Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 12, 2020

 

Registration No. 333-251779


 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 


 

AMENDMENT NO. 1

TO

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 


 

PRESIDIO PROPERTY TRUST, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 


 

Maryland

 

33-0841255

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

 

4995 Murphy Canyon Road, Suite 300

San Diego, California 92123

(760) 471-8536

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrants principal executive offices)

 


 

Jack K. Heilbron

Chief Executive Officer and President

4995 Murphy Canyon Road, Suite 300

San Diego, CA 92123

(760) 471-8536

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 


 

Copies to:

Stuart Neuhauser, Esq.

Joshua N. Englard, Esq.

Jonathan H. Deblinger, Esq.

Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP

1345 Avenue of the Americas

New York, New York 10105-0302

Telephone: (212) 370-1300

Fax: (212) 370-7889

 


 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:  From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:  ☐

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box:  ☒

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering:  ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

       

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

       
   

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered(1)

Amount

to be

Registered(2)(3)

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price

per Security(2)(3)

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price(2)(3)

Amount of

Registration Fee(4)

Presidio Property Trust, Inc.

       

Series A Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share

Purchase Contracts(5)

Warrants to Purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock or other Securities(6)

Subscription Rights to Purchase Common Stock or Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Debt Securities (which may be senior or subordinated, convertible or non-convertible, secured or unsecured)

Units(7)

TOTAL

$200,000,000

$21,820(8)

 

​​​​​​(1)

Securities registered hereunder may be sold separately, together or as units with other securities registered hereunder.

(2)

Not specified as to each class of securities to be registered pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.D.

(3)

The Registrant is registering an indeterminate aggregate principal amount and number of securities of each identified class of securities up to a proposed aggregate offering price of $200,000,000, which may be offered from time to time in unspecified numbers and at indeterminate prices, and as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange, or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including under any applicable anti-dilution provisions. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.

(4)

The registration fee is calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The proposed maximum aggregate offering price has been estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.

(5)

Includes purchase contracts issuable upon conversion or exchange of securities registered hereunder to the extent any such securities are by their terms convertible into or exchangeable for purchase contracts. Each purchase contract obligates the registrant to sell, and the holder thereof to purchase, an indeterminate number of debt securities, shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock or other securities registered hereunder.

(6)

Warrants may represent rights to purchase debt securities, common stock, preferred stock or other securities registered hereunder.

(7)

Each Unit consists of any combination of two or more of the securities being registered hereby.

(8)

Previously Paid.

 


 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until this Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell the securities until the Registration Statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, of which this prospectus is a part, is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED APRIL 12, 2021

 

Preliminary Prospectus

 

PRESIDIO PROPERTY TRUST, INC.

 

$200,000,000

SERIES A COMMON STOCK

PREFERRED STOCK

PURCHASE CONTRACTS

WARRANTS

SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

DEPOSITARY SHARES

DEBT SECURITIES

UNITS

 


 

We may offer and sell from time to time, in one or more series, any one of the following securities of Presidio Property Trust, Inc. (“Presidio” or the “Company”), for total gross proceeds of up to $200,000,000:

 

 

Series A Common Stock;

 

 

preferred stock;

 

 

purchase contracts;

 

 

warrants to purchase our securities;

 

 

subscription rights to purchase any of the foregoing securities;

 

 

depositary shares;

 

 

debt securities (which may be senior or subordinated, convertible or non-convertible, secured or unsecured); and

 

 

units comprised of the foregoing securities.

 

We may offer and sell these securities separately or together, in one or more series or classes and in amounts, at prices and on terms described in one or more offerings. We may offer securities through underwriting syndicates managed or co-managed by one or more underwriters or dealers, through agents or directly to purchasers. The prospectus supplement for each offering of securities will describe in detail the plan of distribution for that offering. For general information about the distribution of securities offered, please see “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus.

 

Presidio’s Series A Common Stock is traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “SQFT.” If we decide to seek a listing of any other class or series of common stock, any preferred stock, purchase contracts, warrants, subscription rights, depositary shares, debt securities or units offered by this prospectus, the related prospectus supplement will disclose the exchange or market on which the securities will be listed, if any, or where we have made an application for listing, if any.

 

As of April 9, 2021, the aggregate market value of our outstanding voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates was approximately $34.7 million, based on an aggregate of 9,895,051 shares of Series A Common Stock outstanding, of which 9,326,388 shares were held by non-affiliates, and a per share price of $3.72, the closing price of our Series A Common Stock on April 9, 2021, as reported on the Nasdaq Capital Market. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell securities in a public primary offering with a value exceeding more than one-third of our public float in any 12-month period so long as our public float remains below $75.0 million. We have not sold any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 during the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus.

 


 

Investing in our securities involves certain risks. You should carefully read and consider the section entitledRisk Factorson page 4 and the risk factors included in our periodic reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and, if any, in the relevant prospectus supplement. We urge you to carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, together with the documents we incorporate by reference, before making your investment decision.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 


 

 

 

The date of this prospectus is                     , 2021.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

       
   

Page

About This Prospectus

    1

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

    2

About Presidio Property Trust, Inc.

    3

Risk Factors

    6

Use of Proceeds

    7

Plan of Distribution

    8

Description of Securities We May Offer

    11

Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and Our Charter and Bylaws

    21

Forms of Securities

    26

U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

    28

Legal Matters

    45

Experts

    45

Where You Can Find More Information

    45

Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

    45

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer and sell, either individually or in combination, in one or more offerings, any of the securities described in this prospectus, for total gross proceeds of up to $200,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. In this prospectus, unless the context indicates otherwise, the terms “Presidio,” “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Presidio Property Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation.

 

We urge you to read carefully this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” before investing in any of the securities being offered. You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so.

 

The information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security.

 

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21B of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect” and similar expressions, as they relate to us, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, business prospectus, growth strategy and liquidity. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions and our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in forward-looking statements for many reasons, including the factors described in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC.

 

The forward-looking statements speak as of the date made and are not guarantees of future performance. Actual results or developments may differ materially from the expectations expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements, and we undertake no obligation to update any such statements. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

 

You should carefully read the factors described in the “Risk Factors” section of any prospectus supplement or other offering material, as well as any risks described in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a description of certain risks that could, among other things, cause our actual results to differ from these forward-looking statements. You should understand that it is not possible to predict or identify all such factors and that this list should not be considered a complete statement of all potential risks and uncertainties. You should also realize that if the assumptions we have made prove inaccurate or if unknown risks or uncertainties materialize, actual results could vary materially from the views and estimates included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

 

ABOUT PRESIDIO PROPERTY TRUST, INC.

 

Overview

 

We are an internally managed, diversified real estate investment trust (“REIT”). As of December 31, 2020, our portfolio consisted of approximately 1,114,518 square feet (which we refer to as “sf”) comprised of 10 office properties, one industrial property and four retail properties, which we refer to collectively as our commercial portfolio. Our commercial portfolio currently consists of properties located in Southern California, Colorado, and North Dakota, and we are currently considering new commercial property acquisitions in a variety of additional markets across the United States. Our commercial property tenant base is diversified, which helps limit our exposure to any single industry in which our tenants operate. As of December 31, 2020, our tenant base consisted of 192 individual commercial tenants with an average remaining lease term of approximately 2.9 years. As of December 31, 2020, no commercial tenant represented more than approximately 7% of our annualized base rent, and our ten largest tenants represented approximately 28.88% of our annualized base rent.

 

In addition, we also own interests, through our subsidiaries and affiliated limited partnerships, in model homes primarily located in Texas and Florida. As of December 31, 2020, there were 118 such model homes. We purchase model homes from established residential home builders and lease them back to the same home builders on a triple-net basis.

 

Our main objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value through the acquisition, management, leasing and selective redevelopment of high-quality commercial properties. We focus on regionally dominant markets across the United States which we believe have attractive growth dynamics driven in part by important economic factors such as strong office-using employment growth; net in-migration of a highly educated workforce; a large student population; the stability provided by healthcare systems, government or other large institutional employer presence; low rates of unemployment; and lower cost of living versus gateway markets. We seek to maximize returns through investments in markets with limited supply, high barriers to entry, and stable and growing employment drivers. Our model home portfolio supports the objective of maximizing stockholder value by focusing on purchasing new single-family model homes and leasing them back to experienced homebuilders. We operate the model home portfolio in markets where we believe that there may be potential for price appreciation, and we can diversify by geography, builder size, model home purchase price and type of homebuyer.

 

Our co-founder, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer is Jack K. Heilbron, a 40-year veteran in real estate investing, including eight years with Excel Realty Trust, Inc. (“Excel REIT”), previously an NYSE-listed retail REIT, and one of its predecessor companies, The Investors Realty Trust (“IRT”), prior to founding our company. Together with our former Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer, Kenneth W. Elsberry, Mr. Heilbron founded both our company and Clover Income and Growth REIT, Inc. (“Clover REIT”), a private REIT focused on retail mixed-use properties. During Mr. Heilbron’s tenure at Excel REIT, IRT and Clover REIT, Mr. Heilbron oversaw the investment of substantial real estate assets and saw Clover REIT liquidate at a substantial gain to investors. Our model home division is led by Larry G. Dubose, a pioneer in the industry who has over 30 years of experience acquiring, financing, managing, and operating model home sale-leaseback transactions with builders throughout the nation. Our senior management team also includes Gary M. Katz, Ann T. Nguyen, and Adam Sragovicz, each of whom has approximately 20 years or more of diverse experience in various aspects of real estate, including both commercial and residential, management, acquisitions, finance and dispositions in privately-held and publicly traded companies. We believe this industry experience and depth of relationships provides us with a significant advantage in sourcing, evaluating, underwriting and managing our investments.

 

Our Current Portfolio

 

Our commercial portfolio currently consists of 15 properties located in Southern California, Colorado, and North Dakota, and approximately 118 model home properties located in six states, with the majority located in Texas and Florida as of December 31, 2020. This geographical clustering enables us to minimize operating costs and leverage efficiencies by managing a number of properties utilizing minimal overhead and staff. Our model home division utilizes newly-built single family model homes as an investment vehicle. Our model home division purchases model homes from, and leases them back to, homebuilders as commercial tenants on a triple-net basis. These triple-net investments in which the commercial homebuilders bear the expenses of maintenance, real estate taxes and insurance (in addition to defraying monthly mortgage payments), alleviate significant cost and risk normally associated with holding single family homes for speculative sale or for lease to residential tenants.

 

Our Investment Approach

 

Our Commercial Property Investment Approach

 

We acquire high-quality commercial properties in overlooked and/or underserved markets, where we believe we can create long-term stockholder value. Our potential commercial investments are extensively reviewed based on several characteristics, including:

 

 

 

Market Research. We invest in properties within regionally dominant markets that we believe to be overlooked. We analyze potential markets for the key indicators that we feel will provide us higher risk adjusted returns. These indicators may include a net in-migration of highly educated workers, business friendly governmental policies, large university populations, accessible healthcare systems and available housing. We believe this quantitative approach will result in property acquisitions in markets with substantially higher demand for high quality commercial real estate.

 

 

Real Estate Enhancement. We typically acquire properties where we believe market demand is such that values can be significantly enhanced through repositioning strategies, such as upgrading common areas and tenant spaces, re-tenanting and leasing vacant space. We expect that these strategies will increase rent and occupancy while enhancing long-term value.

 

 

Portfolio Management. We believe our target markets have benefited from substantial economic growth, which provides us with opportunities to achieve long-term value and ultimately sell properties and recycle capital into properties offering a higher risk-adjusted return. We have achieved substantial returns in the past from the operation, repositioning, and sale of properties. We continue to actively manage our properties to maximize the opportunity to recycle capital.

 

Our Model Home Property Investment Approach

 

Model homes are single-family homes constructed by builders for the purpose of showcasing floor plans, elevations, optional features, and workmanship when marketing the development where the homes are located. Each model home is designed to be held for a minimum lease term (usually three years), after which the model home is listed for sale at the estimated fair market value. We seek to purchase model homes at a discount from their appraised value that have a likelihood of appreciation within the expected three-year term of the lease. Our model home leaseback agreements are triple-net, requiring the homebuilder/tenant to pay all operating expenses. We seek model homes in a variety of locations, a variety of price ranges, and from a variety of builders and developers to diversify the risk from economic conditions that may adversely affect a particular development or location.

 

Our Growth Strategy

 

Our principal business objective is to provide attractive risk-adjusted returns to our stockholders through a combination of (i) sustainable and increasing rental income and cash flow that generates reliable, increasing dividends and (ii) potential long-term appreciation in the value of our properties and common stock. Our primary strategy to achieve our business objective is to invest in, own and manage a diverse multi-tenant portfolio of high-quality commercial properties in promising regionally dominant markets, which we believe will drive higher tenant retention and occupancy.

 

Our Commercial Property Growth Strategy

 

We intend to grow our commercial portfolio by acquiring high-quality properties in our target markets. We may selectively invest in industrial, office, retail, triple net and other properties where we believe we can achieve higher risk-adjusted returns for our stockholders. We expect that our extensive broker and seller relationships will benefit our acquisition activities and help set us apart from competing buyers. In addition, we continue to actively manage our portfolio of commercial properties and continue to redeploy capital through the opportunistic sale of certain commercial properties.

 

We typically purchase properties at what we believe to be a discount to the replacement value of the property. We seek to enhance the value of these properties through active asset management where we believe we can increase occupancy and rent. We typically achieve this growth through value-added investments in these properties, such as common area renovations, enhancement of amenities, improved mechanical systems, and other value-enhancing investments. We generally will not invest in ground-up development as we believe our target markets’ rental rates are below those needed to justify new construction.

 

Our Model Home Growth Strategy

 

We intend to purchase model homes that are in the “move-up market” and in the first-time or entry-level homebuyer market. The purchase of model homes will be from builders that have sufficient assets to fulfill their lease obligations and with model homes that offer a good opportunity for appreciation upon their sale. Sales proceeds from model homes will typically be reinvested to acquire new model homes.

 

Our Competitive Strengths

 

We believe that our management team’s extensive public REIT and general real estate experience distinguishes us from many other public and private real estate companies. Specifically, our competitive strengths include, among others:

 

 

 

Experienced Senior Management Team. Our senior management team has over 75 combined years of experience with public-reporting companies, including real estate experience with a number of other publicly traded companies and institutional investors. We are the third REIT to be co-founded by our CEO, providing us with core real estate experience in addition to substantial public market experience. We have operated as a publicly-reporting company since 2009 and a publicly traded company on the Nasdaq stock exchange since the fourth quarter of 2020.

 

 

Investment Focus. We believe that our focus on attractive regionally dominant markets provides higher risk-adjusted returns than other public REITs and institutional investors which are focused on gateway markets and major metropolitan areas, as our target markets provide less competition resulting in higher initial returns and greater opportunities to enhance value through institutional quality asset management.

 

 

Nimble Management Execution. Our principal focus is on acquiring commercial properties offering immediate yield, combined with identifiable value-creation opportunities. We operate in niche geographies, targeting acquisitions valued at between $10 million and $30 million in order to limit competition from larger, better capitalized buyers focused on core markets. We continue to identify and execute these types and sizes of transactions efficiently, which we believe provides us an advantage over other institutional investors, including larger REITs that focus on larger properties or portfolios in more competitively marketed investment transactions.

 

 

Extensive Broker and Seller Relationships. Our senior management team has developed extensive broker and seller relationships, which remain vital to our acquisition efforts. Of our 11 acquisitions since 2014, eight of these transactions were procured either off-market or through brokers with whom we have a historical relationship. We expect these relationships, as well as our ability to establish such relationships in new markets, to provide valuable access to an acquisition pipeline.

 

Our REIT Status

 

We elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2000. To continue to be taxed as a REIT, we must satisfy numerous organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement that we distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income to our stockholders, as defined in the Code and calculated on an annual basis. As a REIT, we are generally not subject to federal income tax on income that we distribute to our stockholders. If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any year, our income will be taxed at regular corporate rates, and we may be precluded from qualifying for treatment as a REIT for the four-year period following our failure to qualify. Even though we qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we may still be subject to state and local taxes on our income and property and to federal income and excise taxes on our undistributed income. For more information, please see “U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

 

Distribution Policy

 

We plan to distribute at least 90% of our annual REIT taxable income to our stockholders in order to maintain our status as a REIT.

 

We intend to declare quarterly distributions. To be able to pay such dividends, our goal is to generate cash distributions from operating cash flow and proceeds from the sale of properties. During 2020, 2019 and 2018, we declared distributions of approximately $1.0 million each year.  In the first quarter of 2021, we paid distributions of approximately $1.0 million.  However, we cannot provide any assurance as to the amount or timing of future distributions. For example, our distributions were suspended for the periods from the third quarter of 2017 through the third quarter of 2018 and from the second quarter of 2019 through the third quarter of 2020.

 

To the extent that we make distributions in excess of our earnings and profits, as computed for federal income tax purposes, these distributions will represent a return of capital, rather than a dividend, for federal income tax purposes. Distributions that are treated as a return of capital for federal income tax purposes generally will not be taxable as a dividend to a U.S. stockholder, but will reduce the stockholder’s basis in its shares (but not below zero) and therefore can result in the stockholder having a higher gain upon a subsequent sale of such shares. Return of capital distributions in excess of a stockholder’s basis generally will be treated as gain from the sale of such shares for federal income tax purposes.

 

We provide each of our stockholders a statement detailing distributions paid during the preceding year and their characterization as ordinary income, capital gain or return of capital. For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, distributions were reported as a distribution of taxable earnings and a return of capital to the stockholders.

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should carefully consider the risk factors we describe in any prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus for a specific offering of securities, as well as those incorporated by reference into this prospectus or such prospectus supplement. You should also carefully consider other information contained and incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, including our financial statements and the related notes thereto incorporated by reference in this prospectus, especially the information in the section titled “Risk Factors” from our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, which was filed with the SEC on March 30, 2021. The risks and uncertainties described in the applicable prospectus supplement and our other filings with the SEC incorporated by reference herein are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial may also adversely affect us. If any of the described risks occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially harmed. In such case, the value of our securities could decline and you may lose all or part of your investment.

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, we expect the net proceeds from the sale of the securities will be used for the working capital and for other general corporate purposes, potentially including the pay down of corporate debt. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in real estate assets, businesses, products and technologies that are complementary to our business, but we currently have no commitments or agreements relating to any of these types of transactions.

 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities from time to time to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. A distribution of the securities offered by this prospectus may also be effected through the issuance of derivative securities, including without limitation, preferred stock, purchase contracts, warrants, subscription rights and depositary shares. In addition, the manner in which we may sell some or all of the securities covered by this prospectus includes, without limitation, through:

 

 

a block trade in which a broker-dealer will attempt to sell as agent, but may position or resell a portion of the block, as principal, in order to facilitate the transaction;

 

 

purchases by a broker-dealer, as principal, and resale by the broker-dealer for its account; or

 

 

ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which a broker solicits purchasers.

 

A prospectus supplement or supplements with respect to each series of securities will describe the terms of the offering, including, to the extent applicable:

 

 

the terms of the offering;

 

 

the name or names of the underwriters or agents and the amounts of securities underwritten or purchased by each of them, if any;

 

 

the public offering price or purchase price of the securities or other consideration therefor, and the proceeds to be received by us from the sale;

 

 

any delayed delivery requirements;

 

 

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

 

any underwriting discounts or agency fees and other items constituting underwriters’ or agents’ compensation;

 

 

any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

 

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

 

The offer and sale of the securities described in this prospectus by us, the underwriters or the third parties described above may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions, including privately negotiated transactions, either:

 

 

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

 

in an “at the market” offering within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act;

 

 

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

 

at negotiated prices.

 

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement will be underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

 

Underwriters and Agents; Direct Sales

 

If underwriters are used in a sale, they will acquire the offered securities for their own account and may resell the offered securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate.

 

 

Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement, other than securities covered by any over-allotment option. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

 

We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

 

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

Dealers

 

We may sell the offered securities to dealers as principals. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public either at varying prices to be determined by the dealer or at a fixed offering price agreed to with us at the time of resale.

 

Institutional Purchasers

 

We may authorize agents, dealers or underwriters to solicit certain institutional investors to purchase offered securities on a delayed delivery basis pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified future date. The applicable prospectus supplement or other offering materials, as the case may be, will provide the details of any such arrangement, including the offering price and commissions payable on the solicitations.

 

We will enter into such delayed contracts only with institutional purchasers that we approve. These institutions may include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies and educational and charitable institutions.

 

Indemnification; Other Relationships

 

We may provide agents, underwriters, dealers and remarketing firms with indemnification against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents, underwriters, dealers and remarketing firms, and their affiliates, may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business. This includes commercial banking and investment banking transactions.

 

Market-Making; Stabilization and Other Transactions

 

There is currently no market for any of the offered securities, other than the Series A Common Stock of Presidio, which is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market. If the offered securities are traded after their initial issuance, they may trade at a discount from their initial offering price, depending upon prevailing interest rates, the market for similar securities and other factors. While it is possible that an underwriter could inform us that it intends to make a market in the offered securities, such underwriter would not be obligated to do so, and any such market-making could be discontinued at any time without notice. Therefore, no assurance can be given as to whether an active trading market will develop for the offered securities. We have no current plans for listing of the preferred stock, purchase contracts, warrants, subscription rights, depositary shares, debt securities or units on any securities exchange or quotation system; any such listing with respect to any particular securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement or other offering materials, as the case may be.

 

 

Any underwriter may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Over-allotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Syndicate-covering or other short-covering transactions involve purchases of the securities, either through exercise of the over-allotment option or in the open market after the distribution is completed, to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.

 

Any underwriters or agents that are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Capital Market may engage in passive market making transactions in our Series A Common Stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of our Series A Common Stock. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

 

Fees and Commissions

 

We will disclose the fees to be paid to any underwriter, dealer or agent in the prospectus supplement for any takedown. If any conflict of interest exists between the issuer and an underwriter, dealer or agent participating in an offering of securities under this prospectus, the offering will be conducted in compliance with FINRA Rule 5121.

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

 

General

 

This prospectus describes the general terms of our stock and other securities we may offer. The following description is not complete and may not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our stock or other securities. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law (the "MGCL"), our charter and our bylaws. Copies of our charter and bylaws have been filed with the SEC and are incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.” When we offer to sell a particular series of these securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any series of securities, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that series and the description of the securities described in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

 

Our charter authorizes us to issue up to 110,001,000 shares of stock, consisting of (i) 109,001,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, of which 100,000,000 are classified as shares of Series A Common Stock, 1,000 are classified as shares of Series B Common Stock and 9,000,000 are classified as shares of Series C Common Stock, and (ii) 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share. As of April 9, 2021, there were approximately 9,895,051 shares of Series A Common Stock issued and outstanding and no shares of any other class or series of stock issued and outstanding.

 

Common Stock

 

The shares of Series C Common Stock have identical preferences, rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption to the shares of Series A Common Stock. As of April 9, 2021, no shares of Series C Common Stock were issued and outstanding.

 

All shares of our Series A Common Stock offered hereby will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. Subject to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock discussed below under the caption “—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” and the voting rights of holders of outstanding shares of any other class or series of our stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters on which stockholders are entitled to vote generally, including the election or removal of directors, and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of our stock, the holders of shares of our common stock possess exclusive voting power. Directors are elected by a plurality of the votes cast at the meeting in which directors are being elected. Under our charter, voting for the election of directors will be cumulative if, prior to commencement of the voting, a stockholder gives us notice of his, her or its intention to cumulate votes. If any stockholder gives such a notice, then every stockholder will be entitled to such rights, in which case, each stockholder may cumulate his, her or its total votes and cast all of his, her or its votes for any one or a combination of director nominees. In cumulative voting, the total votes entitled to be cast by a stockholder equals the number of director nominees multiplied by the number of shares of common stock that such stockholder is entitled to vote.

 

Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends or other distributions as and when authorized by our Board of Directors and declared by us out of assets legally available for the payment of dividends. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up and after payment in full of all amounts required to be paid to creditors and to the holders of outstanding shares of any other class or series of our stock having liquidation preferences senior to our common stock, if any, the holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in our remaining assets legally available for distribution. Holders of our common stock do not have preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. There are no sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. Holders of our Series A Common Stock generally have no appraisal rights under the MGCL as long as the shares are listed on a national securities exchange. All shares of our common stock have equal dividend and liquidation rights. The rights, powers, preferences and privileges of holders of our common stock are subject to those of the holders of any shares of our preferred stock or any other class or series of stock that we may authorize and issue in the future and to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described below under the caption “—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

 

Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot amend its charter, consolidate, merge, convert, sell all or substantially all of its assets, engage in a share exchange or dissolve unless the action is advised by its Board of Directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. As permitted by Maryland law, our charter provides that a merger, consolidation, share exchange, dissolution or sale of substantially all of our assets may be approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. In addition, because many of our operating assets are held by our subsidiaries, these subsidiaries may be able to merge or sell all or substantially all of their assets without the approval of our stockholders.

 

 

Power to Reclassify and Issue Stock

 

Our charter authorizes our Board of Directors to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of our preferred stock into other classes or series of stock, including one or more classes or series of stock that have priority over our common stock with respect to dividends or upon liquidation, or have voting rights and other rights that differ from the rights of the common stock, and authorizes us to issue the newly classified shares. Before authorizing the issuance of shares of any new class or series, our Board of Directors must set, subject to the provisions in our charter relating to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption for each class or series of stock. These actions may be taken without the approval of holders of our common stock unless such approval is required by applicable law, the terms of any other class or series of our stock or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which any of our stock is listed or traded.

 

We believe that the power of our Board of Directors to authorize us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of preferred stock and thereafter to authorize us to issue such classified or reclassified shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise.

 

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

 

In order for us to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of our stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities such as private foundations) during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).

 

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock that are intended to, among other purposes, assist us in complying with these requirements and qualifying as a REIT. Subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity may beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our aggregate outstanding shares of common stock, which we refer to as the “common stock ownership limit,” or 9.8% in value of our aggregate outstanding shares of stock, which we refer to as the “aggregate stock ownership limit.” We refer to the common stock ownership limit and the aggregate stock ownership limit, collectively, as the “ownership limit.”

 

The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 9.8% of our aggregate outstanding shares of common stock or 9.8% of our aggregate outstanding shares of stock, or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns our stock, could, nevertheless, cause the acquirer or another individual or entity to own our stock in excess of the ownership limit.

 

Our Board of Directors may, upon receipt of such representations and undertakings reasonably necessary to make such a determination, and in its sole discretion, prospectively or retroactively, establish a different limit on ownership, or an excepted holder limit, for a particular stockholder if the stockholder’s ownership in excess of the ownership limit would not result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT. As a condition of granting a waiver of the ownership limit or creating an excepted holder limit, our Board of Directors may, but is not required to, require an opinion of counsel or a ruling from the IRS, in either case in form and substance satisfactory to our Board of Directors in its sole discretion, as it may deem necessary or advisable to determine or ensure our status as a REIT and may impose such other conditions or restrictions as it deems appropriate.

 

Our Board of Directors may increase the ownership limit from time to time.

 

Our charter also prohibits:

 

 

 

any person from beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that would result in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT; and

 

 

subject to certain exceptions relating to transactions through the facilities of the NYSE or any other national securities exchange or automated inter-dealer quotation system, any person from transferring shares of our stock if the transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons.

 

Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limit or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, and any person who is the intended transferee of shares of our stock that are transferred to a trust for the benefit of one or more charitable beneficiaries described below, must give immediate written notice of such an event or, in the case of a proposed or attempted transfer, give at least 15 days’ prior written notice to us and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of the transfer on our status as a REIT. The provisions of our charter relating to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock will not apply if the Board of Directors determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to qualify as a REIT and, upon receipt of a recommendation to that effect from the Board of Directors, the holders of shares of common stock, by a vote of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, determine that we shall revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election. The holders of shares of common stock, upon receipt of a recommendation from the Board of Directors, may also determine that compliance with any of the restrictions set forth above is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT and cause us to amend the charter to remove any such restriction or limitation.

 

Any attempted transfer of our stock that, if effective, would result in our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons will be null and void. Any attempted transfer of our stock that, if effective, would result in a violation of the ownership limit (or other limit established by our charter or our Board of Directors), our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or our otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT will cause the number of shares causing the violation (rounded to the nearest whole share) to be transferred automatically to a trust for the benefit of a charitable beneficiary, and the proposed transferee will not acquire any rights in the shares. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day before the date of the attempted transfer or other event that resulted in a transfer to the trust. If the transfer to the trust as described above would not be effective, for any reason, to prevent a violation of the applicable restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, then the attempted transfer that, if effective, would have resulted in a violation of the ownership limit (or other limit established by our charter or our Board of Directors), our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or our otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT will be null and void.

 

Shares of our stock held in the trust will be issued and outstanding shares. The proposed transferee will not benefit economically from ownership of any shares of our stock held in the trust and will have no rights to dividends or other distributions and no rights to vote or other rights attributable to the shares of our stock held in the trust. The trustee of the trust will exercise all voting rights and receive all dividends and other distributions with respect to shares held in the trust for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary of the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid before we discover that the shares have been transferred to a trustee as described above must be repaid by the recipient to the trustee upon demand and any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid must be paid when due to the trustee. Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trustee, the trustee will have the authority, at the trustee’s sole discretion, (i) to rescind as void any vote cast by a proposed transferee before our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trustee and (ii) to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind or recast the vote.

 

Within 20 days of receiving notice from us of a transfer of shares to the trust, the trustee must sell the shares to a person, designated by the trustee who would be permitted to own the shares without violating the ownership limit or the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock in our charter. Upon such sale of the shares, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares transferred to the trust will terminate and the trustee must distribute to the proposed transferee an amount equal to the lesser of:

 

 

the price paid by the proposed transferee for the shares (or, if the proposed transferee did not give value in connection with the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer to the trust (e.g., a gift, devise or other such transaction), the market price (as such term is defined in the charter) of the shares on the day of the event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust); and

 

 

the price per share received by the trustee from the sale or other disposition of the shares held in the trust.

 

 

Any net proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the proposed transferee must be immediately paid to the charitable beneficiary. If the shares are sold by the proposed transferee before we discover that they have been transferred to the trust, the shares will be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and the proposed transferee must pay to the trustee, upon demand, the amount, if any, that the proposed transferee received in excess of the amount that the proposed transferee would have received had the shares been sold by the trustee.

 

Shares of our stock held in the trust will be deemed to be offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of:

 

 

the price per share in the transaction that resulted in the transfer to the trust (or, in the case of a devise or gift, the market price at the time of such devise or gift); and

 

 

the market price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer.

 

We may accept the offer until the trustee has otherwise sold the shares of our stock held in the trust. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold will terminate and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the proposed transferee and distribute any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to the shares to the charitable beneficiary.

 

Every person who beneficially owns of more than 5% (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder) of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, must give us written notice stating the person’s name and address, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the person beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner also must provide us with any additional information that we request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the person’s beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the aggregate stock ownership limit. In addition, any person or entity that is a beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our stock and any person or entity (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our stock for a beneficial owner or constructive owner must disclose to us in writing such information as we may request, in good faith, in order to determine our status as a REIT or to comply, or determine our compliance, with the requirements of any governmental or taxing authority and to ensure compliance with the aggregate stock ownership limit.

 

If our Board of Directors authorizes any of our shares to be represented by certificates, the certificates will bear a legend referring to the restrictions described above.

 

These restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of us that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common and preferred stock is Direct Transfer, LLC.

 

Purchase Contracts 

 

We may issue purchase contracts, representing contracts obligating holders to purchase from us, and us to sell to the holders, a specific or varying number of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, depositary shares, debt securities or any combination of the foregoing, at a future date or dates. Alternatively, the purchase contracts may obligate us to purchase from holders, and obligate holders to sell to us, a specific or varying number of common stock, preferred stock, warrants, depositary shares, debt securities, or any combination of the foregoing. The price of the securities and other property subject to the purchase contracts may be fixed at the time the purchase contracts are issued or may be determined by reference to a specific formula set forth in the purchase contracts. The purchase contracts may be issued separately or as a part of a unit that consists of (a) a purchase contract and (b) one or more of the other securities that may be sold by us pursuant to this prospectus, debt obligations of third parties (including U.S. Treasury securities) or any combination of the foregoing, which may secure the holders’ obligations to purchase the securities under the purchase contract. The purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to the holders or require the holders to make periodic payments to us. These payments may be unsecured or prefunded and may be paid on a current or on a deferred basis. The purchase contracts may require holders to secure their obligations under the contracts in a manner specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC, forms of the purchase contracts and purchase contract agreement, if any. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any purchase contracts in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, including, to the extent applicable, the following:

 

 

whether the purchase contracts obligate the holder or us to purchase or sell, or both purchase and sell, the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract, and the nature and amount of each of those securities, or the method of determining those amounts;

 

 

whether the purchase contracts are to be prepaid or not;

 

 

whether the purchase contracts are to be settled by delivery, or by reference or linkage to the value, performance or level of the securities subject to purchase under the purchase contract;

 

 

any acceleration, cancellation, termination or other provisions relating to the settlement of the purchase contracts; and

 

 

whether the purchase contracts will be issued in fully registered or global form.

 

Warrants

 

We may issue additional warrants to purchase our securities or other rights, including rights to receive payment in cash or securities based on the value, rate or price of one or more specified commodities, currencies, securities or indices, or any combination of the foregoing. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities and may be attached to, or separate from, such securities. To the extent warrants that we issue are to be publicly-traded, each series of such warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent.

 

We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC, forms of the warrant and warrant agreement, if any. The prospectus supplement relating to any warrants that we may offer will contain the specific terms of the warrants and a description of the material provisions of the applicable warrant agreement, if any. These terms may include the following:

 

 

the title of the warrants;

 

 

 

the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;

 

 

the designation, amount and terms of the securities or other rights for which the warrants are exercisable;

 

 

the designation and terms of the other securities, if any, with which the warrants are to be issued and the number of warrants issued with each other security;

 

 

the aggregate number of warrants;

 

 

any provisions for adjustment of the number or amount of securities receivable upon exercise of the warrants or the exercise price of the warrants;

 

 

the price or prices at which the securities or other rights purchasable upon exercise of the warrants may be purchased;

 

 

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the securities or other rights purchasable upon exercise of the warrants will be separately transferable;

 

 

a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the exercise of the warrants;

 

 

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence, and the date on which the right will expire;

 

 

the maximum or minimum number of warrants that may be exercised at any time;

 

 

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any; and

 

 

any other terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.

 

Exercise of Warrants.  Each warrant will entitle the holder of warrants to purchase the amount of securities or other rights, at the exercise price stated or determinable in the prospectus supplement for the warrants. Warrants may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date shown in the applicable prospectus supplement, unless otherwise specified in such prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, if applicable, unexercised warrants will become void. Warrants may be exercised in the manner described in the applicable prospectus supplement. When the warrant holder makes the payment and properly completes and signs the warrant certificate at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as possible, forward the securities or other rights that the warrant holder has purchased. If the warrant holder exercises less than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate, we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining warrants.

 

Subscription Rights

 

We may issue rights to purchase our securities. The rights may or may not be transferable by the persons purchasing or receiving the rights. In connection with any rights offering, we may enter into a standby underwriting or other arrangement with one or more underwriters or other persons pursuant to which such underwriters or other persons would purchase any offered securities remaining unsubscribed for after such rights offering. In connection with a rights offering to holders of our capital stock a prospectus supplement will be distributed to such holders on the record date for receiving rights in the rights offering set by us.

 

We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC, forms of the subscription rights, standby underwriting agreement or other agreements, if any. The prospectus supplement relating to any rights that we offer will include specific terms relating to the offering, including, among other matters:

 

 

the date of determining the security holders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

 

the aggregate number of rights issued and the aggregate amount of securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

 

 

the exercise price;

 

 

the conditions to completion of the rights offering;

 

 

the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence and the date on which the rights will expire; and

 

 

any applicable federal income tax considerations.

 

Each right would entitle the holder of the rights to purchase the principal amount of securities at the exercise price set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, all unexercised rights will become void.

 

Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent, if any, or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby underwriting arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

 

Depositary Shares

 

General.  We may offer fractional shares of preferred stock, rather than full shares of preferred stock. If we decide to offer fractional shares of our preferred stock, we will issue receipts for depositary shares. Each depositary share will represent a fraction of a share of a particular series of our preferred stock, and the applicable prospectus supplement will indicate that fraction. The shares of preferred stock represented by depositary shares will be deposited under a deposit agreement between us and a depositary that is a bank or trust company that meets certain requirements and is selected by us. The depositary will be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each owner of a depositary share will be entitled to all of the rights and preferences of the preferred stock represented by the depositary share. The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the deposit agreement. Depositary receipts will be distributed to those persons purchasing the fractional shares of our preferred stock in accordance with the terms of the offering. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC, forms of the deposit agreement, form of articles supplementary of underlying preferred stock, form of depositary receipts and any other related agreements.

 

Dividends and Other Distributions.  The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions received by it in respect of the preferred stock to the record holders of depositary shares relating to such preferred shares in proportion to the number of depositary shares held on the relevant record date.

 

In the event of a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute securities or property received by it to the record holders of depositary shares in proportion to the number of depositary shares held on the relevant record date, unless the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make such distribution. In that case, the depositary may make the distribution by such method as it deems equitable and practicable. One such possible method is for the depositary to sell the securities or property and then distribute the net proceeds from the sale as provided in the case of a cash distribution.

 

Redemption of Depositary Shares.  Whenever we redeem the preferred stock, the depositary will redeem a number of depositary shares representing the same number of shares of preferred stock so redeemed. If fewer than all of the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot, pro rata or by any other equitable method as the depositary may determine.

 

Voting of Underlying Shares. Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of our preferred stock of any series are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in the notice of the meeting to the record holders of the depositary shares relating to that series of preferred stock. Each record holder of the depositary shares on the record date will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights represented by the number of shares of preferred stock underlying the holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, to the extent it is practical to do so, to vote the number of whole shares of preferred stock underlying such depositary shares in accordance with such instructions. We will agree to take all actions that the depositary may deem reasonably necessary in order to enable the depositary to do so. To the extent the depositary does not receive specific instructions from the holders of depositary shares relating to such preferred shares, it will abstain from voting such shares of preferred stock.

 

Withdrawal of Shares. Upon surrender of depositary receipts representing any number of whole shares at the depositary’s office, unless the related depositary shares previously have been called for redemption, the holder of the depositary shares evidenced by the depositary receipts will be entitled to delivery of the number of whole shares of the related series of preferred stock and all money and other property, if any, underlying such depositary shares. However, once such an exchange is made, the preferred stock cannot thereafter be redeposited in exchange for depositary shares. Holders of depositary shares will be entitled to receive whole shares of the related series of preferred stock on the basis set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares representing more than the number of whole shares of preferred stock of the related series to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to the holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing the excess number of depositary shares.

 

Amendment and Termination of Depositary Agreement.  The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the applicable depositary agreement may at any time be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. We may, with the consent of the depositary, amend the depositary agreement from time to time in any manner that we desire. However, if the amendment would materially and adversely alter the rights of the existing holders of depositary shares, the amendment would need to be approved by the holders of at least a majority of the depositary shares then outstanding.

 

 

The depositary agreement may be terminated by us or the depositary if:

 

 

all outstanding depositary shares have been redeemed; or

 

 

there has been a final distribution in respect of the shares of preferred stock of the applicable series in connection with our liquidation, dissolution or winding up and such distribution has been made to the holders of depositary receipts.

 

Resignation and Removal of Depositary.  The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so. We may remove a depositary at any time. Any resignation or removal will take effect upon the appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of appointment.

 

Charges of Depositary.  We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of any depositary arrangements. We will pay all charges of each depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred shares of any series, the initial issuance of the depositary shares, any redemption of such preferred shares and any withdrawals of such preferred shares by holders of depositary shares. Holders of depositary shares will be required to pay any other transfer taxes.

 

Notices. Each depositary will forward to the holders of the applicable depositary shares all notices, reports and communications from us which are delivered to such depositary and which we are required to furnish the holders of the preferred stock represented by such depositary shares.

 

Miscellaneous. The depositary agreement may contain provisions that limit our liability and the liability of the depositary to the holders of depositary shares. Both the depositary and we are also entitled to an indemnity from the holders of the depositary shares prior to bringing, or defending against, any legal proceeding. We or any depositary may rely upon written advice of counsel or accountants, or information provided by persons presenting preferred shares for deposit, holders of depositary shares or other persons believed by us to be competent and on documents believed by us or them to be genuine.

 

Debt Securities

 

As used in this prospectus, the term “debt securities” means the debentures, notes, bonds and other evidences of indebtedness that we may issue from time to time. The debt securities will either be senior debt securities, senior subordinated debt or subordinated debt securities. We may also issue convertible debt securities. Debt securities issued under an indenture (which we refer to herein as an Indenture), which are contracts entered into between us and a trustee to be named therein. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC, the Indenture, if applicable, and form of debt securities. We may issue debt securities and incur additional indebtedness other than through the offering of debt securities pursuant to this prospectus. It is likely that convertible debt securities will not be issued under an Indenture.

 

In the event that any series of debt securities will be subordinated to other indebtedness that we have outstanding or may incur, the terms of the subordination will be set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the subordinated debt securities.

 

We may issue debt securities from time to time in one or more series, in each case with the same or various maturities, at par or at a discount. Unless indicated in a prospectus supplement, we may issue additional debt securities of a particular series without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of such series outstanding at the time of the issuance. Any such additional debt securities, together with all other outstanding debt securities of that series, will constitute a single series of debt securities under the applicable Indenture and will be equal in ranking.

 

Should an Indenture relate to unsecured indebtedness, in the event of a bankruptcy or other liquidation event involving a distribution of assets to satisfy our outstanding indebtedness or an event of default under a loan agreement relating to secured indebtedness of our company or its subsidiaries, the holders of such secured indebtedness, if any, would be entitled to receive payment of principal and interest prior to payments on the unsecured indebtedness issued under an Indenture.

 

 

Each prospectus supplement will describe the terms relating to the specific series of debt securities. These terms will include some or all of the following:

 

 

the title of debt securities and whether the debt securities are senior or subordinated;

 

 

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of debt securities of such series;

 

 

the percentage of the principal amount at which the debt securities of any series will be issued;

 

 

the ability to issue additional debt securities of the same series;

 

 

the purchase price for the debt securities and the denominations of the debt securities;

 

 

the specific designation of the series of debt securities being offered;

 

 

the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the date or dates upon which the debt securities are payable and the rate or rates at which the debt securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, which may be fixed or variable, or the method by which such rate shall be determined;

 

 

the basis for calculating interest;

 

 

the date or dates from which any interest will accrue or the method by which such date or dates will be determined;

 

 

the duration of any deferral period, including the period during which interest payment periods may be extended;

 

 

whether the amount of payments of principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the debt securities may be determined with reference to any index, formula or other method, such as one or more currencies, commodities, equity indices or other indices, and the manner of determining the amount of such payments;

 

 

the dates on which we will pay interest on the debt securities and the regular record date for determining who is entitled to the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

 

the place or places where the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the debt securities will be payable, where any securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer, exchange or conversion, as applicable, and notices and demands may be delivered to or upon us pursuant to the applicable Indenture;

 

 

the rate or rates of amortization of the debt securities;

 

 

any terms for the attachment to the debt securities of warrants, options or other rights to purchase or sell our securities;

 

 

if the debt securities will be secured by any collateral and, if so, a general description of the collateral and the terms and provisions of such collateral security, pledge or other agreements;

 

 

if we possess the option to do so, the periods within which and the prices at which we may redeem the debt securities, in whole or in part, pursuant to optional redemption provisions, and the other terms and conditions of any such provisions;

 

 

our obligation or discretion, if any, to redeem, repay or purchase debt securities by making periodic payments to a sinking fund or through an analogous provision or at the option of holders of the debt securities, and the period or periods within which and the price or prices at which we will redeem, repay or purchase the debt securities, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation, and the other terms and conditions of such obligation;

 

 

the terms and conditions, if any, regarding the option or mandatory conversion or exchange of debt securities;

 

 

the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which any debt securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part at our option and, if other than by a board resolution, the manner in which any election by us to redeem the debt securities shall be evidenced;

 

 

any restriction or condition on the transferability of the debt securities of a particular series;

 

 

 

the portion, or methods of determining the portion, of the principal amount of the debt securities which we must pay upon the acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities in connection with any event of default;

 

 

the currency or currencies in which the debt securities will be denominated and in which principal, any premium and any interest will or may be payable or a description of any units based on or relating to a currency or currencies in which the debt securities will be denominated;

 

 

provisions, if any, granting special rights to holders of the debt securities upon the occurrence of specified events;

 

 

any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the events of default or our covenants with respect to the applicable series of debt securities, and whether or not such events of default or covenants are consistent with those contained in the applicable Indenture;

 

 

any limitation on our ability to incur debt, redeem stock, sell our assets or other restrictions;

 

 

the application, if any, of the terms of the applicable Indenture relating to defeasance and covenant defeasance (which terms are described below) to the debt securities;

 

 

what subordination provisions will apply to the debt securities;

 

 

the terms, if any, upon which the holders may convert or exchange the debt securities into or for our securities or property;

 

 

whether we are issuing the debt securities in whole or in part in global form;

 

 

any change in the right of the trustee or the requisite holders of debt securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable because of an event of default;

 

 

the depositary for global or certificated debt securities, if any;

 

 

any material federal income tax consequences applicable to the debt securities, including any debt securities denominated and made payable, as described in the prospectus supplements, in foreign currencies, or units based on or related to foreign currencies;

 

 

any right we may have to satisfy, discharge and defease our obligations under the debt securities, or terminate or eliminate restrictive covenants or events of default in the Indentures, by depositing money or U.S. government obligations with the trustee of the Indentures;

 

 

the names of any trustees, depositories, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrars or other agents with respect to the debt securities;

 

 

to whom any interest on any debt security shall be payable, if other than the person in whose name the security is registered, on the record date for such interest, the extent to which, or the manner in which, any interest payable on a temporary global debt security will be paid;

 

 

if the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities is to be payable in one or more currencies or currency units other than as stated, the currency, currencies or currency units in which it shall be paid and the periods within and terms and conditions upon which such election is to be made and the amounts payable (or the manner in which such amount shall be determined);

 

 

the portion of the principal amount of any debt securities which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities pursuant to the applicable Indenture;

 

 

if the principal amount payable at the stated maturity of any debt security of the series will not be determinable as of any one or more dates prior to the stated maturity, the amount which shall be deemed to be the principal amount of such debt securities as of any such date for any purpose, including the principal amount thereof which shall be due and payable upon any maturity other than the stated maturity or which shall be deemed to be outstanding as of any date prior to the stated maturity (or, in any such case, the manner in which such amount deemed to be the principal amount shall be determined); and

 

 

 

any other specific terms of the debt securities, including any modifications to the events of default under the debt securities and any other terms which may be required by or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we do not anticipate the debt securities will be listed on any securities exchange. Holders of the debt securities may present registered debt securities for exchange or transfer in the manner described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as limited by the applicable Indenture, we will provide these services without charge, other than any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with the exchange or transfer.

 

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a variable rate as specified in the prospectus supplement. In addition, if specified in the prospectus supplement, we may sell debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate, or at a discount below their stated principal amount. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement any special federal income tax considerations applicable to these discounted debt securities.

 

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by referring to one or more currency exchange rates, commodity prices, equity indices or other factors. Holders of such debt securities may receive a principal amount on any principal payment date, or interest payments on any interest payment date, that are greater or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending upon the value on such dates of applicable currency, commodity, equity index or other factors. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information as to how we will determine the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, as well as the currencies, commodities, equity indices or other factors to which the amount payable on that date relates and certain additional tax considerations.

 

Units

 

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we may issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent, if any, may be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent, if any, in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units. Specific unit agreements, if any, will contain additional important terms and provisions. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report that we file with the SEC, the form of unit and the form of each unit agreement, if any, relating to units offered under this prospectus.

 

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable

 

 

the title of the series of units;

 

 

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

 

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

 

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

 

a discussion of certain United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and

 

 

any other material terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

 

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

 

The following summary of certain provisions of the MGCL and of our charter and bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our charter and bylaws, copies of which are incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and to the MGCL. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

Election and Removal of Directors

 

Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of our directors may be established by a majority of our entire Board of Directors but may not be fewer than six nor more than eleven, unless approved by stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Directors are elected by a plurality of all the votes cast in the election of directors. Under our charter, voting for the election of directors will be cumulative if, prior to commencement of the voting, a stockholder gives us notice of his, her or its intention to cumulate votes. If any stockholder gives such a notice, then every stockholder will be entitled to such rights, in which case, each stockholder may cumulate his, her or its total votes and cast all of his, her or its votes for any one or a combination of director nominees. In cumulative voting, the total votes entitled to be cast by a stockholder equals the number of director nominees multiplied by the number of shares of common stock that such stockholder is entitled to vote.

 

Our charter provides that any vacancy on our Board of Directors may be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of the Board of Directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum of the Board of Directors, and any vacancy created by the removal of a director may be filled only by the vote of the holders of a majority of our shares of common stock. Any director elected to fill a vacancy will serve until the next annual meeting of the stockholders and until his or her successor is elected and qualifies.

 

Our charter provides that any director or the entire Board of Directors may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of our shares of common stock, except that, no director may be removed when the votes cast against the removal would be sufficient to elect the director if voted cumulatively in accordance with our charter.

 

Amendment to Charter and Bylaws

 

Except as described herein and as provided in the MGCL, amendments to our charter must be advised by our Board of Directors and approved by the affirmative vote of our stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

 

Our bylaws may be amended by our Board of Directors or by the affirmative vote of our stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter by stockholders entitled to vote generally in the election of directors. Our Board of Directors may not amend provisions of bylaws that would change any rights with respect to any outstanding class of common stock by reducing the amount payable thereon upon our liquidation, or diminishing or eliminating any voting rights pertaining thereto, unless such amendment was also approved by two-thirds of the outstanding shares of such class. In addition, our Board of Directors may adopt a bylaw or an amendment to a bylaw changing the authorized number of directors only for the purpose of fixing our exact number of directors. Any change to the bylaws made by the stockholders may not be altered by the directors prior to the next annual meeting of stockholders.

 

Business Combinations

 

Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, and, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. An interested stockholder is defined as:

 

 

any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or

 

 

an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period immediately prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding stock of the corporation.

 

A person is not an interested stockholder under the MGCL if the corporation’s Board of Directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. In approving the transaction, the Board of Directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by the Board of Directors.

 

 

After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between the Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by the corporation’s Board of Directors and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

 

 

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and

 

 

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.

 

These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined under the MGCL, for their shares in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.

 

The MGCL permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by the Board of Directors before the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Pursuant to the statute, our Board of Directors has by resolution exempted business combinations between us and any other person, provided that the business combination is first approved by our Board of Directors (including a majority of our directors who are not affiliates or associates of such person). Consequently, the five-year prohibition and the supermajority vote requirements will not apply to a business combination between us and any other person if the Board of Directors has first approved the combination. As a result, any person described in the preceding sentence may be able to enter into business combinations with us that may not be in the best interests of our stockholders, without compliance with the supermajority vote requirements and other provisions of the statute. We cannot assure you that our Board of Directors will not amend or repeal this resolution in the future.

 

Control Share Acquisitions

 

The MGCL provides that a holder of control shares of a Maryland corporation acquired in a control share acquisition has no voting rights with respect to the control shares except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares owned by the acquirer, by officers or by employees who are directors of the corporation are excluded from shares entitled to vote on the matter. Control shares are voting shares of stock that, if aggregated with all other shares of stock owned by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:

 

 

one-tenth or more but less than one-third;

 

 

one-third or more but less than a majority; or

 

 

a majority or more of all voting power.

 

Control shares do not include shares the acquirer is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval. A control share acquisition means the acquisition of control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

 

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition may compel the Board of Directors of the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the shares. The right to compel the calling of a special meeting is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including an undertaking to pay the expenses of the meeting. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

 

If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquirer does not deliver an acquiring person statement as required by the statute, then the corporation may, subject to certain limitations and conditions, redeem for fair value any or all of the control shares, except those for which voting rights have previously been approved. Fair value is determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer or, if a meeting of stockholders is held at which the voting rights of the shares are considered and not approved, as of the date of the meeting. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of a majority of the voting power, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.

 

The control share acquisition statute does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

 

Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any acquisition by any person of shares of our stock.

 

 

Subtitle 8

 

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its Board of Directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to be subject to any or all of five provisions, including:

 

 

a classified Board of Directors;

 

 

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

 

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the Board of Directors;

 

 

a requirement that a vacancy on the Board of Directors be filled only by a vote of the remaining directors in office and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred and until a successor is elected and qualifies; and

 

 

a majority requirement for the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders.

 

We have not elected to be subject to any of the provisions of Subtitle 8, including the provisions that would permit us to classify our Board of Directors or increase the vote required to remove a director without stockholder approval. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we (1) vest in our Board of Directors the exclusive power to fix the number of directors and (2) require, unless called by our Chairman, our Chief Executive Officer, our President or our Board of Directors, the request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting to call a special meeting of stockholders.

 

Special Meetings of Stockholders

 

Pursuant to our bylaws, our Chairman, our Chief Executive Officer, our President or our Board of Directors may call a special meeting of our stockholders. Subject to the provisions of our bylaws, a special meeting of our stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered by our stockholders will also be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting on such matter, accompanied by the information required by our bylaws. Our secretary will inform the requesting stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and delivering the notice of meeting (including our proxy materials), and the requesting stockholder must pay such estimated cost before our secretary may prepare and deliver the notice of the special meeting.

 

Stockholder Action by Written Consent

 

The MGCL generally provides that, unless the charter of the corporation authorizes stockholder action by less than unanimous consent, stockholder action may be taken by consent in lieu of a meeting only if it is given by all stockholders entitled to vote on the matter. Our charter and our bylaws provide that stockholder action may be taken without a meeting if a consent, setting forth the action so taken, is given by stockholders entitled to cast not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take the action at a stockholders meeting.

 

Advance Notice of Director Nomination and New Business

 

Our bylaws provide that nominations of individuals for election as directors and proposals of business to be considered by stockholders at any annual meeting may be made only (1) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (2) by or at the direction of our Board of Directors or (3) by any stockholder who was a stockholder of record at the record date set by the Board of Directors for determining stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on such other proposed business and who has complied with the advance notice procedures of our bylaws. Stockholders generally must provide notice to our secretary not earlier than the 150th day or later than the close of business on the 120th day before the first anniversary of the date the proxy statement for the preceding year’s annual meeting.

 

Only the business specified in the notice of the meeting may be brought before a special meeting of our stockholders. Nominations of individuals for election as directors at a special meeting of stockholders may be made only (1) by or at the direction of our Board of Directors, (2) by a stockholder that has requested that a special meeting be called for the purpose of electing directors in compliance with our bylaws or (3) if the special meeting has been called in accordance with our bylaws for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record at the record date set by the Board of Directors for determining stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the special meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has complied with the advance notice procedures of our bylaws. Stockholders generally must provide notice to our secretary not earlier than the 120th day before such special meeting and not later than the later of the close of business on the 90th day before the special meeting or the tenth day after the first public announcement of the date of the special meeting and the nominees of our Board of Directors to be elected at the meeting.

 

A stockholder’s notice must contain certain information specified by our bylaws.

 

 

Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and our Charter and Bylaws

 

The restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock discussed under the caption “Description of Securities We May Offer—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” prevent any person from acquiring more than 9.8% (in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding shares of common stock or 9.8% in value of our outstanding shares of stock without the approval of our Board of Directors. These provisions as well as the business combination provisions of the MGCL may delay, defer or prevent a change in control of us.

 

Further, our Board of Directors has the power to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of our preferred stock into other classes or series of stock, and to authorize us to issue the newly classified shares, as discussed under the captions “Description of Securities We May Offer—Common Stock” and “—Power to Reclassify and Issue Stock,” and could authorize the issuance of shares of a class or series of stock, including a class or series of preferred stock, that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us. These actions may be taken without the approval of holders of our common stock unless such approval is required by applicable law, the terms of any other class or series of our stock or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which any of our stock is listed or traded. We believe that the power of our Board of Directors to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our preferred stock and thereafter to cause us to issue such shares of stock will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs which might arise.

 

Our charter and bylaws also provide that the number of directors may be established only by a majority of our entire Board of Directors, which prevents our stockholders from increasing the number of our directors and filling any vacancies created by such increase with their own nominees. The provisions of our bylaws discussed above under the captions “—Special Meetings of Stockholders” and “—Advance Notice of Director Nomination and New Business” require stockholders seeking to call a special meeting, nominate an individual for election as a director or propose other business at an annual or special meeting to comply with certain notice and information requirements. We believe that these provisions will help to assure the continuity and stability of our business strategies and policies as determined by our Board of Directors and promote good corporate governance by providing us with clear procedures for calling special meetings, information about a stockholder proponent’s interest in us and adequate time to consider stockholder nominees and other business proposals. However, these provisions, alone or in combination, could make it more difficult for our stockholders to remove incumbent directors or fill vacancies on our Board of Directors with their own nominees and could delay, defer or prevent a change in control, including a proxy contest or tender offer that might involve a premium price for our common stockholders or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

 

Exclusive Forum

 

Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Baltimore Division, will be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or to our stockholders, (c) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or our charter or bylaws or (d) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

 

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification of Directors and Officers

 

Maryland law permits us to include a provision in our charter limiting the liability of our directors and officers to us and our stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and which is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates our directors’ and officers’ liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

 

The MGCL requires us (unless our charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits us to indemnify our present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or certain other capacities unless it is established that:

 

 

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (a) was committed in bad faith or (b) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

 

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

 

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

 

 

Under the MGCL, we may not indemnify a director or officer in a suit by us or in our right in which the director or officer was adjudged liable to us or in a suit in which the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by us or in our right, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.

 

In addition, the MGCL permits us to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon our receipt of (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification and (b) a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

 

Our charter authorizes us to obligate ourselves, and our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

 

any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, a proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

 

any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, trustee, member or manager of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

 

Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any individual who served any of our predecessors in any of the capacities described above and any employee or agent of us or any of our predecessors. 

 

We have entered into an indemnification agreement with each of our directors and executive officers that provides for indemnification to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law. Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors or executive officers, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy and is therefore unenforceable.

 

 

FORMS OF SECURITIES

 

Each security may be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, warrants or units represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

 

Registered Global Securities

 

We may issue the securities in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more registered global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by registered global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a registered global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the registered global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

 

The specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a registered global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

 

Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a registered global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in registered global securities.

 

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a registered global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the registered global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement.

 

Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the registered global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that registered global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement, the depositary for the registered global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

 

 

Payments to holders with respect to securities represented by a registered global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the registered global security. None of the Company, the trustees, the warrant agents, the unit agents or any other agent of the Company, agent of the trustees, the warrant agents or unit agents will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the registered global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

 

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a registered global security, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest or other payment or distribution to holders of that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that registered global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

 

If the depositary for any of these securities represented by a registered global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the registered global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a registered global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the registered global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

 

U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

 

The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding our election to be taxed as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) and this offering of our Series A Preferred Stock, which we refer to in this discussion as our “common stock.” For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Presidio Property Trust, Inc. and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:

 

 

the Code;

 

 

current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code (the “Treasury Regulations”);

 

 

the legislative history of the Code;

 

 

administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS; and

 

 

court decisions;

 

in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. Future legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may adversely affect the tax considerations contained in this discussion. Any such change could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested, and do not plan to request, any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the purchase, ownership or disposition of our common stock, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.

 

You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:

 

 

the purchase, ownership or disposition of our common stock, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences; 

 

 

our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and 

 

 

potential changes in applicable tax laws. 

 

 

Taxation of Our Company

 

General. We elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2000. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP (“EGS”) has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this registration statement. EGS will render an opinion to us to the effect that, for our taxable year ending December 31, 2020, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion will be based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one or more of our officers. In addition, this opinion will be based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by EGS. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operation for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described herein may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. EGS has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.

 

Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:

 

 

First, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed net capital gains.

 

 

Second, if we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay tax at the highest corporate rate on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property.

 

 

Third, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

 

 

Fourth, if we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

 

Fifth, if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset tests), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the highest corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

 

 

Sixth, if we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

 

 

Seventh, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

 

 

Eighth, if we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during a period that is generally five years beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay tax at the highest regular corporate tax rate on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax.

 

 

Ninth, our subsidiaries that are C corporations, including our “taxable REIT subsidiaries” described below, generally will be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings. 

 

 

Tenth, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “ —Penalty Tax.” In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours. Redetermined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Redetermined TRS service income generally represents income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.

 

 

Eleventh, we may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed net capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our common stock.

 

 

Twelfth, if we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual letters to our stockholders requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.

 

We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.

 

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT. The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

 

(1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

 

(2)

that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;

 

 

(3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;

 

 

(4)

that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;

 

 

(5)

that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;

 

 

(6)

not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and

 

 

(7)

that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.

 

 

The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.

 

We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, and we believe we will issue sufficient shares of our common stock with sufficient diversity of ownership pursuant to this offering of our common stock to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7) inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our common stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Description of Capital Stock—Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy, the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “—Failure to Qualify.”

 

In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.

 

Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries. In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership or a member in a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership or limited liability company, as the case may be, based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership or limited liability company retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of any partnership or limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including such partnership’s or limited liability company’s share of these items of any partnership or limited liability company treated as a partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, would be treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. For purposes of the REIT qualification tests, the treatment of our ownership of partnerships or limited liability companies treated as disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes is generally the same as described below with respect to qualified REIT subsidiaries. A brief summary of the rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of partnerships and limited liability companies is set forth below in “—Tax Aspects of the Subsidiary Partnerships and Limited Liability Companies.”

 

We have control of certain subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. If we are or become a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership or limited liability company and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership or limited liability company could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or limited liability company or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.

 

We may from time to time own and operate certain properties through wholly-owned subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation will qualify as our qualified REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “—Asset Tests.”

 

Ownership of Interests in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries. We own an interest in an entity that has elected, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiary, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a taxable REIT subsidiary owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a taxable REIT subsidiary may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “—Asset Tests.”

 

 

Income Tests. We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing. For these purposes, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of all or some of the amount depends in any way on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.

 

Rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

 

 

The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales;

 

 

Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. Whether rents paid by a taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the taxable REIT subsidiary is entered into, extended, and modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, if a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is modified and such modification results in an increase in the rents payable by such taxable REIT subsidiary, any such increase will not qualify as “rents from real property.” For purposes of this rule, a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is a taxable REIT subsidiary in which the parent REIT owns stock possessing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the total value of the outstanding stock of such taxable REIT subsidiary;

 

 

Rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a taxable REIT subsidiary; and

 

 

We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a taxable REIT subsidiary (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.” 

 

We generally do not intend to take actions we believe will cause us to fail to satisfy the rental conditions described above. However, we may intentionally fail to satisfy some of these conditions to the extent we determine, based on the advice of our tax counsel, that the failure will not jeopardize our tax status as a REIT. In addition, with respect to the limitation on the rental of personal property, we generally have not obtained appraisals of the real property and personal property leased to tenants. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

 

Income we receive that is attributable to the rental of parking spaces at the properties generally will constitute rents from real property for purposes of the gross income tests if certain services provided with respect to the parking spaces are performed by independent contractors from whom we derive no revenue, either directly or indirectly, or by a taxable REIT subsidiary, and certain other conditions are met. We believe that the income we receive that is attributable to parking spaces will meet these tests and, accordingly, will constitute rents from real property for purposes of the gross income tests.

 

 

From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code will not constitute gross income under, and thus will be exempt from, the 75% and 95% gross income tests. The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means (A) any transaction we enter into in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, or (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test or any property which generates such income and (B) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions will not be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.

 

To the extent our taxable REIT subsidiaries pay dividends or interest, our allocable share of such dividend or interest income will qualify under the 95%, but not the 75%, gross income test (except to the extent the interest is paid on a loan that is adequately secured by real property).

 

We will monitor the amount of the dividend and other income from our taxable REIT subsidiaries and will take actions intended to keep this income, and any other nonqualifying income, within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation.

 

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:

 

 

following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and

 

 

our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.

 

It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT. As discussed above in “—Taxation of Our Company—General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our status as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.

 

Prohibited Transaction Income. Any gain that we realize on the sale of property held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, either directly or through any qualified REIT subsidiaries, subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. We do not intend, and we do not intend to permit our qualified REIT subsidiaries or subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies, to enter into any sales that are prohibited transactions. However, the IRS may successfully contend that some or all of the sales made by us, our qualified REIT subsidiaries or our subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a taxable REIT subsidiary, but such income will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

 

Penalty Tax. Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf. Rents we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Code.

 

We do not believe we have been, and do not expect to be, subject to this penalty tax, although any rental or service arrangements we enter into from time to time may not satisfy the safe-harbor provisions described above. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any overstated rents paid to us, or any excess deductions or understated income of our taxable REIT subsidiaries.

 

 

Asset Tests. At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property and, to a limited extent, personal property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt with a term of at least five years (but only for the one-year period beginning on the date the REIT receives such proceeds), debt instruments of publicly offered REITs, and personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease.

 

Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.

 

Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and taxable REIT subsidiaries, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer except, in the case of the 10% value test, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe-harbor or securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership or limited liability company, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code. From time to time we may own securities (including debt securities) of issuers that do not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a taxable REIT subsidiary. We intend that our ownership of any such securities will be structured in a manner that allows us to comply with the asset tests described above.

 

Fourth, not more than 20% of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. We own an interest in an entity that has elected, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiary, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. So long as each of these companies qualifies as a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of the securities of such companies. We believe that the aggregate value of our taxable REIT subsidiaries has not exceeded, and in the future will not exceed, 20% of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

 

Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets, as described above (e.g., a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT that is not secured by a mortgage on real property).

 

The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through any qualified REIT subsidiary, partnership or limited liability company) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership or limited liability company that owns such securities). For example, our indirect ownership of securities of each issuer may increase as a result of our capital contributions to, or the redemption of other partners’ or members’ interests in, a partnership or limited liability company in which we have an ownership interest. Also, after initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership or limited liability company), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained, and we intend to maintain, adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.

 

Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) nine months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30-day cure period by taking steps including (i) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) nine months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (ii) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the highest corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (iii) disclosing certain information to the IRS.

 

Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our overall interest in an issuer (including in a taxable REIT subsidiary). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.

 

 

Annual Distribution Requirements. To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:

 

 

90% of our REIT taxable income; and

 

 

90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

 

the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income.

 

For these purposes, our REIT taxable income is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income generally means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.

 

In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within a period that is generally five years following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “—General.”

 

Under the 2017 Tax Legislation, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, our deduction for net business interest expense will generally be limited to 30% of our taxable income, as adjusted for certain items of income, gain, deduction or loss. Any business interest deduction that is disallowed due to this limitation may be carried forward to future taxable years. If we are subject to this interest expense limitation, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased. Taxpayers that conduct certain real estate businesses may elect not to have this interest expense limitation apply to them, provided that they use an alternative depreciation system to depreciate certain property. We believe that we will be eligible to make this election. If we make this election, although we would not be subject to the interest expense limitation described above, our depreciation deductions may be reduced and, as a result, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased.

 

We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which they are paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential—i.e., every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its dividend rights as a class. This preferential limitation will not apply to distributions made by us, provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a publicly offered REIT. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be required to pay tax on the undistributed amount at regular corporate tax rates.

 

We believe that we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock distributions in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash.

 

Under some circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In that case, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid. In addition, if a dividend we have paid is treated as a preferential dividend, in lieu of treating the dividend as not counting toward satisfying the 90% distribution requirement, the IRS may provide a remedy to cure such failure if the IRS determines that such failure is (or is of a type that is) inadvertent or due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.

 

Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.

 

For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.

 

 

Like-Kind Exchanges. We may dispose of real property that is not held primarily for sale in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could require us to pay U.S. federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.

 

Tax Liabilities and Attributes Inherited in Connection with Acquisitions. From time to time, we may acquire other corporations or entities and, in connection with such acquisitions, we may succeed to the historical tax attributes and liabilities of such corporations or entities. For example, if we acquire a C corporation and subsequently dispose of its assets within five years of the acquisition, we could be required to pay the built-in gain tax described above under “—General.” In addition, in order to qualify as a REIT, at the end of any taxable year, we must not have any earnings and profits accumulated in a non-REIT year. As a result, if we acquire a C corporation, we must distribute the corporation’s earnings and profits accumulated prior to the acquisition before the end of the taxable year in which we acquire the corporation. We also could be required to pay the acquired entity’s unpaid taxes even though such liabilities arose prior to the time we acquired the entity.

 

Moreover, we may from time to time acquire other REITs through a merger or acquisition. If any such REIT failed to qualify as a REIT for any of its taxable years, such REIT would be liable for (and we, as the surviving corporation in the merger or acquisition, would be obligated to pay) U.S. federal income tax on its taxable income at regular rates, and if the merger or acquisition is a transaction in which our tax basis in the assets of such REIT is less than the fair market value of the assets determined at the time of the merger or acquisition, we would be subject to tax on the built-in gain on each asset of such REIT as described above if we were to dispose of the asset in a taxable transaction during the five-year period following the merger or acquisition. Moreover, even if such REIT qualified as a REIT at all relevant times, we would similarly be liable for other unpaid taxes (if any) of such REIT (such as the 100% tax on gains from any sales treated as “prohibited transactions” as described above under “—Prohibited Transaction Income”).

 

Furthermore, after our acquisition of another corporation or entity, the asset and income tests will apply to all of our assets, including the assets we acquire from such corporation or entity, and to all of our income, including the income derived from the assets we acquire from such corporation or entity. As a result, the nature of the assets that we acquire from such corporation or entity and the income we derive from those assets may have an effect on our tax status as a REIT.

 

Failure to Qualify. If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. Distributions to stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders, and all distributions to stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Under the 2017 Tax Legislation, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.

 

Tax Aspects of the Subsidiary Partnerships and Limited Liability Companies

 

General. We hold investments indirectly through subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies that we believe are and will continue to be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes are “pass-through” entities which are not required to pay U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners or members of such entities are allocated their shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership or limited liability company, and are potentially required to pay tax on this income, without regard to whether they receive a distribution from the partnership or limited liability company. We will include in our income our share of these partnership and limited liability company items for purposes of the various gross income tests, the computation of our REIT taxable income, and the REIT distribution requirements. Moreover, for purposes of the asset tests, we will include our pro rata share of assets held by our subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies based on our capital interests in each such entity. See “—Taxation of Our Company.”

 

 

Entity Classification. Our interests in our subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as partnerships or disregarded entities. For example, an entity that would otherwise be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes may nonetheless be taxable as a corporation if it is a “publicly traded partnership” and certain other requirements are met. A partnership or limited liability company would be treated as a publicly traded partnership if its interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof, within the meaning of applicable Treasury Regulations. We do not anticipate that any subsidiary partnership or limited liability company will be treated as a publicly traded partnership that is taxable as a corporation. However, if any such entity were treated as a corporation, it would be required to pay an entity-level tax on its income. In this situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could prevent us from satisfying the REIT asset tests and possibly the REIT income tests. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests.” This, in turn, could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of a subsidiary partnership or limited liability company to a corporation might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash payment. We believe each of the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies are and will continue to be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

Allocations of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction. A partnership agreement (or, in the case of a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the limited liability company agreement) generally will determine the allocation of income and loss among partners. These allocations, however, will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder. Generally, Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder require that partnership allocations respect the economic arrangement of the partners. If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704 (b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. The allocations of taxable income and loss of our subsidiaries that are treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder.

 

Tax Allocations with Respect to the Properties. Under Section 704(c) of the Code, income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership (including a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) in exchange for an interest in the partnership, must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain or benefits from the unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution (this difference is referred to as a book-tax difference), as adjusted from time to time. These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners.

 

If a subsidiary of ours that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes acquires interests in property in exchange for interests in such partnership, the tax basis of these property interests generally will carry over to such partnership, notwithstanding their different book (i.e., fair market) value. Treasury Regulations issued under Section 704(c) of the Code provide partnerships (including limited liability companies treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes) with a choice of several methods of accounting for book-tax differences. Depending on the method chosen in connection with any particular contribution, the carryover basis of each of the contributed interests in the properties in the hands of the partnership (1) could cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if any of the contributed properties were to have a tax basis equal to its respective fair market value at the time of the contribution and (2) could cause us to be allocated taxable gain in the event of a sale of such contributed interests or properties in excess of the economic or book income allocated to us as a result of such sale, with a corresponding benefit to the other partners in the partnership. An allocation described in clause (2) above might cause us or the other partners to recognize taxable income in excess of cash proceeds in the event of a sale or other disposition of property, which might adversely affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “—Taxation of Our Company—Requirements for Qualification as a REIT” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

 

Any property acquired by the partnership in a taxable transaction will initially have a tax basis equal to its fair market value, and Section 704(c) of the Code generally will not apply.

 

Partnership Audit Rules. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 changes the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Under the new rules (which are generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017), among other changes and subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. Although it is uncertain how certain aspects of these rules will be implemented, it is possible that they could result in partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit adjustment. The changes created by these new rules are sweeping and, in many respects, dependent on the promulgation of future regulations or other guidance by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to these changes and their potential impact on their investment in our common stock.

 

 

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Our Common Stock

 

The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of our common stock. This discussion is limited to holders who hold our common stock as a “capital asset” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances. In addition, except where specifically noted, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

 

 

U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

 

persons subject to the alternative minimum tax;

 

 

U.S. holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

 

persons holding our common stock as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

 

 

banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

 

 

REITs or regulated investment companies;

 

 

brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

 

 

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

 

S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

 

 

tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

 

 

persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of any item of gross income with respect to our common stock being taken into account in an applicable financial statement;

 

 

persons deemed to sell our common stock under the constructive sale provisions of the Code; and

 

 

persons who hold or receive our common stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation.

 

 

THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR COMMON STOCK ARISING UNDER OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS (INCLUDING ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS), UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.

 

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our common stock that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:

 

 

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

 

a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

 

 

an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

 

a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code) or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

For purposes of this discussion, a “non-U.S. holder” is any beneficial owner of our common stock that is neither a U.S. holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

 

If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our common stock, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our common stock and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.

 

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock

 

Distributions Generally. Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “—Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. holders that are corporations or, except to the extent described in “—Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals. Under the 2017 Tax Legislation, non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally may deduct 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our capital stock are out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock, if any, and then to our outstanding common stock.

 

To the extent that we make distributions on our common stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. holder. This treatment will reduce the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock by the amount of the distribution, but not below zero. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.

 

U.S. holders that receive taxable stock distributions, including distributions partially payable in our common stock and partially payable in cash, would be required to include the full amount of the distribution (i.e., the cash and the stock portion) as a dividend (subject to limited exceptions) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as described above. The amount of any distribution payable in our common stock generally is equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of the common stock. Depending on the circumstances of a U.S. holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. holder would have to pay the tax using cash from other sources. If a U.S. holder sells the common stock it received in connection with a taxable stock distribution in order to pay this tax and the proceeds of such sale are less than the amount required to be included in income with respect to the stock portion of the distribution, such U.S. holder could have a capital loss with respect to the stock sale that could not be used to offset such income. A U.S. holder that receives common stock pursuant to such distribution generally has a tax basis in such common stock equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of such common stock as described above, and has a holding period in such common stock that begins on the day immediately following the payment date for the distribution.

 

 

Capital Gain Dividends. Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year and may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year. In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long-term capital gains which are to be included in our stockholders’ long-term capital gains, based on the allocation of the capital gain amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long-term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.

 

Retention of Net Capital Gains. We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. holder generally would:

 

 

include its pro rata share of our undistributed net capital gains in computing its long-term capital gains in its return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;

 

 

be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. holder’s income as long-term capital gain;

 

 

receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;

 

 

increase the adjusted tax basis of its common stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and

 

 

in the case of a U.S. holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.

 

Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations. Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. holder of our common stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. holder generally may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our common stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, as described in “—Tax Rates” below, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions made by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.

 

Participation in the Dividend Reinvestment Plan. U.S. holders who elect to participate in the Dividend Reinvestment Plan generally will be treated as having received a distribution equal to the fair market value of the common stock acquired (without reduction for any withholding taxes). The distribution will be taxed to such U.S. holder as described above in this discussion. In addition, there is a risk that some or all of the 5% discount from the price per share paid for the common stock so acquired will be taxable as income to such U.S. holder. A U.S. holder’s tax basis in the common stock so acquired will equal the fair market value of the common stock on the date of acquisition, and the holding period for such common stock will begin on the day following the date of such acquisition. Participants in the Dividend Reinvestment Plan should consult their tax advisers concerning the particular tax consequences to them of participating in the Dividend Reinvestment Plan.

 

Dispositions of Our Common Stock. If a U.S. holder sells or disposes of shares of our common stock, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be long-term capital gain or loss if the holder has held such common stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. holder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of common stock that it has held for nine months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.

 

Tax Rates. The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” generally is 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” generally is 20%. In general, dividends payable by REITs are not eligible for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent that certain holding period requirements have been met and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received from taxable corporations (such as its taxable REIT subsidiaries) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the rates described above to the extent that they are properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” In addition, U.S. holders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income.

 

 

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Common Stock

 

Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of shares of our common stock generally should not be unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI, to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, to the extent a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code. Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.

 

For tax-exempt holders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, or qualified group legal services plans exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9), (c)(17) or (c)(20) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our shares will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our shares. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

 

Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts. “ As a result of restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to our holders. However, because our common stock will be publicly traded upon completion of this offering of our common stock (and, we anticipate, will continue to be publicly traded), we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.

 

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock

 

The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our common stock by non-U.S. holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address other federal, state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a non-U.S. holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax laws and any applicable tax treaty on the purchase, ownership and disposition of shares of our common stock, including any reporting requirements.

 

Distributions Generally. Distributions (including any taxable stock distributions) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests, or USRPIs, nor designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied for a non-U.S. holder to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business generally will not be subject to withholding but will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular graduated rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. holders are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any such dividends received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting U.S. federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.

 

Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a non-U.S. holder unless:

 

 

(1)

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or

 

 

(2)

the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable documentation) claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business.

 

Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a non-U.S. holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the holder’s common stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such stock. To the extent that such distributions exceed the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such common stock, they generally will give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such stock, the tax treatment of which is described below. However, recent legislation may cause such excess distributions to be treated as dividend income for certain non-U.S. holders. For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.

 

 

Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of United States Real Property Interests. Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:

 

 

(1)

the investment in our common stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or

 

 

(2)

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

 

Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the non-U.S. holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. holders generally would be taxed at the regular graduated rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 21% (or 20% to the extent provided in applicable Treasury Regulations) of any distribution to non-U.S. holders attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. The amount withheld is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market located in the United States is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 21% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded stockholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements (“qualified shareholders”) are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

 

Retention of Net Capital Gains. Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of our common stock should be treated with respect to non-U.S. holders as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the non-U.S. holders may be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax paid by us exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.

 

Participation in the Dividend Reinvestment Plan. Non-U.S. holders who elect to participate in the Dividend Reinvestment Plan will generally have the tax consequences described above under “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock – Participation in the Dividend Reinvestment Plan,” except that the tax consequences of the resulting distribution will be as described above under this section entitled “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock.”

 

Sale of Our Common Stock. Gain realized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our common stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a “United States real property holding corporation,” or USRPHC, will constitute a USRPI. We believe that we are a USRPHC. Our common stock will not, however, constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” includes a REIT in which at all times during a five-year testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-United States persons, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a United States person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a United States person. We believe, but cannot guarantee, that we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” Because our common stock will be publicly traded upon completion of this offering of our common stock (and, we anticipate, will continue to be publicly traded), no assurance can be given that we will continue to be a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”

 

 

Even if we do not qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a non-U.S. holder sells our common stock, gain realized from the sale or other taxable disposition by a non-U.S. holder of such common stock would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:

 

 

(1)

our common stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market such as Nasdaq; and

 

 

(2)

such non-U.S. holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of our common stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period.

 

In addition, dispositions of our common stock by qualified shareholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, dispositions of our common stock by “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our common stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a non-U.S. holder if either (a) the investment in our common stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items, or (b) the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our common stock, a non-U.S. holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the non-U.S. holder (1) disposes of such stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1), unless such stock is “regularly traded” and the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of the stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1).

 

If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our common stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our common stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, and if shares of our common stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such common stock generally would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.

 

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

 

U.S. Holders. A U.S. holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on our common stock or proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock. Certain U.S. holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and:

 

 

the holder fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;

 

 

the holder furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;

 

 

the applicable withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or

 

 

the holder fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.

 

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.

 

 

Non-U.S. Holders. Payments of dividends on our common stock generally will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any dividends on our common stock paid to the non-U.S. holder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting, if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of such stock conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.

 

Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.

 

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

 

Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income

 

Certain U.S. holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on stock and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of these rules on their ownership and disposition of our common stock.

 

Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts

 

Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA) on certain types of payments made to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our common stock paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.

 

Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our common stock. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules we may treat the entire distribution as a dividend.

 

Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our common stock.

 

Other Tax Consequences

 

State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding U.S. federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any U.S. federal tax other than the income tax. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our common stock.

 

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Certain legal matters relating to this offering will be passed upon for us by Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP, New York, New York. Certain matters of Maryland law will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland. If legal matters in connection with offerings made by this prospectus are passed on by counsel for the underwriters, dealers or agents, if any, that counsel will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

EXPERTS

 

The financial statements of Presidio Property Trust, Inc. as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2020 are incorporated in this prospectus by reference from the Presidio Property Trust, Inc. Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 and have been audited by Baker Tilly US, LLP (which effective as of November 1, 2020, merged with Squar Milner LLP), an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report thereon, incorporated herein by reference, and have been incorporated by reference in this prospectus and registration statement in reliance upon such report and upon the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We file annual, reports quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You can read our SEC filings, including this registration statement, over the internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. We also make this information available on the investors’ relations section of our website at www.presidiopt.com. Information on, or accessible through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

We are “incorporating by reference” in this prospectus certain documents we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information in the documents incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Statements contained in documents that we file with the SEC and that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus will automatically update and supersede information contained in this prospectus, including information in previously filed documents or reports that have been incorporated by reference in this prospectus, to the extent the new information differs from or is inconsistent with the old information. We have filed or may file the following documents with the SEC and they are incorporated herein by reference as of their respective dates of filing.

 

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2021;

 

 

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 22, 2021January 29, 2021February 3, 2021February 11, 2021February 17, 2021February 22, 2021February 24, 2021March 3, 2021March 9, 2021, and March 17, 2021, and

 

 

the description of our Series A Common Stock set forth in the registration statement on Form 8-A registering our Series A Common Stock under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, which was filed with the SEC on October 2, 2020, including any amendments or reports filed for purposes of updating such description.

 

All documents filed by us pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and before the termination or completion of this offering of our securities shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part of it from the filing dates of such documents, except in each case for information contained in any such filing where we indicate that such information is being furnished and is not to be considered “filed” under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

 

Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus shall be deemed modified, superseded or replaced for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, or in any subsequently filed document that also is deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus, modifies, supersedes or replaces such statement. Any statement so modified, superseded or replaced shall not be deemed, except as so modified, superseded or replaced, to constitute a part of this prospectus. None of the information that we disclose under Items 2.02 or 7.01 of any Current Report on Form 8-K or any corresponding information, either furnished under Item 9.01 or included as an exhibit therein, that we may from time to time furnish to the SEC will be incorporated by reference into, or otherwise included in, this prospectus, except as otherwise expressly set forth in the relevant document. Subject to the foregoing, all information appearing in this prospectus is qualified in its entirety by the information appearing in the documents incorporated by reference.

 

Documents incorporated by reference are available from us without charge, excluding all exhibits unless we have specifically incorporated by reference the exhibit in this prospectus. You may obtain documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by requesting them in writing or by telephone from:

 

Presidio Property Trust, Inc.

4995 Murphy Canyon Road, Suite 300

San Diego, CA 92123
Attention: Chief Accounting Officer

Telephone: (760) 471-8536

 

 

 

PART II

 

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

 

The following table sets forth all expenses to be paid by the registrant. All amounts shown are estimates except for the registration fee.

 

SEC registration fee

 

$

21,820

 

Printing

   

*

 

Legal fees and expenses

   

*

 

Accounting fees and expenses

   

*

 

Trustees’ Fees and Expenses

   

*

 

Warrant Agent Fees and Expenses

   

*

 

Miscellaneous

   

*

 

Total

       

 

*

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time. The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth the estimated amount of expenses of any offering of securities.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

 

Maryland law permits us to include a provision in our charter limiting the liability of our directors and officers to us and our stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from (a) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (b) active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and which is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates our directors’ and officers’ liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

 

The MGCL requires us (unless our charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits us to indemnify our present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or certain other capacities unless it is established that:

 

 

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (a) was committed in bad faith or (b) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

 

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

 

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

 

Under the MGCL, we may not indemnify a director or officer in a suit by us or in our right in which the director or officer was adjudged liable to us or in a suit in which the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by us or in our right, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.

 

In addition, the MGCL permits us to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon our receipt of (a) a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification and (b) a written undertaking by him or her or on his or her behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed if it is ultimately determined that the standard of conduct was not met.

 

Our charter authorizes us to obligate ourselves, and our bylaws obligate us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:

 

 

any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, a proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

 

 

 

any individual who, while a director or officer of our company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, trustee, member or manager of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

 

Our charter and bylaws also permit us to indemnify and advance expenses to any individual who served any of our predecessors in any of the capacities described above and any employee or agent of us or any of our predecessors.

 

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our executive officers and directors whereby we agree to indemnify such executive officers and directors to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law against all expenses and liabilities. These indemnification agreements also provide that upon an application for indemnity by an executive officer or director to a court of appropriate jurisdiction, such court may order us to indemnify such executive officer or director. Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors or executive officers, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy and is therefore unenforceable.

 

Item 16. Exhibits

 

The agreements included or incorporated by reference as exhibits to this registration statement contain representations and warranties by each of the parties to the applicable agreement. These representations and warranties were made solely for the benefit of the other parties to the applicable agreement and (i) were not intended to be treated as categorical statements of fact, but rather as a way of allocating the risk to one of the parties if those statements prove to be inaccurate; (ii) may have been qualified in such agreement by disclosures that were made to the other party in connection with the negotiation of the applicable agreement; (iii) may apply contract standards of “materiality” that are different from “materiality” under the applicable securities laws; and (iv) were made only as of the date of the applicable agreement or such other date or dates as may be specified in the agreement.

 

The undersigned registrant acknowledges that, notwithstanding the inclusion of the foregoing cautionary statements, it is responsible for considering whether additional specific disclosures of material information regarding material contractual provisions are required to make the statements in this registration statement not misleading.

 

Exhibit

Number

 

Description of Document

     

1.1

 

Form of Underwriting Agreement ***

     

3.1

 

Articles of Merger filed with the Maryland State Department of Assessments and Taxation and the California Secretary of State on August 4, 2010 (1)

     

3.2

 

Articles of Amendment and Restatement of the Articles of Incorporation, dated as of July 30, 2010 (1)

     

3.3

 

Articles of Amendment of Presidio Property Trust, Inc. dated October 19, 2017 (1)

     

3.4

 

Articles of Amendment effecting the reverse stock split dated July 29, 2020 (1)

     

3.5

 

Articles Supplementary classifying and designating the Series C Common Stock dated July 29, 2020 (1)

     

3.6

 

Second Amended and Restated Bylaws of Presidio Property Trust, Inc. (1)

     

4.1

 

Form of Series A Common Stock Certificate (1)

     

4.2

 

Form of Series C Common Stock Certificate (1)

     

4.3

 

Form of Preferred Stock Certificate and Form of Articles Supplementary of Preferred Stock ***

     

4.4

 

Form of Stock Purchase Contract ***

     

4.5

 

Form of Warrant Agreement and Form of Warrant Certificate ***

     

4.6

 

Form of Subscription Rights Agreement and Form Subscription Rights Certificate ***

 

 

 4.7

 

Form of Unit Agreement ***

     

 4.8

 

Form of Indenture for Debt Securities*

     

 4.9

 

Form of Note for Debt Securities***+

     

 4.10

 

Form of Debt Securities ***

     

 5.1

 

Opinion of Venable LLP regarding validity of certain securities being registered*

     

 5.2

 

Opinion of Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP regarding the validity of certain securities being registered*

     

 8.1

 

Opinion of Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP regarding tax matters*

     

 23.1

 

Consent of Baker Tilly**

     

 23.2

 

Consent of Venable LLP (included as part of Exhibit 5.1)*

     

 23.3

 

Consent of Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP (included as part of Exhibit 5.2)*

     

 23.4

 

Consent of Ellenoff Grossman & Schole LLP (included as part of Exhibit 8.1)*

     

 24.1

 

Power of Attorney*

     

 25.1

 

Statement of Eligibility of trustee on Form T-1**+

 


 

*

Incorporated by reference to the Company’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed on December 28, 2020 (SEC File No. 333-251779).

**

Filed herewith.

***

If applicable, to be filed by an amendment or as an exhibit to a report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Exchange Act and incorporated by reference

+

To be filed pursuant to Rule 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

(1)

Incorporated by Reference to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-11 (SEC File No. 333-220514).

 

 

Item 17. Undertakings

 

(a) The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i) to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

(ii) to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

(iii) to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

providedhowever , that paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

 

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

(iii) Each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.

 

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(c) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to supplement the prospectus, after the expiration of the subscription period, to set forth the results of the subscription offer, the transactions by the underwriters during the subscription period, the amount of unsubscribed securities to be purchased by the underwriters, and the terms of any subsequent reoffering thereof. If any public offering by the underwriters is to be made on terms differing from those set forth on the cover page of the prospectus, a post-effective amendment will be filed to set forth the terms of such offering.

 

 

(d) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(e) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(f) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that:

 

(i) For purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b) (1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and

 

(ii) For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

 

 

Signatures

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of San Diego, California on April 12, 2021.

 

 

PRESIDIO PROPERTY TRUST, INC.

   
 

By:

/s/ Jack K. Heilbron

   

Name: Jack K. Heilbron

Title: Chief Executive Officer

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement on Form S-3 has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Name

 

Title

 

Date

         

/s/ Jack K. Heilbron

Jack K. Heilbron

 

Chief Executive Officer and Director
(Principal Executive Officer)

 

April 12, 2021

         

/s/ Larry G. Dubose

Larry G. Dubose

 

Director; Chief Financial Officer 

and Director of NetREIT Dubose;

Chief Executive Officer of

Dubose Advisors; Chief

Executive Officer of NetREIT Advisors

 

April 12, 2021

         

/s/ Adam Sragovicz

Adam Sragovicz

 

Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial Officer)

 

April 12, 2021

         

/s/ Ed Bentzen

Ed Bentzen

 

Chief Accounting Officer

(Principal Accounting Officer)

 

April 12, 2021

         

*

 

Director

 

April 12, 2021

Jennifer A. Barnes

       
         

*

 

Director

 

April 12, 2021

David T. Bruen

       
         

*

 

Director

 

April 12, 2021

James R. Durfey

       
         

/s/ *

 

Director

 

April 12, 2021

Sumner J. Rollings

       

 

* by Jack K. Heilbron as attorney-in-fact

 

 
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