Table of Contents            

 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
__________________________________________________   
FORM 10-Q
__________________________________________________   
        þ
 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended December 31, 2019
OR
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ________ to ________

Commission File Number: 001-36347
__________________________________________________ 
IMAGE0A01A47.JPG
A-MARK PRECIOUS METALS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
__________________________________________________
Delaware
(State of Incorporation)
 
11-2464169
(IRS Employer I.D. No.)
2121 Rosecrans Ave. Suite 6300
El Segundo, CA 90245
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(310) 587-1477
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
__________________________________________________            
Securities registered under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:
Title of each class
Common Stock, $0.01 par value
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered under Section 12 (g) of the Exchange Act: None
__________________________________________________            
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
 
Yes. þ   No. o
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
 
Yes. þ   No. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer o
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o
Smaller reporting company þ
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
 
  o
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
 
Yes. o   No. þ
 
 
 
As of February 4, 2020, the registrant had 7,031,450 shares of common stock outstanding, par value $0.01 per share.
 
 
 




A-MARK PRECIOUS METALS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
For the Six Months Ended December 31, 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page
PART I
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
3
 
Item 2.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
48
 
Item 3.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
79
 
Item 4.
Controls and Procedures
80
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Legal Proceedings
80
 
Item 1A.
Risk Factors
80
 
Item 2.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
88
 
Item 3.
Defaults upon Senior Securities
89
 
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
89
 
Item 5.
Other Information
89
 
Item 6.
Exhibits
89
Signatures
 
 
90


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Table of Contents            

PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Index to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereof
 
 
Page
4
6
7
8
10
10
12
21
25
25
27
29
29
31
31
31
35
37
39
41
41
43
43
47
 
 

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Table of Contents            

A-MARK PRECIOUS METALS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(amounts in thousands, except for share data) (unaudited)
 
December 31,
2019
 
June 30,
2019
 
 
 
 
ASSETS
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash (1)
$
11,558

 
$
8,320

Receivables, net (1)
24,598

 
26,895

Derivative assets
5,359

 
2,428

Secured loans receivable (1)
152,343

 
125,298

Precious metals held under financing arrangements
196,972

 
208,792

Inventories:
 
 
 
   Inventories (1)
183,165

 
198,356

   Restricted inventories
79,766

 
94,505

 
262,931

 
292,861

 
 
 
 
Income taxes receivable
1,466

 
1,473

Prepaid expenses and other assets (1)
2,016

 
2,783

Total current assets
657,243

 
668,850

 
 
 
 
Operating lease right of use assets, net
4,787

 

Property, plant, and equipment, net
6,349

 
6,731

Goodwill
8,881

 
8,881

Intangibles, net
5,494

 
5,852

Long-term investments
11,999

 
11,885

Deferred tax assets - non-current
2,689

 
3,163

Other long-term assets
3,500

 

Total assets
$
700,942

 
$
705,362

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Lines of credit
$
180,000

 
$
167,000

Liabilities on borrowed metals
192,889

 
201,144

Product financing arrangements
79,766

 
94,505

Accounts payable
62,354

 
62,180

Derivative liabilities (1)
9,049

 
9,971

Accrued liabilities (1)
5,703

 
6,137

Total current liabilities
529,761

 
540,937

Notes payable (1)
92,181

 
91,859

Other liabilities
4,466

 

Total liabilities
626,408

 
632,796

 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies

 

 
 
 
 
Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value, authorized 10,000,000 shares; issued and outstanding: none as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019

 

Common stock, par value $0.01; 40,000,000 shares authorized; 7,031,450 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019
71

 
71

Additional paid-in capital
26,862

 
26,452

Retained earnings
44,497

 
43,135

Total A-Mark Precious Metals, Inc. stockholders’ equity
71,430

 
69,658

Non-controlling interests
3,104

 
2,908

Total stockholders’ equity
74,534

 
72,566

Total liabilities, non-controlling interests and stockholders’ equity
$
700,942

 
$
705,362

 
 
 
 
(1) Includes amounts of the consolidated variable interest entity, which is presented separately in the table below.


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A-MARK PRECIOUS METALS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(amounts in thousands) (unaudited)

In September 2018, AM Capital Funding, LLC. (“AMCF”), a wholly owned subsidiary of CFC, completed an issuance of Secured Senior Term Notes, Series 2018-1, Class A in the aggregate principal amount of $72.0 million and Secured Subordinated Term Notes, Series 2018-1, Class B in the aggregate principal amount of $28.0 million (collectively, the "Notes").  The Class A Notes bear interest at a rate of 4.98% and the Class B Notes bear interest at a rate of 5.98%.  The Notes have a maturity date of December 15, 2023.
The Company consolidates a variable interest entity ("VIE") if it is considered to be the primary beneficiary. AMCF is a VIE because its equity may be insufficient to maintain its ongoing collateral requirements without additional financial support from the Company. The securitization is primarily secured by bullion loans and precious metals, and the Company is required to continuously hedge the value of certain collateral and make future contributions as necessary. The Company is the primary beneficiary of this VIE because the Company has the right to determine the type of collateral (i.e., secured loans or precious metals) placed into the entity, has the right to receive (and has received) the proceeds from the securitization transaction, earns on-going interest income from the secured loans (subject to collateral requirements), and has the obligation to absorb losses should AMCF's interest expense and other costs exceed its interest income.
The following table presents the assets and liabilities of this VIE, which is included in the condensed consolidated balance sheets above. The holders of the Notes have a first priority security interest in the assets as shown in the table below, which are in excess of the Notes' aggregate principal amount. Additionally, the liabilities of the VIE include intercompany balances, which are eliminated in consolidation. See Note 14 for additional information.
 
December 31,
2019
 
June 30,
2019
 
 
 
 
ASSETS OF THE CONSOLIDATED VIE
 
 
 
Cash
$
1,553

 
$
2,390

Receivables, net
2

 
1,664

Secured loans receivable
102,183

 
82,544

Inventories

 
16,867

Prepaid expenses and other assets
42

 
31

Total assets of the consolidated variable interest entity
$
103,780

 
$
103,496

LIABILITIES OF THE CONSOLIDATED VIE
 
 
 
Deferred payment obligations(1)
$
6,189

 
$
5,213

Derivative liabilities

 
1,241

Accrued liabilities
1,150

 
811

Notes payable(2)
97,181

 
96,859

Total liabilities of the consolidated variable interest entity
$
104,520

 
$
104,124

 


 
 
(1) This is an intercompany balance, which is eliminated in consolidation and hence not shown on the consolidated balance sheets.
(2) $5.0 million of the Notes are held by A-Mark, which is eliminated in consolidation and hence not shown on the consolidated balance sheets.
    


5

Table of Contents            

A-MARK PRECIOUS METALS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except for share and per share data) (unaudited)




 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
 
December 31, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
 
Revenues
 
$
1,055,590

 
$
1,100,912

 
$
2,536,604

 
$
2,666,002

 
Cost of sales
 
1,047,459

 
1,092,595

 
2,520,133

 
2,649,210

 
Gross profit
 
8,131

 
8,317

 
16,471

 
16,792

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Selling, general, and administrative expenses
 
(7,870
)
 
(8,103
)
 
(16,140
)
 
(15,822
)
 
Interest income
 
6,232

 
4,652

 
12,000

 
9,203

 
Interest expense
 
(5,081
)
 
(4,656
)
 
(10,223
)
 
(8,208
)
 
Other income (expense), net
 
150

 
682

 
(16
)
 
930

 
Unrealized gain (loss) on foreign exchange
 
125

 
52

 
3

 
(18
)
 
Net income before provision for income taxes
 
1,687

 
944

 
2,095

 
2,877

 
Income tax expense
 
(432
)
 
(242
)
 
(537
)
 
(741
)
 
Net income
 
1,255

 
702

 
1,558

 
2,136

 
 
 Net income attributable to non-controlling interests
 
21

 
125

 
196

 
78

 
Net income attributable to the Company
 
$
1,234

 
$
577

 
$
1,362

 
$
2,058

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic and diluted net income per share attributable to A-Mark Precious Metals, Inc.:
 
Basic
 
$
0.17

 
$
0.08

 
$
0.19

 
$
0.29

 
Diluted
 
$
0.17

 
$
0.08

 
$
0.19

 
$
0.29

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
7,031,400

 
7,031,400

 
7,031,400

 
7,031,400

 
Diluted
 
7,056,300

 
7,085,600

 
7,074,800

 
7,088,700

 


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A-MARK PRECIOUS METALS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
(in thousands, except for share data) (unaudited)

 
 
Common Stock
(Shares)
 
Common Stock
 
Additional Paid-in Capital
 
Retained Earnings
 
Total
 A-Mark Precious Metals, Inc.
Stockholders' Equity
 
Non-Controlling Interests
 
Total Stockholders’ Equity
 
Balance, June 30, 2018
 
7,031,450

 
$
71

 
$
24,717

 
$
40,910

 
$
65,698

 
$
3,410

 
$
69,108

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
 

 

 

 
1,481

 
1,481

 
(47
)
 
1,434

 
Share-based compensation
 

 

 
272

 

 
272

 

 
272

 
Transactions with non-controlling interest
 

 

 
639

 

 
639

 
(639
)
 

 
Balance, September 30, 2018
 
7,031,450

 
$
71

 
$
25,628

 
$
42,391

 
$
68,090

 
$
2,724

 
$
70,814

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
 

 

 

 
577

 
577

 
125

 
702

 
Share-based compensation
 

 

 
281

 

 
281

 

 
281

 
Balance, December 31, 2018
 
7,031,450

 
$
71

 
$
25,909

 
$
42,968

 
$
68,948

 
$
2,849

 
$
71,797

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
Common Stock
(Shares)
 
Common Stock
 
Additional Paid-in Capital
 
Retained Earnings
 
Total
 A-Mark Precious Metals, Inc.
Stockholders' Equity
 
Non-Controlling Interests
 
Total Stockholders’ Equity
 
Balance, June 30, 2019
 
7,031,450

 
$
71

 
$
26,452

 
$
43,135

 
$
69,658

 
$
2,908

 
$
72,566

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
 

 

 

 
128

 
128

 
175

 
303

 
Share-based compensation
 

 

 
166

 

 
166

 

 
166

 
Balance, September 30, 2019
 
7,031,450

 
$
71

 
$
26,618

 
$
43,263

 
$
69,952

 
$
3,083

 
$
73,035

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
 

 

 

 
1,234

 
1,234

 
21

 
1,255

 
Share-based compensation
 

 

 
244

 

 
244

 

 
244

 
Balance, December 31, 2019
 
7,031,450

 
$
71

 
$
26,862

 
$
44,497

 
$
71,430

 
$
3,104

 
$
74,534

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 





7

A-MARK PRECIOUS METALS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(amounts in thousands) (unaudited)




Six Months Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
Cash flows from operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
 
$
1,558

 
$
2,136

 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash used in operating activities:
 

 

 
Provision (reversal) for doubtful accounts
 

 
(30
)
 
Depreciation and amortization
 
1,334

 
1,398

 
Amortization of loan cost
 
730

 
542

 
Deferred income taxes
 
474

 
659

 
Interest added to principal of secured loans
 
(10
)
 
(10
)
 
Change in accrued earn-out
 

 
(504
)
 
Debt extinguishment costs
 

 
7

 
Share-based compensation
 
410

 
553

 
Earnings from equity method investments
 
(114
)
 
(559
)
 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
Receivables
 
2,297

 
12,611

 
Secured loans receivable
 
2,131

 
(737
)
 
Secured loans made to affiliates
 
5,108

 
(4,458
)
 
Derivative assets
 
(2,931
)
 
5,794

 
Income taxes receivable
 
7

 
26

 
Precious metals held under financing arrangements
 
11,820

 
35,661

 
Inventories
 
29,930

 
3,831

 
Prepaid expenses and other assets
 
359

 
708

 
Accounts payable
 
174

 
743

 
Derivative liabilities
 
(923
)
 
4,847

 
Liabilities on borrowed metals
 
(8,255
)
 
(53,029
)
 
Accrued liabilities
 
(743
)
 
(109
)
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
 
43,356

 
10,080

 
Cash flows from investing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Capital expenditures for property, plant, and equipment
 
(455
)
 
(138
)
 
Purchase of long-term investments
 

 
(1,500
)
 
Purchase of intangible assets
 
(150
)
 

 
Secured loans receivable, net
 
(34,274
)
 
10,872

 
Other loans originated
 
(3,500
)
 

 
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities
 
(38,379
)
 
9,234

 
Cash flows from financing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Product financing arrangements, net
 
(14,739
)
 
(31,527
)
 
Borrowings and repayments under lines of credit, net
 
13,000

 
(61,000
)
 
Repayments on notes payable to related party
 

 
(7,500
)
 
Proceeds from issuance of notes payable
 

 
90,000

 
Debt funding issuance costs
 

 
(3,748
)
 
Net cash used in financing activities
 
(1,739
)
 
(13,775
)
 
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
 
3,238

 
5,539

 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash, beginning of period
 
8,320

 
6,291

 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash, end of period
 
$
11,558

 
$
11,830

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

8

A-MARK PRECIOUS METALS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(amounts in thousands) (unaudited)




Six Months Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
 
 
 
 
 
Cash paid during the period for:
 
 
 
 
 
Interest
 
$
10,026

 
$
5,622

 
Income taxes paid
 
$
50

 
$
47

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   Non-cash investing and financing activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Interest added to principal of secured loans
 
$
10

 
$
10

 
Investment transactions with non-controlling interest
 
$

 
$
639

 


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A-MARK PRECIOUS METALS, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited)

1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS
Basis of Presentation
The condensed consolidated financial statements comprise those of A-Mark Precious Metals, Inc. ("A-Mark" or the "Company") and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Business Segments
The Company conducts its operations in three reportable segments: (1) Wholesale Trading & Ancillary Services, (2) Secured Lending, and (3) Direct Sales. Each of these reportable segments represents an aggregation of operating segments that meets the aggregation criteria set forth in the Segment Reporting Topic 280 of the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”). (See Note 18.)
Wholesale Trading & Ancillary Services
The Wholesale Trading & Ancillary Services segment operates as a full-service precious metals trading company. The products that this segment sells include: gold, silver, platinum, and palladium primarily in the form of coins, rounds, bars, wafers, and grain. This segment's trading-related services include: consignment, storage, logistics, hedging, and various customized financial programs.
Through its wholly owned subsidiary, A-Mark Trading AG (“AMTAG”), the Company promotes A-Mark's products and services throughout the European continent. Transcontinental Depository Services (“TDS”), also a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, offers worldwide storage solutions to institutions, dealers, and consumers.
The Company's wholly-owned subsidiary, A-M Global Logistics, LLC. ("Logistics"), operates the Company's logistics fulfillment center. Logistics provides customers an array of complementary services, including packaging, shipping, handling, receiving, processing, and inventorying of precious metals and custom coins on a secure basis.
Through our partially-owned subsidiary, AM&ST Associates, LLC. ("AMST" or "SilverTowne" or the "Mint"), the Company designs and produces minted silver products. The Company operates the Mint pursuant to a joint venture agreement with SilverTowne, L.P. The Company and SilverTowne L.P. own 69% and 31%, respectively, of AMST. The Company acquired its interest in AMST from SilverTowne L.P. to provide greater product selection to our customers and greater pricing stability within the supply chain, as well as to gain increased access to silver products during volatile market environments.
Secured Lending
The Company operates its Secured Lending segment through its wholly-owned subsidiary, Collateral Finance Corporation LLC. ("CFC".) CFC is a California licensed finance lender that originates and acquires commercial loans secured by bullion and numismatic coins. CFC's customers include coin and precious metal dealers, investors, and collectors.
AM Capital Funding, LLC. (“AMCF”), a wholly owned subsidiary of CFC, was formed for the purpose of securitizing eligible secured loans of CFC. AMCF issued and administers Secured Senior Term Notes: Series 2018-1, Class A, with an aggregate principal amount of $72.0 million and Secured Subordinated Term Notes: Series 2018-1, Class B with an aggregate principal amount of $28.0 million (collectively, the "Notes".)  The Class A Notes bear interest at a rate of 4.98% and the Class B Notes bear interest at a rate of 5.98%.  The Notes have a maturity date of December 15, 2023. For additional information regarding this notes payable, see Note 14.
Direct Sales
The Company's wholly-owned subsidiary, Goldline, Inc. ("Goldline"), is a direct retailer of precious metals to the investor community. Goldline markets its precious metal products primarily on radio and the internet. Goldline sells gold and silver bullion in the form of coins, rounds, and bars.
AM IP LLC. ("AMIP"), a wholly owned subsidiary of Goldline, manages intellectual property (“IP”) that includes lists of customers and sales lead information that is licensed to third parties in the industry who can utilize such assets and provide the Company with ancillary income.
In the fourth quarter of 2019, Goldline entered into a joint venture agreement with one of the Company's related parties to form Precious Metals Purchasing Partners, LLC, ("PMPP"), a 50% owned subsidiary, primarily for the purpose of purchasing precious metals from the partners' retail customers for resale back into the marketplace. PMPP was capitalized in fiscal 2019, and commenced operations in fiscal 2020. Metals purchased by the joint venture are sold to the partners or their affiliates per terms of the joint venture agreement.

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2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements reflect the financial condition, results of operations, statement of stockholder equity, and cash flows of the Company, and were prepared using accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). The Company consolidates its subsidiaries that are wholly-owned, majority owned, and entities that are variable interest entities where the Company is determined to be the primary beneficiary. Our condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of: A-Mark, CFC, AMTAG, TDS, Logistics, Goldline, AMIP, AMST, AMCF, and PMPP (collectively the “Company”). Intercompany accounts and transactions are eliminated.
Comprehensive Income
For the three and six months ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, there were no items that gave rise to other comprehensive income or loss, and, as a result net income equaled comprehensive income.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. These estimates include, among others, determination of fair value, allowances for doubtful accounts, impairment assessments of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets, valuation allowance determination on deferred tax assets, contingent earn-out liabilities, determining the incremental borrowing rate for calculating right of use assets and lease liabilities, and revenue recognition judgments. Significant estimates also include the Company's fair value determination with respect to its financial instruments and precious metals inventory. Actual results could materially differ from these estimates.
Unaudited Interim Financial Information
The accompanying interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared by the Company pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) for interim financial reporting. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited and, in the opinion of management, include all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments and accruals) necessary to present fairly the condensed consolidated balance sheets, condensed consolidated statements of operations, condensed consolidated statement of stockholders’ equity, and condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the periods presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Operating results for the six months ended December 31, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the fiscal year ending June 30, 2020 or for any other interim period during such fiscal year. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in annual consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been omitted in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended 2019 (the “2019 Annual Report”), as filed with the SEC. Amounts related to disclosure of June 30, 2019 balances within these interim condensed consolidated financial statements were derived from the aforementioned audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the 2019 Annual Report.
Fair Value Measurement
The Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures Topic 820 of the ASC ("ASC 820"), creates a single definition of fair value for financial reporting. The rules associated with ASC 820 state that valuation techniques consistent with the market approach, income approach, and/or cost approach should be used to estimate fair value. Selection of a valuation technique, or multiple valuation techniques, depends on the nature of the asset or liability being valued, as well as the availability of data. (See Note 3.)
Concentration of Credit Risk
Cash is maintained at financial institutions and, at times, balances may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses related to these balances.
Assets that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of receivables, loans of inventory to customers, and inventory hedging transactions. Concentration of credit risk with respect to receivables is limited due to the large number of customers composing the Company's customer base, the geographic dispersion of the customers, and the collateralization of substantially all receivable balances. Based on an assessment of credit risk, the Company typically grants collateralized credit to its customers. The Company enters into inventory hedging transactions, principally utilizing metals commodity futures contracts traded on national futures exchanges or forward contracts with credit worthy financial institutions. Credit risk with respect to loans of inventory to customers is minimal. All of our commodity derivative contracts are under master

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netting arrangements and include both asset and liability positions. Substantially all of these transactions are secured by the underlying metals positions.
Foreign Currency
The functional currency of the Company is the United States dollar ("USD"). Also, the functional currency of the Company's wholly-owned foreign subsidiary, AMTAG, is USD, but it maintains its books of record in the European Union Euro. The Company remeasures the financial statements of AMTAG into USD. The remeasurement of local currency amounts into USD creates remeasurement gains and losses, which are included in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
To manage the effect of foreign currency exchange fluctuations, the Company utilizes foreign currency forward contracts. These derivatives generate gains and losses when settled and/or marked-to-market.
Variable Interest Entity
A variable interest entity ("VIE") is a legal entity that has either i) a total equity investment that is insufficient to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support or ii) whose equity investors as a group lack the ability to control the entity’s activities or lack the ability to receive expected benefits or absorb obligations in a manner that is consistent with their investment in the entity.
A VIE is consolidated for accounting purposes by its primary beneficiary, which is the party that has both the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the VIE's economic performance, and the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits of the VIE that could potentially be significant to the VIE. The Company consolidates VIE's when it is deemed to be the primary beneficiary. Management regularly reviews and reconsiders its previous conclusions regarding whether it holds a variable interest in potential VIEs, the status of an entity as a VIE, and whether the Company is required to consolidate such VIE's in the consolidated financial statements.
AMCF, a wholly owned subsidiary of CFC, is a special purpose entity ("SPE") formed as part of a securitization transaction in order to isolate certain assets and distribute the cash flows from those assets to investors. AMCF was structured to insulate investors from claims on AMCF’s assets by creditors of other entities. The Company has various forms of ongoing involvement with AMCF, which may include (i) holding senior or subordinated interests in AMCF; (ii) acting as loan servicer for a portfolio of loans held by AMCF; and (iii) providing administrative services to AMCF. AMCF is required to maintain separate books and records. The assets and liabilities of this VIE, as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, are indicated on table that follows the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
AMCF is a VIE because the Company's initial equity investment may be insufficient to maintain its ongoing collateral requirements without additional financial support from the Company. The securitization is primarily secured by bullion loans and precious metals, and the Company is required to continuously hedge the value of certain collateral and make future contributions as necessary. The Company is the primary beneficiary of this VIE because the Company has the right to determine the type of collateral (i.e., secured loans or precious metals), has the right to receive (and has received) the proceeds from the securitization transaction, earns on-going interest income from the secured loans (subject to collateral requirements), and has the obligation to absorb losses should AMCF's interest expense and other costs exceed its interest income. (See Note 14.)
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less, when purchased, to be cash equivalents. The Company does not have any cash equivalents as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019.
As of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, the Company has $0.3 million and $0.3 million, respectively, in a bank account that is restricted and serves as collateral against a standby letter of credit issued by the bank in favor of the landlord for our office space in Los Angeles, California.
Precious Metals held under Financing Arrangements
    The Company enters into arrangements with certain customers under which A-Mark purchases precious metals from the customers which are subject to repurchase by the customer at the spot value of the product on the repurchase date. The precious metals purchased under these arrangements consist of rare and unique items, and therefore the Company accounts for these transactions as precious metals held under financing arrangements, which generate financing income rather than revenue earned from precious metals inventory sales. In these repurchase arrangements, the Company holds legal title to the metals and earns financing income for the duration of the agreement.    

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These arrangements are typically terminable by either party upon 14 days' notice. Upon termination, the customer’s right to repurchase any remaining precious metal is forfeited, and the related precious metals are reclassified as inventory held for sale. As of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, precious metals held under financing arrangements totaled $197.0 million and $208.8 million respectively.
The Company’s precious metals held under financing arrangements are marked-to-market.
Inventories
Inventories principally include bullion and bullion coins that are acquired and initially recorded at fair market value. The fair market value of the bullion and bullion coins comprises two components: (1) published market values attributable to the costs of the raw precious metal, and (2) a published premium paid at acquisition of the metal. The premium is attributable to the additional value of the product in its finished goods form, and the market value attributable solely to the premium may be readily determined, as it is published by multiple reputable sources.
The Company’s inventory, except for certain lower of cost or net realizable value basis products (as discussed below), are subsequently recorded at their fair market values, that is, "marked-to-market." The daily changes in the fair market value of our inventory are offset by daily changes in the fair market value of hedging derivatives that are taken with respect to our inventory positions; both the change in the fair market value of the inventory and the change in the fair market value of these derivative instruments are recorded in cost of sales in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
While the premium component included in inventory is marked-to-market, our commemorative coin inventory, including its premium component, is held at the lower of cost or net realizable value, because the value of commemorative coins is influenced more by supply and demand determinants than on the underlying spot price of the precious metal content of the commemorative coins. Unlike our bullion coins, the value of commemorative coins is not subject to the same level of volatility as bullion coins because our commemorative coins typically carry a substantially higher premium over the spot metal price than bullion coins. Neither the commemorative coin inventory nor the premium component of our inventory is hedged. (See Note 6.)
Leased Right of Use Assets
We lease warehouse space, office facilities, and equipment. Our operating leases with terms longer than twelve months are recorded on the condensed consolidated balance sheets at the sum of the present value of the lease's fixed minimum payments as operating lease right of use assets ("ROU assets") in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Our finance leases (previously considered by the Company as capital leases prior to our adoption of ASC 842) are another type of ROU asset, but are classified in the condensed consolidated balance sheets as a component of plant, property and equipment at the present value of the lease payments.
For leases that contain termination options, where the rights to terminate are held by either us, the lessor, or both parties and it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option, we factor these extended or shortened lease terms into the minimum lease payments. The ROU assets also include any initial direct costs incurred and lease payments made at or before the commencement date and are reduced by lease incentives. We use our incremental borrowing rate as the discount rate to determine the present value of the lease payments for leases, as our leases do not have readily determinable implicit discount rates. Our incremental borrowing rate is the rate of interest that we would incur to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term and amount in a similar economic environment.
Operating lease cost is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Finance lease cost is recognized as a combination of the amortization expense for the ROU assets and interest expense for the outstanding lease liabilities using the discount rate discussed above. The depreciable life of ROU assets are limited by the expected lease term, unless there is a transfer of title or purchase option reasonably certain of exercise. Our lease agreements do not contain any significant residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants. Income from subleases was not significant for any period presented.
During the three months ended December 31, 2019, we incurred lease costs of $0.4 million, which is primarily comprised of operating lease cost of $0.3 million. During the six months ended December 31, 2019, we incurred lease costs of $0.8 million, which is primarily comprised of operating lease cost of $0.7 million. The other costs are insignificant and relate to our finance leases, short-term leases, and variable lease payments.
For the six months ended December 31, 2019, we made cash payments of $0.7 million for operating lease obligations. These payments are included in operating cash flows. At December 31, 2019, the weighted-average remaining lease term under our capitalized operating leases was 4.9 years, while the weighted-average discount rate for our operating leases was approximately 4.9%.

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The following represents our future undiscounted cash flows for each of the next five years and thereafter and reconciliation to the lease liabilities, as of December 31, 2019:
Years ending June 30,
 
Operating Leases
 
2020 (excluding the six months ended December 31, 2019)
 
$
747

 
2021
 
1,526

 
2022
 
1,313

 
2023
 
834

 
2024
 
860

 
Thereafter
 
1,184

 
Total lease payments
 
6,464

 
Less imputed interest
 
(741
)
 
 
 
$
5,723

(1) 
 
 
 
 
Operating lease liability - current
 
$
1,257

(2) 
Operating lease liability - long-term
 
4,466

(3) 
 
 
$
5,723

(1) 
________________________________________________
(1)
 
Represents the present value of the capitalized operating lease liabilities as of December 31, 2019.
(2)
 
Current operating lease liabilities are presented within accrued liabilities on our condensed consolidated balance sheets.
(3)
 
Long-term operating lease liabilities are presented within other liabilities on our condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Following is a summary of our future minimum operating lease commitments, as determined under ASC 840, for all non-cancelable lease agreements, for each of the next five years and in the aggregate, as of June 30, 2019:
Years ending June 30,
 
Operating Leases
 
2020
 
$
1,488

 
2021
 
1,526

 
2022
 
1,313

 
2023
 
834

 
2024
 
860

 
Thereafter
 
1,184

 
 
 
$
7,205

 
 
 
 
 
The Company has no related party leases. We do not have leases that have not yet commenced, which would create significant rights and obligations for us, including any involvement with the construction or design of the underlying asset. (Refer to the section below captioned Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements for the elections adopted pursuant to ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842).)
Property, Plant, and Equipment
Property, plant, and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using a straight line method based on the estimated useful lives of the related assets, ranging from three years to twenty-five years. Depreciation commences when the related assets are placed into service. Internal-use software development costs are capitalized during the application development stage. Internal-use software costs incurred during the preliminary project stage are expensed as incurred. Land is recorded at historical cost and is not depreciated. Repair and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. We have no major planned maintenance activities related to our plant assets associated with our minting operations.
The Company reviews the carrying value of these assets for impairment whenever events and circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the asset may not be recoverable. In evaluating for impairment, the carrying value of each asset or group of assets is compared to the undiscounted estimated future cash flows expected to result from its use and eventual disposition. An impairment loss is recognized for the difference when the carrying value exceeds the discounted estimated future cash flows. The factors considered by the Company in performing this assessment include current and projected operating results, trends and prospects, the manner in which these assets are used, and the effects of obsolescence, demand and competition, as well as other economic factors.

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Finite-lived Intangible Assets
Finite-lived intangible assets consist primarily of customer relationships, non-compete agreements, and employment contracts which are amortized on a straight-line basis over their economic useful lives ranging from three years to fifteen years. We review our finite-lived intangible assets for impairment under the same policy described above for property, plant, and equipment; that is, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable.
Goodwill and Indefinite-lived Intangible Assets
Goodwill is recorded when the purchase price paid for an acquisition exceeds the estimated fair value of the net identified tangible and intangible assets acquired. Goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangibles (such as trade names) are not subject to amortization, but are evaluated for impairment at least annually. However, for tax purposes, goodwill acquired in connection with a taxable asset acquisition is generally deductible.
The Company evaluates its goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangibles for impairment in the fourth quarter of the fiscal year (or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist) in accordance with the Intangibles - Goodwill and Other Topic 350 of the ASC. Goodwill is reviewed for impairment at a reporting unit level, which in our case, corresponds to the Company’s reportable operating segments.
Evaluation of goodwill for impairment
The Company has the option to first qualitatively assess whether relevant events and circumstances make it more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill is less than its carrying value. A qualitative assessment includes analyzing current economic indicators associated with a particular reporting unit such as changes in economic, market and industry conditions, business strategy, cost factors, and financial performance, among others, to determine if there would be a significant decline to the fair value of a particular reporting unit. If the qualitative assessment indicates a stable or improved fair value, no further testing is required.
If, based on this qualitative assessment, management concludes that goodwill is more likely than not to be impaired, or elects not to perform the qualitative assessment, then it is required to perform a quantitative analysis to determine the fair value of the business, and compare the calculated fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If through this quantitative analysis the Company determines the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, the goodwill of the reporting unit is considered not to be impaired. If the Company concludes that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, a goodwill impairment loss will be recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. (See Note 8.)
Evaluation of indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment
The Company evaluates its indefinite-lived intangible assets (i.e., trademarks and trade-names) for impairment. In assessing its indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment, the Company has the option to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether events or circumstances exist that lead to a determination that it is unlikely that the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset is less than its carrying amount. If the Company determines that it is unlikely that the fair value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset is less than its carrying amount, the Company is not required to perform any additional tests in assessing the asset for impairment. However, if the Company concludes otherwise or elects not to perform the qualitative assessment, then it is required to perform a quantitative analysis to determine if the fair value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset is less than its carrying value. If through this quantitative analysis the Company determines the fair value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset exceeds its carrying amount, the indefinite-lived intangible asset is considered not to be impaired. If the Company concludes that the fair value of an indefinite-lived intangible asset is less than its carrying value, an impairment loss will be recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the indefinite-lived intangible asset’s fair value.
The methods used to estimate the fair value measurements of the Company’s reporting units and indefinite-lived intangible assets include those based on the income approach (including the discounted cash flow and relief-from-royalty methods) and those based on the market approach (primarily the guideline transaction and guideline public company methods). (See Note 8.)
Long-Term Investments
Investments in privately-held entities that are at least 20% but less than 50% owned by the Company are accounted for using the equity method. Under the equity method, the carrying value of the investment is adjusted for the Company’s proportionate share of the investee’s earnings or losses, with the corresponding share of earnings or losses reported in other income (expense), net. The carrying value of the investment is reduced by the amount of the dividends received from the equity-method investee, as they are considered a return of capital.
We evaluate our long-term investments for impairment quarterly or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of these assets may not be recoverable. Additionally, the Company performs an on-going evaluation of its

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equity method investments with which the Company has variable interests to determine if any of these entities are VIEs that are required to be consolidated.
Other Long-Term Assets
Notes and other receivables, with terms greater than one year, are carried at amortized cost, net of any unamortized origination fees, which are recognized over the life of the note. The determination of an allowance is based on historical experience and, as a result, can differ from actual losses incurred in the future. We charge off receivables at such time as it is determined collection will not occur.
On September 19, 2019, the Company, as lender, entered into a convertible revolving credit facility with one of its privately-held customers (the borrower) that provides the borrower an aggregate principal amount of up to $4.0 million, bearing interest at 12.0% per annum. The facility expires on September 18, 2022. The borrower has the right to prepay the credit facility at any time without premium or penalty. Outstanding principal amounts under the credit facility may, at the lender's discretion, be converted into up to 22.0% of the borrower's issued and outstanding common stock. The credit facility also grants the lender the right to repay the borrower's outstanding unrelated third-party debt, at any time, in exchange for up to 27.5% of the borrower’s issued and outstanding common stock. In the event the borrower sells all or substantially all of its assets or has a change of control during the term of the facility, the lender is entitled to additional interest equal to 10% of the gross sales price in excess of $9.9 million. The credit facility collateral includes all: (i) account receivables; (ii) inventory; (iii) fixed assets; (iv) intellectual property; (v) contract rights; and (vi) deposit accounts, in each case subordinated to an unrelated third-party lender’s security interest.
Revenue Recognition
Settlement Date Accounting
Substantially all of the Company’s sales of precious metals are conducted using sales contracts that meet the definition of derivative instruments in accordance with the Derivatives and Hedging Topic 815 of the ASC ("ASC 815"). The contract underlying A-Mark’s commitment to deliver precious metals is referred to as a “fixed-price forward commodity contract” because the price of the commodity is fixed at the time the order is placed. Revenue is recognized on the settlement date, which is defined as the date on which: (1) the quantity, price, and specific items being purchased have been established, (2) metals have been delivered to the customer, and (3) payment has been received or is covered by the customer’s established credit limit with the Company.
All derivative instruments are marked-to-market during the interval between the trade date and the settlement date, with the changes in the fair value charged to cost of sales. The Company’s hedging strategy to mitigate the market risk associated with its sales commitments is described separately below under the caption “Hedging Activities.”
Types of Trades Orders that are Physically Delivered
The Company’s contracts to sell precious metals to customers are usually settled with the physical delivery of metals to the customer, although net settlement (i.e., settlement at an amount equal to the difference between the contract value and the market price of the metal on the settlement date) is permitted. Below is a summary of the Company’s major trade order types and the key factors that determine when settlement occurs and when revenue is recognized for each type:
Traditional physical trade orders The quantity, specific product, and price are determined on the trade date. Payment or sufficient credit is verified prior to delivery of the metals on the settlement date.
Consignment trade orders The Company delivers the items requested by the customer prior to establishing a firm trade order with a price. Settlement occurs and revenue is recognized once the customer confirms its order (quantity, specific product, and price) and remits full payment for the sale.
Provisional trade orders The quantity and type of metal is established at the trade date, but the price is not set. The customer commits to purchasing the metals within a specified time period, usually within one year, at the then-current market price. The Company delivers the metal to the customer after receiving the customer’s deposit, which is typically based on 110% of the prevailing current spot price. The unpriced metal is subject to a margin call if the deposit falls below 105% of the value of the unpriced metal. The purchase price is established and revenue is recognized at the time the customer notifies the Company that it desires to purchase the metal.
Margin trade orders The quantity, specific product, and price are determined at trade date; however, the customer is allowed to finance the transaction through the Company and to defer delivery by committing to remit a partial payment (approximately 20%) of the total order price. With the remittance of the partial payment, the customer locks in the purchase price for a specified time period (usually up to two years from the trade date). Revenue on margin trade orders is recognized when the order is paid in full and delivered to the customer.

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Borrowed precious metals trade orders for unallocated positions Customers may purchase unallocated metal positions in the Company's inventory. The quantity and type of metal is established at the trade date, but the specific product is not yet determined. Revenue is not recognized until the customer selects the specific precious metal product it wishes to purchase, full payment is received, and the product is delivered to the customer.
Hedging Activities
The value of our inventory and our purchase and sale commitments are linked to the prevailing price of the underlying precious metal commodity. The Company seeks to minimize the effect of price changes of the underlying commodity and enters into inventory hedging transactions, principally utilizing metals commodity futures contracts traded on national futures exchanges or forward contracts with credit worthy financial institutions. The Company hedges by each commodity type (gold, silver, platinum, and palladium). All of our commodity derivative contracts are under master netting arrangements and include both asset and liability positions.
Commodity forward, futures, and option contracts entered into for hedging purposes are recorded at fair value on the trade date and are marked-to-market each period. The difference between the original contract values and the market values of these contracts are reflected as derivative assets or derivative liabilities in the condensed consolidated balance sheets at fair value, with the corresponding unrealized gain or losses included as a component of cost of sales. When these contracts are net settled, the unrealized gains and losses are reversed and the realized gains and losses for forward contracts are recorded in revenue and cost of sales and the net realized gains and losses for futures and option contracts are recorded in cost of sales.
The Company enters into futures, forward, and option contracts solely for the purpose of hedging our inventory holding risk and our liability on price protection programs, and not for speculative market purposes. The Company’s gains (losses) on derivative instruments are substantially offset by the changes in the fair market value of the underlying precious metals inventory, which is also recorded in cost of sales in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. (See Note 11.)
Other Sources of Revenue
The Company recognizes its storage, logistics, licensing, and other services revenues in accordance with the FASB's release ASU 2014-09 Revenue From Contracts With Customers Topic 606 ("ASC 606"),  which follows five basic steps to determine whether revenue can be recognized: (i) identify the contract with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract, and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.
The Company recognizes revenue when it satisfies its obligation by transferring control of the good or service to the customer. This is either satisfied over time or at a point in time. A performance obligation is satisfied over time if one of the following criteria are met: (1) the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits as the Company performs, (2) the Company's performance creates or enhances an asset that the customer controls as the asset is created or enhanced, or (3) the Company's performance does not create an asset with an alternative use to the Company, and the Company has an enforceable right for payment of performance completed-to-date. When none of those are met, a performance obligation is satisfied at a point-in-time.
The Company recognizes storage revenue over time, as the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the storage services (e.g., fixed storage fees based on the passage of time). The Company recognizes logistics (i.e., fulfillment) revenue at a point-in-time, when the customer receives the benefit of the services (e.g., stated number of packages are shipped on behalf of the customer during a month). The Company recognizes revenue from the licensing of its functional intellectual property ("IP"), which include customer lists and sales lead information, at the point in time when the right to use the IP is transferred to the licensee. Any revenue generated from usage-based royalties associated with the licensing of the IP is recognized at the point in time when the licensee converts and actualizes customers from the IP. In aggregate, these types of service revenues account for less than 1% of the Company's combined revenue from all revenue streams.
Interest Income
In accordance with the Interest Topic 835 of the ASC ("ASC 835") following are interest income generating activities of the Company:
Secured Loans — The Company uses the effective interest method to recognize interest income on its secured loans transactions.  The Company maintains a security interest in the precious metals and records interest income over the terms of the secured loan receivable. Recognition of interest income is suspended and the loan is placed on non-accrual status when management determines that collection of future interest income is not probable. The interest income accrual is resumed, and previously suspended interest income is recognized, when the loan becomes contractually current and/or collection doubts are resolved. Cash receipts on impaired loans are recorded first against the principal and then to any unrecognized interest income. (See Note 5.)

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Margin accounts The Company earns a fee (interest income) under financing arrangements related to margin trade orders over the period during which customers have opted to defer making full payment on the purchase of metals.
Repurchase agreements Repurchase agreements represent a form of secured financing whereby the Company sets aside specific metals for a customer and charges a fee on the outstanding value of these metals. The customer is granted the option (but not the obligation) to repurchase these metals at any time during the open reacquisition period. This fee is earned over the duration of the open reacquisition period and is classified as interest income.
Spot deferred trade orders Spot deferred trade orders are a special type of forward delivery trade that enable customers to purchase or sell certain precious metals from/to the Company at an agreed upon price but, are allowed to delay remitting or taking delivery up to a maximum of two years from the date of trade. Even though the contract allows for physical delivery, it rarely occurs for this type of trade. As a result, revenue is not recorded from these transactions, because no product is delivered to the customer. Spot deferred trades are considered a type of financing transaction, where the Company earns a fee (interest income) under spot deferred arrangements over the period in which the trade is open.
Interest Expense
The Company accounts for interest expense on the following arrangements in accordance with Interest Topic 835 of the ASC ("ASC 835"):
Borrowings The Company incurs interest expense from its lines of credit, its debt obligations, and notes payable using the effective interest method. (See Note 14.) Additionally, the Company amortizes capitalized loan costs to interest expense over the period of the loan agreement.
Loan servicing fees When the Company purchases loan portfolios, the Company may have the seller service the loans that were purchased. The Company incurs a fee based on total interest charged to borrowers over the period the loans are outstanding. The servicing fee incurred by the Company is charged to interest expense.
Product financing arrangements The Company incurs financing fees (classified as interest expense) from its product financing arrangements (also referred to as reverse-repurchase arrangements) with third party finance companies for the transfer and subsequent option to reacquire its precious metal inventory at a later date. These arrangements are accounted for as secured borrowings. During the term of this type of agreement, the third party charges a monthly fee as a percentage of the market value of the designated inventory, which the Company intends to reacquire in the future.  No revenue is generated from these trades. The Company enters this type of transaction for additional liquidity.
Borrowed and leased metals fees — The Company may incur financing costs from its borrowed metal arrangements. The Company borrows precious metals (usually in the form of pool metals) from its suppliers and customers under short-term arrangements using other precious metals as collateral. Typically, during the term of these arrangements, the third party charges a monthly fee as a percentage of the market value of the metals borrowed (determined at the spot price) plus certain processing and other fees.
Leased metal transactions are a similar type of transaction, except the Company is not required to pledge other precious metal as collateral for the precious metal received. The fees charged by the third party are based on the spot value of the pool metal received.
Both borrowed and leased metal transactions provide an additional source of liquidity, as the Company usually monetizes the metals received under such arrangements. Repayment is usually in the same form as the metals advanced, but may be settled in cash.
Other Income and Expense, Net    
The Company's other income and expense is derived from the Company's proportional interest in the reported net income or loss of our investees that are accounted for under the equity method of accounting (see Note 9), earn-out revaluation adjustments related to a contingent payable due to SilverTowne L.P, and costs associated with the settlement of our purchase of Goldline (see Note 15).
Advertising
Advertising expense was $0.3 million and $0.6 million, respectively, for the three months ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. Advertising expense was $0.8 million and $1.2 million, respectively, for the six months ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Shipping and handling costs represent costs associated with shipping product to customers, and receiving product from vendors and are included in cost of sales in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. Shipping and handling costs incurred totaled $1.5 million and $1.4 million, respectively, for the three months ended December 31, 2019 and 2018. Shipping

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and handling costs incurred totaled $2.8 million and $3.1 million, respectively, for the six months ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.
Share-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for equity awards under the provisions of the Compensation - Stock Compensation Topic 718 of the ASC ("ASC 718"), which establishes fair value-based accounting requirements for share-based compensation to employees. ASC 718 requires the Company to recognize the grant-date fair value of stock options and other equity-based compensation issued to employees as expense over the service period in the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements. The expense is adjusted for actual forfeitures of unvested awards as they occur. (See Note 16.)
Income Taxes
As part of the process of preparing its condensed consolidated financial statements, the Company is required to estimate its provision for income taxes in each of the tax jurisdictions in which it conducts business, in accordance with the Income Taxes Topic 740 of the ASC ("ASC 740"). The Company computes its annual tax rate based on the statutory tax rates and tax planning opportunities available to it in the various jurisdictions in which it earns income. Significant judgment is required in determining the Company's annual tax rate and in evaluating uncertainty in its tax positions. The Company has adopted the provisions of ASC 740-10, which clarifies the accounting for uncertain tax positions. ASC 740-10 requires that the Company recognizes the impact of a tax position in the financial statements if the position is not more likely than not to be sustained upon examination based on the technical merits of the position. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to certain uncertain tax positions as a component of income tax expense and the accrued interest and penalties are included in deferred and income taxes payable in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. See Note 12 for more information on the Company’s accounting for income taxes.
Income taxes are accounted for using an asset and liability approach that requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the net deferred tax assets will not be realized. The factors used to assess the likelihood of realization include the Company's forecast of the reversal of temporary differences, future taxable income, and available tax planning strategies that could be implemented to realize the net deferred tax assets. Failure to achieve forecasted taxable income in applicable tax jurisdictions could affect the ultimate realization of deferred tax assets and could result in an increase in the Company's effective tax rate on future earnings. Based on our assessment, it appears more likely than not that all of the net deferred tax assets will be realized through future taxable income.
The Company's condensed consolidated financial statements recognizes the current and deferred income taxes consequences that result from the Company's activities during the current and preceding periods, as if the Company were a separate taxpayer prior to the date of the spinoff of the Company when it was a member of the consolidated income tax return group of Spectrum Group International, Inc. ("SGI"). Following its spin-off, the Company separately files its federal and state income tax filings. The Company recognizes current and deferred income taxes as a separate taxpayer for periods ending after the date of the spinoff.


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Earnings per Share ("EPS")
The Company computes and reports both basic EPS and diluted EPS. Basic EPS is computed by dividing net earnings (losses) by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing net earnings (losses) by the sum of the weighted average number of common shares and dilutive common stock equivalents outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS reflects the total potential dilution that could occur from outstanding equity awards, including unexercised stock options, utilizing the treasury stock method.
A reconciliation of shares used in calculating basic and diluted earnings per common shares for the three and six months ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, is presented below.
in thousands
 
 
 
 
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Six Months Ended
 
December 31, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
 
December 31, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
Basic weighted average shares outstanding
7,031

 
7,031

 
7,031

 
7,031

Effect of common stock equivalents — stock issuable under outstanding equity awards
25

 
55

 
44

 
58

Diluted weighted average shares outstanding
7,056

 
7,086

 
7,075

 
7,089

Dividends
Dividends are recorded if and when they are declared by the Board of Directors.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
From time to time, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") or other standards setting bodies issue new accounting pronouncements. Updates to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) are communicated through issuance of an Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”).
We adopted ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) and relevant amendments, effective for the Company on July 1, 2019. The standard represents a change to lease accounting and requires all leases, other than short-term leases, to be reported on the balance sheet through recognition of a right-of-use asset and a corresponding liability for future lease obligations. The standard also requires incremental disclosures for assets, expenses, and cash flows associated with leases, as well as a maturity analysis of lease liabilities. We adopted Topic 842 by applying the transition method whereby comparative periods have not been restated, and no adjustment to retained earnings was required. Upon adoption of the standard, we recognized right-of-use assets of approximately $5.3 million and lease liabilities of approximately $6.3 million. This increase largely relates to the present value of future minimum lease payments due under existing operating leases of office facilities and warehouse space. No material changes are expected to the recognition of lease expenses in the condensed consolidated of statement of operations as a result of the adoption of Topic 842. For adoption, we elected Topic 842’s package of three practical expedients, and 1) did not reassess whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases, 2) did not reassess the lease classification for any expired or existing leases, and 3) did not reassess initial direct costs for any existing leases. In addition, we made an accounting policy election not to apply the recognition requirements to short-term leases.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, (“ASU 2016-13”), Financial Instruments - Credit Loss (Topic 326), which updates the guidance on recognition and measurement of credit losses for financial assets. The new requirements, known as the current expected credit loss model ("CECL") will require entities to adopt an impairment model based on expected losses rather than incurred losses. This update is effective for the Company on July 1, 2023 (for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022 including interim periods within those fiscal years). The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of the adoption of the new standard on its consolidated statements of financial condition and results of operations.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other: Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40), to provide additional guidance on the accounting for costs of implementation activities performed in a cloud computing arrangement. This update is effective for the Company on July 1, 2020 (for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 including interim periods within those fiscal years). The adoption of this guidance is not expected to have a material impact on our financial statements.

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3. ASSETS AND LIABILITIES, AT FAIR VALUE
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
A financial instrument is defined as cash, evidence of an ownership interest in an entity, or a contract that creates a contractual obligation or right to deliver or receive cash or another financial instrument from a second entity. The fair value of the a financial instruments represent amounts that would be received upon the sale of those assets or that would be paid to transfer those liabilities in an orderly transaction between market participants at that date. Those fair value measurements maximize the use of observable inputs. However, in situations where there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at the measurement date, the fair value measurement reflects the Company’s own judgments about the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. Those judgments are developed by the Company based on the best information available in the circumstances, including expected cash flows and appropriately risk adjusted discount rates, and available observable and unobservable inputs.
For most of the Company's financial instruments, the carrying amount approximates fair value. The carrying amounts of cash, secured loans receivable, receivables, income taxes receivable, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities approximate fair value due to their short-term nature. The carrying amounts of derivative assets and derivative liabilities, liabilities on borrowed metals and product financing arrangements are marked-to-market on a daily basis to fair value. The carrying amounts of lines of credit approximate fair value based on the borrowing rates currently available to the Company for bank loans with similar terms and average maturities. The carrying amounts of the Company's other long-term assets, which include a note receivable due from a customer, approximate fair value as of December 31, 2019.     
The Company’s fixed-rate notes payable is reported at its aggregate principal amount less unamortized original issue discount and deferred financing costs on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The fair value of the notes payable is based on the present value of the expected coupon and principal payments using an estimated discount rate based on current market rates for debt with similar credit risk. The following table presents the carrying amounts and estimated fair values of the Company’s fixed-rate notes payable of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019:
in thousands
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2019
 
June 30, 2019
 
 
Carrying Amount
 
Fair value
 
Carrying Amount
 
Fair value
 
 
 
 
 
Notes payable
 
92,181

 
99,785

 
91,859

 
98,609

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Valuation Hierarchy
In determining the fair value of its financial instruments, the Company employs a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs for the valuation techniques used to measure fair value. Topic 820 of the ASC established a three-level valuation hierarchy for disclosure of fair value measurements. The valuation hierarchy is based upon the transparency of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability as of the measurement date. The three levels are defined as follows:
Level 1 inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.
Level 2 inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, and inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.
Level 3 inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement.
Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis
The significant assumptions used to determine the carrying value and the related fair value of the assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis are described below:
Inventories. Inventories, which principally include bullion and bullion coins, are acquired and initially recorded at fair market value. The fair market value of the bullion and bullion coins comprises two components: 1) published market values attributable to the costs of the raw precious metal, and 2) a published premium paid at acquisition of the metal. The premium is attributable to the additional value of the product in its finished goods form and the market value attributable solely to the premium is readily determined, as it is published by multiple reputable sources. Except for commemorative coin inventory, which are included in inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value, the Company’s inventory is subsequently recorded at their fair market values on a daily basis. The fair value for commodities inventory (i.e., inventory excluding commemorative coins) is determined using pricing data derived from the markets on which the underlying commodities are traded. Precious metals commodities inventory are classified in Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy.

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Precious Metals held under Financing Arrangements. The Company enters into arrangements with certain customers under which A-Mark purchases precious metals from the customers which are subject to repurchase by the customer at the spot value of the product on the repurchase date. The precious metals purchased under these arrangements consist of rare and unique items, and therefore the Company accounts for these transactions as precious metals held under financing arrangements, which generate financing income rather than revenue earned from precious metals inventory sales. In these repurchase arrangements, the Company holds legal title to the metals and earns financing income for the duration of the agreement. The fair value for precious metals held under financing arrangements, (a commodity, like inventory above) is determined using pricing data derived from the markets on which the underlying commodities are traded. Precious metals commodities inventory are classified in Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy.
Derivatives. Futures contracts, forward contracts, option contracts, and open sale and purchase commitments are valued at their fair values, based on the difference between the quoted market price and the contractual price (i.e., intrinsic value,) and are included within Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy.
Margin and Borrowed Metals Liabilities. Margin and borrowed metals liabilities consist of the Company's commodity obligations to margin customers and suppliers, respectively. Margin liabilities and borrowed metals liabilities are carried at fair value, which is determined using quoted market pricing and data derived from the markets on which the underlying commodities are traded. Margin and borrowed metals liabilities are classified in Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy.
Product Financing Arrangements. Product financing arrangements consist of financing agreements for the transfer and subsequent re-acquisition of the sale of gold and silver at an agreed-upon price based on the spot price with a third party. Such transactions allow the Company to repurchase this inventory on the termination (repurchase) date. The third party charges monthly interest as a percentage of the market value of the outstanding obligation, which is carried at fair value. The obligation is stated at the amount required to repurchase the outstanding inventory. Fair value is determined using quoted market pricing and data derived from the markets on which the underlying commodities are traded. Product financing arrangements are classified in Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy.
Liability on Price Protection Programs. The Company records an estimate of the fair value of the liability on the price protection programs based on the difference between the contractual price at trade date and the retail price at the remeasurement date (i.e., quarter-end) based on the expected redemption rate. As of December 31, 2019, the Company used the quoted market price based on the current spot rate and used an expected redemption rate of 100%. The use of a throughput rate ignores the future price volatility that would affect the timing and rate of redemption under the program, and, as a result, the liability on the price protection programs is classified in Level 3 of the valuation hierarchy.
    

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The following tables present information about the Company's assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, aggregated by the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the measurements fall:
 
 
December 31, 2019
 
 
Quoted Price in
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Active Markets
 
Significant Other
 
Significant
 
 
 
 
for Identical
 
Observable
 
Unobservable
 
 
 
 
Instruments
 
Inputs
 
Inputs
 
 
in thousands
 
(Level 1)
 
(Level 2)
 
(Level 3)
 
Total
Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Inventories (1)
 
$
261,533

 
$

 
$

 
$
261,533

Precious metals held under financing arrangements
 
196,972

 

 

 
196,972

Derivative assets — open sale and purchase commitments, net
 
4,950

 

 

 
4,950

Derivative assets — option contracts
 
1

 

 

 
1

Derivative assets — futures contracts
 
60

 

 

 
60

Derivative assets — forward contracts
 
348

 

 

 
348

Total assets, valued at fair value
 
$
463,864

 
$

 
$

 
$
463,864

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liabilities on borrowed metals
 
$
192,889

 
$

 
$

 
$
192,889

Product financing arrangements
 
79,766

 

 

 
79,766

Derivative liabilities — price protection programs
 

 

 
2

 
2

Derivative liabilities — margin accounts
 
3,618

 

 

 
3,618

Derivative liabilities — open sale and purchase commitments, net
 
2,589

 

 

 
2,589

Derivative liabilities — futures contracts
 
2,840

 

 

 
2,840

Total liabilities, valued at fair value
 
$
281,702

 
$

 
$
2

 
$
281,704

____________________
(1) Commemorative coin inventory totaling $1.4 million is held at lower of cost or net realizable value and thus is excluded from the inventories balance shown in this table.

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June 30, 2019
 
 
Quoted Price in
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Active Markets
 
Significant Other
 
Significant
 
 
 
 
for Identical
 
Observable
 
Unobservable
 
 
 
 
Instruments
 
Inputs
 
Inputs
 
 
in thousands
 
(Level 1)
 
(Level 2)
 
(Level 3)
 
Total
Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Inventories (1)
 
$
292,844

 
$

 
$

 
$
292,844

Precious metals held under financing arrangements
 
208,792

 

 

 
208,792

Derivative assets — open sale and purchase commitments, net
 
2,322

 

 

 
2,322

Derivative assets — option contracts
 
61

 

 

 
61

Derivative assets — futures contracts
 
2

 

 

 
2

Derivative assets — forward contracts
 
43

 

 

 
43

Total assets, valued at fair value
 
$
504,064

 
$

 
$

 
$
504,064

Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liabilities on borrowed metals
 
$
201,144

 
$

 
$

 
$
201,144

Product financing arrangements
 
94,505

 

 

 
94,505

Derivative liabilities — price protection programs
 

 

 
22

 
22

Derivative liabilities — margin accounts
 
2,981

 

 

 
2,981

Derivative liabilities — open sale and purchase commitments, net
 
3,822

 

 

 
3,822

Derivative liabilities — futures contracts
 
1,241

 

 

 
1,241

Derivative liabilities — forward contracts
 
1,905

 

 

 
1,905

Total liabilities, valued at fair value
 
$
305,598

 
$

 
$
22

 
$
305,620

____________________
(1) Commemorative coin inventory totaling $17 thousand is held at lower of cost or net realizable value thus is excluded from the inventories balance shown in this table.
There were no transfers in or out of Level 2 or 3 from other levels within the fair value hierarchy during the reported periods.
Assets Measured at Fair Value on a Non-Recurring Basis
Certain assets are measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis. These assets are not measured at fair value on an ongoing basis but are subject to fair value adjustments only under certain circumstances. These include: i) equity method investments that are written down to fair value when a decline in the fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, ii) property, plant, and equipment and definite-lived intangibles, or iii) goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles, all of which are written down to fair value when they are held for sale or determined to be impaired. The resulting fair value measurements of the assets are considered to be Level 3 measurements. Determining fair value requires the exercise of significant judgments, including judgments about appropriate discount rates, long-term growth rates, relevant comparable company earnings multiples, and the amount and timing of expected future cash flows. The cash flows employed in the analyses are based on the Company’s estimated outlook and various growth rates. Discount rate assumptions are based on an assessment of the risk inherent in the future cash flows of the respective equity method investment, asset group, or reporting unit. In assessing the reasonableness of its determined fair values, the Company evaluates its results against other value indicators, such as comparable transactions and comparable public company trading values.

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4.
RECEIVABLES
Receivables consist of the following as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019:
in thousands
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2019
 
June 30, 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Customer trade receivables
 
$
6,681

 
$
13,050

 
Wholesale trade advances
 
5,760

 
9,704

 
Due from brokers
 
12,157

 
4,141

 
Receivables, net
 
$
24,598

 
$
26,895

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Customer Trade Receivables. Customer trade receivables represent short-term, non-interest bearing amounts due from precious metal sales, advances related to financing products, and other secured interests in assets of the customer.
Wholesale Trade Advances. Wholesale trade advances represent advances of various bullion products and cash advances for purchase commitments of precious metal inventory. Typically, these advances are unsecured, short-term, and non-interest bearing, and are made to wholesale metals dealers and government mints.
Due from Brokers. Due from brokers principally consists of the margin requirements held at brokers related to open futures contracts. (See Note 11.)
 
5.
SECURED LOANS RECEIVABLE
Below is a summary of the carrying value of our secured loans as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019:
in thousands
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2019
 
June 30, 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Secured loans originated
 
$
29,461

 
$
36,714

 
Secured loans originated - with a related party
 
8,950

 
14,058

 
 
 
38,411

 
50,772

 
Secured loans acquired
 
113,932

(1) 
74,526

(2) 

 
$
152,343

 
$
125,298

 
_________________________________
(1)    Includes $29 thousand of loan premium as of December 31, 2019.
(2)    Includes $29 thousand of loan premium as of June 30, 2019.    
Secured Loans - Originated: Secured loans include short-term loans, which include a combination of on-demand lines and short-term facilities, and long-term loans that are made to our customers. These loans are fully secured by the customers' assets that include bullion, numismatic, and semi-numismatic material, which are typically held in safekeeping by the Company. (See Note 13 for further information regarding our secured loans made to related parties.)
Secured Loans - Acquired: Secured loans also include short-term loans, which include a combination of on-demand lines and short term facilities that are purchased from our customers. The Company acquires a portfolio of their loan receivables at a price that approximates the outstanding balance of each loan in the portfolio, as determined on the effective transaction date. Each loan in the portfolio is fully secured by the borrowers' assets, which include bullion, numismatic, and semi-numismatic material that are held in safekeeping by the Company. Typically, the seller of the loan portfolio retains the responsibility for the servicing and administration of the loans.
    As of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, our secured loans carried weighted-average effective interest rates of 10.7% and 10.2%, respectively, and mature in periods ranging typically from on-demand to one year.
The secured loans that the Company generates with active customers of A-Mark are reflected as an operating activity on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows. The secured loans that the Company generates with borrowers who are not active customers of A-Mark are reflected as an investing activity on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows as secured loans receivables, net. For the secured loans that (i) are reflected as an investing activity and have terms that allow the borrowers to increase their loan balance (at the discretion of the Company) based on the excess value of their collateral compared to their

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aggregate principal balance of loan, and (ii) are repayable on demand or in the short-term, the borrowings and repayments are netted on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.
Credit Quality of Secured Loans Receivables and Allowance for Credit Losses
General
The Company's secured loan receivables portfolio comprises loans with similar credit risk profiles, which enables the Company to apply a standard methodology to determine the credit quality for each loan and the allowance for credit losses, if any.
The credit quality of each loan is generally determined by the collateral value assessment, loan-to-value ratio (that is, the principal amount of the loan divided by the estimated value of the collateral) and the type (or class) of secured material. All loans are fully secured by precious metal bullion or numismatic collateral, which remains in the physical custody of the Company for the duration of the loan. The term of the loans is generally 180 days. Interest earned on a loan is billed monthly and is typically due and payable within 20 days and, if not paid after all applicable grace periods, is added to the outstanding principal balance, and late fees and default interest rates are assessed.
When an account is in default or if a margin call has not been met on a timely basis, the Company has the right to liquidate the borrower's collateral in order to satisfy the unpaid balance of the outstanding loans, including accrued and unpaid interest.
Class and Credit Quality of Loans
The two classes of secured loan receivables are defined by collateral type: 1) bullion items, and 2) numismatic and semi-numismatic coins. The loan-to-value ratio varies with the class of loans. Typically, the Company requires a loan-to-value ratio of approximately 75% for bullion and 65% for numismatic collateral. The reason for the lower loan-to-value ratio for numismatic loans is that, on a percentage basis, more of the value of the numismatic coin relates to its premium value rather than its underlying commodity value.
The Company's secured loans by portfolio class, which align with internal management reporting, are as follows:
in thousands
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2019
 
June 30, 2019
 
Bullion
 
$
123,626

 
81.1
%
 
$
92,899

 
74.1
%
 
Numismatic and semi-numismatic
 
28,717

 
18.9

 
32,399

 
25.9

 
 
 
$
152,343

 
100.0
%
 
$
125,298

 
100.0
%
 
Due to the nature of market fluctuations of precious metal commodity prices, the Company monitors the bullion collateral value of each loan on a daily basis, based on spot price of precious metals. Numismatic collateral values are updated by numismatic specialists when loan term is renewed (typically in 180 days).
Generally, we initiate the margin call process when the outstanding loan balance is in excess of 85% of the current value of the underlying collateral. In the event that a borrower fails to meet a margin call to reestablish the required loan-to-value ratio, the loan is considered in default. The collateral material (either bullion or numismatic) underlying such loans is then sold by the Company to satisfy all amounts due under the loan.
Loans with loan-to-value ratios of less than 75% are generally considered to be higher quality loans. Below is summary of aggregate outstanding secured loan balances bifurcated into 1) loans with a loan-to-value ratio of 75% or more and 2) loans with a loan-to-value ratio of less than 75%:
in thousands
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2019
 
June 30, 2019
Loan-to-value of 75% or more
 
$
87,565

 
57.5
%
 
$
59,258

 
47.3
%
Loan-to-value of less than 75%
 
64,778

 
42.5

 
66,040

 
52.7

 
 
$
152,343

 
100.0
%
 
$
125,298

 
100.0
%
The Company had no loans with a loan-to-value ratio in excess of 100% as of December 31, 2019 or June 30, 2019.
Non-Performing Loans/Impaired Loans
Historically, the Company has not established an allowance for any credit losses because the Company has liquidated the collateral to satisfy the amount due before any loan becomes non-performing or impaired.

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Non-performing loans have the highest probability for credit loss. The allowance for credit losses attributable to non-performing loans is based on the most probable source of repayment, which is normally the liquidation of collateral. Due to the accelerated liquidation terms of the Company's loan portfolio, past due loans are generally liquidated within 90 days of default before a loan becomes non-performing. In the event a loan were to become non-performing, the Company would determine a reserve to reduce the the carrying balance to its estimated net realizable value. As of December 31, 2019 or June 30, 2019, the Company had no allowance for secured loan losses.
A loan is considered impaired if it is probable, based on current information and events, that the Company will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan. Customer loans are reviewed for impairment and include loans that are past due, non-performing, or in bankruptcy. In the event of an impairment, recognition of interest income would be suspended and the loan would be placed on non-accrual status at the time. Accrual would be resumed, and previously suspended interest income would be recognized, when the loan becomes contractually current and/or collection doubts are removed. Cash receipts on impaired loans are recorded first against the receivable and then to any unrecognized interest income. For the three and six months ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company incurred no loan impairment costs.
6.
INVENTORIES
Our inventory consist of the precious metals that the Company has physically received, and inventory held by third-parties, which, at the Company's option, it may or may not receive. Below, our inventory is summarized by classification at December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019:
in thousands
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2019
 
June 30, 2019
Inventory held for sale
 
$
89,599

 
$
106,165

Repurchase arrangements with customers
 
64,099

 
65,516

Consignment arrangements with customers
 
6,189

 
4,896

Commemorative coins, held at lower of cost or net realizable value
 
1,398

 
17

Borrowed precious metals
 
21,880

 
21,762

Product financing arrangements, restricted
 
79,766

 
94,505

 
 
$
262,931

 
$
292,861

Inventory Held for Sale. Inventory held for sale represents precious metals, excluding commemorative coin inventory, that have been received by the Company and are not subject to repurchase by or consignment arrangements with third parties, borrowed precious metals, and product financing arrangements. As of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, the inventory held for sale totaled $89.6 million and $106.2 million, respectively.
Repurchase Arrangements with Customers. The Company enters into arrangements with certain customers under which A-Mark purchases precious metals from the customers which are subject to repurchase by the customer at the fair value of the product on the repurchase date. Under these arrangements, the Company, which holds legal title to the metals, earns financing income until the time the arrangement is terminated or the material is repurchased by the customer. In the event of a repurchase by the customer, the Company records a sale.
These arrangements are typically terminable by either party upon 14 days' notice. Upon termination, the customer’s rights to repurchase any remaining inventory is forfeited. As of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, included within inventories is $64.1 million and $65.5 million, respectively, of precious metals products subject to repurchase arrangements with customers.
Consignment Arrangements with Customers. The Company periodically loans metals to customers on a short-term consignment basis. Inventory loaned under consignment arrangements to customers as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019 totaled $6.2 million and $4.9 million, respectively. Such transactions are recorded as sales and are removed from the Company's inventory at the time the customer elects to price and purchase the precious metals.
Commemorative Coins. Our commemorative coin inventory, including its premium component, is held at the lower of cost or net realizable value, because the value of commemorative coins is influenced more by supply and demand determinants than on the underlying spot price of the precious metal content of the commemorative coins. Unlike our bullion coins, the value of commemorative coins is not subject to the same level of volatility as bullion coins because our commemorative coins typically carry a substantially higher premium over the spot metal price than bullion coins. Our commemorative coins are not hedged, and are included in inventories at the lower of cost or net realizable value and totaled $1,398,000 and $17,000 as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, respectively.
Borrowed Precious Metals. Borrowed precious metals inventory include: 1) metals held by suppliers as collateral on advanced pool metals, 2) metals due to suppliers for the use of their consigned inventory, 3) unallocated metal positions held by

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customers in the Company’s inventory, and 4) shortages in unallocated metal positions held by the Company in the supplier’s inventory. Unallocated or pool metal represents an unsegregated inventory position that is due on demand, in a specified physical form, based on the total ounces of metal held in the position. Amounts due under these arrangements require delivery either in the form of precious metals or cash. The Company's inventory included borrowed precious metals with market values totaling $21.9 million and $21.8 million as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, respectively, with a corresponding offsetting obligation reflected as liabilities on borrowed metals on the condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Product Financing Arrangements. In substance, this inventory represent amounts held as security by lenders for obligations under product financing arrangements. The Company enters into a product financing agreement for the transfer and subsequent re-acquisition of gold and silver at an agreed-upon price based on the spot price with a third party finance company. This inventory is restricted and is held at a custodial storage facility in exchange for a financing fee, paid to the third party finance company. During the term of the financing, the third party finance company holds the inventory as collateral, and both parties intend for the inventory to be returned to the Company at an agreed-upon price based on the spot price on the finance arrangement termination date. These transactions do not qualify as sales and have been accounted for as financing arrangements in accordance with ASC 470-40 Product Financing Arrangements. The obligation is stated at the amount required to repurchase the outstanding inventory. Both the product financing and the underlying inventory are carried at fair value, with changes in fair value included in cost of sales in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. Such obligations totaled $79.8 million and $94.5 million as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, respectively.
The Company mitigates market risk of its physical inventory and open commitments through commodity hedge transactions. (See Note 11.) As of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, the unrealized gains resulting from the difference between market value and cost of physical inventory were $7.1 million and $8.8 million, respectively.
Premium component of inventory
The Company's inventory primarily include bullion and bullion coins and are acquired and initially recorded at fair market value. The fair market value of the bullion and bullion coins is comprised of two components: 1) published market values attributable to the cost of the raw precious metal, and 2) a published premium paid at acquisition of the metal. The premium is attributable to the additional value of the product in its finished goods form and the market value attributable solely to the premium is readily determined, as it is published by multiple reputable sources. The premium is included in the cost of the inventory, paid at acquisition, and is a component of the total fair market value of the inventory. The precious metal component of the inventory may be hedged through the use of precious metal commodity positions, while the premium component of our inventory is not a commodity that may be hedged.
The Company’s inventory is subsequently recorded at their fair market values, that is, marked-to-market, except for our commemorative coin inventory. The daily changes in the fair market value of our inventory is offset by daily changes in fair market value of hedging derivatives that are taken with respect to our inventory positions; both the change in the fair market value of the inventory and the change in the fair market value of these derivative instruments are recorded in cost of sales in the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
The premium component, at market value, included in the inventory as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019 totaled $4.2 million and $4.4 million, respectively.

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7. PROPERTY, PLANT, AND EQUIPMENT
Property, plant, and equipment consists of the following at December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019:
in thousands
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2019
 
June 30, 2019
 
Office furniture, and fixtures
 
$
2,120

 
$
2,080

 
Computer equipment
 
817

 
798

 
Computer software
 
4,310

 
4,111

 
Plant equipment
 
3,059

 
2,872

 
Building
 
319

 
319

 
Leasehold improvements
 
2,804

 
2,804

 
Total depreciable assets
 
13,429

 
12,984

 
Less: accumulated depreciation
 
(8,222
)
 
(7,395
)
 
Property and equipment not placed in service
 
1,106

 
1,106

 
Land
 
36

 
36

 
Property, plant, and equipment, net
 
$
6,349

 
$
6,731

 
Depreciation expense for the three months ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 was $412,000 and $448,000, respectively. Depreciation expense for the six months ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 was $827,000 and $893,000, respectively.
8. GOODWILL AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS
Goodwill is an intangible asset that arises when a company acquires an existing business or assets (net of assumed liabilities) which comprise a business.  In general, the amount of goodwill recorded in an acquisition is calculated as the purchase price of the business minus the fair market value of the tangible assets and the identifiable intangible assets, net of the assumed liabilities. Goodwill and intangibles can also be established by push-down accounting.  Below is a summary of the significant transactions that generated goodwill and intangible assets of the Company:
In connection with the acquisition of A-Mark by SGI in July 2005, the accounts of the Company were adjusted using the push down basis of accounting to recognize the allocation of the consideration paid to the respective net assets acquired. In accordance with the push down basis of accounting, the Company's net assets were adjusted to their fair values as of the date of the acquisition based upon an independent appraisal.
In connection with the Company's business combination with AMST in August 2016, the Company recorded an additional $2.5 million and $4.3 million of identifiable intangible assets and goodwill, respectively; these values were based upon an independent appraisal and represent their fair values at the acquisition date. The Company’s investment in AMST has resulted in synergies between the acquired minting operation and the Company’s established distribution network by providing a more steady and reliable fabricated source of silver during times of market volatility. The Company considers that much of the acquired goodwill relates to the “ready state” of AMST's established minting operation with existing quality processes, procedures, and ability to scale production to meet market needs. 
In connection with the Company's acquisition of Goldline in August 2017, the Company recorded $5.0 million and $1.4 million of additional identifiable intangible assets and goodwill, respectively; these values were based upon an independent appraisal and represent their fair values at the acquisition date. The Company’s investment in Goldline created synergies between Goldline's direct marketing operation and the Company’s established distribution network, secured storage and lending operations that has led to increased product margin spreads, and lower distribution and storage costs for Goldline.

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Table of Contents            

Carrying Value
The carrying value of goodwill and other purchased intangibles as of December 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019 is as described below:
dollar amounts in thousands
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
December 31, 2019
 
June 30, 2019

Estimated Useful Lives (Years)
 
Gross Carrying Amount
 
Accumulated Amortization
 
Accumulated Impairment
 
Net Book Value
 
Gross Carrying Amount
 
Accumulated Amortization
 
Accumulated Impairment
 
Net Book Value
Identifiable intangible assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Existing customer relationships
5 - 15
 
$
8,998

 
$
(6,836
)
 
$

 
$
2,162

 
$
8,848

 
$
(6,376
)
 
$

 
$
2,472

Non-compete and other
3 - 5
 
2,300

 
(2,154
)
 

 
146

 
2,300

 
(2,122
)
 

 
178

Employment agreement
3
 
295

 
(272
)
 

 
23

 
295

 
(256
)
 

 
39

Intangibles subject to amortization
 
11,593

 
(9,262
)
 

 
2,331