income tax positions, including the potential recovery of previously paid taxes, which if settled unfavorably could adversely affect our provision for income taxes. In addition, we are subject to examination of our income tax returns by various tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from any examination to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. An adverse determination of an examination could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. See also “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data-Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements-Note 14. Income Taxes.”

Additionally, U.S. tax reform may lead to further changes in (or departure from) these norms. As these and other tax laws and related regulations change, our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition could be materially impacted. Given the unpredictability of these possible changes and their potential interdependency, it is very difficult to assess whether the overall effect of such potential tax changes would be cumulatively positive or negative for our earnings and cash flow.

Fluctuations in interest rates could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We are exposed to interest rate risk because many of our customers depend on debt financing to purchase our solar power systems. An increase in interest rates could make it difficult for our customers to obtain the financing necessary to purchase our solar power systems on favorable terms, or at all, and thus lower demand for our solar power products, reduce revenue and adversely affect our results of operations and cash flow. An increase in interest rates could lower a customer’s return on investment in a system or make alternative investments more attractive relative to solar power systems, which, in each case, could cause our customers to seek alternative investments that promise higher returns or demand higher returns from our solar power systems, which could reduce our revenue and gross margin and adversely affect our financial results. Our interest expense would increase to the extent interest rates rise in connection with our variable interest rate borrowings. Conversely, lower interest rates have an adverse impact on our interest income. See also "Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" and under this section “Risks Related to Our Sales Channels-The execution of our growth strategy is dependent upon the continued availability of third-party financing arrangements for our solar power plants, our residential lease and loan programs and our customers, and is affected by general economic conditions.”

Uncertainty about the continuing availability of LIBOR may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Borrowings under certain of our credit facilities bear interest at a floating rate based on the London Inter-bank Offered Rate ("LIBOR"). We also have entered into fixed-for-floating interest rate forward swap agreements to manage our exposure to fluctuations in the LIBOR benchmark interest rate. We pay the counterparties to these swap agreements a fixed rate in return for a LIBOR-based floating rate, which we may use to fund payments under our credit facilities. The aggregate notional amount of these swap agreements is $5.5 million.

In July 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (the "FCA"), which regulates LIBOR, announced that after December 31, 2021, it would no longer compel banks to submit the rates required to calculate LIBOR. We cannot predict the effect of the FCA’s decision not to sustain LIBOR or, if changes ultimately are made to LIBOR, the effect those changes may have on the payments we receive under our interest rate forward swap agreements.

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In anticipation of LIBOR’s discontinuation, our credit facilities generally provide a transition mechanism to a LIBOR-replacement rate to be mutually agreed upon by us and our lenders. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to reach an agreement with our lenders on any such replacement benchmark before experiencing adverse effects due to changes in interest rates, if at all. In addition, any such changes under the credit facilities may result in interest rates and/or payments that are higher or lower than payments we presently are obligated to make. We also may seek to amend our swap agreements to replace the benchmark rate. There can be no assurance, however, that the counterparties to those agreements will agree to a replacement rate, and any such changes to the swap agreements may result in us receiving payments that are higher or lower than the payments we are entitled to receive under our existing swap agreements. There also can be no assurance that (a) the amounts we are entitled to receive under the swap agreements will continue to be correlated with the amounts we are required to pay under our credit facilities or (b) transitions to new benchmarks will be concurrent across our various agreements, the failure of either or both of which could diminish the swaps’ effectiveness as hedging instruments. Any of these risks could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

While we believe we currently have effective internal control over financial reporting, we may identify a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting that could cause investors to lose confidence in the reliability of our financial statements and result in a decrease in the value of our common stock.

Our management is responsible for maintaining internal control over financial reporting designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of consolidated financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Management concluded that as of the end of each of fiscal 2020, 2019, and 2018, our internal control over financial reporting and our disclosure controls and procedures were effective.

We need to continuously maintain our internal control processes and systems and adapt them as our business grows and changes. This process is expensive, time-consuming, and requires significant management attention. We cannot guarantee that our internal controls over financial reporting will prevent or detect all errors and fraud. Furthermore, as we grow our business or acquire other businesses, our internal controls may become more complex and we may require significantly more resources to ensure they remain effective. Failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, either in our existing business or in businesses that we may acquire, could harm our results of operations or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. If we or our independent registered public accounting firm identify material weaknesses in our internal controls, the disclosure of that fact, even if quickly remedied, may cause investors to lose confidence in our financial statements and the trading price of our common stock may decline.

Remediation of a material weakness could require us to incur significant expense and if we fail to remedy any material weakness, our financial statements may be inaccurate, our ability to report our results of operations on a timely and accurate basis may be adversely affected, our access to the capital markets may be restricted, the trading price of our common stock may decline, and we may be subject to sanctions or investigation by regulatory authorities, including the SEC or The NASDAQ Global Select Market. We may also be required to restate our financial statements from prior periods.

Our insurance for certain indemnity obligations we have to our officers and directors may be inadequate, and potential claims could materially and negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.

Pursuant to our certificate of incorporation, by-laws, and certain indemnification agreements, we indemnify our officers and directors for certain liabilities that may arise in the course of their service to us. Although we currently maintain directors and officers liability insurance for certain potential third-party claims for which we are legally or financially unable to indemnify them, such insurance may be inadequate to cover certain claims, or may prove prohibitively costly to maintain in the future. In addition, in previous years, we have primarily self-insured with respect to potential third-party claims. If we were required to pay a significant amount on account of these liabilities for which we self-insured, our business, financial condition, cash flows, and results of operations could be materially harmed.

Our business is subject to a variety of U.S. and international laws, rules, policies, and other obligations regarding privacy, data protection, and other matters.

We are subject to federal, state, and international laws relating to the collection, use, retention, security, and transfer of customer, employee, and business partner personally identifiable information (“PII”), including the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which came into effect on January 1, 2020. In many cases, these laws apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between one company and its subsidiaries, and among the subsidiaries and other parties with which we have commercial relations. The introduction of new products or expansion of our activities in certain jurisdictions may subject us to additional laws and regulations. These U.S. federal and state and foreign laws and regulations, including GDPR which can be enforced by private parties or government entities, are constantly evolving and can
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be subject to significant change. In addition, the application and interpretation of these laws and regulations, including CCPA, are often uncertain, particularly in the new and rapidly evolving industry in which we operate, and may be interpreted and applied inconsistently from country to country and inconsistently with our current policies and practices. These existing and proposed laws and regulations can be costly to comply with and can delay or impede the development of new products, result in negative publicity, increase our operating costs, require significant management time and attention, and subject us to inquiries or investigations, claims or other remedies, including fines, which may be significant, or demands that we modify or cease existing business practices.

A failure by us, our suppliers, or other parties with whom we do business to comply with posted privacy policies or with other federal, state, or international privacy-related or data protection laws and regulations, including CCPA, could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

We may be subject to breaches of our information technology systems, which could lead to disclosure of our internal information and customer data, damage our reputation or relationships with dealers and customers, and disrupt access to our online services. Such breaches could subject us to significant reputational, financial, legal, and operational consequences.

Our business requires us to use and store confidential and proprietary information, intellectual property, commercial banking information, personal information concerning customers, employees, and business partners, and corporate information concerning internal processes and business functions. Malicious attacks to gain access to such information affects many companies across various industries, including ours.

Where appropriate, we use encryption and authentication technologies to secure the transmission and storage of data. These security measures may be compromised as a result of third-party security breaches, employee error, malfeasance, faulty password management, or other irregularity or malicious effort, and result in persons obtaining unauthorized access to our data.

We devote resources to network security, data encryption, and other security measures to protect our systems and data, but these security measures cannot provide absolute security. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently, target end users through phishing and other malicious techniques, and/or may be difficult to detect for long periods of time, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. As a result, we have experienced such breaches of our systems in the past, and may experience a breach of our systems in the future that reduces our ability to protect sensitive data. In addition, hardware, software, or applications we develop or procure from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could unexpectedly compromise information security. Unauthorized parties may also attempt to gain access to our systems or facilities through fraud, trickery or other forms of deceiving our team members, contractors and temporary staff. If we experience, or are perceived to have experienced, a significant data security breach, fail to detect and appropriately respond to a significant data security breach, or fail to implement disclosure controls and procedures that provide for timely disclosure of data security breaches deemed material to our business, including corrections or updates to previous disclosures, we could be exposed to a risk of loss, increased insurance costs, remediation and prospective prevention costs, damage to our reputation and brand, litigation and possible liability, or government enforcement actions, any of which could detrimentally affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.

We may also share information with contractors and third-party providers to conduct our business. While we generally review and typically request or require such contractors and third-party providers to implement security measures, such as encryption and authentication technologies to secure the transmission and storage of data, those third-party providers may experience a significant data security breach, which may also detrimentally affect our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition as discussed above. See also under this section, “Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property-We rely substantially upon trade secret laws and contractual restrictions to protect our proprietary rights, and, if these rights are not sufficiently protected, our ability to compete and generate revenue could suffer.

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We could be adversely affected by any violations of the FCPA and foreign anti-bribery laws.

The FCPA generally prohibits companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to non-U.S. government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Other countries in which we operate or have supplier or vendor relationships also have anti-bribery laws, some of which prohibit improper payments to government and non-government persons and entities. Our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws. In addition, due to the level of regulation in our industry, the sale of our legacy international projects may require substantial government contact where norms can differ from U.S. standards. While we implement policies and procedures and conduct training designed to facilitate compliance with these anti-bribery laws, thereby mitigating the risk of violations of such laws, our employees, subcontractors and agents may take actions in violation of our policies and anti-bribery laws. Any such violation, even if prohibited by our policies, could subject us to criminal or civil penalties or other sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows, and reputation.

We may be subject to information technology system failures or network disruptions that could damage our business operations, financial conditions, or reputation.

We may be subject to information technology system failures and network disruptions. These may be caused by natural disasters, accidents, power disruptions, telecommunications failures, acts of terrorism or war, computer viruses, physical or electronic break-ins, or similar events or disruptions. System redundancy may be ineffective or inadequate, and our disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all eventualities. Such failures or disruptions could result in delayed or canceled orders. System failures and disruptions could also impede the manufacturing and shipping of products, delivery of online services, transactions processing, and financial reporting.

If securities or industry analysts change their recommendations regarding our stock adversely, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock is influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us, our business or our market. If one or more of the analysts who cover us change their recommendation regarding our stock adversely, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of our company or fails to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume, and the value of our debentures, to decline.

ITEM 1B: UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2: PROPERTIES

The table below presents details for each of our principal properties:
Facility Location Approximate
Square
Footage
Ownership Year When Lease Term Ends
Solar cell and module manufacturing facility1
Oregon, U.S. 212,000 Leased 2022
Corporate headquarters California, U.S. 61,000 Leased 2027
Global support offices California, U.S. 163,000 Leased 2023
Global support offices Texas, U.S. 46,000 Leased 2024
Global support offices Texas, U.S. 23,000 Leased 2021
Global support offices Philippines 65,000 Leased 2021
1    The solar cell manufacturing facility we operate in Oregon, U.S. has a total annual capacity of over 120 MW.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

The disclosure under "Item 8. Financial Statements—Note 10. Commitments and Contingencies—Legal Matters" in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K is incorporated herein by reference.

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ITEM 4: MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

PART II

ITEM 5: MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol "SPWR."

As of February 12, 2021, there were approximately 629 holders of record of our common stock. A substantially greater number of holders are in "street name" or beneficial holders, whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers, and other financial institutions.

Dividends

We have never declared or paid any cash dividend on our common stock, and we do not currently intend to pay a cash dividend on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Certain of our debt agreements place restrictions on us and our subsidiaries' ability to pay cash dividends. For more information on our common stock and dividend rights, see "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 15. Common Stock."

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The following table sets forth all purchases made by or on behalf of us or any "affiliated purchaser," as defined in Rule 10b-18(a)(3) under the Exchange Act, of shares of our common stock during each of the indicated periods.
Period
Total Number of Shares Purchased1
Average Price
Paid Per Share
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs Maximum Number of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
September 28, 2020 through October 25, 2020 8,583  $ 15.56  —  — 
October 26, 2020 through November 22, 2020 31,787  $ 18.90  —  — 
November 23, 2020 through January 3, 2021 172,785  $ 21.13  —  — 
  213,155  $ —  —  — 
1    The shares purchased represent shares surrendered to satisfy tax withholding obligations in connection with the vesting of restricted stock issued to employees.

ITEM 7: MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 3, 2021.

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This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are statements that do not represent historical facts or the assumptions underlying such statements. We use words such as "anticipate," "believe," "continue," "could," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "plan," "predict," "project," "potential," "seek," "should," "will," "would," and similar expressions to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include, but are not limited to, our plans and expectations regarding future financial results, expected operating results, business strategies, the sufficiency of our cash and our liquidity, projected costs and cost reduction measures, development of new products and improvements to our existing products, the impact of recently adopted accounting pronouncements, our manufacturing capacity and manufacturing costs, the adequacy of our agreements with our suppliers, our ability to monetize our solar projects, legislative actions and regulatory compliance, competitive positions, management's plans and objectives for future operations, our ability to obtain financing, our ability to comply with debt covenants or cure any defaults, our ability to repay our obligations as they come due, our ability to continue as a going concern, trends in average selling prices, the success of our joint ventures and acquisitions, warranty matters, outcomes of litigation, our exposure to foreign exchange, interest and credit risk, general business and economic conditions in our markets, industry trends, the impact of changes in government incentives, expected restructuring charges, risks related to privacy and data security, statements regarding the anticipated impact on our business of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health measures, macroeconomic trends and uncertainties, and the likelihood of any impairment of project assets, long-lived assets, and investments These forward-looking statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions and involve a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated by these forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include a variety of factors, some of which are beyond our control. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified above, those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 3, 2021, and our other filings with the SEC. These forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date, and we are under no obligation to, and expressly disclaim any responsibility to, update or alter our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

Our fiscal year ends on the Sunday closest to the end of the applicable calendar year. All references to fiscal periods apply to our fiscal quarter or year, which end on the Sunday closest to the calendar month end. Unless the context otherwise requires, all references to “SunPower," "we," "us," or "our" refer to SunPower Corporation and its subsidiaries.

Overview

SunPower Corporation (together with its subsidiaries, "SunPower," ""the Company," we," "us," or "our") is a leading solar energy company that delivers complete solar solutions to customers primarily in United States and Canada through an array of hardware, software, and financing options and "Smart Energy" solutions. Our Smart Energy initiative is designed to add layers of intelligent control to homes, buildings, and grids—all personalized through easy-to-use customer interfaces. We are a leader in the U.S. downstream Distributed Generation (“DG”) market, providing an affordable and sustainable source of electricity compared to traditional utility energy to residential homeowners and commercial customers through multiple financing options. Our sales channels include a strong network of dealers and resellers that operate in both, residential and commercial markets, as well a group of talented and driven in-house sales team within each segment engaged in direct sales to end customers. For more information about our business, please refer to the section titled "Part I. Item 1. Business" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 3, 2021.

Recent Developments

Key transactions during the fiscal year ended January 3, 2021 include the following:

Maxeon Solar Spin-Off Transaction

On August 26, 2020, we completed the spin-off (the “Spin-Off”) of Maxeon Solar Technologies, Ltd., a Singapore public company limited by shares (“Maxeon Solar”), consisting of certain non-U.S. operations and assets of our former SunPower Technologies business unit. The Spin-Off was completed by way of a pro rata distribution of all of the then-issued and outstanding ordinary shares, no par value, of Maxeon Solar to holders of record of our common stock (the “Distribution”) as of the close of business on August 17, 2020.

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In connection with the Spin-Off, and as contemplated by the Separation and Distribution Agreement entered into by us and Maxeon Solar, we and Maxeon Solar entered into certain ancillary agreements that govern the relationships between the Company and Maxeon Solar following the Distribution, including: a tax matters agreement, employee matters agreement, transition services agreement, back-to-back agreement, brand framework agreement, cross license agreement, collaboration agreement, and supply agreement (collectively, the “Ancillary Agreements”), each as previously described in our announcement of the contemplated transaction.

Sale of Operations and Maintenance Business

On May 14, 2020, we sold the substantial majority of our O&M ("Operations & Maintenance") services contracts for utility, commercial, and industrial scale photovoltaic power projects and related assets and liabilities to NovaSource Power Services ("NovaSource”) for total consideration of $36.3 million.

Upon closing, we received net cash consideration of $16.0 million, excluding certain hold-backs totaling in aggregate $15.0 million for certain retained obligations and contracts not novated as of closing. We assessed the recoverability of these hold-backs and included our best estimate of the amount recoverable in the future in our calculation of net gain on sale. Additionally, we also agreed to retain and subcontract certain O&M contracts for selected large utility scale power plant projects in North America at a fixed price to NovaSource. The contracts were deemed loss-making on the closing date and accordingly, we recorded a liability for the expected loss to be recognized for these contracts that will be amortized over the expected period of loss of three years.

Segments Overview

In the third quarter of fiscal 2020, and concurrent with the Spin-Off of the majority of our former SunPower Technologies segment, we reorganized our business into new segments to align our focus on the U.S. downstream DG market and new business model driven by financial offerings, solar energy storage, solutions, and software services. Previously, we operated under two end-customer segments, comprised of our (i) SunPower Energy Services, and (ii) SunPower Technologies. The SunPower Energy Services segment referred to our downstream business consisting of sales of solar energy solutions to residential and commercial end-customers, and the SunPower Technologies segment referred to global manufacturing and our large-scale solar products and systems and international component sales.

Under the new segmentation, Residential, Light Commercial ("RLC") refers to sales of solar energy solutions previously included in the legacy SunPower Energy Services segment, including sales to our third-party dealer network and resellers, storage solutions, cash sales and long-term leases directly to end customers. The Commercial and Industrial Solutions segment ("C&I Solutions") refers to direct sales of turn-key engineering, procurement and construction ("EPC") services, and sales of energy under power purchase agreements ("PPAs"). Certain legacy businesses consisting of worldwide power plant project development and project sales, as well as U.S. manufacturing, are not significant to overall operations, and are deemed non-core to our other businesses and classified as 'Others'. Certain key cross-functional support functions and responsibilities including corporate strategy, treasury, tax and accounting support and services, among others, continue to be centrally managed within the Corporate function .

Each segment is managed by a business general manager that reports to our Chief Executive Officer, as the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”), who reviews our business, manages resource allocations and measures performance of our activities across RLC, C&I Solutions and Other segment. The CODM further views the business performance of each segment under two key sources of revenue - Dev Co and Power Co. Dev Co refers to our solar origination and installation revenue stream within each segment such as sale of solar power systems with our dealers and resellers network as well as installation and EPC revenues, while Power Co refers to our post-system sale services revenues, mainly from O&M services for residential and commercial projects. The risk profile of each revenue stream is different and therefore, the segregation of Dev Co and Power Co provides the CODM with appropriate information to review business performance and allocate resources to each segment.

For more information about our business segments, see the section titled "Part I. Item 1. Business" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. For more segment information, see "Item 1. Financial Statements—Note 18. Segment Information and Geographical Information" in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Fiscal Years

We have a 52-to-53-week fiscal year that ends on the Sunday closest to December 31. Accordingly, every fifth or sixth year will be a 53-week fiscal year. Fiscal 2020 was a 53-week fiscal year while fiscal 2019 and 2018 were 52-week fiscal years. Our fiscal 2020 ended on January 3, 2021, fiscal 2019 ended on December 29, 2019 and fiscal 2018 ended on December 30, 2018.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 1, Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, in Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Report for a full description of recent accounting pronouncements, including the expected dates of adoption and estimated effects on financial condition and results of operations, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Results of Operations

Results of operations in dollars and as a percentage of net revenue were as follows:

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  Fiscal Year Ended
  January 3, 2021 December 29, 2019 December 30, 2018
in thousands % of Revenue in thousands % of Revenue in thousands % of Revenue
Total revenue $ 1,124,829  100  $ 1,092,226  100  $ 1,202,311  100 
Total cost of revenue 957,702  85  928,748  85  1,053,814  88 
Gross profit 167,127  15  163,478  15  148,497  12 
Research and development 22,381  34,217  49,240 
Sales, general, and administrative 164,703  15  172,109  16  200,069  16 
Restructuring charges 2,604  14,627  9,731 
Loss on sale and impairment of residential lease assets 45  —  25,352  251,984  21 
Gain on business divestitures (10,334) (1) (143,400) (13) (59,347) (5)
Income from transition services agreement, net (6,260) (1) —  —  —  — 
Operating income (loss) (6,012) (1) 60,573  (303,180) (25)
Other income (expense), net 660,581  59  130,435  12  (63,356) (5)
Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and equity in losses of unconsolidated investees 654,569  58  191,008  18  (366,536) (30)
Provision for income taxes (57,549) (5) (16,509) (2) (2,060) — 
Equity in losses of unconsolidated investees —  —  (1,716) —  (14,872) (1)
Income (loss) from continuing operations 597,020  53  172,783  16  (383,468) (31)
Loss from discontinued operations (122,994) (11) (180,504) (17) (534,028) (44)
Net income (loss) 474,026  42  (7,721) (1) (917,496) (75)
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests 2,335  —  34,037  106,139 
Net income (loss) from discontinued operations attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests (1,313) —  (4,157) —  266  — 
Net income attributable to non-controlling interests and redeemable non-controlling interest 1,022  —  29,880  106,405 
Net income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to stockholders $ 599,355  53  $ 206,820  19  $ (277,329) (23)
Net loss from discontinued operations attributable to stockholders (124,307) (11) (184,661) (17) (533,762) (44)
Net income (loss) attributable to stockholders $ 475,048  42  $ 22,159  $ (811,091) (67)
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Total Revenue:

Our total revenue increased by 3% during fiscal 2020 as compared to 2019, primarily due to increases in revenue of our Commercial and Industrial Solutions segment. Our commercial backlog in Commercial and Industrial Solutions Segment is less susceptible to the adverse impact as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic since the commercial backlog is booked months in advance.

Our total revenue decreased by 9% during fiscal 2019 as compared to 2018, primarily due to decreases in revenue of our Commercial and Industrial Solutions segment. Increase and decrease by segments is further discussed below.

One customer accounted for approximately 18% and 10% of total revenue primarily in our Residential, Light Commercial segment for the year ended January 3, 2021 and December 29, 2019, respectively. We did not have customers that accounted for greater than 10% of our total revenue in the year ended December 30, 2018.

Revenue - by Segment:

A description of our segments along with other required information can be found in Note 18, "Segment and Geographical Information" of the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of Part II, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Below, we have further discussed increase and decrease in revenue for each segment.

  Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages) January 3, 2021 % Change December 29, 2019 % Change December 30, 2018
Residential, Light Commercial $ 848,073  (2) % $ 863,853  10  % $ 788,765 
Commercial and Industrial Solutions 254,811  % 243,311  (22) % 312,648 
Other 65,574  (58) % 156,615  (17) % 189,747 
Intersegment and GAAP adjustments 1
(43,629) (75) % (171,553) 93  % (88,849)
Total Revenue $ 1,124,829  % $ 1,092,226  (9) % $ 1,202,311 

1 Represents intersegment eliminations and adjustments to segment revenue to determine consolidated GAAP revenue. Refer details of reconciling items in Note 18. Segment and Geographical Information.

Residential, Light Commercial

Revenue for the segment decreased by 2% during fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, primarily as a result of a decrease in the revenue from remaining construction on leases sold as part of sale and deconsolidation of residential lease portfolio in fiscal 2019, that did not recur in fiscal 2020. This was partially offset with an increase in revenue from new leases as well as cash and loan channels.

Revenue for the segment increased by 10% during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily due to a higher volume in residential deals, as well as an increase in the sales of solar power components and systems to our residential customers in the United States, partially offset by lower third-party dealer cash transactions.

Commercial and Industrial Solutions

Revenue for the segment increased by 5% during fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, primarily due to increase in number of cash deals and sale of development sale projects, as well as increased volume of construction revenue on EPC arrangements.

Revenue for the segment decreased 22% during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018 primarily due to reduction in power generation revenue due to sale of our commercial sale-leaseback portfolio during fiscal 2019, and lower volume of systems sales and EPC contracts.

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Other

Revenue for the segment decreased by 58% during fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, primarily due to the winding down of our worldwide power plant project development and project sales, as well as U.S. manufacturing. Also, our O&M business revenue was lower in fiscal 2020 compared to fiscal 2019 because of the sale of a substantial majority of that business during fiscal 2020.

Revenue for the segment decreased by 17% during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018 due to lower revenue from domestic and international power plant development projects.

Concentrations:

Our Residential, Light Commercial as a percentage of total revenue recognized was 75% during fiscal 2020 as compared to 79% during fiscal 2019. The relative change in revenue for Residential, Light Commercial as a percentage of total revenue recognized reflects the adverse impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic on our residential customers, and all our sales channels. Our Commercial and Industrial Solutions segment as a percentage of total revenue recognized was 23% during fiscal 2020, as compared to 22% during fiscal 2019. The relative change in revenue for Commercial and Industrial Solutions as a percentage of total revenue recognized reflects increased cash deal and development sale projects, as well as increased volume of construction revenue on EPC arrangements.

Total Cost of Revenue:

Our total cost of revenue increased by 3% during fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, which is below the increases in our total revenue. Increase and decrease by segments is discussed below in detail.

Our total cost of revenue decreased by 12% during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily due a decrease in our commercial business as a result of sale of commercial sale-leaseback portfolio during fiscal 2019, partially offset by a higher volume of sales to our residential customers.


  Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages) January 3, 2021 % Change December 29, 2019 % Change December 30, 2018
Residential, Light Commercial $ 691,990  (8) % $ 755,120  15  % $ 658,448 
Commercial and Industrial Solutions 226,145  (4) % 236,164  (20) % 295,498 
Other 89,780  (23) % 117,046  (42) % 202,227 
Intersegment and GAAP adjustments 1
(50,213) (72) % (179,582) 75  % (102,359)
Total Cost of Revenue $ 957,702  % $ 928,748  (12) % $ 1,053,814 

1 Represents intersegment eliminations and adjustments to segment cost of revenue to determine consolidated GAAP cost of revenue. Refer to Note 18. Segment and Geographical Information.
Cost of Revenue - by Segment:

Below, we have further discussed increase and decrease in cost of revenue for each segment.

Residential, Light Commercial

Cost of revenue for the segment decreased by 8% during fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, primarily due to lower sales as a result of adverse impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cost of revenue for the segment increased by 15% during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily due to a higher volume of sales to our residential customers, as well as an increase in the sales of solar power components and systems.

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Commercial and Industrial Solutions

Cost of revenue for the segment decreased by 4% during fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, primarily due to lower department spending from cost reduction initiatives and the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cost of revenue for the segment decreased by 20% during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily due to a reduction in power generation revenue due to the sale of our commercial sale-leaseback portfolio during fiscal 2019, and lower volume of systems sales and EPC contracts.

Other

Cost of revenue for the segment decreased by 23% during fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, primarily due to lower O&M cost of revenue due to the sale of our O&M services contracts for utility, commercial, and industrial scale photovoltaic power projects and related assets and liabilities to NovaSource during fiscal 2020, partially offset by a gain of $21.3 million on the sale and leaseback of our Oregon manufacturing facility during fiscal 2019.

Cost of revenue for the segment decreased by 42% during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily due to a gain of $21.3 million on the sale and leaseback of our Oregon manufacturing facility in the third quarter of fiscal 2019.

Gross Margin

Our gross margin remains 15% in fiscal 2020 and 2019, increase and decrease by segments is discussed below in detail.

Our gross margin increased from 12% in fiscal 2018 to 15% in fiscal 2019, primarily due to non-cash impairment charges on certain property, plant and equipment recorded during fiscal 2018.

Gross Margin - by Segment

Fiscal Year
2020 2019 2018
Residential, Light Commercial 18  % 13  % 17  %
Commercial and Industrial Solutions
11  % % %
Other (37) % 25  % (7) %
Intersegment and GAAP adjustments 1
(15) % (5) % (15) %
Total gross margin percentage 15  % 15  % 12  %

1 Represents intersegment eliminations and adjustments to segment gross margin. Refer details of reconciling items in Note 18. Segment and Geographical Information.

Residential, Light Commercial

Gross margin for the segment increased by 5 percentage points during fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, primarily as a result of better product mix with higher volume in cash and loan channel sales.

Gross margin for the segment decreased by 4 percentage points during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily as a result of lower margin on sales to our residential customers.

Commercial and Industrial Solutions

Gross margin for the segment increased by 8 percentage points during fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, primarily as a result of product mix with higher cash sales and commercial EPC projects.

Gross margin for the segment decreased by 2 percentage points during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily as a result of higher cost incurred related to solar power solutions deals.

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Other

Gross margin for the segment was a loss of 37% during fiscal 2020 as compared to a 25% profit during fiscal 2019, primarily due to the sale of a substantial majority of our O&M contracts and related assets and liabilities to NovaSource during fiscal 2020. Also, gross margin in fiscal 2019 was significantly higher due to the sale of development projects in Chile and Japan, as well as the gain on sale and leaseback of our Oregon manufacturing facility, that were recorded as revenue and reduction in cost of goods sold, respectively, and were non-recurring in nature.

Gross margin for the segment increased by 32 percentage points during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily due to revenue from sale of development projects in Japan, Chile and Mexico, contributing 100% to gross margin as well as a lower cost of goods sold due to gain on sale and leaseback of our Oregon manufacturing facility, in 2019.

Research and Development ("R&D")
Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages) 2020 2019 2018
R&D 22,381  34,217  49,240 
As a percentage of revenue % % %

R&D expense decreased by $11.8 million during the fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, primarily due to the reimbursement of $12.5 million by Maxeon Solar during fiscal 2020, under the product collaboration agreement entered into with Maxeon Solar in connection with the Spin-Off.

R&D expense decreased by $15.0 million during the fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily due to a decrease in labor and facility costs as a result of reductions in headcount driven by our February 2018 restructuring plan.

Sales, General, and Administrative ("SG&A")
  Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages) 2020 2019 2018
SG&A 164,703  172,109  200,069 
As a percentage of revenue 15  % 16  % 17  %

SG&A expense decreased by $7.4 million during fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019 primarily due to a decrease in labor costs due to our December 2019 restructuring plan, as well as lower travel expenses and office-related expenses given that the majority of our workforce worked remotely due to COVID-19. During fiscal 2019, we adopted a restructuring plan ("December 2019 Restructuring Plan") to realign and optimize workforce requirements in light of recent changes to its business, including the previously announced planned spin-off of Maxeon Solar.

SG&A expense decreased by $28.0 million during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018 primarily due to reductions in headcount and salary expenses driven by our February 2018 restructuring plan and cost reduction efforts.

Restructuring Charges
  Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages) 2020 2019 2018
Restructuring charges 2,604  14,627  9,731 
As a percentage of revenue —  % % %

Restructuring charges decreased by $12.0 million during fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, primarily due to lower severance charges incurred in fiscal 2020 in connection with the December 2019 restructuring plan, since a substantial portion of such charges had been incurred during fiscal 2019.

Restructuring charges increased by $4.9 million during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily due to higher severance charges in fiscal 2019 in connection with the December 2019 restructuring plan compared to the February 2018 restructuring plan.

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Loss on sale and impairment of residential lease assets
  Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages) 2020 2019 2018
Loss on sale and impairment of residential lease assets $ 45  $ 25,352  $ 251,984 
As a percentage of revenue —  % % 21  %

During fiscal 2020, we recorded an immaterial impairment of residential lease assets since a substantial majority of such assets were sold in prior years. During fiscal 2019, we recorded loss on sale and non-cash impairment charges of $25.4 million on the remaining portfolio of residential lease assets that we owned, before it was sold towards the end of the year to SunStrong Capital Holdings, LLC.

Loss on sale and impairment of residential lease assets was $252.0 million in fiscal 2018 and was higher by $226.6 million compared to fiscal 2019, primarily due to the sale of a majority of our residential lease assets portfolio in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2018. During fiscal 2019, we also sold the remaining portion of the portfolio of residential lease assets to SunStrong Capital Holdings, LLC.

Gain on business divestiture
  Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages) 2020 2019 2018
Gain on business divestiture $ (10,334) $ (143,400) $ (59,347)
As a percentage of revenue (1) % (13) % (5) %

During fiscal 2020, we recorded a gain on sale of our O&M business of $10.3 million. During fiscal 2019, we recorded a gain of $143.4 million on sale of the commercial sale-leaseback portfolio.

Gain on business divestiture increased by $84.1 million during the fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily due to the gain on the sale of our commercial sale-leaseback portfolio of $143.4 million, compared to the gain on sale of $59.3 million for the sale of our microinverter business recorded during fiscal 2018.

Income from transition services agreement, net

  Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages) 2020 2019 2018
Income from transition services agreement $ (6,260) $ —  $ — 
As a percentage of revenue (1) % —  % —  %

In connection with the Spin-Off, we and Maxeon Solar entered into a transition services agreement, under which, we are providing certain labor and non-labor services to Maxeon Solar, and also receiving certain limited services with respect to certain shared processes post Spin-Off. The term of the transition services agreement is 12 months, extendable for up to an additional 180 days, and the services are billed at cost plus a standard mark-up. During the fiscal year ended January 3, 2021, we recorded $6.6 million of income for services provided under the agreement. This was offset by $0.3 million of services provided by Maxeon Solar to us, resulting in a net reduction of $6.3 million to operating expenses on the consolidated statement of operations.

Other Income (Expense), Net
Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages) 2020 2019 2018
Interest income $ 754  $ 2,313  $ 2,349 
Interest expense (33,153) (48,962) (108,258)
Other income (expense):
Other, net 692,980  177,084  42,553 
Other income (expense), net $ 660,581  $ 130,435  $ (63,356)
As a percentage of revenue 59  % 12  % (5) %
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Interest expense decreased by $15.8 million during fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, primarily due to the sale of the commercial sale-leaseback portfolio during fiscal 2019 as well as the retirement of the majority of our convertible debentures due in 2021 during fiscal 2020.

Interest expense decreased by $59.3 million during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily due to elimination of the non-recourse residential financing obligations in connection with the sale of the Residential Lease Portfolio in November 2018, as well as the elimination of the sales-leaseback financing obligations in connection with the sale of the commercial sale-leaseback portfolio during fiscal 2019.

Other income increased by $515.9 million during fiscal 2020 as compared to fiscal 2019, primarily due to a $692.1 million gain on an equity investment with readily determinable fair value during fiscal 2020, as compared to a gain of $158.3 million during fiscal 2019. Additionally, we had a gain of $17.3 million in fiscal 2019 relating to sale of certain international power plant projects in Chile and South Africa that did not recur in fiscal 2020.

Other income increased by $134.5 million during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily due to a $158.3 million gain on an equity investment with readily determinable fair value during fiscal 2019, as compared to a loss of $6.4 million during fiscal 2018. Additionally, gain on sale of equity investments without readily determinable fair value during fiscal 2019 was $17.3 million for power plant projects sold in Chile and South Africa, compared to $54.2 million during fiscal 2018 related to gain on sale of our equity interest in 8point3 Energy Partners.

Income Taxes
  Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages) 2020 2019 2018
Provision for income taxes $ (57,549) $ (16,509) $ (2,060)
As a percentage of revenue (5) % (2) % —  %

In the year ended January 3, 2021, our income tax provision of $57.5 million on income from continuing operations before income taxes and equity in earnings of unconsolidated investees of $654.6 million was primarily due to state tax expenses arising from the taxable gains related to the Spin-Off transaction, withholding taxes from foreign dividend distributions, sale of equity investments, and deferred tax liability related to mark-to-market unrealized gain on equity investments. In the year ended December 29, 2019, our income tax provision of $16.5 million on income from continuing operations before income taxes and equity in earnings of unconsolidated investees of $191.0 million was primarily due to expenses from foreign power plant projects and tax expenses in foreign jurisdictions unrelated to Maxeon that were profitable. In the year ended December 30, 2018, our income tax provision of $2.1 million on income from continuing operations was primarily due tax expenses in foreign jurisdictions unrelated to Maxeon that were profitable.

In the year ended January 3, 2021, our income tax benefit of $3.2 million on a loss from discontinuing operations before income taxes and equity in earnings of unconsolidated investees of $125.6 million was primarily due to allocation of the state tax benefit related to discontinued operations; offset by foreign taxes in foreign jurisdictions that were profitable. In the year ended December 29, 2019, our income tax provision of $10.1 million on a loss from discontinuing operations before income taxes and equity in earnings of unconsolidated investees of $165.0 million was primarily due to tax expenses in foreign jurisdictions that were profitable. In the year ended December 30, 2018, our income tax benefit of $1.1 million for discontinued operations was primarily due to releases of valuation allowance in a foreign jurisdiction and tax reserves due to lapse of statutes of limitation offset by income tax expenses in foreign jurisdictions that were profitable.

We record a valuation allowance to reduce our deferred tax assets in the United States and Mexico to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider historical levels of income, expectations and risks associated with the estimates of future taxable income and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. In the event we determine that we would be able to realize additional deferred tax assets in the future in excess of the net recorded amount, or if we subsequently determine that realization of an amount previously recorded is unlikely, we would record an adjustment to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance, which would change income tax in the period of adjustment.

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As of the end of fiscal year 2020, as part of SunPower’s continuing operations, an insignificant amount of the accumulated foreign earnings was located outside of the United States and may be subjected to foreign income tax or withholding tax liability upon repatriations. However, the accumulated foreign earnings are intended to be indefinitely reinvested in our foreign subsidiaries; therefore, no such foreign taxes have been provided. Determination of the amount of unrecognized deferred tax liability related to these earnings is not practicable.

On June 29, 2020, the California Assembly Bill (“AB 85”) suspended the use of California net operating loss deduction and limited the maximum business incentive tax credit utilization to $5.0 million annually starting with tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2020 through December 31, 2022. In addition, states legislatures are considering limitations on tax attributes in order to raise tax revenues. As a result, our state income tax may increase if more states adopt restrictions on the use of tax attributes.

Equity in Earnings (Losses) of Unconsolidated Investees
  Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages) 2020 2019 2018
Equity in losses of unconsolidated investees $ —  $ (1,716) $ (14,872)
As a percentage of revenue —  % —  % (1) %

There is no earnings (losses) in unconsolidated investees in fiscal 2020, as we do not have any equity method investees in fiscal 2020. Our equity in losses of unconsolidated investees decreased by $13.2 million in fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, primarily driven by a decrease in our share of losses of unconsolidated investees, specifically, 8point3 Energy Partners and its affiliates (the "8point3 Group") which we divested in June 2018.

Net Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests and Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests
  Fiscal Year
(In thousands, except percentages) 2020 2019 2018
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests $ 2,335  $ 34,037  $ 106,139 

Prior to fiscal 2020, we entered into facilities with third-party tax equity investors under which the investors invest in a structure known as a partnership flip. We determined that we hold controlling interests in these less-than-wholly-owned entities and therefore we have fully consolidated these entities. We apply the HLBV (Hypothetical Liquidation at Book Value) method in allocating recorded net income (loss) to each investor based on the change in the reporting period, of the amount of net assets of the entity to which each investor would be entitled to under the governing contractual arrangements in a liquidation scenario.

During fiscal 2020, we attributed $2.3 million of net losses primarily to the third-party investors as a result of allocating certain assets, including tax credits and accelerated tax depreciation benefits, to the investors in a jointly owned entity that is consolidated by us. The $31.7 million decrease in net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests was primarily due to the deconsolidation of a majority of our residential lease assets during fiscal 2019.

During fiscal 2019 and 2018, we attributed $34.0 million and $106.1 million, respectively, of net losses primarily to the third-party investors as a result of allocating certain assets, including tax credits and accelerated tax depreciation benefits, to the investors. The $72.1 million decrease in net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests was primarily due to the deconsolidation of a majority of our residential lease assets during fiscal 2018 and fiscal 2019, and partially offset by an increase in contributions by Hannon Armstrong for the equity interest in a new joint venture formed during fiscal 2019.
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Critical Accounting Estimates

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, which requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses recorded in our financial statements. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions. In addition to our most critical estimates discussed below, we also have other key accounting policies that are less subjective and, therefore, judgments involved in their application would not have a material impact on our reported results of operations (See "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data-Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements-Note 1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies").
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Revenue Recognition

Solar Power System Sales and Engineering, Procurement, and Construction Services

We sell rooftop and ground-mounted solar power systems under construction and development agreements to our residential and commercial customers. In contracts where we sell completed systems as a single performance obligation, primarily to our joint venture for residential projects, we recognize revenue at the point-in-time when such systems are placed in service. Any advance payments received before control is transferred is classified as "contract liabilities."

Engineering, procurement, and construction ("EPC") projects governed by customer contracts that require us to deliver functioning solar power systems are generally completed within three to twelve months from commencement of construction. Construction on large projects may be completed within eighteen to thirty-six months, depending on the size and location. We recognize revenue from EPC services over time as our performance creates or enhances an energy generation asset controlled by the customer. We use an input method based on cost incurred as we believe that this method most accurately reflects our progress toward satisfaction of the performance obligation. Under this method, revenue arising from fixed-price construction contracts is recognized as work is performed based on the ratio of costs incurred to date to the total estimated costs at completion of the performance obligations.

Incurred costs include all direct material, labor, and subcontract costs, and those indirect costs related to contract performance, such as indirect labor, supplies, and tools. Project material costs are included in incurred costs when the project materials have been installed by being permanently attached or fitted to the solar power system as required by the project’s engineering design. Cost-based input methods of revenue recognition require us to make estimates of net contract revenues and costs to complete the projects. In making such estimates, significant judgment is required to evaluate assumptions related to the amount of net contract revenues, including the impact of any performance incentives, liquidated damages, and other payments to customers. Significant judgment is also required to evaluate assumptions related to the costs to complete the projects, including materials, labor, contingencies, and other system costs. If the estimated total costs on any contract are greater than the net contract revenues, we recognize the entire estimated loss in the period the loss becomes known and can be reasonably estimated.

Our arrangements may contain clauses such as contingent repurchase options, delay liquidated damages or early performance bonus, most favorable pricing, or other provisions that can either increase or decrease the transaction price. These variable amounts generally are awarded upon achievement of certain performance metrics or milestones. Variable consideration is estimated at each measurement date at its most likely amount to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur and true-ups are applied prospectively as such estimates change.

Changes in estimates for sales of systems and EPC services occur for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to (i) construction plan accelerations or delays, (ii) product cost forecast changes, (iii) change orders, or (iv) changes in other information used to estimate costs. The cumulative effect of revisions to transaction prices or input cost estimates are recorded in the period in which the revisions to estimates are identified and the amounts can be reasonably estimated.

Operations and Maintenance

We offer our customers various levels of post-installation operations and maintenance ("O&M") services in our residential as well as commercial business with the objective of optimizing our customers' electrical energy production over the life of the system. We determine that the post-installation systems monitoring and maintenance qualifies as a separate performance obligation. Post-installation monitoring and maintenance is deferred at the time the contract is executed, based on the estimate of selling price on a standalone basis, and is recognized to revenue over time as customers receive and consume benefits of such services. The non-cancellable term of the O&M contracts are typically 90 days for commercial and residential customers and 180 days for power plant customers.
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We typically provide a system output performance warranty, separate from our standard solar panel product warranty, to customers that have subscribed to our post-installation O&M services. In connection with system output performance warranties, we agree to pay liquidated damages in the event the system does not perform to the stated specifications, with certain exclusions. The warranty excludes system output shortfalls attributable to force majeure events, customer curtailment, irregular weather, and other similar factors. In the event that the system output falls below the warrantied performance level during the applicable warranty period, and provided that the shortfall is not caused by a factor that is excluded from the performance warranty, the warranty provides that we will pay the customer an amount based on the value of the shortfall of energy produced relative to the applicable warrantied performance level. Such liquidated damages represent a form of variable consideration and are estimated at contract inception and updated at each reporting period and recognized over time as customers receive and consume the benefits of the O&M services.

Subsequent to the sale of O&M business in the second quarter of fiscal 2020, we sold a substantial majority of our commercial O&M contracts except for selected large utility scale power plant projects in North America at a fixed price to NovaSource. Refer to Note 5. Business Divestiture and Sale of Assets for further details. We continue to provide O&M services to our residential customers.

Lease Accounting

Arrangements with SunPower as a Lessee

We determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Our operating lease agreements are primarily for real estate and are included within operating lease right-of-use ("ROU") assets and operating lease liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets. We elected the practical expedient to combine our lease and related non-lease components for all our leases.

ROU assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. Variable lease payments that do not depend on an index or rate are excluded from the ROU assets and lease liabilities and are recognized in the period in which the obligation for those payments is incurred. We use our incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. ROU assets also include any lease prepayments made and exclude lease incentives. Many of our lessee agreements include options to extend the lease, which we do not include in our minimum lease terms unless they are reasonably certain to be exercised. Rental expense for lease payments related to operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Sale-Leaseback Arrangements

We enter into sale-leaseback arrangements under which solar power systems are sold to third parties and subsequently leased back by us over lease terms of up to 25 years.

We classify our initial sale-leaseback arrangements of solar power systems as operating leases, in accordance with the underlying accounting guidance on leases. We may sell our lessee interests in these arrangements in entirety before the end of the underlying term of the leaseback.

For all sale-leaseback arrangements classified as operating leases, any gain on sale up to the difference in the cost basis and fair value is recognized immediately. Any amount in excess of the proceeds compared to the fair value of the solar power systems is deferred and recognized over the term of the lease. Failed sale-leaseback arrangements are accounted for under the financing method. The proceeds received from the sale of the solar power systems are recorded as financing liabilities. The financing liabilities are subsequently reduced by our payments to lease back the solar power systems, less interest expense calculated based on our incremental borrowing rate adjusted to the rate required to prevent negative amortization. Refer to Note 5. Business Divestiture and Sale of Assets, for details of the sale of our commercial sale-leaseback portfolio during fiscal 2020.

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Arrangements with SunPower as a Lessor

Solar Services

We offer solar services, in partnership with third-party financial institutions, which allows our residential customers to obtain continuous access to SunPower solar power systems under contracts for terms of up to 20 years. Solar services revenue is primarily comprised of revenue from such contracts wherein we provide continuous access to an operating solar system to third parties.

We also apply for and receive Solar Renewable Energy Credits ("SRECs") associated with the energy generated by our solar energy systems and sell them to third parties in certain jurisdictions. SREC revenue is estimated net of any variable consideration related to possible liquidated damages if we were to deliver fewer SRECs than contractually committed and is generally recognized upon delivery of the SRECs to the counterparty.

We typically provide a system output performance warranty, separate from our standard solar panel product warranty, to our solar services customers. In connection with system output performance warranties, we agree to pay liquidated damages in the event the system does not perform to the stated specifications, with certain exclusions. The warranty excludes system output shortfalls attributable to force majeure events, customer curtailment, irregular weather, and other similar factors. In the event that the system output falls below the warrantied performance level during the applicable warranty period and provided that the shortfall is not caused by a factor that is excluded from the performance warranty, the warranty provides that we will pay the customer an amount based on the value of the shortfall of energy produced relative to the applicable warrantied performance level. Such liquidated damages represent a form of variable consideration and are estimated at contract inception and updated at each reporting period and recognized over time as customers receive and consume the benefits of the solar services.

There are rebate programs offered by utilities in various jurisdictions and are issued directly to homeowners based on the lease agreements; the homeowners assign these rights to rebate to us. These rights to rebate are considered non-cash consideration, measured based on the utilities' rebates from the installed solar panels on the homeowners' roofs and recognized over the lease term.

Revenue from solar services contracts entered into prior to the adoption of ASC 842 were accounted for as leases under the superseded lease accounting guidance and reported within "Residential leasing" on the consolidated statement of operations.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

We evaluate our long-lived assets, including property, plant, and equipment, solar power systems leased and to be leased, and other intangible assets with finite lives, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of such assets may not be recoverable. Factors considered important that could result in an impairment review include significant under-performance relative to expected historical or projected future operating results, significant changes in the manner of use of acquired assets, and significant negative industry or economic trends. Our impairment evaluation of long-lived assets includes an analysis of estimated future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the assets over their remaining estimated useful lives. If our estimate of future undiscounted net cash flows is insufficient to recover the carrying value of the assets over the remaining estimated useful lives, we record an impairment loss in the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the fair value. Fair value is generally measured based on either quoted market prices, if available, or discounted cash flow analysis.

Product Warranties

We provide a workmanship warranty of up to 25 years from installation and a 25-year standard warranty for previously SunPower-manufactured microinverters. We also warranty for our installed systems for defective materials and workmanship for periods ranging up to 25 years. We pass through to customers warranties from the original equipment manufacturers of certain system components such as solar panels, monitoring equipment and inverters. For such components, our warranties may exceed the warranty coverage from the original equipment manufacturers. For solar energy systems we do not install directly, we receive workmanship warranties from our solar partners.

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In addition, we also provide a separate system output performance warranty to customers that have subscribed to our post-installation monitoring and maintenance services which expires upon termination of the post-installation monitoring and maintenance services related to the system. The warrantied system output performance level varies by system depending on the characteristics of the system and the negotiated agreement with the customer, and the level declines over time to account for the expected degradation of the system. Actual system output is typically measured annually for purposes of determining whether warrantied performance levels have been met. The warranty excludes system output shortfalls attributable to force majeure events, customer curtailment, irregular weather, and other similar factors. In the event that the system output falls below the warrantied performance level during the applicable warranty period, and provided that the shortfall is not caused by a factor that is excluded from the performance warranty, the warranty provides that we will pay the customer a liquidated damage based on the value of the shortfall of energy produced relative to the applicable warrantied performance level.

We maintain reserves to cover the expected costs that could result from these warranties. Our expected costs are generally in the form of product replacement or repair. Warranty reserves are based on our best estimate of such costs and are recognized as a cost of revenue. We continuously monitor product returns for warranty failures and maintain a reserve for the related warranty expenses based on various factors including historical warranty claims, results of accelerated lab testing, field monitoring, vendor reliability estimates, and data on industry averages for similar products. Due to the potential for variability in these underlying factors, the difference between our estimated costs and our actual costs could be material to our consolidated financial statements. If actual product failure rates or the frequency or severity of reported claims differ from our estimates or if there are delays in our responsiveness to outages, we may be required to revise our estimated warranty liability. Historically, warranty costs have been within management’s expectations.

Inventories

Inventories are accounted for on a first-in-first-out basis and are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We evaluate the realizability of our inventories, including future purchase commitments under fixed-price long-term supply agreements, based on assumptions about expected demand and market conditions. Our assumption of expected demand is developed based on our analysis of bookings, sales backlog, sales pipeline, market forecast, and competitive intelligence. Our assumption of expected demand is compared to available inventory, production capacity, available third-party inventory, and growth plans. Our factory production plans, which drive materials requirement planning, are established based on our assumptions of expected demand. We respond to reductions in expected demand by temporarily reducing manufacturing output and adjusting expected valuation assumptions as necessary. In addition, expected demand by geography has changed historically due to changes in the availability and size of government mandates and economic incentives.

Obligations related to non-cancellable purchase orders for inventories match current and forecasted sales orders that will consume these ordered materials and actual consumption of these ordered materials are compared to expected demand regularly. We anticipate total obligations related to long-term supply agreements for inventories will be realized because quantities are less than our expected demand for our solar power products over a period of years; however, if raw materials inventory balances temporarily exceed near-term demand, we may elect to sell such inventory to third parties to optimize working capital needs. Our classification of our inventory as either current or long-term inventory requires us to estimate the portion of on-hand inventory that we estimate will be realized over the next 12 months.

Variable Interest Entities ("VIE")

We regularly evaluate our relationships and involvement with unconsolidated VIEs and our other equity and cost method investments, to determine whether we have a controlling financial interest in them or have become the primary beneficiary, thereby requiring us to consolidate their financial results into our financial statements. In connection with the sale of the equity interests in the entities that hold solar power plants, we also consider whether we retain a variable interest in the entity sold, either through retaining a financial interest or by contractual means. If we determine that the entity sold is a VIE and that we hold a variable interest, we then evaluate whether we are the primary beneficiary. If we determine that we are the primary beneficiary, we will consolidate the VIE. The determination of whether we are the primary beneficiary is based upon whether we have the power to direct the activities that most directly impact the economic performance of the VIE and whether we absorb any losses or benefits that would be potentially significant to the VIE.

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Accounting for Income Taxes

As of the end of fiscal year 2020 and as part of SunPower’s continuing operations, an insignificant amount of the accumulated foreign earnings was located outside of the United States and may be subjected to foreign income tax or withholding tax liability upon repatriations. However, the accumulated foreign earnings are intended to be indefinitely reinvested in our foreign subsidiaries; therefore, no such foreign taxes have been provided. Determination of the amount of unrecognized deferred tax liability related to these earnings is not practicable.

We record a valuation allowance to reduce our U.S. and Mexico deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider historical levels of income, expectations and risks associated with the estimates of future taxable income and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. In the event we determine that we would be able to realize additional deferred tax assets in the future in excess of the net recorded amount, or if we subsequently determine that realization of an amount previously recorded is unlikely, we would record an adjustment to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance, which would change income tax in the period of adjustment. As of January 3, 2021, we believe there is insufficient evidence to realize additional U.S. and Mexico deferred tax assets beyond the state net operating losses that can be benefited through a carryback election; however, the reversal of the valuation allowance, which could be material, could occur in a future period.

The calculation of tax expense and liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations, including in the tax valuation of projects sold to tax equity partnerships and other third parties. We recognize potential liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues in the United States and other tax jurisdictions based on our estimate of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be due. If payment of these amounts ultimately proves to be unnecessary, the reversal of the liabilities would result in tax benefits being recognized in the period in which we determine the liabilities are no longer necessary. If the estimate of tax liabilities proves to be less than the ultimate tax assessment, a further charge to expense would result. We accrue interest and penalties on tax contingencies which are classified as "Provision for income taxes" in our Consolidated Statements of Operations and are not considered material. In addition, foreign exchange gains (losses) may result from estimated tax liabilities which are expected to be realized in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Cash Flows

A summary of the sources and uses of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents is as follows:
  Fiscal Year Ended
(In thousands) January 3, 2021 December 29, 2019 December 30, 2018
Net cash used in operating activities $ (187,391) $ (270,413) $ (543,389)
Net cash provided by investing activities $ 129,190  $ 21,366  $ 274,900 
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities $ (153,852) $ 344,314  $ 85,847 

Operating Activities

Our net cash used in operating activities for the year ended January 3, 2021 of $187.4 million, which was lower than the net income of $474.0 million, primarily due to (i) non-cash gain of $692.1 million gain on equity investments with readily determinable fair value; (ii) $78.3 million decrease in accounts payable and other accrued liabilities; (iii) $36.0 million decrease in contract liabilities; (iv) $29.8 million increase in inventories to support the construction of our solar energy projects; (v) $12.1 million increase in contract assets; (vi) non-cash gain of $10.3 million on business divestiture; (vii) $10.4 million decrease in operating lease liabilities; (viii) $6.2 million increase in prepaid expenses and other assets; and (ix) $8.2 million increase in project assets; This decrease was partially offset by: (i) $99.0 million decrease in accounts receivable; (ii) non-cash charge of $48.3 million relating to depreciation and amortization; (iii) non-cash charges of $24.8 million relating to stock-based compensation; (iv) $19.2 million net change in deferred income taxes; (v) $13.5 million decrease in advances to suppliers; (vi) $10.6 million decrease in operating lease right-of-use assets; and (vii) $6.6 million non-cash interest expense.

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Our net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 29, 2019 of $270.4 million, which was primarily the result of net loss of $7.7 million and items consisting primarily of (i) $158.3 million non-cash mark-to-market gain on equity investments with readily determinable fair value; (ii) $143.4 million non-cash gain on business divestiture; (iii) $128.4 million increase in inventories to support the construction of our solar energy projects; (iv) $67.2 million increase in accounts receivable, primarily driven by billings in excess of collections; (v) $38.2 million increase in contract assets driven by construction activities; (vi) $25.2 million non-cash gain on sale of assets; (vii) $17.3 million non-cash gain on sale of equity investments without readily determinable fair value; (viii) $8.9 million decrease in operating lease liabilities; (ix) $8.8 million increase in prepaid expenses and other assets, primarily related to movements in prepaid inventory; and (xi) $2.2 million increase in project assets, primarily related to the construction of our commercial solar energy projects. This decrease was partially offset by: (i) non-cash charge of $80.1 million depreciation and amortization; (ii) $79.3 million increase in accounts payable and other accrued liabilities; (iii) $50.2 million increase in advances to suppliers; (iv) $33.8 million non-cash loss on sale and impairment of residential lease assets; (v) $27.5 million increase in contract liabilities driven by construction activities; (vi) non-cash charges of $26.9 million relating to stock-based compensation; (vii) $9.5 million non-cash interest expense; (viii) $8.6 million decrease in operating lease right-of-use assets; (ix) $7.1 million loss in equity in earnings of unconsolidated investees; (x) $5.9 million non-cash restructuring charges; (xi) $5.0 million non-cash net change in deferred income taxes; (xii) $1.0 million of bad debt expense; and (xiii) impairment of long-lived assets of $0.8 million.

Our net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 30, 2018 was $543.4 million, which was primarily the result of net loss of $917.5 million and items consisting primarily of (i) $182.9 million increase in long-term financing receivables related to our net investment in sales-type leases; (ii) $127.3 million decrease in accounts payable and other accrued liabilities, primarily attributable to payments of accrued expenses; (iii) $59.3 million non-cash gain on business divestiture; (iv) $54.2 million non-cash gain on the sale of equity investments; (v) $43.5 million increase in contract assets driven by construction activities; (vi) $39.2 million increase in inventories due to the support of various construction projects; (vii) $30.5 million decrease in contract liabilities driven by construction activities; (viii) $6.9 million non-cash increase in deferred income taxes and (ix) $6.8 million increase due to other various non-cash activities. This was partially offset by: (i) non-cash impairment of property, plant and equipment of $369.2 million; (ii) non-cash impairment of residential lease assets of $189.7 million; (iii) non-cash net charges of $162.1 million related to depreciation, stock-based compensation and other non-cash charges; (iv) loss on sale of residential lease assets of $62.2 million; (v) $44.4 million decrease in advance payments made to suppliers; (vi) $39.5 million decrease in project assets, primarily related to the construction of our Commercial solar energy projects; (vii) $22.8 million decrease in prepaid expenses and other assets, primarily related to the receipt of prepaid inventory; (viii) $17.8 million decrease in equity in non-cash earnings of unconsolidated investees; (ix) $15.3 million non-cash interest expense; (ix) $6.9 million non-cash net change in income taxes; (x) $6.4 million non-cash unrealized loss on equity investments with readily determinable fair value; and (xi) $3.9 million non-cash dividend from equity method investees.

Investing Activities

Net cash provided by investing activities for the year ended January 3, 2021 was $129.2 million, which was the primarily result of: (i) $253.0 million proceeds from sale of equity investments; (ii) $15.4 million proceeds from business divestiture; (iii) $7.7 million proceeds from return of capital of equity investments with fair value option; and (iv) $6.6 million proceeds from maturities of marketable securities. This was offset by (i) $131.1 million cash outflow upon Spin-Off; (ii) $14.6 million purchases of property, plant and equipment; and (iii) $6.5 million cash paid for solar power systems.

Net cash provided by investing activities for the year ended December 29, 2019 was $21.4 million, which included (i) proceeds of $60.0 million from sale of property, plant, and equipment; (ii) $42.9 million proceeds from sale of investments; (iii) net proceeds of $40.5 million from business divestiture; and (iv)$2.0 million of proceeds from sale of distribution rights of debt refinancing. This was partially offset by (i) cash paid for solar power systems of $53.3 million; (ii) $47.4 million of purchases of property, plant and equipment; (iii) cash paid for investments in unconsolidated investees of $12.4 million; and (iv) $10.9 million of cash de-consolidated from the sale of residential lease assets.

Net cash provided by investing activities in fiscal 2018 was $274.9 million, which included (i) proceeds from the sale of investment in joint ventures and non-public companies of $453.7 million; (ii) proceeds of $23.3 million from business divestiture; and (iii) a $13.0 million dividend from equity method investees. This was partially offset by: (i) $155.3 million in capital expenditures primarily related to the expansion of our solar cell manufacturing capacity and costs associated with solar power systems, leased and to be leased; (ii) $28.0 million cash outflow from sale of residential lease portfolio, net of cash received; (iii) $17.0 million cash paid for acquisitions, net of cash acquired; and (iv) $14.7 million paid for investments in consolidated and unconsolidated investees.

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Financing Activities

Net cash used in financing activities for the year ended January 3, 2021 was $153.9 million, which was the primarily result of: (i) $334.7 million repurchase of convertible debt; (ii) $227.7 million repayments of bank loans and other debt; (iii)$12.8 million purchases of stock for tax withholding obligations on vested restricted stock; and (iv) $9.0 million repayment of non-recourse residential and commercial financing. This was offset by (i) $216.5 million proceeds from bank loans and other debt; (ii) $14.8 million proceeds from issuance of non-recourse residential and commercial financing; and (iii) $200.0 million proceeds from issuance of Maxeon Solar green convertible debt.

Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 29, 2019 was $344.3 million, which included: (i) $171.8 million from the common stock offering; (ii) $110.9 million in net proceeds of bank loans and other debt; (iii) $69.2 million net proceeds from the issuance of non-recourse residential financing, net of issuance costs; (iv) $35.5 million of net contributions from noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests related to residential lease projects; and (v) $3.0 million of proceeds from issuance of non-recourse power plant and commercial financing, net of issuance costs. This was partially offset by (i) $39.0 million of payment associated with prior business combination; (ii) $5.6 million in purchases of treasury stock for tax withholding obligations on vested restricted stock; and (iii) $1.6 million settlement of contingent consideration arrangement, net of cash received.

Net cash provided by financing activities in fiscal 2018 was $85.8 million, which included: (i) $174.9 million in net proceeds from the issuance of non-recourse residential financing, net of issuance costs; (ii) $129.3 million of net contributions from noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interests related to residential lease projects; and (iii) $94.7 million in net proceeds from the issuance of non-recourse power plant and commercial financing, net of issuance costs. This was partially offset by: (i) $307.6 million in net repayments of 0.75% debentures due 2018, bank loans and other debt; and (ii) $5.5 million in purchases of treasury stock for tax withholding obligations on vested restricted stock.

Debt and Credit Sources

For information about the terms of debt instruments and changes thereof in the period, see "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data-Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements-Note 12. Debt and Credit Sources".

Liquidity

As of January 3, 2021, we had unrestricted cash and cash equivalents of $232.8 million as compared to $302.0 million as of December 29, 2019. We expect to invest capital to develop solar power systems and plants for sale to customers, especially for development and construction projects in our commercial and industrial segment. The development of solar power plants can require long periods of time and substantial initial investments, our efforts in this area may consist of all stages of development, including land acquisition, permitting, financing, construction, operation, and the eventual sale of the projects. We often choose to bear the costs of such efforts prior to the final sale to a customer, which involves significant upfront investments of resources (including, for example, large transmission deposits, or other payments, which may be non-refundable), land acquisition, permitting, legal and other costs, and in some cases the actual costs of constructing a project, in advance of the signing of PPAs and EPC contracts and the receipt of any revenue, much of which is not recognized for several additional months or years following contract signing. Any delays in disposition of one or more projects could have a negative impact on our liquidity. We often make arrangements with third-party financiers to acquire and build solar power systems or to fund project construction using non-recourse project debt. As of January 3, 2021, outstanding amounts related to our project financing totaled $15.1 million. As of January 3, 2021, our cash balances are held primarily held in U.S. however, we had approximately $3.1 million held outside of the United States. This offshore cash is used to fund operations of our business in the Mexico, Canada and Asia Pacific regions, which require local payment for product materials and other expenses.

Certain of our customers also require performance bonds issued by a bonding agency or letters of credit issued by financial institutions, which are returned to us upon satisfaction of contractual requirements. If there is a contractual dispute with the customer, the customer may withhold the security or make a draw under such security, which could have an adverse impact on our liquidity. Obtaining letters of credit may require adequate collateral. Our September 2011 letter of credit facility with Deutsche Bank Trust is fully collateralized by restricted cash, which reduces the amount of cash available for operations. As of January 3, 2021, letters of credit issued under the Deutsche Bank Trust facility amounted to $2.7 million which were fully collateralized with restricted cash on our consolidated balance sheets.

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There are no assurances, however, that we will have sufficient available cash to repay our indebtedness or that we will be able to refinance such indebtedness on similar terms to the expiring indebtedness. If our capital resources are insufficient to satisfy our liquidity requirements, we may seek to sell additional equity or debt securities or obtain other debt financing. The current economic environment and other factors, however, could limit our ability to raise capital by issuing new equity or debt securities on acceptable terms, and lenders may be unwilling to lend funds on acceptable terms in the amounts that would be required to supplement cash flows to support operations. The sale of additional equity or convertible debt securities would result in additional dilution to our stockholders (and the potential for further dilution upon the exercise of warrants or the conversion of convertible debt) and may not be available on favorable terms or at all. Additional debt would result in increased expenses and would likely impose new restrictive covenants which may be similar or different than those restrictions contained in the covenants under our current loan agreements and debentures. In addition, financing arrangements, including project financing for our solar power plants and letters of credit facilities, may not be available to us, or may not be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us. We also continue to focus on improving our overall operating performance and liquidity, including managing cash flow and working capital.

We believe that our total cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet our obligations over the next 12 months from the date of issuance of our financial statements, including repayment of the remaining $62.6 million principal amount outstanding under the 0.875% debentures due 2021. In addition, we have historically been successful in our ability to divest certain investments and non-core assets including some of our equity investments, secure other sources of financing, such as accessing the capital markets, and implement other cost reduction initiatives such as restructuring, to address our liquidity needs; however, our ability to take these steps may be adversely affected by many factors impacting us and the markets generally, including the COVID-19 pandemic. If alternative actions were to be necessary, we believe they could be implemented prior to the maturity date of the 0.875% debentures due 2021.

Although we have historically been able to generate liquidity, we cannot predict, with certainty, the outcome of our actions to generate liquidity as planned. Additionally, we are uncertain of the full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will impact our business, operations, and financial results over time.

Contractual Obligations

The following table summarizes our material contractual obligations and cash requirements for future periods as of January 3, 2021:

  Payments Due by Fiscal Period
(In thousands) Total 2021 2022-2023 2024-2025 Beyond 2025
Convertible debt, including interest1
$ 522,616  $ 79,908  $ 442,708  $ —  $ — 
CEDA loan, including interest2
56,775  2,550  5,100  5,100  44,025 
Other debt, including interest3
134,555  104,664  25,219  2,037  2,635 
Operating lease commitments4
77,919  14,164  26,543  12,440  24,772 
Non-cancellable purchase orders5
37,437  37,437  —  —  — 
Supply agreement commitments6
394,411  248,965  137,654  2,485  5,307 
Total $ 1,223,713  $ 487,688  $ 637,224  $ 22,062  $ 76,739 

1 Convertible debt, including interest, relates to the aggregate of $487.6 million in outstanding principal amount of our senior convertible debentures on January 3, 2021. For the purpose of the table above, we assume that all holders of the outstanding debentures will hold the debentures through the date of maturity, and upon conversion, the values of the senior convertible debentures will be equal to the aggregate principal amount with no premiums.

2 CEDA loan, including interest, relates to the proceeds of the $30.0 million aggregate principal amount of the Bonds. The Bonds mature on April 1, 2031 and bear interest at a fixed rate of 8.50% through maturity.

3 Other debt, including interest, primarily relates to non-recourse finance projects and solar power systems and leases under our residential lease program as described in Note 12. Debt and Credit Sources.

4 Operating lease commitments primarily relate to various facility lease agreements including leases entered into that have not yet commenced.

5 Non-cancellable purchase orders relate to purchases of raw materials for inventory and manufacturing equipment from a variety of vendors.
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6 Purchase commitments under agreements primarily relate to arrangements entered into with several suppliers, including Maxeon Solar for purchase of photovoltaic solar modules, as well as with a supplier for module-level power electronics and alternating current cables. These agreements specify future quantities and pricing of products to be supplied by the vendors for periods 2 years and 5 years, respectively, and there are certain consequences, such as forfeiture of advanced deposits and liquidated damages relating to previous purchases, in the event we terminate these arrangements.

Liabilities Associated with Uncertain Tax Positions

Due to the complexity and uncertainty associated with our tax positions, we cannot make a reasonably reliable estimate of the period in which cash settlement will be made for our liabilities associated with uncertain tax positions in other long-term liabilities. Therefore, they have been excluded from the table above. As of January 3, 2021 and December 29, 2019, total liabilities associated with uncertain tax positions were $12.6 million and $7.2 million, respectively, and are included within "Other long-term liabilities" in our consolidated balance sheets as they are not expected to be paid within the next twelve months.

ITEM 7A: QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

Credit Risk
 
We have certain financial and derivative instruments that subject us to credit risk. These consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and cash equivalents, investments, accounts receivable, advances to suppliers, foreign currency option contracts, foreign currency forward contracts, bond hedge and warrant transactions. We are exposed to credit losses in the event of nonperformance by the counterparties to our financial and derivative instruments. Our investment policy requires cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and cash equivalents, and investments to be placed with high-quality financial institutions and limits the amount of credit risk from any one issuer. We additionally perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers’ financial condition whenever deemed necessary and generally do not require collateral.

Interest Rate Risk

We are exposed to interest rate risk because many of our customers depend on debt financing to purchase our solar power systems. An increase in interest rates could make it difficult for our customers to obtain the financing necessary to purchase our solar power systems on favorable terms, or at all, and thus lower demand for our solar power products, reduce revenue and adversely impact our operating results. An increase in interest rates could lower a customer's return on investment in a system or make alternative investments more attractive relative to solar power systems, which, in each case, could cause our customers to seek alternative investments that promise higher returns or demand higher returns from our solar power systems, reduce gross margin and adversely impact our operating results. This risk is significant to our business because our sales model is highly sensitive to interest rate fluctuations and the availability of credit, and would be adversely affected by increases in interest rates or liquidity constraints.
 
We do not believe that an immediate 10% increase in interest rates would have a material effect on our financial statements under potential future borrowings. In addition, lower interest rates would have an adverse impact on our interest income. Due to the relatively short-term nature of our investment portfolio, we do not believe that an immediate 10% decrease in interest rates would have a material effect on the fair market value of our money market funds. Since we believe we have the ability to liquidate substantially all of this portfolio, we do not expect our operating results or cash flows to be materially affected to any significant degree by a sudden change in market interest rates on our investment portfolio.

Equity Price Risk Involving Minority Investments in Joint Ventures and Other Public and Non-Public Companies

As of January 3, 2021 and December 29, 2019, we did not have material minority investments in joint ventures or other public and non-public companies that are accounted for using the measurement alternative method.

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On August 9, 2018, we completed the sale of certain assets and intellectual property related to the production of microinverters to Enphase in exchange for $25.0 million in cash and 7.5 million shares of Enphase common stock (NASDAQ: ENPH). We received the common stock and a $15.0 million cash payment upon closing, and received the final $10.0 million cash payment of the purchase price on December 10, 2018. The common stock was recorded as an equity investment with readily determinable fair value (Level 1), with changes in fair value recognized in net income. For fiscal 2020 and 2019, we recorded a gain of $690.8 million and a gain of $158.3 million, respectively, within "other, net" in our consolidated statement of operations. During the year ended December 29, 2019, we sold 1 million shares of Enphase common stock for cash proceeds of $20.6 million. During the fiscal year ended January 3, 2021, we sold an additional three million shares of Enphase common stock in open market transactions for cash proceeds of $250.6 million. As of January 3, 2021, we retained 3.5 million shares of Enphase common stock.

Interest Rate Risk and Market Price Risk Involving Debt

As of January 3, 2021, we had outstanding convertible debentures with an aggregate face value of $487.6 million, comprised of $425.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 4.00% debentures due in 2023 and $62.6 million aggregate principal amount of our 0.875% debentures due in 2021. Estimated fair values are based on quoted market prices as reported by an independent pricing source. The fair market value of our debentures is subject to interest rate risk, market price risk, and other factors due to the convertible feature of the debentures. The fair market value of the debentures will generally increase as interest rates fall, and decrease as interest rates rise. When our common stock price is in-the-money relative to these fixed stock price conversion rates, the fair market value of the debentures will generally increase as the market price of our common stock increases, and decrease as our common stock's market price falls, based on each debenture's respective fixed conversion rate. The interest and market value changes affect the fair market value of the debentures, but do not impact our financial position, cash flows, or results of operations due to the fixed nature of the debt obligations, except to the extent increases in the value of our common stock may provide the holders the right to convert such debentures into stock, or cash, in certain instances, but only applicable during periods when our common stock is in-the-money relative to such conversion rights. As of the date of this report, since our common stock price is above the conversion price for both debentures, and therefore, both the instruments are 'in-the-money', the holders could exercise the option to convert their holdings at their respective conversion price. Based on the amounts outstanding as of January 3, 2021, a 10% increase in our common stock upon such conversion, will reduce the debt by a corresponding amount. There is no other material impact of such change on our consolidated financial statements.

We also have interest rate risk relating to our other outstanding debt, besides debentures, all of which bear fixed rates of interest (Refer Note 12. Debt and Credit Sources). The interest and market value changes affect the fair market value of these debts, but do not impact our financial position, cash flows, or results of operations due to the fixed nature of the debt obligations. A hypothetical 10 basis points increase or decrease on market interest rates related to these debts would have an immaterial impact on the fair market value of these debts.

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

SUNPOWER CORPORATION

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

  Page
   
REPORTS OF ERNST & YOUNG LLP, INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM 
 
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EQUITY (DEFICIT)
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm


To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of SunPower Corporation

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of SunPower Corporation (the Company) as of January 3, 2021 and December 29, 2019, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), equity (deficit), and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 3, 2021, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at January 3, 2021 and December 29, 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 3, 2021, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of January 3, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated February 19, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

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Warranty reserves
Description of the Matter As discussed in Notes 1 and 10 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company provides a workmanship warranty of up to 25 years from installation and a 25-year standard warranty for SunPower-manufactured microinverters. The Company also warrants its installed systems for defective materials and workmanship for periods ranging up to 25 years as well as provides a separate system output performance warranty to customers that have subscribed to the Company’s post-installation monitoring and maintenance services. The Company’s warranty reserves, which totaled $81.7 million as of January 3, 2021, are generally computed using a statistical model that incorporates assumptions based on management’s best estimate of expected costs that could result from these warranties. This estimate considers a variety of factors, including historical warranty claims, results
of accelerated lab testing, field monitoring, vendor reliability estimates, and industry data for similar products.

Auditing the Company's warranty accrual involved a high degree of subjectivity due to significant measurement uncertainty associated with the estimate given the relatively short period of available historical data in relation to the future warranty period, and the sensitivity of the Company’s estimation of required reserves to changes in significant assumptions, including management’s projection of future failure rates and expected product repair or replacement costs.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of the Company’s internal controls over the warranty reserve process. This included controls over the development and review of the significant assumptions and data underlying the warranty reserve computation.

Our audit procedures included, among others, evaluating the significant assumptions used by the Company in estimating warranty reserve. For example, we assessed the historical accuracy of management's estimates, obtained support to evaluate repair or replacement cost estimates and failure rate assumptions, and performed sensitivity analyses to evaluate the effect of potential changes in assumptions that were most significant to the estimate. We also involved specialists to assist in the evaluation of the methodology applied, including the recalculation of management’s assumptions, within the Company’s statistical model.

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Inventory valuation
Description of the Matter The Company’s inventories, inclusive of $27.8 million of inventories classified as long-term assets, totaled $239.9 million as of January 3, 2021 representing 15% of consolidated total assets. As explained in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company computes inventory cost on a first-in, first-out basis, and applies judgment in determining the realizability and the valuation of inventories. Excess and obsolete inventory is written down to its estimated net realizable value if less than cost. The determination of the net realizable value associated with the eventual disposition of inventory involves significant judgments that consider a number of factors affected by market and economic conditions outside the Company’s control. In particular, the significant assumptions applied are sensitive to the expected demand for the Company’s products in relation to industry supply and demand and competitive pricing environments. These assumptions may be impacted by unforeseen changes in government mandates and in the availability and size of economic incentives that impact solar and other renewable energy products.

Auditing management’s assessment of net realizable value for inventory was challenging because it involved subjective auditor judgment to evaluate management’s assessment of the factors that are affected by market and economic conditions outside the Company’s control.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of the Company’s internal controls over the inventory valuation process. This included controls over the determination and calculation of the inventory’s expected lower of cost or net realizable value, including related estimated selling prices, and the Company’s excess and obsolete inventory reserve process, including the determination of product demand forecasts and how factors outside of the Company’s control might affect management’s judgment related to the valuation of excess and obsolete inventory.

Our substantive audit procedures included, among others, evaluating the significant assumptions, including the Company’s estimated selling prices and product demand forecasts, and testing the underlying data used in management’s inventory valuation assessment. We evaluated inventory levels compared to forecasted product demand, historical sales and specific product considerations. We also compared the demand forecast to business plans and previous forecasts to actual results and industry and economic trends to evaluate management’s estimates and performed sensitivity analyses over significant assumptions to evaluate the changes in inventory valuation that would result from changes in the assumptions.



/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2012.
San Jose, California
February 19, 2021


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of SunPower Corporation

Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

We have audited SunPower Corporation’s internal control over financial reporting as of January 3, 2021, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). In our opinion, SunPower Corporation (the Company) maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of January 3, 2021, based on the COSO criteria.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of January 3, 2021 and December 29, 2019, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), equity (deficit), and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 3, 2021, and the related notes and our report dated February 19, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
 
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Basis for Opinion

The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.



/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
 
San Jose, California
February 19, 2021

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SunPower Corporation
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except share par values)

  January 3, 2021 December 29, 2019
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents $ 232,765  $ 301,999 
Restricted cash and cash equivalents, current portion 5,518  26,348 
Accounts receivable, net1
108,864  127,878 
Contract assets1
114,506  99,426 
Inventories 210,582  163,405 
Advances to suppliers, current portion 2,814  31,843 
Project assets - plants and land, current portion 21,015  12,650 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets1
94,251  86,755 
Current assets of discontinued operations —  530,627 
Total current assets 790,315  1,380,931 
Restricted cash and cash equivalents, net of current portion 8,521  9,354 
Property, plant, and equipment, net 46,766  55,860 
Operating lease right-of-use assets 54,070  40,699 
Solar power systems leased, net 50,401  54,338 
Other intangible assets, net 697  7,121 
Other long-term assets 695,712  277,805 
Long-term assets of discontinued operations —  345,813 
Total assets $ 1,646,482  $ 2,171,921 
Liabilities and Equity    
Current liabilities:    
Accounts payable1
$ 166,066  $ 207,062 
Accrued liabilities1
121,915  116,276 
Operating lease liabilities, current portion 9,736  7,559 
Contract liabilities, current portion1
72,424  91,345 
Short-term debt 97,059  44,473 
Convertible debt, current portion 62,531  — 
Current liabilities of discontinued operations —  431,694 
Total current liabilities 529,731  898,409 
Long-term debt 56,447  112,340 
Convertible debt1, net of current portion
422,443  820,259 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion 43,608  36,657 
Contract liabilities, net of current portion1
30,170  31,922 
Other long-term liabilities 157,597  157,774 
Long-term liabilities of discontinued operations —  93,061 
Total liabilities 1,239,996  2,150,422 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 10)
Equity:    
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 10,000 shares authorized; none issued and outstanding as of January 3, 2021 and December 29, 2019
—  — 
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 367,500 shares authorized; 183,442 shares issued and 170,428 shares outstanding as of January 3, 2021; 179,845 shares issued and 168,121 shares outstanding as of December 29, 2019
170  168 
Additional paid-in capital 2,685,920  2,661,819 
Accumulated deficit (2,085,246) (2,449,679)
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) 8,799  (9,512)
Treasury stock, at cost: 13,014 shares of common stock as of January 3, 2021; 12,770 shares of common stock as of December 29, 2019
(205,476) (192,633)
Total stockholders' equity 404,167  10,163 
Noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries 2,319  11,336 
Total equity 406,486  21,499 
Total liabilities and equity $ 1,646,482  $ 2,171,921 
1 We have related-party balances for transactions made with TOTAL SE and its affiliates, Maxeon Solar and unconsolidated entities in which we have a direct equity investment. These related-party balances are recorded within the "accounts receivable, net," "contract assets," "accounts payable," "accrued liabilities," "contract liabilities, current portion," "convertible debt, net of current portion," and "contract liabilities, net of current portion" financial statement line items on our consolidated balance sheets (see Note 3, Note 10, Note 11, Note 12, and Note 13).



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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SunPower Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Operations
(In thousands, except per share data)

  Fiscal Year Ended
  January 3, 2021 December 29, 2019 December 30, 2018
Revenue:
Solar power systems, components, and other1
$ 1,103,823  $ 1,063,150  $ 930,102 
Residential leasing 5,323  10,405  272,209 
Solar services 15,683  18,671  — 
1,124,829  1,092,226  1,202,311 
Cost of revenue:
Solar power systems, components, and other1
946,164  913,299  873,798 
Residential leasing 4,795  7,345  180,016 
Solar services 6,743  8,104  — 
957,702  928,748  1,053,814 
Gross profit 167,127  163,478  148,497 
Operating expenses:
Research and development1
22,381