Prospectus Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5) (424b5)

Date : 05/09/2019 @ 1:56PM
Source : Edgar (US Regulatory)
Stock : Acelrx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (ACRX)
Quote : 2.36  -0.07 (-2.88%) @ 4:59AM

Prospectus Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5) (424b5)

 

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)

Registration No. 333-218506

Prospectus Supplement
(To Prospectus dated June 14, 2017)

 

 

Common Stock

 

 


 

In accordance with the terms of our existing Controlled Equity Offering SM  Sales Agreement, or the sales agreement, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time through Cantor, acting as sales agent having an aggregate offering price of up to $46,564,331. In this prospectus supplement, we refer to a prior sales agreement prospectus dated June 14, 2017 as the prior prospectus. The prior prospectus provided for sales of shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of $40,000,000. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we had issued and sold an aggregate of 9.8 million shares of common stock pursuant to the sales agreement and the prior prospectus, for which we had received net proceeds of approximately $32.5 million after deducting commissions, fees and expenses of $0.9 million, and $6,564,331 remained unsold. The common stock remaining available to be sold under the prior prospectus as of the date of this prospectus supplement will no longer be offered and sold under the prior prospectus, but will instead be offered and sold under this prospectus supplement. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement covers the offer and sale of $46,564,331 to be sold under the sales agreement as of the date of this prospectus supplement.

 

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ACRX.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on May 7, 2019 was $3.56 per share.

 

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement may be made in sales deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, including sales made directly on or through The Nasdaq Global Market, the existing trading market for our common stock or any other existing trading market for our common stock. Cantor will act as sales agent on a best efforts basis and use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between Cantor and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

Cantor will be entitled to compensation under the terms of the sales agreement at a fixed commission rate of up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cantor will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cantor will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cantor against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

 


 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Please read the information contained in and incorporated by reference under the heading Risk Factors on page  S- 3  of this prospectus supplement , on page 5  of the accompanying prospectus and under similar headings in the other documents that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement .

 

 

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus supplement is May 9 , 2019 .

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT i
   
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY S-1
   
RISK FACTORS S-3
   

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

S-4
   
USE OF PROCEEDS  S-6
   
DIVIDEND POLICY S-6
   
DILUTION      S-7
   
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION      S-8
   
LEGAL MATTERS    S-9
   
EXPERTS      S-9
   
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION      S-9
   
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE S-9

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The second part, the accompanying prospectus dated June 14, 2017, including the documents incorporated by reference therein, provides more general information that may not relate to this offering. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement, on the one hand, and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or in any document incorporated by reference that was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, before the date of this prospectus supplement, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date (for example, a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus), the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

 

Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, together with the information incorporated by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus supplement. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and Cantor has not, authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and Cantor is not, making an offer to sell or soliciting an offer to buy our common stock in any jurisdiction in which an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus supplement entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”

 

i.

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement . This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus , including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus , and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, including the information referred to under the heading Risk Factors in this prospectus supplement on page  S- 3 , in the accompanying prospectus on page 5 , and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus .

 

Overview

 

We are a specialty pharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of innovative therapies for use in medically supervised settings. DSUVIA (known as DZUVEO in Europe) and Zalviso ® , are both focused on the treatment of acute pain, and each utilize sufentanil, delivered via a non-invasive route of sublingual administration, exclusively for use in medically supervised settings. On November 2, 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, approved our resubmitted New Drug Application, or NDA, for DSUVIA for use in adults in certified medically supervised healthcare settings, such as hospitals, surgical centers, and emergency departments, for the management of acute pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate. In June 2018, the European Commission, or EC, granted marketing approval of DZUVEO for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe acute pain in medically monitored settings. We are developing a distribution capability and commercial organization to market and sell DSUVIA in the United States. The commercial launch of DSUVIA in the United States occurred in the first quarter of 2019. In geographies where we decide not to commercialize ourselves, including for DZUVEO in Europe, we may seek to out-license commercialization rights. We currently intend to commercialize and promote DSUVIA/DZUVEO outside the United States with one or more strategic partners, although we have not yet entered into any such arrangement. We are currently evaluating the timing of the resubmission of the NDA for Zalviso. If we are successful in obtaining approval of Zalviso in the United States, we plan to potentially promote Zalviso either by ourselves or with strategic partners. Zalviso is approved in Europe and is currently being commercialized by Grünenthal GmbH, or Grünenthal.

 

Company Information

 

We were originally incorporated as SuRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in Delaware on July 13, 2005. We subsequently changed our name to AcelRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. on August 13, 2006.

 

Our corporate address is 351 Galveston Drive, Redwood City, California 94063, and our telephone number is (650) 216-3500. Our website address is www.acelrx.com . Information found on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Our website address is included in this document as an inactive textual reference only.

 

Unless the context indicates otherwise, as used in this prospectus supplement, the terms “AcelRx,” “AcelRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to AcelRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its wholly-owned subsidiary.

 

S-1

 

The Offering

 

Common stock offered by us pursuant

to this prospectus supplement

Shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $46,564,331.

 

Manner of offering

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our agent, Cantor. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement.

   

Use of proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including commercialization activities, research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses, for making scheduled payments under our debt facility and capital expenditures. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement.

   

Nasdaq Global Market listing

ACRX

   

Risk factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Please read the information contained in and incorporated by reference under the heading “Risk Factors” on page S-3 of this prospectus supplement, on page 5 of the accompanying prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, together with the other information included in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before deciding whether to invest in our common stock.

 

S-2

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

You should consider carefully the risks described below and discussed under the section captioned Risk Factors contained in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, and in our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, each of which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus , and the information and documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus , and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering before you make a decision to invest in our common stock. If any of the following events actually occur, our business, operating results, prospects or financial condition could be materially and adversely affected. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline and you may lose all or part of your investment. The risks below and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not the only ones we face. Additional risks not currently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business operations. Please also read carefully the section below entitled Forward-Looking Statements.

 

Additional Risks Relating To The Offering

 

Management will have broad discretion as to the use of the proceeds from this offering, and may not use the proceeds effectively.

 

Because we have not designated the amount of net proceeds from this offering to be used for any particular purpose, our management will have broad discretion as to the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of the offering. Our management may use the net proceeds for corporate purposes that may not improve our financial condition or market value.

 

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution.

 

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 13,079,868 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $3.56 per share pursuant to this prospectus supplement, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on May 7, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of $46,564,331, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you would experience immediate dilution of $3.16 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019, after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants may result in further dilution of your investment. See the section entitled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.

 

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

 

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share paid by any investor in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

 

We have a limited number of shares of common stock available for future issuance, which may adversely affect our ability to raise the capital necessary to continue operations.

 

 We are currently authorized to issue 100,000,000 shares of common stock under our Amended Restated and Certificate of Incorporation. As of April 28, 2019, we have issued and outstanding 78,914,170 shares of common stock and have approximately 13,491,144 shares of common stock committed for issuance giving effect to the assumed exercise of all outstanding restricted stock units and options. Due to the limited number of authorized shares available for issuance, we may not able to offer and sell the remaining unsold amount under the sales agreement and this prospectus supplement or raise additional equity capital unless we increase the number of shares we are authorized to issue. We are in the process of seeking stockholder approval to increase the number of our authorized shares of common stock at our 2019 annual meeting of stockholders. However, we can provide no assurance that we will succeed in obtaining the requisite stockholder approval to be able to amend our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation to increase the number of shares of common stock we are authorized to issue. If that requisite approval is not obtained, our ability to sell shares under the sales agreement will be limited and we may need to raise capital through other means than this sales agreement.

 

S-3

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These statements relate to future events or to our future operating or financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

 

our success in commercializing DSUVIA™ (sufentanil sublingual tablet, 30 mcg) in the United States, including the marketing, sales, and distribution of the product;

 

 

our ability to maintain regulatory approval of DSUVIA in the United States, including effective management of and compliance with the DSUVIA Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies program;

 

 

acceptance of DSUVIA by physicians, patients and the healthcare community, including the acceptance of pricing and placement of DSUVIA on payers’ formularies;

 

 

our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities in a timely fashion, whether alone through recruiting qualified employees, by engaging a contract sales organization, or with potential future collaborators;

 

 

successfully establishing and maintaining commercial manufacturing with third parties;

 

 

our ability to manage effectively, and the impact of any costs associated with, potential governmental investigations, inquiries, regulatory actions or lawsuits that may be brought against us;

 

 

continued demonstration of an acceptable safety profile of DSUVIA;

 

 

effectively competing with other medications for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute pain in medically supervised settings, including IV-opioids and any subsequently approved products;

 

 

our ability to maintain regulatory approval of DZUVEO™ in the European Union, and enter into a collaboration agreement with a strategic partner for the commercialization of DZUVEO in Europe;

 

 

our ability to manufacture and supply DZUVEO in Europe to any future strategic partner;

 

 

our ability to successfully execute the pathway towards a resubmission of the Zalviso ® (sufentanil sublingual tablet system) NDA, and subsequently obtain, without further delays, and maintain regulatory approval of Zalviso in the United States and any related restrictions, limitations, and/or warnings in the label of Zalviso, if approved;

 

 

the outcome of any potential FDA Advisory Committee meeting held for Zalviso;

 

S-4

 

 

 

our ability to manufacture and supply Zalviso to Grünenthal GmbH, or Grünenthal, in accordance with their forecast and the Manufacture and Supply Agreement with Grünenthal;

 

 

the status of the Collaboration and License Agreement with Grünenthal or any other future potential collaborations, including potential milestones and royalty payments under the Grünenthal agreement and obligations under the Purchase and Sale Agreement with PDL BioPharma, Inc.;

 

 

our ability to attract additional collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

 

 

our ability to successfully retain our key commercial, scientific, engineering, medical or management personnel and hire new personnel as needed;

 

 

the size and growth potential of the markets for DSUVIA, and Zalviso, if approved in the United States, and our ability to serve those markets;

 

 

our ability to successfully commercialize Zalviso, if approved in the United States;

 

 

the rate and degree of market acceptance of Zalviso, if approved in the United States;

 

 

our ability to obtain adequate government or third-party payer reimbursement;

 

 

regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

 

the performance of our third-party suppliers and manufacturers;

 

 

the success of competing therapies that are or become available;

 

 

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

 

our liquidity and capital resources; and

 

 

our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for DSUVIA/DZUVEO and Zalviso.

 

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “predicts,” “potential” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events, are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We discuss in greater detail, and incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in their entirety, many of these risks under the headings “Risk Factors” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, and in our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, which are incorporated herein by reference, as may be updated or superseded by the risks and uncertainties described under similar headings in the other documents that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement.

 

You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements.

 

Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements.

 

S-5

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including commercialization activities, research and development expenses, general and administrative expenses, and capital expenditures. We may use a portion of the proceeds to make scheduled payments of principal and interest on our outstanding loan with Hercules Capital Funding Trust 2014-1 and Hercules Technology II, L.P., collectively referred to as Hercules, which matures on March 1, 2020. At March 31, 2019, this loan had an accrued balance of $10.0 million. The interest rate for this loan is calculated at a rate equal to the greater of either (i) 9.55% plus the prime rate as reported from time to time in The Wall Street Journal minus 3.5%, and (ii) 9.55%. If we prepay the loan prior to the maturity date, we will pay Hercules a prepayment charge, based on a percentage of the then outstanding principal balance, equal to 1%.

 

The amounts and timing of our use of the net proceeds from this offering, if any, will depend on a number of factors, such as the timing and progress of our research and development efforts, the timing and progress of any partnering and collaboration efforts and technological advances. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from this offering. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in the timing and application of these proceeds. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we intend to temporarily invest the proceeds in short-term, interest-bearing instruments.

 

DIVIDEND POLICY

 

To date, we have paid no cash dividends to our stockholders, and we do not intend to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

S-6

 

 

DILUTION

 

If you invest in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering. We calculate net tangible book value per share by dividing the net tangible book value, which is tangible assets less total liabilities, by the number of outstanding shares of our common stock. Dilution represents the difference between the portion of the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after giving effect to this offering. Our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2019 was approximately $(7.9) million, or $(0.10) per share.

 

After giving effect to the sale of our common stock during the term of the sales agreement with Cantor in the aggregate amount of $46,564,331 at an assumed offering price of $3.56 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on May 7, 2019, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our net tangible book value as of March 31, 2019 would have been $37.2 million, or $0.40 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in the net tangible book value of $0.50 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $3.16 per share to new investors. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

Assumed offering price per share

         

3.56

 

Net tangible book value per share as of March 31, 2019

  $ (0.10

)

       

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors in offering

  $ 0.50          

Pro forma net tangible book value per share after giving effect to the offering

  $ 0.40          

Dilution per share to new investors

          $ 3.16  

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 13,079,868 shares of our common stock are sold during the term of the sales agreement with Cantor at a price of $3.56 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on May 7, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of $46,564,331. The shares subject to the sales agreement with Cantor are being sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $0.50 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $4.06 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $46,564,331 under the sales agreement with Cantor is sold at that price, would increase our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $0.41 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $3.65 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $0.50 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $3.06 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $46,564,331 under the sales agreement with Cantor is sold at that price, would decrease our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $0.40 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $2.66 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

 

The above discussion and table are based on 78,856,648 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2019 and excludes the following, all as of March 31, 2019:

 

 

12,777,484 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options with a weighted-average exercise price of $3.50 per share;

 

 

848,696 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting of outstanding restricted stock units with a weighted-average grant price of $2.55 per share; and

 

 

up to an aggregate of 2,833,729 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2011 Equity Incentive Plan and 2011 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.

 

To the extent that options outstanding as of March 31, 2019 have been or are exercised, or restricted stock units outstanding have vested, or other shares are issued, investors purchasing shares in this offering could experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

S-7

 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

In accordance with the terms of our existing Controlled Equity Offering SM  Sales Agreement with Cantor, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time through Cantor, acting as sales agent having an aggregate offering price of up to $46,564,331. In this prospectus supplement, we refer to a prior sales agreement prospectus dated June 14, 2017 as the prior prospectus. The prior prospectus provided for sales of shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of $40,000,000. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we had issued and sold an aggregate of 9.8 million shares of common stock pursuant to the sales agreement and the prior prospectus, for which we had received net proceeds of approximately $32.5 million after deducting commissions, fees and expenses of $0.9 million, and $6,564,331 remained unsold. The common stock remaining available to be sold under the prior prospectus as of the date of this prospectus supplement will no longer be offered and sold under the prior prospectus, but will instead be offered and sold under this prospectus supplement. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement covers the offer and sale of $46,564,331 to be sold under the sales agreement as of the date of this prospectus supplement.

 

Cantor may sell the common stock by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, including sales made directly on or through The Nasdaq Global Market or any other existing trading market for the common stock in the U.S. Cantor may also sell the common stock in negotiated transactions, subject to our prior approval.

 

Each time we wish to issue and sell common stock under the sales agreement, we will notify Cantor of the number of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales are anticipated to be made and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. Once we have so instructed Cantor, unless it declines to accept the terms of this notice, Cantor has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of Cantor under the sales agreement to sell our common stock are subject to a number of conditions that we must meet.

 

The settlement between us and Cantor is generally anticipated to occur on the second trading day following the date on which the sale was made. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and Cantor may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

Pursuant to the sales agreement, Cantor will be entitled to a commission equal to an aggregate of up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds we receive from the sales of our common stock. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cantor may, and will with respect to sales effected in an “at-the-market-offering,” be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of each sales agent will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cantor with respect to certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation payable to the Cantor under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $300,000.

 

The offering of common stock pursuant to the sales agreement and this prospectus supplement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the sale of our common stock provided for in this prospectus supplement, or (ii) termination of the sales agreement as permitted therein. Cantor may terminate the sales agreement at any time in certain circumstances, including the occurrence of a material adverse change with respect to us that, in Cantor’s sole judgment, makes it impracticable or inadvisable to market the shares, if there has occurred any material adverse change in the U.S. financial markets or international financial markets, which in Cantor’s sole judgment makes it impracticable to market the shares, if trading in the shares has been suspended or limited by the SEC or The Nasdaq Global Market, or the Exchange, or if trading generally has been suspended or limited by Exchange, if any suspension of trading of any shares of AcelRx on any exchange or over-the-counter market shall have occurred and be continuing, if there is a major disruption of securities settlements or clearance services in the U.S. which shall be continuing, or if a banking moratorium has been declared in the U.S. Federal or New York authorities. We and Cantor may each terminate the sales agreement at any time upon 10 days prior notice, respectively.

 

S-8

 

 

This summary of the material provisions of the sales agreement does not purport to be a complete statement of its terms and conditions. Copies of the sales agreement are filed with the SEC and are incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information” below.

 

Cantor and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M under the Exchange Act, Cantor will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus supplement.

 

A prospectus supplement in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by Cantor, and Cantor may distribute the prospectus supplement electronically.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Cooley LLP, Palo Alto, California, will pass upon the validity of the common stock offered by this prospectus supplement. Latham & Watkins LLP, San Diego, California, is counsel for Cantor in connection with this offering.

 

EXPERTS

 

OUM & Co. LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018 included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and elsewhere in the registration statement. Such financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on OUM & Co. LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus supplement is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and does not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus supplement to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document. Because we are subject to the information and reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information from other documents that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement. Information in this prospectus supplement supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus supplement. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement and the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC (Commission File No. 001-35068):

 

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, which was filed on March 7, 2019;

 

 

Amendment No. 1 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2018, which was filed on April 30, 2019;

 

S-9

 

 

 

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, which was filed on May 9, 2019;

 

 

our Current Reports on Form 8-K which were filed on January 11, 2019 and February 14, 2019; and

 

 

the description of our common stock in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on February 1, 2011.

 

 

All filings filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

 

We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items unless such Form 8-K expressly provides to the contrary) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including those made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part and prior to effectiveness of such registration statement, until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the securities made by this prospectus supplement and will become a part of this prospectus supplement from the date that such documents are filed with the SEC. Information in such future filings updates and supplements the information provided in this prospectus supplement. Any statements in any such future filings will automatically be deemed to modify and supersede any information in any document we previously filed with the SEC that is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated herein by reference to the extent that statements in the later filed document modify or replace such earlier statements.

 

You can request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

 

AcelRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

351 Galveston Drive

Redwood City, CA 94063

(650) 216-3500

Attn: Secretary

 

S-10

 

 

Prospectus

 

 

$150,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

 

 

From time to time, we may offer and sell up to an aggregate amount of $150,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in combination. We may also offer common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of debt securities, common stock upon conversion of preferred stock, or common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants.

 

We will provide the specific terms of these offerings and securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before buying any of the securities being offered.

 

Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the trading symbol “ACELRX.” On May 31, 2017, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $2.50 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the NASDAQ Global Market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 4 of this prospectus and any similar section contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

The securities may be sold directly by us to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents or underwriters and any applicable fees, commissions, discounts and over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is June 14, 2017.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

i

   

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

1

   

RISK FACTORS

5

   

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

5

   

USE OF PROCEEDS

7

   

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

7

   

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

7

   

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

11

   

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

17

   

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

19

   

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

22

   

LEGAL MATTERS

24

   

EXPERTS

24

   

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

24

   

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

24

 

 

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration statement, we may, from time to time, offer and sell, either individually or in combination, in one or more offerings, up to a total dollar amount of $150,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus.

 

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We urge you to read carefully this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” before buying any of the securities being offered.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. You must not rely upon any information or representation not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, the accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so.

 

The information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

This prospectus contains and incorporates by reference market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe that these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. Although we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the market and industry data presented in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference, these estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

 

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the section entitled “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”

 

i

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

AcelRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

 

Overview

 

We are a specialty pharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of innovative therapies for the treatment of acute pain. Our lead product candidate, DSUVIA™ (known as ARX-04 outside of the United States), and our follow-on product candidate, ZALVISO®, utilize sublingual sufentanil, delivered via a non-invasive route of sublingual administration. We anticipate developing a distribution capability and commercial organization to market and sell DSUVIA in the United States by ourselves, and potentially, in certain European Economic Area, or EEA, countries with strategic partners. In geographies where we decide not to commercialize ourselves, we may seek to out-license commercialization rights. We intend to seek regulatory approval for ZALVISO in the United States and, if successful, potentially promote ZALVISO as a follow-on product to DSUVIA, either by ourselves or with strategic partners.

 

We have chosen sufentanil as the therapeutic ingredient for our current product candidates. Opioids have been utilized for pain relief for centuries and are the standard-of-care for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute pain. Sufentanil is available as an injectable in several markets around the world and is used by anesthesiologists for induction of sedation or as an epidural; however, the injectable formulation is not suitable for the treatment of acute pain. We have created a proprietary sublingual (under the tongue) tablet formulation of sufentanil intended for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute pain. The sublingual formulation retains the therapeutic value of sufentanil and novel delivery devices provide a non-invasive route of administration. Sufentanil is highly lipophilic which provides for rapid absorption in the mucosal tissue, or fatty cells, found under the tongue, and for rapid transit across the blood-brain barrier to reach the mu-opioid receptors in the brain. The sublingual route of delivery used by DSUVIA and ZALVISO provides a recognized onset of analgesia. The sublingual delivery system also eliminates the risk of intravenous, or IV, complications, such as catheter-related infections. In addition, because patients do not require direct connection to an IV infusion pump, or IV line, DSUVIA and ZALVISO may allow for ease of patient mobility.

 

Corporate Information

 

We were originally incorporated as SuRx, Inc. in Delaware on July 13, 2005. We subsequently changed our name to AcelRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. on August 13, 2006. We file electronically with the SEC our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. We make available on our website at www.acelrx.com, free of charge, copies of these reports as soon as reasonably practicable after filing these reports with, or furnishing them to, the SEC.

 

The Securities We May Offer

 

We may offer shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination, up to a total dollar amount of $150,000,000, from time to time under this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of any offering. We may also offer common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

 

designation or classification;

 

1

 

 

 

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

 

maturity date, if applicable;

 

 

original issue discount, if any;

 

 

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

 

 

redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;

 

 

conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange;

 

 

ranking;

 

 

restrictive covenants, if any;

 

 

voting or other rights, if any; and

 

 

material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations, if any.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

 

We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We and our agents or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities to or through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

 

the names of those agents or underwriters;

 

 

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

 

details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

 

 

the net proceeds to us.

 

Common Stock . We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any outstanding shares of preferred stock, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably such dividends as may be declared by our board of directors out of legally available funds. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and the liquidation preferences of any outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive rights and no right to convert their common stock into any other securities. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the common stock under “Description of Capital Stock — Common Stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to any common stock being offered.

 

2

 

 

Preferred Stock . We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Our board of directors will determine the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including dividend rights, conversion rights, preemptive rights, terms of redemption or repurchase, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series. Convertible preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or exchangeable for other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

 

If we sell any series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series we issue under this prospectus, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that contains the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the preferred stock under “Description of Capital Stock — Preferred Stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

 

Debt Securities . We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

 

Any debt securities issued under this prospectus will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities under “Description of Debt Securities.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

 

Warrants . We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or in combination with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants under “Description of Warrants.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as any warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.

 

Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants also may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.

 

3

 

 

Use of Proceeds

 

Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including commercialization activities, research and development expenses, general and administrative expenses, for making scheduled payments under our debt facility and capital expenditures. See “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus.

 

NASDAQ Global Market Listing

 

Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “ACRX.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the NASDAQ Global Market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

4

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and discussed under the section entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section below entitled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act. These statements relate to future events or to our future operating or financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

 

our ability to obtain, without delays, and maintain regulatory approval of DSUVIATM (sufentanil sublingual tablet, 30 mcg), formerly known as ARX-04 in the United States, and any related restrictions, limitations, and/or warnings in the label of an approved product candidate;

 

 

our ability to obtain, without delays, and maintain regulatory approval of ARX-04 (sufentanil sublingual tablet, 30 mcg) in the European Union, and any related restrictions, limitations, and/or warnings in the label of an approved product candidate;

 

 

the success, cost and timing of our product development activities and clinical trials, including the additional clinical study, IAP312, for ZALVISO® (sufentanil sublingual tablet system);

 

 

our ability to successfully execute the pathway towards a resubmission of the ZALVISO New Drug Application, or NDA, including our ability to satisfactorily conduct the clinical study, IAP312, requested by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and any additional studies or activities that may be required by the FDA in order to resubmit the ZALVISO NDA, and subsequently obtain, without further delays, and maintain regulatory approval of ZALVISO in the United States and any related restrictions, limitations, and/or warnings in the label of an approved product candidate;

 

 

our ability to manufacture and supply ZALVISO to Grünenthal GmbH, or Grünenthal, in accordance with their forecast and the Manufacture and Supply Agreement with Grünenthal;

 

 

the outcome of any potential FDA Advisory Committee meetings held for any of our product candidates, including the anticipated joint meeting of the Anesthetic and Analgesic Drug Products Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee to obtain committee input on the safety and efficacy of DSUVIA;

 

5

 

 

 

the status of the Collaboration and License Agreement with Grünenthal or any other future potential collaborations, including potential milestones and royalty payments under the Grünenthal agreement and obligations under the Purchase and Sale Agreement with PDL BioPharma, Inc., or PDL;

 

 

our plans to research, develop and commercialize our product candidates;

 

 

our ability to attract additional collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

 

 

our ability to successfully retain our key scientific, engineering, medical or management personnel and hire new personnel as needed;

 

 

the size and growth potential of the markets for our product candidates, and our ability to serve those markets;

 

 

our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates;

 

 

the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates;

 

 

our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities in a timely fashion, whether alone through recruiting qualified employees, by engaging a contract sales organization, or with potential future collaborators;

 

 

our ability to manufacture and supply DSUVIA, if approved, in support of any potential U.S. commercial launch;

 

 

our ability to obtain adequate government or third-party payor reimbursement;

 

 

regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

 

the performance of our third party suppliers and manufacturers;

 

 

the success of competing therapies that are or become available;

 

 

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

 

our liquidity and capital resources; and

 

 

our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates.

 

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “predicts,” “potential” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We discuss in greater detail many of these risks under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement, in any free writing prospectuses we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering, and in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and in our most recent quarterly report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, together with the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference therein and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements.

 

6

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by us hereunder, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, including commercialization activities, research and development expenses, general and administrative expenses, for making scheduled payments under our debt facility and capital expenses, or any other purpose we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

 

Our earnings were insufficient to cover fixed charges for each of the periods in the table below and, accordingly, we have not included a ratio of earnings to fixed charges for these periods. The table below sets forth our deficiency of earnings to cover fixed charges on a historical basis for the periods indicated (in millions). This table is qualified by the more detailed information appearing in the computation table found in Exhibit 12.1 to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

   

Three
Months
Ended

   

Years Ended December 31,

 
    March 31,
2017
   

2016

   

2015

   

2014

   

2013

   

2012

 

Deficiency of Earnings to Cover Fixed Charges

  $ (15,551 )   $ (43,191 )   $ (23,639 )   $ (33,353 )   $ (23,426 )   $ (33,363 )

 

Earnings consist of pre-tax loss from continuing operations and fixed charges. Fixed charges consist of the sum of (i) interest expense, (ii) non-cash interest expense on liability related to future sale of royalties, (iii) amortized premiums, debt discounts and capitalized interest related to indebtedness, and (iv) an estimate of the interest within rental expense that is considered by us to be a reasonable approximation of the interest factor, which is zero.

 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

Our authorized capital stock consists of 100,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value. A description of material terms and provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws affecting the rights of holders of our capital stock is set forth below. The description is intended as a summary, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws.

 

Common Stock

 

Voting Rights . Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. In all matters other than the election of directors, the affirmative vote of the majority of shares present in person, by remote communication, or represented by proxy at a meeting of the stockholders and entitled to vote generally on the subject matter shall be the act of the stockholders. Directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes of the shares present in person, by remote communication, or represented by proxy at a meeting of the stockholders and entitled to vote generally on the election of directors. Our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights in the election of directors. Accordingly, holders of a majority of the voting shares are able to elect all of the directors to be elected at any particular time.

 

Dividends . Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of funds legally available if our board of directors, in its discretion, determines to issue dividends and then only at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine.

 

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Liquidation . In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then outstanding shares of preferred stock.

 

Rights and Preferences . Holders of our common stock have no preemptive, conversion, subscription or other rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate in the future.

 

Fully Paid and Nonassessable . All of our outstanding shares of common stock are, and the shares of common stock to be issued pursuant to any offering we may make pursuant to this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement will be, fully paid and nonassessable.

 

Preferred Stock

 

Our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of its qualifications, limitations or restrictions. Our board of directors can also increase or decrease the number of shares of any series, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with financings, possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring, discouraging or preventing a change in control of our company, may adversely affect the market price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of common stock, and may reduce the likelihood that common stockholders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation.

 

We will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series we issue under this prospectus, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that contains the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of preferred stock being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

 

 

the title and stated value;

 

 

the number of shares we are offering;

 

 

the liquidation preference per share;

 

 

the purchase price;

 

 

the dividend rate, period and payment date and method of calculation for dividends;

 

 

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

 

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if applicable;

 

 

the provisions for a sinking fund, if applicable;

 

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the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

 

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

 

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;

 

 

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;

 

 

voting rights of the preferred stock;

 

 

preemptive rights, if any;

 

 

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment;

 

 

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

 

a discussion of material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock, if any;

 

 

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

 

 

any limitations on the issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

 

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.

 

Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law

 

Certificate of incorporation and bylaws. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include a number of provisions that may deter or impede hostile takeovers or changes of control or management. These provisions include:

 

 

Issuance of undesignated preferred stock . Under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by the board of directors. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock enables our board of directors to make it more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise.

 

 

Classified board . Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides for a classified board of directors consisting of three classes of directors, with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors will be elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms. This provision may have the effect of delaying a change in control of the board.

 

 

Board of directors vacancies . Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws authorize only our board of directors to fill vacant directorships. In addition, the number of directors constituting our board of directors may be set only by resolution adopted by a majority vote of our entire board of directors. These provisions prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of our board of directors and gaining control of our board of directors by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees.

 

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Stockholder action; special meetings of stockholders . Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not take action by written consent, but may only take action at annual or special meetings of our stockholders. Stockholders will not be permitted to cumulate their votes for the election of directors. Our amended and restated bylaws further provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by a majority of our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors, or our chief executive officer. These provisions may prevent stockholders from corporate actions as stockholders at times when they otherwise would like to do so.

 

 

Advance notice requirements for stockholder proposals and director nominations . Our amended and restated bylaws provide advance notice procedures for stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders, or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders. Our bylaws also specify certain requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice. These provisions may make it more difficult for our stockholders to bring matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or to nominate directors at our annual meeting of stockholders.

 

These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage certain types of transactions that may involve an actual or threatened acquisition of us. These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal. The provisions also are intended to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, these provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and, as a consequence, they may also reduce fluctuations in the market price of our shares that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts.

 

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law

 

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law regulating corporate takeovers. This section prevents some Delaware corporations from engaging, under some circumstances, in a business combination, which includes a merger or sale of at least 10% of the corporation’s assets with any interested stockholder, meaning a stockholder who, together with affiliates and associates, owns or, within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status, did own 15% or more of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock, unless:

 

 

the transaction is approved by the board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder became an interested stockholder;

 

 

upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder’s becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced; or

 

 

at or subsequent to such time that the stockholder became an interested stockholder the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders by at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

 

A Delaware corporation may “opt out” of these provisions with an express provision in its original certificate of incorporation or an express provision in its certificate or incorporation or bylaws resulting from a stockholders’ amendment approved by at least a majority of the outstanding voting shares. We have not “opted out” of these provisions and do not plan to do so. The statute could prohibit or delay mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts and, accordingly, may discourage attempts to acquire us.

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare, Inc.: 1-800-736-3001. The transfer agent’s address is 250 Royall Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021.

 

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Listing on the NASDAQ Global Market

 

Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “ACRX.” The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on the NASDAQ Global Market or any securities market or other exchange of the preferred stock covered by such prospectus supplement.

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

 

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

 

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

 

General

 

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

 

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

 

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

 

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

 

 

the maturity date or dates;

 

 

the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

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the applicability of any guarantees;

 

 

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

 

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

 

if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

 

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

 

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

 

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

 

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

 

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

 

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

 

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities;

 

 

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities, and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

 

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

 

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

 

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

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additions to or changes in the Events of Default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

 

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

 

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

 

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

 

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

 

whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

 

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

 

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

 

Events of Default under the Indenture

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

 

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

 

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

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if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

 

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

 

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

 

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

 

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

 

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request;

 

 

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

 

 

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

 

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We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

 

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

 

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

 

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

 

 

to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

 

 

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

 

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

 

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

 

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

 

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities—General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

 

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

 

 

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

 

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

 

 

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

 

 

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

 

Discharge

 

Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

 

provide for payment;

 

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register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

 

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

 

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

 

 

maintain paying agencies;

 

 

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

 

recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

 

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

 

appoint any successor trustee.

 

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

 

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

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register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

Information Concerning the Trustee

 

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

 

Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

Governing Law

 

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is applicable.

 

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectuses that we may authorize to be distributed to you, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or in combination with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description of warrants will apply to the warrants offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of warrants may specify different or additional terms.

 

We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that describe the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the warrants are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses, and the complete form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements, that contain the terms of the warrants.

 

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General

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including:

 

 

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

 

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

 

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

 

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

 

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

 

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

 

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

 

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

 

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

 

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

 

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

 

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

 

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

 

 

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or

 

 

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.

 

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Exercise of Warrants

 

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrants may be exercised as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, warrants may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered thereby. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

 

Upon receipt of payment and the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If less than all of the warrants (or the warrants represented by such warrant certificate) are exercised, a new warrant or a new warrant certificate, as applicable, will be issued for the remaining warrants.

 

Governing Law

 

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and any warrant agreements will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

 

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

 

Each warrant agent, if any, will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

 

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee, depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

 

Book-Entry Holders

 

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

 

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

 

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As a result, investors in a book-entry security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not holders, of the securities.

 

Street Name Holders

 

We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

 

For securities held in street name, we will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

 

Legal Holders

 

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee and of any third parties employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with depositary participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of the indenture or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the holders contact the indirect holders is up to the holders.

 

Special Considerations For Indirect Holders

 

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

 

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

 

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

 

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

 

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

 

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

 

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

 

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Global Securities

 

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

 

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

 

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under the section entitled “Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated” in this prospectus. As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

 

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

Special Considerations For Global Securities

 

The rights of an indirect holder relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

 

If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

 

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

 

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

 

 

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

 

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

 

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security;

 

 

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security, nor do we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

 

21

 

 

 

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

 

 

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

 

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

 

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

 

In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own name, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

 

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

 

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

 

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not we or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, direct sales to the public, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

 

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

 

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

 

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

 

at negotiated prices.

 

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

 

the name or names of the underwriters, if any;

 

22

 

 

 

the purchase price of the securities or other consideration therefor, and the proceeds, if any, we will receive from the sale;

 

 

any over-allotment or other options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

 

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

 

any public offering price;

 

 

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

 

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

 

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement will be underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

 

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement, other than securities covered by any over-allotment or other option. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

 

We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

 

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

 

All securities we may offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

 

Any underwriter may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Over-allotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Syndicate-covering or other short-covering transactions involve purchases of the securities, either through exercise of the over-allotment or other option or in the open market after the distribution is completed, to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.

 

23

 

 

Any underwriters or agents that are qualified market makers on the NASDAQ Global Market engage in passive market making transactions in the common stock on the NASDAQ Global Market accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the common stock. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon for us by Cooley LLP, San Francisco, California. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

EXPERTS

 

OUM & Co. LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2016 and 2015 and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2016 included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Such financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on OUM & Co. LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements for the period ended December 31, 2014 included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and elsewhere in the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus form a part. Such financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

This prospectus is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and does not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document. Because we are subject to the information and reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information from other documents that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus and the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the information or documents listed below that we have filed with the SEC (Commission File No. 001-35068):

 

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, which was filed on March 3, 2017;

 

24

 

 

 

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016 from our definitive proxy statement relating to our 2017 annual meeting of stockholders, which was filed on April 28, 2017;

 

 

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2017, which was filed on May 8, 2017;

 

 

our Current Reports on Form 8-K which were filed on January 9, 2017, February 9, 2017, February 16, 2017, March 7, 2017, March 10, 2017, May 10, 2017 and June 5, 2017; and

 

 

the description of our common stock in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on February 1, 2011.

 

All filings filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items unless such Form 8-K expressly provides to the contrary) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including those made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of such registration statement, until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the securities made by this prospectus and will become a part of this prospectus from the date that such documents are filed with the SEC. Information in such future filings updates and supplements the information provided in this prospectus. Any statements in any such future filings will automatically be deemed to modify and supersede any information in any document we previously filed with the SEC that is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated herein by reference to the extent that statements in the later filed document modify or replace such earlier statements.

 

You can request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

 

AcelRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

351 Galveston Drive

Redwood City, CA 94063

(650) 216-3500

Attn: Secretary

 

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Common Stock

 

 


 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 


 

 

 


 

May 9 , 2019

 

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