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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
þ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
or
¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______________ to _______________
Commission File Number 001-38823
hyln-20211231_g1.jpg
HYLIION HOLDINGS CORP.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 83-2538002
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1202 BMC Drive, Suite 100
Cedar Park, Texas
78613
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (833) 495-4466
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock HYLN The New York Stock Exchange
$0.0001 per share
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes ¨    No þ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.  Yes ¨    No þ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes þ    No ¨ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes þ    No ¨ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer  Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes ¨    No þ 
The aggregate market value of the registrant's voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2021, based upon the closing price of such stock on The New York Stock Exchange on such date of $11.65, was $1.41 billion. This calculation excludes shares held by the registrant’s current directors and executive officers and stockholders that the registrant has concluded are affiliates of the registrant. 
As of February 14, 2022, 173,568,127 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, were outstanding.
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed no later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this Annual Report on Form 10-K relates, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
1
F-1

i

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements, other than statements of historical fact, contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, statements regarding our strategy, prospects, plans, objectives, future operations, future revenue and earnings, projected margins and expenses, markets for our services, potential acquisitions or strategic alliances, financial position, and liquidity and anticipated cash needs and availability. The words “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “projects,” “will,” “would,” variations of such words and similar expressions or the negatives thereof are intended to identify forward-looking statements. However, not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These forward-looking statements represent our management’s expectations as of the date of this filing and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance and achievements, or industry results, to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. We cannot guarantee the accuracy of the forward-looking statements, and you should be aware that results and events could differ materially and adversely from those contained in the forward-looking statements due to a number of risks and uncertainties including, but not limited to, those described in the section entitled “Risk Factors” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in other documents we file from time to time with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission” or the “SEC”) that disclose risks and uncertainties that may affect our business. Readers are urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in other documents we file from time to time with the Commission. Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except as required by law, we do not undertake, and expressly disclaim any duty, to publicly update or revise these statements, whether as a result of new information, new developments, or otherwise and even if experience or future changes make it clear that any projected results expressed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or future quarterly reports, press releases or company statements will not be realized. Unless specifically indicated otherwise, the forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K do not reflect the potential impact of any divestitures, mergers, acquisitions or other business combinations that have not been completed as of the date of this filing. In addition, the inclusion of any statement in this Annual Report on Form 10-K does not constitute an admission by us that the events or circumstances described in such statement are material. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. In addition, the industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors including those described in the section entitled “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Note Regarding Third-Party Information
Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market size, is based on information from various sources, on assumptions that we have made that are based on those data and other similar sources, and on our knowledge of the markets for our services. This information includes a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such information. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we operate are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section entitled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in other documents we file from time to time with the Commission that disclose risks and uncertainties that may affect our business. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially and adversely from those expressed in the estimates made by third parties and by us.
Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this document to “Hyliion,” “our company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and similar names refer to Hyliion Holdings Corp. and, where appropriate, its subsidiary.
ii

Part I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Overview
Hyliion is a Delaware corporation headquartered in Cedar Park, Texas. As previously reported in our Amended Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, on June 18, 2020, Tortoise Acquisition Corp. (“TortoiseCorp”) entered into a business combination agreement (the "Business Combination Agreement") with each of the shareholders of Hyliion Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Legacy Hyliion”), and consummated the merger contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement (the "Business Combination"), with Legacy Hyliion surviving the merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of TortoiseCorp, which was renamed “Hyliion Holdings Corp.” As a result of the Business Combination, we became an NYSE listed company.
Our mission is to be the leading provider of electrified powertrain solutions for the commercial vehicle industry. Our goal is to reduce the carbon intensity and the Greenhouse Gas ("GHG") emissions of the transportation sector by providing electrified powertrain solutions for Class 8 semi-trucks at the lowest total cost of ownership ("TCO"). Throughout our product offerings, we utilize our battery systems, control software and data analytics, combined with fully integrated electric motors and power electronics, to produce electrified powertrain systems. Hyliion currently offers two different product lines; a Hybrid system which is designed as an add-on to electric powertrain to trucks which can augment power needs, and the Hypertruck which is a complete powertrain option that is fully electric drive and leverages an onboard generator to recharge the batteries as the vehicle is in operation. By reducing both GHG emissions and TCO, our environmentally conscious solutions support our customers’ pursuit of their sustainability and financial objectives.
We are currently selling the Hybrid eX version of our Hybrid product and are developing our Hypertruck electrified powertrain systems for long-haul Class 8 commercial vehicles. Our Hybrid eX system has been installed in low volumes on our initial customers’ commercial vehicles. Across these customer installations and over the entire Hyliion fleet, we have accumulated millions of real-world road miles on Class 8 commercial vehicles. Our Hybrid eX system can either be installed on a new vehicle prior to entering fleet service or retrofit to an existing in-service vehicle. The Hypertruck platform leverages the experience and operating data from our Hybrid eX system to offer a solution to replace the traditional diesel or Compressed Natural Gas ("CNG") powertrain installed in new vehicles.
The Hypertruck powertrain which is a range-extender vehicle, is addressing the market needs of having a fully electric drive truck that can travel long distance between refuels and can leverage existing natural gas infrastructure. Our initial expected deliveries of our Hypertruck systems to customers are designed to have their batteries recharged by a CNG generator, called the Hypertruck ERX. Our Hypertruck ERX system can offer commercial vehicle owners and operators a net carbon negative electrified powertrain option, when using Renewable Natural Gas (“RNG”). We believe CNG/RNG is the correct fuel source to begin with, but there are other fuels that will become available to address this climate change initiative, including Hydrogen. Hyliion has showcased a multistage roadmap that starts with utilizing a CNG/RNG generator and evolves into offering Hydrogen-based solutions as well. The Hypertruck platform is designed to be generator agnostic while the rest of the electric powertrain can remain the same. Hyliion plans to initially release the Hypertruck ERX natural gas solution, and then expects to release a Fuel Agnostic generator and a Hydrogen Fuel Cell generator for the Hypertruck platform.
CNG fueled recharging is preferable due to both the current comparable cost of fuels and existing availability of CNG refueling infrastructure. Class 8 commercial vehicles can currently be refueled with CNG through existing, geographically diverse and third-party accessible natural gas refueling stations established across North America. Globally, RNG, CNG and liquefied natural gas (“LNG”) are used widely for land-based transport and trucking and Hyliion believes there are established, geographically diverse and third-party accessible refueling stations available in certain areas in which Hyliion expects it may leverage in connection with the use of its electrified powertrain solutions in the future. We believe there is opportunity for adoption of our electrified powertrain solutions across Europe. This existing and accessible refueling infrastructure will significantly reduce the buildout time and cost required to utilize our Hypertruck ERX system as compared to other proposed potential electrified solutions.
Our Hybrid eX and Hypertruck systems are designed to be able to be installed on most major Class 8 commercial vehicles in the long term, which will give our customers the flexibility to continue using their preferred vehicle brands and maintain their existing fleet maintenance and operations strategies. Our early Hybrid eX system deployments include leaders in the transportation and logistics sector. We are focusing our initial marketing efforts on large fleet operators as well as companies committed to reducing the overall environmental impact and fuel costs of their owned and operated trucking fleets.
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Market Opportunity
Our solutions are currently addressing Class 8 commercial vehicles with an intent to begin deployments in North America and then expand globally. Based on ACT Research’s estimates, there are eight million Class 8 commercial vehicles currently in operation globally. In addition, ACT Research estimates that the active Class 8 commercial vehicle population will grow by approximately 4.5% annually from 2022 to 2025.
Challenges with Other Solutions
With the global focus on reducing the environmental impact of commercial transportation, a number of companies have begun developing solutions to lower GHG emissions in commercial vehicles, including plug-in commercial battery electric vehicles (“BEVs”) and commercial fuel cell electric vehicles (“FCEVs”). However, neither of these solutions have been commercialized or delivered in volume for the long-haul Class 8 commercial vehicle space at this time. While we do see market opportunities for these solutions, we believe they will face unique challenges for widespread adoption in the near term, which may include:
limited availability of such commercial vehicles or solutions;
a higher TCO relative to currently available diesel commercial vehicles;
limited availability and capacity of electric charging infrastructure and hydrogen fueling infrastructure;
higher lifecycle GHG emissions due to emissions from electricity generation to recharge the batteries (from the electrical grid or hydrogen production) and the emissions associated with the production of the battery cells;
the need or choice to completely redesign the commercial vehicle to implement the solution;
reduced available payload capacity (and resulting loss of revenue-producing transportation capacity) due to the size and weight of required on-board batteries;
limited range on a single charge or fueling;
longer recharging or refueling times compared to refueling times for currently available diesel and natural gas fueled commercial vehicles; and
the need to change customers’ existing fleet operations, including procurement, dispatch, logistics, maintenance, repair, servicing and driver training.
Our Technology and Solutions
Our electrified powertrain solutions utilize battery systems, control software and data analytics, combined with electric motors and power electronics, to produce an electrified powertrain system technology platform that can be used to either augment, in the case of our Hybrid system, or fully replace, in the case of our Hypertruck ERX system, conventional powertrains in Class 8 commercial vehicles and improve their performance. Our solutions are designed to be compatible with most major Class 8 commercial vehicle manufacturers and are fuel and generator agnostic, giving our customers flexibility to choose the vehicles and fuel source that best fit their overall commercial vehicle operations strategy in their transition to electrified transportation.
Hybrid Electric Powertrain System
Our Hybrid system (the "Hybrid eX") can be installed on most major Class 8 commercial vehicles to reduce fuel usage, decrease GHG emissions, improve performance and/or reduce operating costs. Our Hybrid system is comprised of battery systems and an associated software management solution, a control module running our software and data analytics, high and low voltage power distribution and a thermal management system. The battery system and controllers can be attached to the frame rail of most major Class 8 commercial vehicles, providing cost savings in the case of diesel and simplifying installation, and incorporating a custom e-axle solution with associated cooling box to reduce weight and improve system efficiencies. The system is charged by regenerative braking and downhill deceleration and discharged to provide additional horsepower and torque when called upon by our control software, thereby reducing fuel usage and related GHG emissions or applying additional power to improve vehicle performance. Our Hybrid system’s battery power can be utilized as an auxiliary power unit (“APU”) to supply electricity for in-cab devices and air conditioning to reduce or eliminate idling when the driver is “hoteling” in the truck. Based on internal and third-party testing and customer-reported experiences, we believe the benefits of utilizing our Hybrid system compared to conventional diesel or CNG commercial vehicles will reduce fuel usage, emissions, idling and/or improved performance.
We believe that reduced operating costs will be the main decision factor for many fleets in adopting our Hybrid system. Our Hybrid system enables fleets to transition from diesel to natural gas engines, which can currently be fueled at a cost significantly lower than the fuel cost of a diesel engine.
Our Hybrid eX system officially launched, and our first Hypertruck ERX showcase unit was unveiled, on August 31, 2021 at the ACT Expo in Long Beach, CA. Compared to previous Hyliion Hybrid systems, the Hybrid eX offers fleets a lighter solution
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that is easier to install, service and operate. The Hybrid eX draws upon the real-world feedback Hyliion has received from customers and the millions of miles logged with the previous system. Due to shortages of various components caused by global supply chain disruptions, we are experiencing longer delivery times for a portion of the orders we have received on new Hybrid eX units. In addition, we are assessing the potential demand impact for the Hybrid eX product offering in light of recent changes within the competitive landscape.
Hypertruck ERX Powertrain System
Our Hypertruck ERX system, which is an electric range extender powertrain system, is being designed for installation on most major Class 8 commercial vehicles to create a net carbon negative capable electrified Class 8 commercial vehicle when using RNG. Our Hypertruck ERX system builds upon technical knowledge gained from our Hybrid system and consists of a larger battery system, an associated software management and data analytics solution, a range extending electric generator powered by a customer’s choice of fuel, a primary electric traction drive system and power electronics with integrated controls and our Hyliion Co-Pilot in-cab driver display. The system works by pairing a fully electric powertrain with a battery system that is recharged by an onboard generator that produces electricity. This system fully replaces the traditional powertrain in Class 8 commercial vehicles, while giving our customers the flexibility to choose between most major Class 8 commercial vehicle brands and fuel type for their long-haul applications.
We plan to leverage varying battery system sizes to achieve different all-electric EV vehicle ranges, including a 75-mile capable electric range solution which will likely qualify for Zero Emission Vehicle credits.
Our Hypertruck ERX system combines the performance of fully electric powertrains with the refueling efficiency of traditionally fueled vehicles. We estimate that it may be less expensive to run our onboard generator to produce electricity than recharging a BEV from the grid. By using onboard generation of electricity, rather than using a large battery pack for a BEV, our Hypertruck ERX system will provide an extended range over commercial BEVs. We believe the benefits of our Hypertruck ERX system will include:
a powertrain solution as opposed to a complete vehicle redesign;
lower TCO than diesel;
net carbon negative electric Class 8 commercial vehicle solution potential;
utilization of existing natural gas infrastructure;
zero tailpipe emissions drive capable;
range comparable to diesel;
industry standard refueling times; and
familiarity to existing Class 8 commercial vehicle brands.
Hypertruck ERX Rollout Timeline
We began our Hypertruck ERX roadshow in November 2021 with a two-day showcase event focused on demonstrating the features and benefits of the powertrain firsthand. The roadshow consisted of ride-alongs and in-depth product education of the Hypertruck ERX’s features and benefits, including how it enables fleets’ decarbonization goals while also reducing TCO. Our development timeline has been extended to allow for design verification and testing inclusive of critical summer and winter seasons, as well as the accumulation of up to one million miles prior to production. We expect to complete design verification and begin initial controlled fleet trials by the end of 2022.
While we have recently achieved critical product milestones, shortages in the supply chain and changes to the development program have led to an extension in the go-forward development timeline. Similar to others in the automotive industry, the semiconductor shortage, as well as several other key components, is extending our timelines longer than expected. These supply chain challenges have been especially prominent in the trucking industry, and one of the impacts has been significantly extended lead times for ordering new trucks. Fleets are experiencing lead times on new truck purchases that extend out for delivery into 2023. We have already placed orders with Peterbilt for all chassis needed in 2022 and are working to secure build slots for the 2023 calendar year in an effort to mitigate potential future supply chain impacts to our Hypertruck ERX development schedule. We continue to work closely with our current supply base to improve delivery of components for the quarters ahead and are diligently seeking alternative sources of supply for components that meet our technical specifications with shorter lead times.
CNG and RNG as a Fuel
Our Hypertruck ERX system will leverage existing CNG fueling stations that provide a cross country refueling network. In the continental United States, there are approximately 700 public CNG fueling stations already in operation for Class 8 commercial
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vehicles. These stations are geographically dispersed across the United States enabling long-haul trucking without the need for incremental refueling infrastructure buildout. Furthermore, our Hypertruck ERX system is being designed to be refueled in approximately ten minutes, which is on par with existing diesel solutions. Internationally, we believe CNG infrastructure is even more prevalent due to government mandates requiring reduced carbon emissions from transportation. Additionally, we believe that in certain international jurisdictions, the necessary heavy-duty infrastructure exists that would support adoption of our Hypertruck ERX system. The ability to utilize the existing CNG fueling infrastructure eliminates the time and cost needed to build expensive fueling infrastructure before our Hypertruck ERX system can be utilized, as compared to Class 8 commercial BEVs and FCEVs, which currently lack electric charging and hydrogen fueling infrastructure.
RNG is a form of natural gas that is much cleaner for the environment than most other fuel sources. RNG is generated by capturing methane from landfills, livestock operations such as dairies, wastewater treatment and other sources or through anaerobic digestion and processing of food and animal waste streams. Depending on the source, RNG can have a significantly negative carbon intensity score, enabling our solutions to achieve a net carbon negative emissions profile. RNG is widely available today and new sources are in development.
Generator and Fuel Agnostic
Although our initial Hypertruck ERX system is being used in conjunction with CNG, it is designed to be generator and fuel agnostic. Our current designs would allow our Hypertruck system to use any available fuel generator to recharge the battery system without needing to change other components of its electric powertrain system. In addition to natural gas, other potential generator options include hydrogen fuel cells, and Fuel Agnostic generator solutions. The effect of the system’s design is to allow our Hypertruck ERX system customers to choose their preferred recharging fuel based on their unique priorities, including fuel cost and availability and emissions objectives. By designing our solutions in this manner, we expect to be able to quickly adapt to changing commodity price and availability fundamentals, customer preferences and regulatory signals and mandates without the need to redesign our solutions.
Software and Data Analytics
Our software and algorithms seek to control and optimize the fuel economy and performance of our powertrain systems by controlling and optimizing the charging and discharging of the battery systems and the performance of the electric motor and power electronics. Our software and control algorithms can be remotely updated over the air to enable our customers to receive improvements and the latest features and functionalities.
We intend to develop additional value-added services and software programs for our customers by further utilizing the data we harvest and the insights into vehicle performance and utilization our solutions provide, which could include predictive maintenance and other logistics and fleet management services.
Our Hyliion Co-Pilot product runs on our in-cab display and provides real-time vehicle performance, vehicle status metrics and driving feedback to the vehicle operators.
Strategy
Our mission is to be the leading provider of electrified powertrain solutions for the commercial vehicle industry. Our value proposition to our customers has many key elements including: reduced GHG emissions, cost savings, performance, availability and leveraging existing infrastructure.
Maintaining Technology Leadership and First-Mover Advantage
Our Hybrid eX system is currently being sold, and we are one of the first to the market with an electric powertrain solution for long-haul Class 8 commercial vehicles. Our software and the algorithms that drive our Hybrid eX solution has been utilized in millions of real-world road miles, which are used to drive continuous improvements in the system management software. Our Hypertruck ERX system is in advanced development, and we intend to complete design verification and begin initial controlled fleet trials by the end of 2022. We expect to capture a market share for low and zero emission commercial vehicles by being one of the first to the market and by having a solution that can offer a net carbon negative capable electrified powertrain option to the industry.
Focusing on Powertrains
Our electrified powertrain solutions are designed to be installed on Class 8 commercial vehicles from most major commercial vehicle OEMs. By focusing on the powertrain and its associated components and including compatibility into its design, our solutions are intended to give its customers the flexibility to use their preferred vehicle brand. This will allow our customers to adopt our Hybrid eX or Hypertruck ERX system while continuing to utilize their existing maintenance and service organizations. We believe this approach will increase the adoption of our solutions by reducing our customers’ cost and risk of transitioning to electrified transportation.
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Leveraging Existing Infrastructure
We intend to leverage the substantial infrastructure of the existing commercial transportation sector of diesel and CNG to accelerate adoption of its solutions. To start, utilizing CNG allows for electrified Class 8 commercial vehicle solutions that do not require substantial new infrastructure, such as the construction of electric charging stations. By utilizing existing commercial transportation fueling infrastructure, we believe our customers can achieve low GHG emissions, when utilizing CNG, or carbon negative status, when utilizing RNG, with our solutions. Hydrogen refueling stations are in development for regional vehicle operation and Hyliion intends to leverage these stations with the Hypertruck platform equipped with Hydrogen capable generator solutions.
Continuing to Build and Leverage Strategic Relationships
We intend to continue developing partnerships to accelerate the development and production of our solutions. We have entered into (a) agreements with Meritor, Inc., FEV North America Inc. and other companies for component development, potential future sourcing and design and system integration support, and (b) a partnership agreement with American Natural Gas (“ANG”) that offers our customers discounted pricing for RNG at ANG fueling stations across the country. Our strategic, engineering, production and technology partners augment our internal resources, and we intend to leverage their capabilities and infrastructure to bring our solutions to market more quickly and to meet industry standards, without requiring us to invest substantial amounts of capital in internal production operations.
Customer Demand
We have deployed demonstration Hybrid eX systems to certain early adopters we expect some to be customers in the future, including leaders in the transportation and logistics sector as well as companies committed to reducing the overall environmental impact and fuel costs of their owned and operated trucking fleets. Further, we commercialized and began selling the Hybrid eX system in the fourth quarter of 2021.
In 2021, Hyliion announced its Hypertruck Innovation Council, which consists of some of the largest fleets who will be assisting Hyliion along the development journey and will be among the first to experience the Hypertruck ERX. We anticipate our initial customers for the Hypertruck ERX system will be our Hypertruck Innovation Council members who will be the first to operate the Hypertruck ERX through controlled fleet deployments which will begin with some fleets in 2022 with further controlled fleet deployments anticipated. The successful launch program and deployment of the Hypertruck ERX met with positive feedback from customer operations teams and drivers and generated further interest in the Hypertruck ERX solution and longer-term commercial relationships with Hyliion.
Production, Assembly and Installation
We intend to primarily outsource the production, assembly and installation of our electrified powertrain systems to our partners at volume, while maintaining in-house research, development and prototyping capabilities, including low-volume assembly and installation.
Sales and Marketing
We currently market and sell our electrified powertrain solutions domestically through a direct sales organization and with our marketing partners to Class 8 commercial vehicle fleet owners and operators, and we expect to begin marketing and selling our electrified powertrain solutions internationally in the future.
Research and Development
Our research and development activities primarily take place at our headquarters in Cedar Park, Texas, on our testing and demonstration vehicles on roads and highways, and at our partners’ facilities. Our research and development is primarily focused on:
electrified powertrain development and system integration;
control software and algorithms for our powertrain systems;
BMS enhancement;
next generation packaging and cooling for our battery systems;
interoperability with third-party powertrain components, such as e-motors, inverters and axles;
component integration;
accelerated lifetime testing processes to improve reliability, maintainability and system-level robustness;
data analytics; and
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alternative products for existing and in development components and technology.
The majority of our current activities are focused on the research and development of our electrified powertrain systems, third-party component integration and the underlying proprietary battery and software technology platforms. We undertake significant testing and validation of our products and components in order to ensure that they will meet the demands of our customers.
Intellectual Property
Intellectual property is important to our business, and we seek protection for our strategic intellectual property. We rely upon a combination of patents, copyrights, trade secrets, know-how and trademark laws, along with employee and third-party non-disclosure agreements and other contractual restrictions to establish and protect our intellectual property rights.
At December 31, 2021, we had 22 issued U.S. patents and 17 pending U.S. patent applications. We pursue the registration of our domain names, trademarks and service marks in the United States and in some locations abroad. In an effort to protect our brand, at December 31, 2021 we had three registered and five pending trademarks in the United States and 29 registered and 19 pending trademarks internationally.
We regularly review our development efforts to assess the existence and patentability of new intellectual property. To that end, we are prepared to file additional patent applications as we consider appropriate under the circumstances relating to the new technologies that we develop.
We cannot be sure that patents will be granted with respect to any of our pending patent applications or with respect to any patent applications we may own or license in the future, nor can we be sure that any of our existing patents or any patents we may own or license in the future will be useful in protecting our technology.
Human Capital
As of December 31, 2021, we had approximately 200 employees who were all located within the United States. We have not experienced any work stoppages and we consider our relationship with our employees to be good. None of our employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement or represented by a labor union. Our people are integral to our business, and we are highly dependent on our ability to attract and retain key employees and hire qualified management and technical and vehicle engineering personnel. We seek to provide our employees with competitive compensation and benefits, including grants of equity under our equity incentive plans, access to 401(k) plans and medical, life and disability insurance. We welcome the diversity of all team members and encourage the integration of their unique skills, thoughts, experiences and identities. By fostering an inclusive culture, we enable every member of the workforce to leverage unique talents and high-performance standards to drive innovation and success. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic presents unique challenges to us and our daily operations. Our production and research and development employees continue to mainly work in our headquarter facilities with implementation of practices including company-wide policies to ensure the safety of each employee and compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards, access to personal protective equipment and enhanced sanitation procedures. We have developed a flexible work policy that allows certain employees to work from home. While we are currently still a small company in terms of headcount, we have plans to grow, and expect that our practices and programs with respect to human capital management will grow as we do.
Government Regulations
We operate in an industry that is subject to extensive environmental regulation, which has become more stringent over time. The laws and regulations to which we are subject govern, among others:
water use;
air emissions;
use of recycled materials;
energy sources;
the storage, handling, treatment, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials;
the protection of the environment;
natural resources and endangered species; and
the remediation of environmental contamination.
We may be required to obtain and comply with the terms and conditions of multiple environmental permits, many of which are difficult and costly to obtain and could be subject to legal challenges. Compliance with such laws and regulations at an international, regional, national, provincial and local level is an important aspect of our ability to continue operations.
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Environmental standards applicable to us are established by the laws and regulations of the countries in which we operate, and our product are sold, standards adopted by regulatory agencies and the permits and licenses that we hold. Each of these sources is subject to periodic modifications and increasingly stringent requirements. Violations of these laws, regulations, or permits and licenses may result in substantial civil and criminal fines, penalties, orders to cease the violating operations, or to conduct or pay for corrective works. In some instances, violations may also result in the suspension or revocation of permits and licenses.
EPA and CARB Emissions Compliance and Certification
Under the U.S. Clean Air Act, some of our electrified powertrain solutions may be required to obtain a Certificate of Conformity issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and a series of California Executive Orders issued by the California Air Resources Board (“CARB”), demonstrating that our powertrains and vehicles comply with requirements including as applicable, emission standards for both criteria pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (“NOx”) and particulate matter (“PM”), and GHGs, such as carbon dioxide ("CO2") and nitrous oxide (“N2O”). A Certificate of Conformity is required for vehicles sold in all states and Executive Orders are required for vehicles sold in California and states that have adopted the California standards. CARB sets the California standards for emissions control for certain regulated pollutants for new vehicles and engines sold in California and, under the U.S. Clean Air Act, must obtain a waiver of preemption from the EPA before implementing and enforcing such standards. States that have adopted the California standards, as approved by the EPA, also require a CARB Executive Order for sales of vehicles in those states. There are currently four states that have adopted the California standard for heavy-duty vehicles.
Pursuant to its authority under the U.S. Clean Air Act, the EPA adopted Phase 1 fuel efficiency and GHG standards for heavy-duty vehicles and engines effective 2014 through 2018. The EPA subsequently adopted more stringent fuel efficiency and GHG standards for heavy-duty vehicles and engines in October 2015. Phase II CARB also has adopted GHG and fuel efficiency standards for heavy-duty vehicles and engines effective 2018 to 2027, and is implementing an Advanced Clean Trucks rule that would require heavy-duty vehicle manufacturers to produce and offer for sale in California a certain number of zero-emission vehicles. Manufacturers of vehicles and engines must comply with the GHG standards as a condition of the EPA Certificate of Conformity and the CARB Executive Order.
Additionally, CARB is also providing more stringent criteria on heavy-duty engines, now testing requirements an expanded emissions warranty for specific engines and powertrain components in CARB’s Low NOx Omnibus rule. As currently proposed, CARB’s Low NOx Omnibus rule would begin in 2024 and be implemented through 2031.
All vehicles and engines manufactured for sale in the United States must be covered by an EPA Certificate of Conformity (and respective CARB Executive Orders if sold in California), including engines and vehicles using zero-emission or low-carbon technology. As is necessary, an EPA Certificate of Conformity and/or CARB Executive Order, covering both criteria pollutants and GHG, must be obtained each model year for each engine family and heavy-duty vehicle. Failure to obtain or comply with the terms of a Certificate of Conformity or Executive Order is subject to civil penalty and administrative or judicial enforcement.
Receipt of an EPA Certificate of Conformity and CARB Executive Orders obligates the holder to ensure that the covered engine or vehicle complies with applicable standards throughout the full useful life of the product, which ranges from ten years or 185,000 miles, whichever comes first, for medium heavy-duty vehicles, to ten years or 435,000 miles, whichever comes first, for heavy heavy-duty vehicles. Emissions control system warranty coverage must be provided for a period of five years or 50,000 to 100,000 miles, whichever comes first and depending on the engine and vehicle size. During this time, manufacturers must repair emission-related defects at no cost to the customer. Throughout the full useful life of the engine or vehicle, manufacturers are required to remedy in-use problems that cause engines or vehicles to exceed emission standards for criteria pollutants or GHGs. Manufacturers may have to conduct recalls, service campaigns or other field actions, or provide extended warranties to address any such in-use issues that may arise. Both the EPA and CARB are considering extending the emissions warranty period, depending on the engine size.
Manufacturers of heavy-duty engines and vehicles also must ensure that their products comply with On Board Diagnostics (“OBD”) requirements. The OBD system is intended to identify and diagnose malfunctions within the engine, aftertreatment and emission control systems and alert the driver to the underlying issue so the vehicle can be brought in for service. CARB issues approval of the OBD system as part of its issuance of an Executive Order; the EPA typically deems CARB OBD approval to be compliance with the EPA’s requirements. As with emissions compliance, manufacturers are required to ensure that the OBD system functions as designed and is able to identify component malfunctions throughout the full useful life of the vehicle or engine.
RNG Credits
Generation and Sale of Renewable Identification Numbers (“RIN”) Credits and Low Carbon fuel Standards ("LCFS") Credits. In February 2010, the EPA finalized the Renewable Fuel Standard (“RFS”) (which was established by the Energy
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Policy Act of 1992/2005), which creates RINs that can be generated by the production and use of RNG in the transportation sector and sold to fuel providers that are not compliant under the RFS. In addition, CARB and comparable agencies in Oregon have adopted the LCFS, which encourages low carbon “compliant” transportation fuels (including CNG) in the California and Oregon marketplace by allowing producers of these fuels to generate LCFS Credits that can be sold to noncompliant regulated parties.
GHG Credits — U.S. EPA
The EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Regulation requires all manufacturers of heavy-duty engines and vehicles to comply with fleet average GHG standards. Manufacturers may comply with the standards by producing engines or vehicles, all of which comply with the standards, or by averaging, banking and trading GHG credits within vehicle or engine categories. Manufacturers may also comply with GHG standards by purchasing credits from manufacturers with a surplus of credits. The failure to comply with GHG standards can lead to civil penalties or the voiding of a manufacturer’s EPA Certificate of Conformity. In connection with the delivery and placement into service of zero-emission and low-emission vehicles, we may earn tradable GHG credits that under current laws and regulations can be sold to other manufacturers. Under the EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Regulation, plug-in hybrid, all-electric and fuel cell vehicles earn a credit multiplier of 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, respectively, for use in the calculation of GHG emission credits.
Commercial engine and vehicle manufacturers are required to meet the NOx emission standard for each type of engine or vehicle produced. Typical diesel engine emission control technology limits the fuel economy and GHG improvements that can be made while maintaining compliance with the NOx standard. As the fleet-average GHG standards continue to decrease over time, compliance with the NOx standard will increase the difficulty for conventional diesel vehicles to meet the applicable GHG standard. Until technology catches up for commercial vehicles, manufacturers of diesel trucks will likely need to purchase GHG credits to cover their emission deficit. The EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Regulation provides the opportunity for the sale of excess credits to other manufacturers who apply such credits to comply with these regulatory requirements. Furthermore, the regulation does not limit the number of GHG credits that can be sold within the same commercial vehicle categories.
GHG Credits — California Air Resources Board
California also has a separate GHG emissions regulatory program which is very similar to the EPA requirements. Like the EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Rule, the CARB rule allows for averaging, banking and trading of credits to comply with the fleet-average GHG standard and the failure to comply with the California GHG standard may lead to the imposition of civil penalties. The delivery and placement into service of our zero-emission and low-emission vehicles in California may earn us tradable credits that can be sold. Under CARB GHG regulations, advanced technology vehicles also earn a credit multiplier of for use in the calculation of emission credits in the same amounts as under the EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Rule.
Examples of other potential incentive and grant programs that either we or our customers can apply for include:
Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS). The LCFS was initially developed in California and is quickly gaining traction in other jurisdictions around the United States and the world. The goal is to reduce the well-to-wheel carbon intensity of fuels by providing both mandated reduction targets as well as tradable and sellable credits.
Purchase Incentives. Both California and New York have active programs that provide “cash on the hood” incentives to customers that purchase newer, lower emissions vehicles, including zero-emission vehicles. Other states are considering developing similar programs.
Grant Programs. Government entities at all levels from federal, including the U.S. Department of Energy, state (for example, CARB) and local (for example, North Texas Council of Governments), have grant programs designed to increase and accelerate the development and deployment of zero-emission vehicles and infrastructure technologies.
EPA Smartway. The EPA Smartway program provides grants and funding for the retrofit of heavy-duty vehicles with components and technologies that reduce emissions. Drivers and fleet owners who repower vehicles with advanced technology powertrains or CNG engines may be able to access funding to offset a portion of the cost.
European and Other Requirements for Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Similar to requirements in the US, Europe and other jurisdictions regulate pollutants, operational characteristics and content of heavy-duty vehicles and vehicle equipment. For example, European emission regulations of heavy-duty vehicles (currently under “Euro VI” regulations) specify criteria pollutant emission limits from various vehicles, including heavy-duty vehicles, that are similar to those of EPA and CARB. The European regulations also require similar engine and vehicle OBD systems to those of EPA and CARB. However, as these are ‘similar’ emissions and diagnostic regulations, the EPA and CARB are not the same as European emissions and diagnostic regulations. Unlike the generally synergistic relation and regulations between EPA and CARB, current European emissions and diagnostic regulations require separate design, validation, testing and approval such that EPA and/or CARB approval does not directly correlate to European approval of similar powertrain and vehicle equipment. Other requirements regulating vehicles and vehicle equipment components similar to Hyliion systems may be
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applicable to or exempted by regulation. For example, European Restriction of Hazardous Substance (“ROHS”) regulates materials in electrical equipment, but currently exempts transport vehicles. As Hyliion considers these other markets, Hyliion systems will be configured to meet these requirements in other jurisdictions.
Heavy-Duty Vehicle Safety Requirements
Manufacturers of vehicles that operate on US highways are subject to, and must comply with, various regulations established by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”). These federal motor vehicle safety standards (“FMVSS”) cover a wide variety of vehicle equipment and components. Manufacturers of vehicles, including heavy-duty vehicles, must confirm that their vehicles and vehicle equipment comply with applicable standards or, as appropriate, are exempt from those standards. Currently, there are several FMVSS that apply to vehicle manufacturers and may be applicable to Hyliion’s hybrid and ERX systems. As may be required, Hyliion is evaluating FMVSS requirements for applicability to Hyliion products.
Manufacturers of vehicles that operate on US highways must also comply with NHTSA safety reporting requirements concerning safety involving Hyliion systems concerning various issues including, but not limited to, accidents, warranty claims, field actions and reports and recalls. As situations may arise, Hyliion will take appropriate actions to comply with these reporting requirements.
Competition
We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, intense competition from a number of companies, particularly as the commercial transportation sector increasingly shifts towards low-emission, zero-emission, or carbon neutral solutions. We face competition from many different sources, including major commercial vehicle OEMs and companies that are developing alternative fuel and electric commercial vehicles. Existing commercial vehicle OEMs such as PACCAR, Navistar, Volvo, Mack Trucks and Daimler maintain the largest market shares in the sector. Given we primarily develop and sell powertrains that are designed to be installed into an OEM’s commercial vehicle to augment or replace conventionally fueled powertrains, as opposed to a complete commercial vehicle, we believe we will primarily compete with other powertrain providers offering new low emissions solutions as opposed to commercial vehicle OEMs as we are not producing the entire vehicle. While there are many competitors addressing electrification of commercial vehicles, many of them are focused on shorter range vehicles. We are providing electrified solutions that are addressing both the long-haul and regional transportation sectors. We believe the primary competitive factors in the long-haul Class 8 commercial vehicle market include, but are not limited to:
total cost of ownership;
emissions profile;
availability of charging or fueling network;
ease of integration into existing operations;
product performance and uptime;
vehicle quality, reliability and safety;
vehicle support, parts and on-road service network;
technological innovation specifically around battery, software and data analytics; and
fleet management.
We believe that we compete favorably with our competitors on the basis of these factors; however, most of our current and potential competitors have greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than us. Our competitors may be able to deploy greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sales, marketing and support of their alternative fuel and electric truck programs. Additionally, our competitors also have greater name recognition, longer operating histories, larger sales forces, broader customer and industry relationships and other tangible and intangible resources than us. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified research and development, sales, marketing and management personnel, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our products. Additional mergers and acquisitions may result in even more resources being concentrated in our competitors. We cannot provide assurances that our electrified systems will be the first to market. Even if our electrified systems are first to market, or among the first to market, we cannot be sure that customers will choose vehicles with our electrified systems over those of our competitors, or over conventional diesel-powered vehicles.
Numerous companies have announced their plans to bring long-haul Class 8 commercial BEVs and FCEVs to the market over the coming years. Cummins, Daimler, Dana, Navistar, PACCAR, Volvo, Tesla, Nikola, Lion Electric, Hyzon and other commercial vehicle manufacturers have announced their plans to bring Class 8 commercial BEVs or FCEVs to the market. However, we do not believe any of them have showcased a roadmap similar to Hyliion’s where it is a range extender electric
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vehicle that utilizes various generators with different fuel sources. Furthermore, we will also face competition from manufacturers of internal combustion engines powered by diesel fuel. We expect additional competitors may enter the market as well.
Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we may become involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not currently a party to any material legal proceedings. Regardless of outcome, such proceedings or claims can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of resources and other factors and there can be no assurances that favorable outcomes will be obtained.
Strategic Collaborations
FEV Commercial Agreement
In December 2020, we entered into a Master Service Agreement with FEV North America Inc. (“FEV”) relating to the provision of engineering services (the “FEV MSA”). The FEV MSA provides that FEV will provide services to us on a non-exclusive basis relating to engineering and research and development in connection with our development of electrified solutions for heavy-duty trucks, among other matters. The FEV MSA contemplates that we will, from time to time, provide FEV with the details of projects that we are working on and request that FEV submit a proposal to provide services to us in connection with such projects. If mutually agreed to by us and FEV, FEV would then provide such services to us pursuant to the MSA. In August 2020 and the second quarter of 2021, we and FEV entered into a statement of work, pursuant to which FEV is providing engineering services to us.
Collaboration with American Natural Gas
Since 2018, we and American Natural Gas (“ANG”) have collaborated, on a non-exclusive basis, in connection with customer inquiries, on potential co-marketing opportunities and potential opportunities for ANG to provide our customers with RNG/CNG at fueling stations built, owned, or operated by ANG across the United States. In October 2020, we entered into a sales agreement and partnership agreement with ANG. The sales agreement includes a pre-order of up to 250 Hypertruck ERX vehicles and the partnership agreement offers our customers discounted pricing for RNG at ANG fueling stations across the country and, for qualifying fleet customers, ANG has also agreed to build new fueling stations near our customer locations with no upfront capital costs to such customers.
Available Information
Additional information about Hyliion is available at www.hyliion.com. On the Investor Relations page of the website, the public may obtain free copies of our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable following the time that they are filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). References to our website do not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained in such website, and such information is not part of this Form 10-K.
1A. RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves risks. Before you make a decision to buy our securities, in addition to the risks and uncertainties discussed above under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” you should carefully consider the specific risks set forth herein. If any of these risks actually occur, it may materially harm our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. As a result, the market price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. Additionally, the risks and uncertainties described are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may become material and adversely affect our business.
Risks Related to our Business and Industry
We are an early stage company with a history of losses, and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.
We incurred a net loss of $96.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and have incurred cumulative net operating losses of $130.3 million during the previous three years ended December 31, 2021. We believe that we will continue to incur significant operating and net losses each quarter until at least the time we begin commercial deliveries of our Hypertruck ERX system, which are not expected to begin until 2023 or later, and may not occur at all. Even if we are able to successfully develop and sell our electrified powertrain solutions, there can be no assurance that they will be commercially successful. Our
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potential profitability is dependent upon the successful development and successful commercial introduction and acceptance of our electrified powertrain solutions, which may not occur.
We will require significant capital to develop and grow our business, including developing, producing and servicing our electrified powertrain solutions and building our brand. We expect to incur significant expenses which will impact our profitability, including research and development expenses (including our Hypertruck ERX system), component and service procurement costs, sales and distribution expenses as we build our brand and market our electrified powertrain solutions, and general and administrative expenses as we scale our operations and incur costs as a public company. Our ability to become profitable in the future will not only depend on our ability to complete the design and development of our electrified powertrain solutions to meet projected performance metrics and successfully market our electrified powertrain solutions and services, but also to sell our products at prices to achieve our expected margins and control our costs. We may need to sell our products at a loss or discounted pricing in the near term in order to gain customer base and confidence of fleet customers. If we are unable to efficiently design, produce, market, sell, distribute and service our electrified powertrain solutions, our margins, profitability and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.
We are in the early stages of developing key commercial relationships with suppliers and customers, and our ability to predict the outcome of those relationships is limited.
We are in the process of developing partnerships to accelerate the development and production of our solutions and have deployed demonstration Hybrid system units to certain companies we expect to be customers in the future; however, all of our commercial relationships are in the early stages of development and we do not have the ability to predict with certainty the outcome of those relationships. Our partners may face delays or be unable to meet our business requirements and standards at the quantity, quality and price levels needed for our business. The entities that we expect to be customers in the future may decide not to do business with us. Because we are still getting to know our partners and the commercial space in which we are doing business, these relationships could result in controversies or even litigation, which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue our plans for strategic growth and ultimately our business results.
We are highly dependent on the services of Thomas Healy, our Chief Executive Officer, and if we are unable to retain Mr. Healy, attract and retain key employees and hire qualified management, technical and vehicle engineering personnel, our ability to compete could be harmed.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to retain our key personnel. We are highly dependent on the services of Thomas Healy, our Chief Executive Officer, and largest stockholder. Mr. Healy is the source of many, if not most, of the ideas and execution driving us. If Mr. Healy were to discontinue his service to us due to death, disability or any other reason, we would be significantly disadvantaged. The unexpected loss of or failure to retain one or more of our key employees could adversely affect our business.
If we fail to manage our growth effectively, including failing to attract and integrate qualified personnel, we may not be able to develop, produce, market and sell our electrified powertrain solutions successfully.
Any failure to manage our growth effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. We intend to expand our operations significantly. We intend to continue to hire a significant number of additional personnel, including software engineers, design and production personnel and service technicians for our electrified powertrain solutions. Because our electrified powertrain solutions are based on a different technology platform than traditional internal combustion engines, individuals with sufficient training in alternative fuel and electric vehicles may not be available to hire, and as a result, we will need to expend significant time and expense training any newly hired employees. Competition for individuals with experience designing, producing and servicing electrified vehicles and their software is intense, and we may not be able to attract, integrate, train, motivate, or retain additional highly qualified personnel, particularly with respect to software engineers in the Austin, Texas area where we are headquartered. Due to the specific skills required, the strong job market nationally and the high cost of living and competition in the Austin, Texas area, we may experience increased relocation expenses, higher expenses to recruit and retain talent and challenges at attracting talent. The failure to attract, integrate, train,
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motivate and retain these additional employees could seriously harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Risks Related to our Financial Results
Our financial results may vary significantly from period to period due to fluctuations in our operating costs and other factors.
Our quarterly and annual operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes it difficult for us to predict our future operating results. These fluctuations may occur due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:
the pace at which we continue to design, develop and produce new products and increase production capacity;
the number of customer orders in a given period;
changes in manufacturing costs;
the timing and cost of and level of investment in, research and development relating to our technologies and our current or future facilities;
developments involving our competitors; and
changes in governmental regulations or applicable law.
As a result of these factors, we believe that period-to-period comparisons of our financial results, especially in the short term, are not necessarily meaningful and that these comparisons cannot be relied upon as indicators of future performance. Moreover, our financial results may not meet expectations of equity research analysts, ratings agencies or investors, who may be focused only on quarterly financial results. If any of this occurs, the trading price of our common stock could fall substantially, either suddenly or over time.
Risks Related to our Customers and Products
We may not be able to successfully engage target customers or convert early trial deployments with truck fleets into meaningful orders or additional deployments in the future.
Our success, and our ability to increase revenue and operate profitably, depends in part on our ability to identify target customers and to convert early trial deployments with truck fleets into meaningful orders or additional deployments in the future. If we are unable to meet our customers’ performance requirements or industry specifications, identify target customers or convert early trial deployments in truck fleets into meaningful orders or obtain additional deployments in the future, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results would be materially adversely affected. Moreover, if we or our customers find that our Hybrid system does not perform as expected or if our customers decide to wait until our Hypertruck system is deployed before making any purchases, we may cease to distribute our Hybrid system, or recall some or all of our product, and future distributions may be delayed or cease for some period of time or indefinitely.
We plan to accept reservation orders for the sale of our electrified powertrain solutions that are cancellable, and our initial pre-launch sales order for Hypertruck ERX equipped trucks is cancellable.
Our electrified powertrain solutions are still in the development and testing phase and commercial deliveries of the Hypertruck ERX system are not expected to begin until 2023 or later, and may not occur at all. As a result, we plan to accept reservation orders for our electrified powertrain solutions that will be cancellable by customers without penalty. As a result, no assurance can be made that reservations will not be cancelled or that reservations will result in the purchase of our electrified powertrain solutions, and any such cancellations could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We may also enter into contracts for the sale of our electrified powertrain solutions that include various cancellation rights in favor of the customer. For example, in May 2020, we entered into a pre-launch sales agreement (the “Agility Pre-Launch Agreement”) with Agility Logistics Cargo Transport Co. WLL (“Agility Transport”), a company organized under the laws of and based in Kuwait and a subsidiary of Agility Public Warehousing Company K.S.C.P. for up to 1,000 trucks equipped with our Hypertruck ERX system in one or more future purchase orders, subject to certain testing and performance requirements and termination rights, including a right to terminate the Agility Pre-Launch Agreement prior to purchasing all or any portion of Agility Transport’s pre-order. The Agility Pre-Launch Agreement does not specify the terms or period upon which these purchase orders may be entered into, such that our sale of Hypertruck ERX to Agility Transport is subject to the parties reaching further agreement on the terms of the purchase agreements. Any termination, reduction or dispute related to this agreement or others similar to it could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We intend to sell our electrified powertrain solutions to large commercial vehicle OEM customers and large volume customers, and the failure to obtain such customers, loss of sales to such customers or failure to negotiate acceptable terms in contract renewal negotiations could have an adverse impact on our business.
Although we intend to sell our electrified powertrain solutions to commercial vehicle OEMs and other large volume customers, we may not be able to establish relationships with such OEMs or large volume customers if customer demand is not as high as we expect or if commercial vehicle OEMs face pressure from their existing suppliers not to purchase our electrified powertrain solutions. We may enter into long-term contracts with certain of these commercial vehicle OEMs and other large volume
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customers, who have substantial bargaining power with respect to price and other commercial terms, and any long-term contracts would be subject to renegotiation and renewal from time to time. Failure to obtain new customers, loss of all or a substantial portion of sales to any future customers for whatever reason (including, but not limited to, loss of contracts or failure to negotiate acceptable terms in contract renewal negotiations, loss of market share by these customers, insolvency of such customers, reduced or delayed customer requirements, plant shutdowns, strikes or other work stoppages affecting production by such customers), or continued reduction of prices to these customers could have a significant adverse effect on our financial results. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain or retain large volume customers or that we will be able to offset any reduction of prices to these customers with reductions in our costs or by obtaining new customers.
Demand for our products will ultimately depend on our end users, some of whom operate in highly cyclical industries, which may subject us to the performance of their industries and can result in uncertainty and significantly impact the demand for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Demand for our products will ultimately depend on our end users, some of whom operate in highly cyclical industries and have felt the impact of COVID-19 and other factors on demand for output in their industries. Decisions to purchase our electrified powertrain solutions may depend on the performance of the industries of our end users and if demand for output in those industries decreases, the demand for our products will likely decrease. Demand in these industries is impacted by numerous factors, including commodity prices, infrastructure spending, housing starts, real estate equity values, interest rates, consumer spending, fuel costs, energy demands, municipal spending and commercial construction, among others. Increases or decreases in these variables may significantly impact the demand for our products. If we are unable to accurately predict demand, we may be unable to meet our customers’ needs, resulting in the loss of potential sales, or we may produce excess products, resulting in increased inventories and overcapacity in our contracted production facilities, increasing our unit production cost and decreasing our operating margins.
If our electrified powertrain solutions fail to perform as expected, our ability to develop, market and sell our electrified powertrain solutions could be harmed.
Our electrified powertrain solutions may contain defects in design and production that may cause them not to perform as expected or may require repair. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in our electrified powertrain solutions. Our electrified powertrain solutions may not meet customers’ expectations or perform competitively with other vehicles that may become available. Any product defects or any other failure of our electrified powertrain solutions and software to perform as expected could harm our reputation and result in adverse publicity, lost revenue, delivery delays, product recalls, negative publicity, product liability claims and significant warranty and other expenses and could have a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
The performance characteristics of our electrified powertrain solutions, including fuel economy and emissions levels, may vary, including due to factors outside of our control.
The performance characteristics of our electrified powertrain solutions, including fuel economy and emissions levels, may vary. Our electrified powertrain solutions are still being designed and developed, and there are no assurances that they will be able to meet their projected performance characteristics, including fuel economy and emissions levels. External factors (such as driver behavior, weather conditions, hardware efficiency, payload and terrain) may also impact the performance characteristics of our electrified powertrain solutions related to estimated fuel savings, GHG emissions and fuel economy of vehicles installed with our electrified powertrain solutions. These external factors as well as any operation of our electrified powertrain solutions other than as intended, may result in emissions levels that are greater than we expect. The ability of our electrified powertrain solutions to have a net carbon negative profile, will depend on the availability of renewable natural gas (“RNG”) as well as the infrastructure necessary to purchase RNG through fuel providers. Any limitation on the ability to purchase RNG, such as a decrease or a limitation on the number of natural gas fueling stations or limitation on the production of natural gas and RNG in particular, will negatively impact the anticipated carbon intensity profile of our electrified powertrain solutions. In addition, the carbon intensity profiles could vary based on the source of RNG, which could reduce a fleet’s ability to have favorable carbon
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intensity scores. Due to these factors, there can be no guarantee that the operators of vehicles using our electrified powertrain solutions will realize the expected fuel savings and fuel economy and GHG emission reductions.
Our beliefs regarding the ability of our electrified powertrain solutions to limit carbon intensity and reduce GHG emissions and contribute to global decarbonization may be based on materially inaccurate assumptions.
Our beliefs regarding our ability to reduce carbon intensity and GHG emissions are based on certain assumptions, including, but not limited to, our projections of the extent of natural gas and renewable natural gas use in the future, fuel types used, the ability to obtain carbon credits and driver behavior and our electrified powertrain solutions’ efficiencies and performance. To the extent our assumptions are materially incorrect or incomplete, it could adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. In addition, if our assumptions regarding the ability of our solutions to limit carbon intensity and reduce GHG emissions from trucking operations are materially incorrect or incomplete, or if our beliefs regarding the availability of our products are materially incorrect or incomplete, it is possible that our competitors’ technology may be better at limiting carbon intensity and reducing GHG emissions in certain circumstances and in certain markets.
We have limited experience servicing our electrified powertrain solutions and our integrated software. If we are unable to address the service requirements of our customers, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.
We have limited experience in servicing our electrified powertrain solutions and expect to increase our servicing capabilities as we begin commercial production of our electrified powertrain solutions. Servicing hybrid and electric vehicles is different than servicing vehicles with internal combustion engines and requires specialized skills, including high voltage training and servicing techniques. We plan to partner with a third party to perform some or all of the servicing on our electrified powertrain solutions, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to enter into an acceptable arrangement with any such third-party provider. Our ability to provide effective customer support is largely dependent on our ability to attract, train and retain qualified personnel with experience in supporting customers on platforms such as ours. As we continue to grow, additional pressure may be placed on our customer support team, and we may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for technical support. If we are unable to successfully address the service requirements of our customers or establish a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality support, we may be subject to claims from our customers, including loss of revenue or damages, and our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.
Our electrified powertrain solutions rely on software and hardware that is highly technical, and if these systems contain errors, bugs or vulnerabilities, or if we are unsuccessful in addressing or mitigating technical limitations in our systems, our business could be adversely affected.
Our electrified powertrain solutions rely on software and hardware to store, retrieve, process and manage immense amounts of data. Such software and hardware, that is developed or maintained internally or by third parties, is highly technical and complex and will require modification and updates over the life of the vehicle. Our software and hardware may contain, errors, bugs or vulnerabilities, and our systems are subject to certain technical limitations that may compromise our ability to meet our objectives. Some errors, bugs or vulnerabilities inherently may be difficult to detect and may only be discovered after the code has been released for external or internal use. If we are unable to prevent or effectively remedy errors, bugs, vulnerabilities or defects in our software and hardware, we may suffer damage to our reputation, loss of customers, loss of revenue or liability for damages, any of which could adversely affect our business and financial results.
Future product recalls could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Any product recall in the future, whether it involves us or a competitor’s product, may result in negative publicity, damage our brand and materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. In the future, we may voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate a recall if any of our products (including the batteries we design, develop and manufacture) prove to be defective or noncompliant with applicable federal motor vehicle safety standards. Such recalls involve significant expense and diversion of management attention and other resources, which could adversely affect our brand image, as well as our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.
Product liability claims, even those without merit or those that do not involve our products, could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. The automobile industry in particular experiences significant product liability claims, and we face inherent risk of exposure to claims in the event our electric powertrain solutions do not perform or are claimed to not have performed as expected. As is true for other commercial vehicle suppliers, we expect in the future that our electrified powertrain solutions will be installed on vehicles that will be involved in crashes resulting in death or personal injury. Additionally, product liability claims that affect our competitors may cause indirect adverse publicity for us and our products.
Our risks in this area are particularly pronounced given the relatively limited number of electrified powertrain solutions delivered to date and limited field experience of our products. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. In most jurisdictions, we generally self-insure against the risk of product liability claims for
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vehicle exposure, meaning that any product liability claims will likely have to be paid from company funds, not by insurance. Product liability claims could have a material adverse effect on our brand, business and financial condition.
Insufficient warranty reserves to cover future warranty claims could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We maintain warranty reserves to cover warranty-related claims of our electrified powertrain solutions. If our warranty reserves are inadequate to cover future warranty claims on our vehicles, or our parts suppliers fail to provide warranties for, or honor warranty claims against, their parts, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially and adversely affected. We may become subject to significant and unexpected warranty expenses as well as claims from our customers, including loss of revenue or damages. There can be no assurances that then-existing warranty reserves will be sufficient to cover all claims.
Risks Related to our Production Processes and Supply Chain
We face significant barriers to produce our electrified powertrain solutions, and if we cannot successfully overcome those barriers our business will be negatively impacted.
The commercial trucking industry has traditionally been characterized by significant barriers to entry, including the ability to meet performance requirements or industry specifications, acceptance by OEMs and our end users, large capital requirements, investment costs of design and production, long lead times to bring components to market from the concept and design stage, the need for specialized design and development expertise, regulatory requirements, establishing a brand name and image and the need to establish sales capabilities. If we are not able to overcome these barriers, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be negatively impacted and our ability to grow our business will be harmed.
Our success will depend on our ability to economically outsource the production, assembly and installation of our electrified powertrain solutions at scale, and our ability to develop and produce electrified powertrain solutions of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and at scale is unproven.
Our business depends in large part on our ability to execute our plans to develop, produce, assemble, market, sell, install and service our electrified powertrain solutions. We currently produce our Hybrid eX system at our facility in Cedar Park, Texas and expect to begin production of our Hypertruck ERX system in 2023, at the earliest. Over time, we anticipate we will shift production to our outsourcing partners’ facilities. We anticipate that a significant concentration of this production, assembly and installation will be performed by a small number of outsourcing partners. While these arrangements can lower operating costs, they also reduce our direct control over production and distribution. Such diminished control may have an adverse effect on the quality or quantity of products or services, or our flexibility to respond to changing conditions.
Our continued development of our electrified powertrain solutions is and will be subject to risks, including with respect to:
the equipment we plan to use being able to accurately produce our electrified powertrain solutions within specified design tolerances;
the compatibility of our electrified powertrain solutions with existing and future commercial vehicle designs;
long- and short-term durability of the components in our electrified powertrain solutions in the day-to-day wear and tear of the commercial trucking environment;
compliance with environmental, workplace safety and similar regulations;
securing necessary components on acceptable terms and in a timely manner;
delays in delivery of final component designs to our suppliers;
our ability to attract, recruit, hire and train skilled employees;
quality controls, particularly as we plan to expand our production capabilities;
delays or disruptions in our supply chain;
other delays and cost overruns; and
our ability to secure additional funding if necessary.
We and our future production partners have no experience to date in high volume production of our electrified powertrain solutions. We do not know whether we or our future production partners will be able to develop efficient, automated, low-cost production capabilities and processes and reliable sources of component supply, that will enable us to meet the quality, price, engineering, design and production standards, as well as the production volumes, required to successfully mass market our electrified powertrain solutions or whether we or our production partners will be able to do so in a manner that avoids significant delays and cost overruns, including as a result of factors beyond our control such as problems with suppliers and vendors, or in time to meet our vehicle commercialization schedules or to satisfy the requirements of customers. Any failure to
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develop such production processes and capabilities within our projected costs and timelines could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We may experience significant delays in the design, production and launch of our electrified powertrain solutions, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Our electrified powertrain solutions are still in the development and testing phase, and commercial deliveries of the Hypertruck ERX system are not expected to begin until 2023 or later, and may not occur at all. Any delay in the financing, design, production and launch of our electrified powertrain solutions, including future production of our Hybrid eX system and Hypertruck ERX system at our outsourcing partners, could materially damage our brand, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We are dependent on large commercial vehicle OEMs and producers of glider kits and rolling chassis to provide vehicles for our electrified powertrain solutions.
Because we do not manufacture complete commercial vehicles, we are dependent on commercial vehicle OEMs and producers of glider kits and rolling chassis to provide vehicle chassis for our electrified powertrain solutions. The most favorable financial model for deployment of our products is for OEMs to directly install our products in their commercial vehicles when they are being produced. If OEMs are unable or unwilling to integrate the installation of our electrified powertrain solutions into their commercial vehicle production lines, we may have to rely on producers of glider kits and rolling chassis and commercial truck upfitting and modification companies. To the extent that there are limitations on the availability of glider kits or rolling chassis, either due to the unwillingness or inability of OEMs and producers to produce and provide them to us or our installation partners, or a change in governmental regulations or policies, we would either need to develop our own commercial vehicle on which to install our electrified powertrain solutions or install our products into commercial vehicles that would have to be decontented. Either case could have a negative impact on our ability to sell our electrified powertrain solutions at the prices, or achieve the margins, or in the timeframes that we anticipate. Additionally, if commercial vehicle OEMs limit or fail to provide a warranty on vehicles with our electrified powertrain solutions, we will incur additional costs by contracting with a third party to provide warranty services. Any of the foregoing would have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We will rely on third parties, including commercial truck upfitting and modification companies and commercial vehicle OEMs, to install our electrified powertrain solutions in vehicles, which is subject to risks.
We intend to enter into agreements with commercial truck upfitting and modification companies and commercial vehicle OEMs to install our electrified powertrain solutions. Using third-party contract manufacturers and installers for the production and installation of our electrified powertrain solutions is subject to risks with respect to operations that are outside our control. We could experience delays if our outsourcing partners do not meet agreed upon timelines or experience capacity constraints that make it impossible for us to fulfill purchase orders on time or at all. The installation of our solutions may also void the warranty of a vehicle or a vehicle’s components, such as our engine or transmission, which may reduce customer demand for our solutions. Our ability to successfully build a premium brand could also be adversely affected by perceptions about the quality of our outsourcing partners’ products. In addition, although we are involved in each step of the supply chain, production and installation processes, because we also rely on our outsourcing partners and third parties to meet our quality standards, there can be no assurance that the final product will meet expected quality standards.
We are dependent on our suppliers, some of which are single or limited source suppliers, and the inability of these suppliers to deliver necessary components of our vehicles at prices and volumes, performance and specifications acceptable to us could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We rely on third-party suppliers, some of whom are single-source suppliers, for the provision and development of many of the key components and materials used in our electrified powertrain solutions, such as natural gas generators. Any failure of these suppliers or outsourcing partners to perform could require us to seek alternative suppliers or to expand our production capabilities, which could incur additional costs and have a negative impact on our cost or supply of components or finished goods. While we plan to obtain components from multiple sources whenever possible, some of the components used in our vehicles will be purchased by us from a single source. Our third-party suppliers may not be able to meet their product specifications and performance characteristics or our desired specifications, performance and pricing, which would impact our ability to achieve our product specifications and performance characteristics as well. Additionally, our third-party suppliers may be unable to obtain required certifications for their products for which we plan to use or provide warranties that are necessary for our solutions. If we are unable to obtain components and materials used in our electrified powertrain solutions from our suppliers or if our suppliers decide to create or supply a competing product, our business could be adversely affected. While we believe that we may be able to establish alternate supply relationships and can obtain or engineer replacement components for
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our single source components, we may be unable to do so in the short term (or at all) at prices or quality levels that are favorable to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of our components, particularly LTO battery cells, could harm our business.
Once we begin commercial production of our electrified powertrain solutions, we may experience increases in the cost or a sustained interruption in the supply or shortage of our components. Any such increase or supply interruption could materially negatively impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. The prices for our components fluctuate depending on market conditions and global demand and could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Any disruption in the supply of battery cells could temporarily disrupt production of our electrified powertrain solutions until a different supplier is fully qualified. Moreover, battery cell manufacturers may refuse to supply electric vehicle manufacturers if they determine that the vehicles are not sufficiently safe. Furthermore, fluctuations or shortages in petroleum and other economic conditions may cause us to experience significant increases in freight charges. Substantial increases in the prices for raw materials may increase the cost of our components and consequently, the costs of products. There can be no assurance that we will be able to recoup increasing costs of our components by increasing prices, which could reduce our margins.
Risks Related to Our Industry and Competitive Landscape
Our future growth is dependent upon the commercial trucking industry’s willingness to adopt alternative fuel, hybrid and electric vehicles.
Our growth is highly dependent upon the adoption of alternative fuel, hybrid and electric vehicles by the commercial trucking industry. If the market for alternative fuel, hybrid and electric vehicles and our electrified powertrain solutions does not develop at the rate or in the manner or to the extent that we expect, or if critical assumptions we have made regarding the efficiency of our electrified powertrain solutions are incorrect or incomplete, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be harmed. The market for alternative fuels, hybrid and electric vehicles is new and untested and is characterized by rapidly changing technologies, price competition, numerous competitors, evolving government regulation and industry standards and uncertain customer demands and behaviors.
Although we hope to be among the first to bring electrified powertrain solutions to market, competitors have already displayed electrified vehicle prototypes and may enter the market before us.
We face intense competition in trying to be among the first to bring electrified powertrain solutions to market, and we expect competition to intensify in light of increased demand and regulatory push for alternative fuel and electric vehicles. Most of our current and potential competitors have greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than we do. They may be able to deploy greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sales, marketing and support of their alternative fuel and electric truck programs. Additionally, our competitors also have greater name recognition, longer operating histories, larger sales forces, broader customer and industry relationships and other resources than we do. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified research and development, sales, marketing and management personnel, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our products. Additional mergers and acquisitions may result in even more resources being concentrated in our competitors. We cannot provide assurances that our electrified systems will be the first to market. Even if our electrified systems are first, or among the first, to market, there are no assurances that customers will choose vehicles with our electrified systems over those of our competitors, or over diesel powered trucks.
Numerous companies have announced their plans to bring long-haul Class 8 commercial BEVs and FCEVs to the market over the coming years. Cummins, Daimler, Dana, Navistar, PACCAR, Volvo, Tesla, Nikola, Lion Electric, Hyzon and other commercial vehicle manufacturers have announced their plans to bring Class 8 BEVs or FCEVs to the market. Furthermore, we will also face competition from manufacturers of internal combustion engines powered by diesel fuel. We expect additional competitors to enter the industry as well.
Developments in alternative technology or improvements in the internal combustion engine may adversely affect the demand for our electrified powertrain solutions.
Significant developments in alternative technologies, such as battery cell technology, advanced diesel, improved natural gas engines, new power generation technology or alternate fuel sources or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results in ways we do not currently anticipate. Existing and other battery cell technologies, fuels or sources of energy may emerge as customers’ preferred alternative to our electrified powertrain solutions. Any failure by us to develop new or enhanced technologies or processes, or to react to changes in existing technologies, could materially delay our development and introduction of new and enhanced alternative fuel and electric vehicles, which could result in the loss of competitiveness of our
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electrified powertrain solutions, decreased revenue and a loss of market share to competitors. Our research and development efforts may not be sufficient to adapt to changes in alternative fuel and electric vehicle technology.
Risks Related to Technology, Data and Privacy-Related Matters
We are subject to cybersecurity risks to operational systems, security systems, infrastructure, integrated software in our electrified powertrain solutions and customer data processed by us or third-party vendors or suppliers and any material failure, weakness, interruption, cyber event, incident or breach of security could prevent us from effectively operating our business.
We collect, store, transmit and otherwise process customer, driver and employee and others’ data as part of our business operations, which may include personal data or confidential or proprietary information. We also work with partners and third party service providers or vendors that collect, store and process such data on our behalf in connection with our business. There can be no assurance that any security measures that we or our third-party service providers or vendors have implemented will be effective against current or future security threats.
We are at risk for interruptions, outages and breaches of: (a) operational systems; (b) facility security systems; (c) transmission control modules or other in-product technology; in each case owned by us or our third-party vendors or suppliers as well as (a) the integrated software in our electrified powertrain solutions; or (b) customer or driver data that we process or our third-party vendors or suppliers process on our behalf. The techniques used by cyber attackers change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time. Although we maintain information technology measures designed to protect ourselves against intellectual property theft, data breaches and other cyber incidents, we cannot be sure that these systems upon which we rely, including those of our third-party vendors or suppliers, will be effectively implemented, maintained or expanded as planned. If these systems do not operate as we expect them to, we may be required to expend significant resources to make corrections or find alternative sources for performing these functions. Moreover, our proprietary information or intellectual property could be compromised or misappropriated. A significant cyber incident could impact production capability, harm our reputation, cause us to breach our contracts with other parties or subject us to regulatory actions or litigation, any of which could materially affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Any unauthorized control or manipulation of the information technology systems in our electrified powertrain solutions could result in loss of confidence in us and our electrified powertrain solutions and harm our business.
Our electrified powertrain solutions contain complex information technology systems and built-in data connectivity to accept and install periodic remote updates to improve or update functionality. We have designed, implemented and tested security measures intended to prevent unauthorized access to our information technology networks, our electrified powertrain solutions and related systems. Any unauthorized access to or control of our electrified powertrain solutions, or any loss of customer data, could result in legal claims or proceedings and remediation of such problems could result in significant, unplanned capital expenditures.
Inability to leverage vehicle and customer data could impact our software algorithms and impact research and development operations.
We rely on data collected from the use of fleet vehicles outfitted with our products, including vehicle data and data related to battery usage statistics. We use this data in connection with our software algorithms and the research, development and analysis of our products. Our inability to obtain this data or the necessary rights to use this data could result in delays or otherwise negatively impact our research and development efforts.
We may need to defend ourselves against patent, copyright or trademark infringement claims or trade secret misappropriation claims, which may be time-consuming and cause us to incur substantial costs.
Companies, organizations or individuals, including our competitors, may own or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights that would prevent or limit our ability to make, use, develop or sell our electrified powertrain solutions, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. We may receive inquiries from patent, copyright or trademark owners inquiring whether we infringe upon their proprietary rights. We may also be the subject of allegations that we have misappropriated their trade secrets or other proprietary rights. Companies owning patents or other intellectual property rights relating to battery packs, electric motors, fuel cells or electronic power management systems may allege infringement or misappropriation of such rights. In response to a determination that we have infringed upon or misappropriated a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to (a) cease development, sales or use of our products that incorporate the asserted intellectual property, (b) pay substantial damages, (c) obtain a license from the owner of the asserted intellectual property right, which license may not be available on reasonable terms or at all or (d) redesign one or more aspects or systems of our electrified powertrain solutions. A successful claim of infringement or misappropriation against us could materially
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adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. Any litigation or claims, whether valid or invalid, could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources.
Our business may be adversely affected if we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights from unauthorized use by third parties.
Failure to adequately protect our intellectual property rights could result in our competitors offering similar products, potentially resulting in the loss of some of our competitive advantage and a decrease in our revenue, which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. Our success depends, at least in part, on our ability to protect our core technology and intellectual property. To accomplish this, we will rely on a combination of patents, trade secrets (including know-how), employee and third-party nondisclosure agreements, copyrights, trademarks, intellectual property licenses and other contractual rights to establish and protect our rights in our technology; however, the measures we take to protect our intellectual property from unauthorized use by others may not be effective.
Patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws vary throughout the world. Some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the U.S. Further, policing the unauthorized use of our intellectual property in foreign jurisdictions may be difficult. Therefore, our intellectual property rights may not be as strong or as easily enforced outside of the U.S.
Also, while we have registered trademarks in an effort to protect our investment in our brand and goodwill with customers, competitors may challenge the validity of those trademarks and other brand names in which we have invested. Such challenges can be expensive and may adversely affect our ability to maintain the goodwill gained in connection with a particular trademark.
Risks Related to Environmental and Regulatory Matters
The unavailability, reduction or elimination of government and economic incentives for alternative fuel use due to policy changes or government regulation could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Any reduction, elimination or discriminatory application of government subsidies and economic incentives because of policy changes, the reduced need for such subsidies and incentives due to the perceived success of the electric vehicle industry or other reasons may result in the diminished competitiveness of the alternative fuel and electric vehicle industry generally or our electrified powertrain solutions. While certain tax credits and other incentives for alternative energy production, alternative fuel and electric vehicles have been available in the past, there is no guarantee these programs will be available in the future. In particular, we are influenced by federal, state and local tax credits, rebates, grants and other government programs and incentives that promote the use of RNG and natural gas as vehicle fuel. These include various government programs that make grant funds available for the purchase of natural gas vehicles or encourage low carbon “compliant” transportation fuels (including CNG). If current tax incentives are not available in the future, our financial position could be harmed.
Additionally, other changes to governmental regulations and policies could impact the competitiveness of natural gas as a fuel source. For instance, a limitation or ban on extraction methods like fracking, could have a negative impact on the availability and price of natural gas and may adversely affect the growth of the alternative fuel automobile markets. Additionally, an increase in the economic incentives for other fuel sources or BEVs, such as through the subsidization of other fuel sources or higher permitted weight limits for BEVs or FCEVs or the reduction or elimination of the higher permitted weight limits for natural gas vehicles, could make our products less competitive. Such changes in regulations and policies could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Our business could be negatively affected by unfavorable changes to federal or state tax laws or the adoption of federal or state laws or regulations mandating new or additional limits on the production of GHG emissions, the cost of natural gas and “tailpipe” emissions.
Federal or state laws or regulations may be adopted that would impose new or additional limits on the emissions of GHG. The potential effects of GHG emission limits on our business are subject to significant uncertainties based on, among other things, the timing of the implementation of any new requirements, the required levels of emission reductions, the nature of any market-based or tax-based mechanisms adopted to facilitate reductions, the relative availability of GHG emission reduction offsets, the development of cost-effective, commercial-scale carbon capture and storage technology and supporting regulations and liability mitigation measures, the range of available compliance alternatives, and our ability to demonstrate that our products qualify as a compliance alternative under any new statutory or regulatory programs to limit GHG emissions. If our solutions are not able to meet future GHG emission limits or perform as well as BEV, FCEV or other alternative fuel vehicles, for instance due to unavailability of RNG in a particular area or a decline in RNG production or an increase in our cost, our solutions could be less competitive. Additionally, federal, state or road taxes could be added to natural gas fuel, which would increase the operating cost of our products. Furthermore, additional federal or state taxes could be implemented on “tailpipe” emissions, which would have a negative impact on the cost of our products and a positive impact on the cost of BEVs and FCEVs relative to our
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solutions. Such new federal or state laws or regulations could have a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We, our outsourcing partners and our suppliers are or may be subject to substantial regulation and unfavorable changes to, or failure by us, our outsourcing partners or our suppliers to comply with, these regulations could substantially harm our business and operating results.
Our electrified powertrain solutions, and the sale of motor vehicles in general, our outsourcing partners and our suppliers are or may be subject to substantial regulation under international, federal, state and local laws. We continue to evaluate requirements for licenses, approvals, certificates and governmental authorizations necessary to manufacture, sell or service our electrified powertrain solutions in the jurisdictions in which we plan to operate and intend to take such actions necessary to comply. We may experience difficulties in obtaining or complying with various licenses, approvals, certifications and other governmental authorizations necessary to manufacture, sell or service their electrified powertrain solutions in any of these jurisdictions. If we, our outsourcing partners or our suppliers are unable to obtain or comply with any of the licenses, approvals, certifications or other governmental authorizations necessary to carry out our operations in the jurisdictions in which we currently operate, or those jurisdictions in which we plan to operate in the future, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected. We expect to incur significant costs in complying with these regulations. For example, if the battery packs installed in our electrified powertrain solutions are deemed to be transported, we will need to comply with the mandatory regulations governing the transport of “dangerous goods,” and any deficiency in compliance may result in us being prohibited from selling our electrified powertrain solutions until compliant batteries are installed. Additionally, although we do not believe that our current after-market Hybrid system is required to obtain certifications from the EPA in the event that regulators determine that certifications are necessary, we may be prohibited from selling our Hybrid system until such time as we obtain the required certifications. Any such required changes to our battery packs or Hybrid system will require additional expenditures and may delay the shipment of vehicles. In addition, regulations related to the electric and alternative energy vehicle industry are evolving and we face risks associated with changes to these regulations.
To the extent the laws change, our electrified powertrain solutions and our suppliers’ products may not comply with applicable international, federal, state or local laws, which would have an adverse effect on our business. Compliance with changing regulations could be burdensome, time consuming and expensive. To the extent compliance with new regulations is cost prohibitive, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results would be adversely affected.
We are subject to evolving laws, regulations, standards and contractual obligations related to data privacy and security, and our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our reputation, subject us to significant fines and liability or adversely affect our business.
We intend to use our in-vehicle services and functionality to log information about each vehicle’s use in order to aid us in vehicle diagnostics and servicing. Our customers or their drivers may object to the use of this data, which may increase our vehicle maintenance costs and harm our business prospects. Collection of our customers’, employees’ and others’ information in conducting our business may subject us to various legislative and regulatory burdens related to data privacy and security that could require notification of data breaches, restrict our use of such information and hinder our ability to acquire new customers or market to existing customers. The regulatory framework for data privacy and security is rapidly evolving, and we may not be able to monitor and react to all developments in a timely manner. For example, California requires connected devices to maintain minimum information security requirements. As legislation continues to develop, we will likely be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures and internal processes to comply with such legislation. In addition, non-compliance with these laws or a significant breach of our third-party service providers’ or vendors’ or our own network security and systems could have serious negative consequences for our business and future prospects, including possible fines, penalties and damages, reduced customer demand for our vehicles and harm to our reputation and brand.
We are subject to various environmental laws and regulations that could impose substantial costs upon us and cause delays in building our production facilities.
Our operations are and will be subject to international, federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, including laws relating to the use, handling, storage, disposal of and human exposure to hazardous materials. Environmental and health and safety laws and regulations can be complex, and we have limited experience complying with them. Moreover, we expect that we will be affected by future amendments to such laws or other new environmental and health and safety laws and regulations which may require us to change our operations, potentially resulting in a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. These laws can give rise to liability for administrative oversight costs, cleanup costs, property damage, bodily injury, fines and penalties. Capital and operating expenses needed to comply with environmental laws and regulations can be significant, and violations may result in substantial fines and penalties, third-party damages, suspension of production or a cessation of our operations.
Contamination at properties we will own or operate, we formerly owned or operated or to which hazardous substances were sent by us, may result in liability for us under environmental laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which can impose liability for the full amount of
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remediation-related costs without regard to fault, for the investigation and cleanup of contaminated soil and ground water, for building contamination and impacts to human health and for damages to natural resources. The costs of complying with environmental laws and regulations and any claims concerning noncompliance, or liability with respect to contamination in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or operating results. We may face unexpected delays in obtaining the required permits and approvals in connection with our planned production facilities that could require significant time and financial resources and delay our ability to operate these facilities, which would adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Risks Related to Capital and Tax Matters
We may need to raise additional funds and these funds may not be available to us when we need them. If we cannot raise additional funds when we need them, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be negatively affected.
The design, production, sale and servicing of our electrified powertrain solutions is capital-intensive. In connection with the consummation of the Business Combination on October 1, 2020, we raised net proceeds of approximately $516.5 million (net of transaction costs and expenses). As of December 31, 2021, all outstanding warrants were either exercised or redeemed, with gross proceeds of $140.8 million raised. However, we may subsequently determine that additional funds are necessary earlier than anticipated. This capital may be necessary to fund our ongoing operations, continue research, development and design efforts, create new products and improve infrastructure. We may raise additional funds through the issuance of equity, equity related or debt securities or through obtaining credit from government or financial institutions. We cannot be certain that additional funds will be available to us on favorable terms when required, or at all. If we cannot raise additional funds when we need them, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected.
Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may be limited in connection with the Business Combination or other ownership changes.
We have incurred losses during our history and do not expect to become profitable in the near future, and may never achieve profitability. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused losses expire, if at all. As of December 31, 2021, we had U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $187.6 million.
Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”), as modified by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards generated in taxable periods beginning after December 31, 2017, may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such net operating loss carryforwards in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, is limited to 80% of taxable income. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act or the CARES Act.
Under Section 382 of the Code, substantial changes in our ownership may result in an annual limitation on the amount of net operating loss carryforwards that could be utilized in the future to offset our taxable income. Generally, this limitation may arise in the event of a cumulative change in ownership of more than 50% within a three-year period. We have completed such analysis and determined that such an ownership change occurred in 2017. This will limit the usage of our 2017 and prior year net operating losses, and will cause $2.0 million of such losses to expire unused, regardless of future taxable income. No other such ownership changes have occurred through December 31, 2021. Due to this, as well as our overall profitability estimate as noted above, we have recorded a full valuation allowance related to our net operating loss carryforwards and other deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future benefits of those assets.
We may not be able to obtain or agree on acceptable terms and conditions for all or a significant portion of the government grants, loans and other incentives for which we may apply. As a result, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected.
We anticipate applying for federal and state grants, loans and tax incentives under government programs designed to stimulate the economy and support the production of alternative fuel and electric vehicles and related technologies. We anticipate that in the future there will be new opportunities for us to apply for grants, loans and other incentives from federal, state and foreign governments. Our ability to obtain funds or incentives from government sources is subject to the availability of funds under applicable government programs and approval of our applications to participate in such programs. The application process for these funds and other incentives will likely be highly competitive. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in obtaining any of these additional grants, loans and other incentives.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities
Concentration of ownership among our existing executive officers, directors and their respective affiliates may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions.
As of December 31, 2021, our executive officers, directors and their respective affiliates, as a group, beneficially own approximately 23.2% of our outstanding common stock. As a result, these stockholders are able to exercise a significant level of control over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, amendment of our Certificate of Incorporation and approval of significant corporate transactions. This control could have the effect of delaying or preventing a
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change of control of us or changes in management and will make the approval of certain transactions difficult or impossible without the support of these stockholders.
We may issue additional shares of common stock or preferred stock, including under our equity incentive plans. Any such issuances would dilute the interest of our stockholders and likely present other risks.
We may issue a substantial number of additional shares of common or preferred stock, including under our equity incentive plans. Any such issuances of additional shares of common or preferred stock may cause significant dilution, subordinate the rights to holders of common stock to those of preferred stock, cause a change in control, and adversely affect prevailing market prices.
General Risks
We have been, and may in the future be, adversely affected by the global COVID-19 pandemic, the duration and economic, governmental and social impact of which is difficult to predict, which may significantly harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
There has been a widespread worldwide impact from the COVID-19 pandemic, and we have been, and may in the future be, adversely affected as a result. Numerous government regulations and public advisories, as well as shifting social behaviors, have temporarily limited or closed non-essential transportation, government functions, business activities and person-to-person interactions, and the duration of such trends is difficult to predict. Reduced operations and production line shutdowns at commercial vehicle OEMs due to COVID-19, limitations on travel by our personnel and personnel of our customers and increased demand for commercial trucks within our customers’ fleets caused a delay to the planned installation of our Hybrid system on their trucks, and future delays or shutdowns of commercial vehicle OEMs or our suppliers could impact our ability to meet customer orders. We also instituted certain temporary cost reduction measures such as reducing or deferring discretionary spending.
We are or may be subject to risks associated with strategic alliances or acquisitions and may not be able to identify adequate strategic relationship opportunities, or form strategic relationships, in the future.
We have entered into strategic alliances and may in the future enter into additional strategic alliances or joint ventures or minority equity investments, in each case with various third parties for the production of our electrified powertrain solutions as well as with other collaborators with capabilities on data and analytics, engineering, installation channels, refueling stations and hydrogen fuel cells. These alliances subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance by the third party and increased expenses in establishing new strategic alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. Strategic business relationships will be an important factor in the growth and success of our business. However, there are no assurances that we will be able to continue to identify or secure suitable business relationship opportunities in the future or our competitors may capitalize on such opportunities before we do. Moreover, identifying such opportunities could require substantial management time and resources, and negotiating and financing relationships involves significant costs and uncertainties. If we are unable to successfully source and execute on strategic relationship opportunities in the future, our overall growth could be impaired, and our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected.
When appropriate opportunities arise, we may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. In addition to possible stockholder approval, we may need approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for the acquisitions and to comply with any applicable laws and regulations, which could result in increased delay and costs, and may disrupt our business strategy if we fail to do so. Furthermore, acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our headquarters are located in an approximately 152,000 square foot facility comprised of two buildings that we lease in Cedar Park, Texas, just north of Austin, Texas, where we design, develop, prototype and perform low volume assembly and installation of our electrified powertrain systems and components. Our lease of this facility expires in April 2027 and we have the option to extend the lease for two additional five-year terms.
We believe that our current facilities are in good working order and are capable of supporting our operations for the foreseeable future; however, we will continue to evaluate buying or leasing additional space as needed to accommodate our growth.
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ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time, the Company is subject to claims in legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of its business, including payroll-related and various employment-related matters. All litigation currently pending against the Company relates to matters that have arisen in the ordinary course of business and the Company believes that such matters will not have a material adverse effect on its consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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Part II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our common stock is currently listed on the NYSE under the symbol “HLYN.” Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, our common stock was listed on the NYSE under the symbol “SHLL.”
Holders
As of February 14, 2022, there were 104 holders of record of our Common Stock. A greater number of holders of our common stock are “street name” or beneficial holders, whose shares are held by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.
Dividend Policy
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock to date. We may retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and have no current plans to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors (the “Board”) and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that the Board may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends may be limited by covenants of any existing and future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur. We do not anticipate declaring any cash dividends to holders of the common stock in the foreseeable future.
Stock Performance Graph
This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), or incorporated by reference into any filing of Hyliion under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), or the Exchange Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.
The following graph shows a comparison, from January 1, 2020 through December 31, 2021, of the cumulative total return on our common stock, the NASDAQ Composite Index and a peer group determined by us. Data for the NASDAQ Composite Index and the peer group assumes an investment of $100 on January 1, 2020 and reinvestment of dividends.hyln-20211231_g2.jpg
We do not believe that there is a single published industry or line of business index that is appropriate for comparing stockholder returns. As a result, we have selected a peer group comprised of companies that compete with us directly or indirectly in the electric vehicle OEM market. Our current peer group, referenced in the graph above, consists of Nikola Corporation, XL Fleet Corp., Lordstown Motors Corp. and Workhorse Group Inc. Other companies were omitted from construction of our peer group due to lack of public share price history availability.
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Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities
We had no sales of unregistered equity securities during the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K that were not previously reported in a Current Report on Form 8-K or Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
ITEM 6. RESERVED
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Dollar amounts in this discussion are expressed in millions, except as otherwise noted. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect future plans, estimates, beliefs and expected performance. The forward-looking statements are dependent upon events, risks and uncertainties that may be outside of our control. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed elsewhere in this Form 10-K, particularly in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors. We do not undertake, and expressly disclaim, any obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, new developments or otherwise, except to the extent that such disclosure is required by applicable law.
For discussion related to changes in financial condition and the results of operations for fiscal year 2019-related items, refer to Part II, Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our Amended Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for fiscal year 2020, which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 17, 2021.
Comparability of Financial Information
Our historical operations and statements of assets and liabilities may not be comparable to our operations and statements of assets and liabilities as a result of the Business Combination and becoming a public company.
Key Factors Affecting Operating Results
We believe that our performance and future success depend on several factors that present significant opportunities for us but also pose risks and challenges, including but not limited to those discussed below and in Item 1A “Risk Factors”.
Successful Commercialization of Our Drivetrain Solutions
Our Hybrid eX system officially launched, and our first Hypertruck ERX showcase unit was unveiled, on August 31, 2021 at the ACT Expo in Long Beach, CA. Compared to previous Hyliion Hybrid systems, the Hybrid eX offers fleets a lighter solution that is easier to install, service and operate. The Hybrid eX draws upon the real-world feedback Hyliion has received from customers and the millions of miles logged with the previous system. Due to shortages of various components caused by global supply chain disruptions, we are experiencing longer delivery times because of supply delays for a portion of the orders we have received on new Hybrid eX units. In addition, we are assessing the potential demand impact for the Hybrid eX product offering in light of recent changes within the competitive landscape.
We began our Hypertruck ERX roadshow in November 2021 with a two-day showcase event focused on demonstrating the features and benefits of the electric powertrain firsthand. The roadshow consists of ride-alongs and in-depth product education of the Hypertruck ERX’s features and benefits, including how it enables fleets’ decarbonization goals while also reducing total cost of ownership. Our development timeline has been extended to allow for design verification and testing inclusive of critical summer and winter seasons, as well as the accumulation of up to one million miles prior to production. We expect to complete design verification and begin initial controlled fleet trials by the end of 2022.
While we have recently achieved critical product milestones, shortages in the supply chain and changes to the development program have led to an extension in the go-forward development timeline. Similar to others in the automotive industry, the semiconductor shortage, as well as several other key components, is extending our timelines longer than expected. These supply chain challenges have been especially prominent in the trucking industry, and one of the impacts has been significantly extended lead times for ordering new trucks. Fleets are experiencing lead times on new truck purchases that extend out for delivery into 2023. We have already placed orders with Peterbilt for all chassis needed in 2022 and are working to secure build slots for the 2023 calendar year in an effort to mitigate future potential supply chain impacts to our Hypertruck ERX development schedule. We continue to work closely with our current supply base to improve delivery of components for the quarters ahead and are diligently seeking alternative sources of supply for components that meet our technical specifications with shorter lead times.
We anticipate that a substantial portion of our capital resources and efforts in the near future will be focused on the continued development and commercialization of our drivetrain solutions. The amount and timing of our future funding requirements, if
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any, will depend on many factors, including the pace and results of our research and development efforts, as well as factors that are outside of our control.
Customer Demand
We have deployed demonstration Hybrid eX systems to certain early adopters we expect some to be customers in the future, including leaders in the transportation and logistics sector as well as companies committed to reducing the overall environmental impact and fuel costs of their owned and operated trucking fleets. Further, we commercialized and began selling the Hybrid eX system in the fourth quarter of 2021.
In 2021, Hyliion announced its Hypertruck Innovation Council, which consists of some of the largest fleets who will be assisting Hyliion along the development journey and will be among the first to experience the Hypertruck ERX. We anticipate our initial customers for the Hypertruck ERX system will be our Hypertruck Innovation Council members who will be the first to operate the Hypertruck ERX through controlled fleet deployments which will begin with some fleets in 2022 with further controlled fleet deployments anticipated. The successful launch program and deployment of the Hypertruck ERX met with positive feedback from customer operations teams and drivers and generated further interest in the Hypertruck ERX solution and longer-term commercial relationships with Hyliion.
Key Components of Statements of Operations
Revenue
We currently generate revenues from sales of Hybrid eX Powertrains for long haul “Class 8” semi-trucks.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue includes all direct costs such as labor and materials, overhead costs, warranty costs and any write-down of inventory to net realizable value.
Research and Development Expense
Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for the discovery and development of our electrified powertrain solutions, which include:
personnel-related expenses including salaries, benefits, travel and share-based compensation, for personnel performing research and development activities;
fees paid to third parties such as consultants and contractors for outsourced engineering services;
expenses related to materials, supplies and third-party services;
depreciation for equipment used in research and development activities; and
allocation of general overhead costs.
We expect research and development costs to increase for the foreseeable future as we continue to invest in research and development activities to achieve operational and commercial goals.
Selling, General and Administrative Expense
Selling, general and administrative expenses consist of personnel-related expenses for our corporate, executive, finance, sales, marketing and other administrative functions, expenses for outside professional services, including legal, audit and accounting services, as well as expenses for facilities, depreciation, amortization, travel, sales and marketing costs. Personnel-related expenses consist of salaries, benefits and share-based compensation.
We expect our selling, general and administrative expenses to increase for the foreseeable future as we scale headcount with the growth of our business, and as a result of operating as a public company, including compliance with the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, legal, audit, additional insurance expenses, investor relations activities and other administrative and professional services.
Other Income (Expense)
Other income and expenses consist primarily of interest expense incurred on our debt obligations, interest income earned on our investments, remeasurement gain or loss associated with the change in the fair value on our warrant and convertible notes payable derivative liabilities and a loss on the extinguishment of our convertible notes payable.
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Results of Operations
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2021 and 2020
Our results of operations on a consolidated basis for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 are summarized as follows (in thousands, except share and per share data):
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020 $ Change % Change
Revenues
Product sales and other $ 200  $ —  $ 200  N/A
Total revenues 200  —  200  N/A
Cost of revenues
Product sales and other (2,737) —  (2,737) N/A
Total cost of revenues (2,737) —  (2,737) N/A
Gross loss (2,537) —  (2,537) N/A
Operating expenses
Research and development (58,261) (12,598) (45,663) 362.5  %
Selling, general and administrative expenses (35,299) (9,585) (25,714) 268.3  %
Total operating expenses (93,560) (22,183) (71,377) 321.8  %
Loss from operations (96,097) (22,183) (73,914) 333.2  %
Interest expense —  (5,465) 5,465  (100.0) %
Interest income 779  773  12,883.3  %
Loss on impairment and disposal of assets (730) —  (730) N/A
Change in fair value of convertible notes payable derivative liabilities —  (1,358) 1,358  (100.0) %
Change in fair value of warrant liabilities —  363,299  (363,299) (100.0) %
Other expense —  (12) 12  (100.0) %
Loss on extinguishment of debt —  (10,170) 10,170  (100.0) %
Net (loss) income $ (96,048) $ 324,117  $ (420,165) N/A
Net (loss) income per share, basic $ (0.56) $ 3.11  $ (3.67) N/A
Net loss per share, diluted $ (0.56) $ (0.35) $ (0.21) 60.0  %
Weighted-average shares outstanding, basic 172,216,477  104,324,059  17,680,484  65.1  %
Weighted-average shares outstanding, diluted 172,216,477  112,570,960  17,680,484  53.0  %
Revenue
Sales increased by $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, which includes an increase in volume related to our initial production of the Hybrid eX.
Cost of Revenues
Cost of revenues increased by $2.7 million the year ended December 31, 2021, which includes an increase in volume related to our initial production of the Hybrid eX. The increase in cost of revenues includes:
Inventory write-downs of $2.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 attributable to inventory on hand that had a cost higher than its net realizable value; and
Warranty costs of $44 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2021 for estimated costs to administer and maintain the warranty program for labor, transportation and parts, and excludes any contribution from vendors.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses increased by $45.7 million from $12.6 million in the prior year ended December 31, 2020 to $58.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 due to increased expenditures for components utilized in the development process by $29.7 million in our efforts to commercialize our Hybrid system and continue the design and testing of
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our Hypertruck ERX system, increased expenditures for external consultancy by $3.8 million to bring in industry expertise to assist in achieving our commercialization milestones, increased labor by $9.9 million as we build out our engineering, operations, and supply chain teams and associated capabilities, increased costs by $2.0 million associated with the purchase of vehicles and equipment to be used in testing of our products, and increased other expenditures by $0.3 million.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased by $25.7 million from $9.6 million in the prior year ended December 31, 2020 to $35.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, due to additional costs incurred to operate as a public company which includes increased expenses for personnel and benefits by $12.9 million, increased expenditures for legal and professional fees by $5.9 million, increased expenditures for insurance primarily relating to our directors' and officers' liability insurance policy by $4.0 million, increased marketing and promotional expenses by $1.3 million, increased information technology expenses associated with additional resources and computer system upgrades of $1.5 million, and increased other expenditures by $0.1 million.
Other Income (Expense)
Total other income decreased by $346.3 million from $346.3 million of other income for the year ended December 31, 2020 to nil for the year ended December 31, 2021. The decrease was primarily due to:
A gain from the change in fair value of warrant liabilities of $363.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Loss on extinguishment of debt of $10.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 that is attributable to the extinguishment of convertible notes in connection with the Business Combination.
Interest expense for the year ended December 31, 2020 of $5.5 million was primarily related to our convertible notes payable, which were converted to shares of common stock as part of the Business Combination in October 2020.
A loss from the change in fair value of convertible notes payable derivative liabilities of $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The convertible notes payable were converted to shares of common stock as part of the Business Combination in October 2020.
Interest income of $0.8 million on investments owned during the year ended December 31, 2021 that were not owned during the comparative period.
A loss on impairment and disposal of assets of $0.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Cash Flows
The following table summarizes our net cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash provided by or used in operating activities, investing activities and financing activities for the periods indicated and should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020
Cash from operating activities $ (80,502) $ (22,944)
Cash from investing activities (65,991) (238,140)
Cash from financing activities 15,898  644,504 
$ (130,595) $ 383,420 
Cash from Operating Activities
For the year ended December 31, 2021, cash flows used in operating activities were $80.5 million. Cash used primarily related to a net loss of $96.0 million, adjusted for changes in working capital accounts and certain non-cash expense of $15.5 million (including $0.7 million related to non-cash lease expense, $0.9 million related to depreciation and amortization, $1.8 million related to amortization of investment premiums and discounts, $0.7 million related to loss on impairment or disposal of assets and $4.9 million related to share-based compensation).
For the year ended December 31, 2020, cash flows used in operating activities were $22.9 million. Cash used primarily related to net income of $324.1 million, adjusted for changes in working capital accounts and certain non-cash income of $347.1 million (including $363.3 million related to the change in fair value of warrant liability, $10.2 million related to the loss on extinguishment of convertible notes payable, $4.2 million related to amortization of debt discount, $1.4 million related to a loss from the change in fair value of the convertible notes payable derivative liabilities, $1.1 million related to paid-in-kind interest on convertible notes payable, $0.9 million related to non-cash lease expense, $0.9 million related to depreciation and amortization and $0.3 million related to share-based compensation).
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Cash from Investing Activities
For the year ended December 31, 2021, cash flows used in investing activities were $66.0 million. Cash used primarily related to the purchase of investments totaling $317.8 million, partially offset by the sale or maturity of investments of $254.2 million.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, cash flows used in investing activities were $238.1 million. Cash used primarily related to the purchase of investments totaling $237.9 million.
Net cash used in investing activities is expected to increase substantially as we purchase additional property and equipment and continue development of our Hypertruck ERX systems and scale manufacturing operations to meet anticipated demand.
Cash from Financing Activities
For the year ended December 31, 2021, cash flows provided by financing activities were $15.9 million. Cash flows were primarily due to proceeds from the exercise of warrants of $16.3 million and proceeds from the exercise of common stock options of $0.6 million, partially offset by repayment of $0.9 million from a Paycheck Protection Program loan.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, cash flows provided by financing activities were $644.5 million. Cash flows were primarily due to net proceeds of $516.5 million from the Business Combination and PIPE, proceeds from the exercise of warrants of $124.5 million, the issuance of $3.2 million of convertible notes payable in exchange for cash, proceeds of $0.9 million from a Paycheck Protection Program loan, partially offset by the payments for financing costs of $0.5 million and finance lease obligations of $0.2 million.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
At December 31, 2021, our current assets were $386.5 million, consisting primarily of cash and cash equivalents of $258.4 million, short-term investments of $118.8 million, and prepaid expenses of $9.1 million. Our current liabilities were $15.2 million primarily comprised of accounts payable, accrued expenses and operating lease liabilities.
We believe the credit quality and liquidity of our investment portfolio as of December 31, 2021 is strong and will provide sufficient liquidity to satisfy operating requirements, working capital purposes and strategic initiatives. The unrealized gains and losses of the portfolio may remain volatile as changes in the general interest environment and supply and demand fluctuations of the securities within our portfolio impact daily market valuations. To mitigate the risk associated with this market volatility, we deploy a relatively conservative investment strategy focused on capital preservation and liquidity whereby no investment security may have a final maturity of more than 36 months from the date of acquisition or a weighted average maturity exceeding 18 months. Eligible investments under the Company’s investment policy bearing a minimum credit rating of A1, A-1, F1 or higher for short-term investments and A2, A, or higher for longer-term investments include money market funds, commercial paper, certificates of deposit, and municipal securities. Additionally, all of our debt securities are classified as held-to-maturity as we have the intent and ability to hold these investment securities to maturity, which minimizes any realized losses that we would recognize prior to maturity. However, even with this approach we may incur investment losses as a result of unusual or unpredictable market developments, and we may experience reduced investment earnings if the yields on investments deemed to be low risk remain low or decline further due to unpredictable market developments. In addition, these unusual and unpredictable market developments may also create liquidity challenges for certain of the assets in our investment portfolio.
Based on our past performance, we believe our current assets will be sufficient to continue and execute on our business strategy and meet our capital requirements for the next twelve months. Our primary short-term cash needs are paying operating expenses and servicing outstanding indebtedness. We expect to continue to incur net losses in the short term, as we continue to execute on our strategic initiatives by (i) completing the development and commercialization of the electrified drive systems for long haul “Class 8” semi-trucks, (ii) scale the Company’s operations to meet anticipated demand and (iii) hiring of personnel. However, actual results could vary materially and negatively as a result of a number of factors including, but not limited to, those discussed in Part I, Item 1A. "Risk Factors."
During the periods presented, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated organizations or financial partnerships, such as structured finance or special purpose entities, which were established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements.
Contractual Obligations and Capital Resources
We have funded our operating activities since the Business Combination with net cash generated from the Business Combination, PIPE financing and proceeds from the exercise of stock warrants. We manage our use of cash in the operation of our business to support the execution of our primary strategic goals including the design, development and sale of hybrid and electrified powertrain systems for long haul “Class 8” semi-trucks. Since the Business Combination, we have primarily used cash for research and development activities, capital investments and general and administrative costs.
Our cash requirements beyond twelve months include:
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Operating and Finance Leases — Refer to Note 10, Leases, of the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further information of our obligations and the timing of expected payments.
Warranties — Refer to Note 14, Warranties, of the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further information of our obligations. We expect to recognize these costs over a period up to two years.
Purchase Commitments — Purchase obligations include non-cancelable purchase commitments related to materials purchase agreements and volume commitments which are entered into from time to time. As of December 31, 2021, there were no such non-cancelable purchase commitments.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the balance sheet date, as well as the reported expenses incurred during the reporting period. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions believed to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates, and such differences could be material to our financial statements.
We believe that the accounting policies discussed below are critical to understanding our historical and future performance, as these policies relate to the more significant areas involving management’s judgments and estimates.
While our significant accounting policies are described in the notes to our financial statements (see Note 2 in the accompanying audited consolidated financial statements), we believe that the following accounting policies require a greater degree of judgment and complexity. Accordingly, these are the policies we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our financial condition and results of operations.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is comprised of sales of Hybrid eX Powertrains for long haul “Class 8” semi-trucks and specific other features and services that meet the definition of a performance obligation, including internet connectivity and data processing. We provide installation services for the Hybrid eX Powertrain onto the customers’ vehicle. The Company’s products are marketed and sold to end-user fleet customers in North America. When our contracts with customers contain multiple performance obligations and where material, the contract transaction price is allocated on a relative standalone selling price basis to each performance obligation.
We recognize revenue on Hybrid eX Powertrain sales upon delivery and acceptance of the vehicle to the customer, which is when control transfers. Contracts are reviewed for significant financing components and payments are typically received within 30 days of delivery. We do not generally recognize credit losses due to the timing of customer payment shortly after delivery. The sale of a Hybrid eX Powertrain to an end-use fleet customer consists of a completed modification to the customer vehicle and the installation services involve significant integration of the Hybrid eX Powertrain with the customer’s vehicle. Installation services are not distinct within the context of the contract and together with the sale of the Hybrid eX Powertrain represents a single performance obligation. We do not offer any sales returns. Amounts billed to customers related to shipping and handling are classified as revenue, and we have elected to recognize the cost for freight and shipping when control has transferred to the customer as a cost of revenue. Our policy is to exclude taxes collected from a customer from the transaction price of contracts.
We have limited sales history of our Hybrid eX Powertrains and therefore are required to make certain estimates and assumptions with regard to the recognition of revenue including, among other things, the value of any future performance obligations. We expect to refine our sales processes, contracts and services as our business matures. Should our estimates and assumptions change, a revision to the recognition of revenue may be required.
Inventories
Inventory is comprised of raw materials, work in process and finished goods, using the moving-average cost method. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We review our inventory to determine whether its carrying value exceeds the net amount realizable we expect to receive upon the ultimate sale of the inventory. This requires us to determine the estimated selling price of inventory less the estimated cost to convert the inventory on-hand into a finished product and other costs, which we determined includes the cost of installation and validation, to align with the transfer of control to customers in our revenue policy.
Once inventory is written-down based on a lower of cost or net realizable value analysis, that amount establishes the new carrying value of inventory if written-down at year end, and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the
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restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis. Interim impairments are reversed and reassessed at each reporting period.
During the fourth quarter of 2021, we changed from a research and development phase to a production phase for one of our products. Certain costs incurred for components acquired prior to our determination of reaching a commercial stage were previously expensed as research and development costs, resulting in zero cost basis for those components, which affected the moving average price. However, after inventory impairments recognized on December 31, 2021, inventory values and future inventory moving average prices will not be significantly affected by those zero cost items.
At December 31, 2021, our current projected costs of production for inventory items exceeds our sales prices. We expect to reduce costs based on increased production volumes, negotiated volume discounts, economies of scale and learning curve effects. Further, as we market these and other products, we may adjust our sales prices. It is possible that our efforts to achieve these cost reductions may take longer than anticipated and result in negative margin in future periods.
Warranties
We provide limited assurance-type warranties under our contracts and do not offer extended warranties or maintenance contracts. The warranty period typically extends for the lesser of two years or 200,000 miles following transfer of control and solely relate to correction of product defects during the warranty period. We recognize the cost of the warranty upon transfer of control based on estimated and historical claims rates and fulfillment costs, which are variable. Should product failure rates and fulfillment costs differ from these estimates, material revisions to the estimated warranty liability would be required. Warranty expense is recorded as a component of cost of revenue.
Share-Based Compensation
We account for share-based payments that involve the issuance of shares of our common stock to employees and nonemployees and meet the criteria for share-based awards as share-based compensation expense based on the grant-date fair value of the award. The Company has elected to recognize the adjustment to share-based compensation expense in the period in which forfeitures occur. We recognize compensation expense for awards with only service conditions on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award.
If factors change, and we utilize different assumptions including the probability of achieving performance conditions, share-based compensation cost on future award grants may differ significantly from share-based compensation cost recognized on past award grants. Future share-based compensation cost will increase to the extent that we grant additional share-based awards to employees and non-employees. If there are any modifications or cancellations of the underlying unvested securities, we may be required to accelerate any remaining unearned share-based compensation cost or incur incremental cost. Share-based compensation cost affects our research and development and selling, general and administrative expenses.
Income Taxes 
We recognize deferred taxes for temporary differences between the basis of assets and liabilities for financial statement and income tax purposes. At December 31, 2021, we had federal net operating loss carryforwards of $187.6 million and state net operating loss carryforwards of $12.5 million that expire in various years starting in 2036. The Company also has R&D credits of $0.6 million that begin to expire in 2037.
Under Section 382 of the Code, substantial changes in our ownership may result in an annual limit on the amount of net operating loss carryforwards that could be utilized in the future to offset our taxable income. Generally, this limitation may arise in the event of a cumulative change in ownership of more than 50% within a three-year period. We have completed such analysis and determined that such ownership change occurred in 2017. This will limit the usage of our 2017 and prior year net operating losses, and will cause $2.0 million of such losses to expire unused, regardless of future taxable income. No other such ownership changes have occurred through December 31, 2021. Due to this, as well as our overall profitability estimate as noted above, we have recorded a full valuation allowance related to our net operating loss carryforwards and other deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future benefits of those assets.
New and Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") or other standard setting bodies that are adopted by us as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, we believe that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on our financial position or results of operations under adoption.
See Recent Accounting Pronouncements issued, not yet adopted under Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to the 2021 consolidated financial statements for more information about recent accounting pronouncements, the timing of their adoption and our assessment, to the extent we have made one, of their potential impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
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ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to a variety of market and other risks, including the effects of changes in interest rates and inflation, as well as risks to the availability of funding sources, hazard events and specific asset risks.
Interest Rate Risk
We hold cash and cash equivalents for working capital purposes. As of December 31, 2021, we had a cash balance of $258.4 million, consisting of operating and money market accounts which, are not affected by changes in the general level of U.S. interest rates. We do not have material exposure to interest rate risk with respect to cash and cash equivalents as these are all highly liquid investments with a maturity date of 90 days or less at the time of purchase.
A hypothetical change in prevailing interest rates of 10 basis points would have increased or decreased our unrealized gain or loss on our short-term and long-term investments for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 by $0.1 million and $0.1 million, respectively.
Inflation Risk
We do not believe that inflation currently has a material effect on our business. Inflation may become a greater risk in the event of changes in current economic and governmental fiscal policy.
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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
F-1

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM


Board of Directors and Stockholders
Hyliion Holdings Corp.

Opinion on the financial statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Hyliion Holdings Corp. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2021, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2021, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”), and our report dated February 24, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion.
Basis for opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical audit matters
Critical audit matters are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. We determined that there are no critical audit matters.

/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2020.

Dallas, Texas
February 24, 2022
F-2

HYLIION HOLDINGS CORP.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Dollar amounts in thousands, except share data)
December 31,
2021 2020
Assets
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents $ 258,445  $ 389,705 
Accounts receivable 70  92 
Inventory 114  132 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets 9,068  20,558 
Short-term investments 118,787  201,881 
Total current assets 386,484  612,368 
Property and equipment, net 2,235  1,171 
Operating lease right-of-use assets 7,734  5,055 
Intangible assets, net 235  332 
Other assets 1,535  193 
Long-term investments 180,217  35,970 
Total assets $ 578,440  $ 655,089 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities
Accounts payable $ 7,455  $ 1,890 
Current portion of operating lease liabilities 21  734 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities 7,759  6,138 
Total current liabilities 15,235  8,762 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion 8,623  5,076 
Other liabilities 667  175 
Debt, net of current portion —  908 
Total liabilities 24,525  14,921 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 16)
Stockholders’ equity
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 250,000,000 shares authorized; 173,468,979 and 169,316,421 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively
17  19 
Additional paid-in capital 374,795  364,998 
Retained earnings 179,103  275,151 
Total stockholders’ equity 553,915  640,168 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity $ 578,440  $ 655,089 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
F-3

HYLIION HOLDINGS CORP.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(Dollar amounts in thousands, except share and per share data)
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020 2019
Revenues
Product sales and other $ 200  $ —  $ — 
Total revenues 200  —  — 
Cost of revenues
Product sales and other (2,737) —  — 
Total cost of revenues (2,737) —  — 
Gross loss (2,537) —  — 
Operating expenses
Research and development (58,261) (12,598) (9,269)
Selling, general and administrative expenses (35,299) (9,585) (2,730)
Total operating expenses (93,560) (22,183) (11,999)
Loss from operations (96,097) (22,183) (11,999)
Interest expense —  (5,465) (3,260)
Interest income 779  — 
Loss on impairment and disposal of assets (730) —  — 
Change in fair value of convertible notes payable derivative liabilities —  (1,358) 1,119 
Change in fair value of warrant liabilities —  363,299  — 
Other (expense) income —  (12) 27 
Loss on extinguishment of debt —  (10,170) — 
Net (loss) income $ (96,048) $ 324,117  $ (14,113)
Net (loss) income per share, basic $ (0.56) $ 3.11  $ (0.16)
Net loss per share, diluted $ (0.56) $ (0.35) $ (0.16)
Weighted-average shares outstanding, basic 172,216,477  104,324,059  86,643,714 
Weighted-average shares outstanding, diluted 172,216,477  112,570,960  86,643,714 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
F-4

HYLIION HOLDINGS CORP.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(Dollar amounts in thousands, except share data)
Series A-1 Redeemable,
Convertible Preferred Stock
Series A-2 Redeemable,
Convertible Preferred Stock
Series A-3 Redeemable,
Convertible Preferred Stock
Common Stock Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Retained Earnings (Deficit) Total Stockholders’
Equity (Deficit)
Shares Amount Shares Amount Shares Amount Shares Par Value
Balance at December 31, 2018 23,460,903  $ 20,750  8,793,755  $ 3,893  2,545,155  $ 2,026  24,453,750  $ 24  $ 4,072  $ (34,853) $ (30,757)
Retroactive application of recapitalization (See Note 3) (23,460,903) (20,750) (8,793,755) (3,893) (2,545,155) (2,026) 61,890,680  (15) 26,684  —  26,669 
Adjusted balance, beginning of period —  —  —  —  —  —  86,344,430  30,756  (34,853) (4,088)
Exercise of common stock options —  —  —  —  —  —  418,033  —  — 
Share-based compensation —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  125  —  125 
Net loss —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (14,113) (14,113)
Balance at December 31, 2019 —  —  —  —  —  —  86,762,463  30,888  (48,966) (18,069)
Exercise of common stock options —  —  —  —  —  —  1,112,160  —  121  —  121 
Conversion of convertible notes payable to common stock —  —  —  —  —  —  4,404,367  —  44,039  —  44,039 
Business Combination and PIPE financing —  —  —  —  —  —  61,622,839  153,147  —  153,153 
Common stock issued for warrants exercised, net of issuance cost —  —  —  —  —  —  15,414,592  136,512  —  136,514 
Redemption of unexercised warrants —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (3) —  (3)
Share-based compensation —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  294  —  294 
Net income —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  324,117  324,117 
Balance at December 31, 2020             169,316,421  19  364,998  275,151  640,168 
Exercise of common stock options and vesting of restricted stock units             3,781,023  (2) 593  —  591 
Common stock issued for warrants exercised, net of issuance costs             371,535  —  4,282  —  4,282 
Share-based compensation             —  —  4,922  —  4,922 
Net loss             —  —  —  (96,048) (96,048)
Balance at December 31, 2021             173,468,979  17  374,795  179,103  553,915 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
F-5

HYLIION HOLDINGS CORP.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Dollar amounts in thousands)
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020 2019
Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Net (loss) income $ (96,048) $ 324,117  $ (14,113)
Adjustments to reconcile net (loss) income to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization 884  850  1,028 
Amortization of investment premiums and discounts 1,816  —  — 
Loss on extinguishment of debt —  10,170  — 
Noncash lease expense 731  928  1,312 
Inventory write-down 2,298  —  — 
Loss on impairment and disposal of assets 730  —  — 
Paid-in-kind interest on convertible notes payable —  1,085  723 
Amortization of debt discount —  4,237  2,485 
Share-based compensation 4,922  294  125 
Change in fair value of convertible notes payable derivative liabilities —  1,358  (1,118)
Change in fair value of contingent consideration liability —  —  (27)
Change in fair value of warrant liability —  (363,299) — 
Change in operating assets and liabilities, net of effects of business acquisition:
Accounts receivable 22  53  (28)
Inventory (2,280) (132) — 
Prepaid expenses and other assets (475) (8,150) 44 
Accounts payable 5,319  734  (684)
Accrued expenses and other liabilities 2,155  5,764  (21)
Operating lease liabilities (576) (953) (798)
Net cash used in operating activities (80,502) (22,944) (11,072)
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
Purchase of property and equipment (2,380) (311) (349)
Proceeds from sale of property and equipment 45  22  — 
Payments for security deposit, net (29) —  — 
Purchase of investments (317,807) (237,851) — 
Proceeds from sale and maturity of investments 254,180  —  — 
Net cash used in investing activities (65,991) (238,140) (349)
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
Business Combination and PIPE financing, net of issuance costs paid —  516,454  — 
Proceeds from exercise of stock warrants, net of issuance costs 16,257  124,536  — 
Proceeds from convertible notes payable issuance and derivative liabilities —  3,200  16,803 
(Payments for)/proceeds from Paycheck Protection Program loan (908) 908  — 
Payments for deferred financing costs —  (468) — 
Repayments on finance lease obligations (42) (247) (201)
Proceeds from exercise of common stock options 591  121 
Net cash provided by financing activities 15,898  644,504  16,609 
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash (130,595) 383,420  5,188 
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period 389,705  6,285  1,097 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period $ 259,110  $ 389,705  $ 6,285 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
F-6

HYLIION HOLDINGS CORP.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Dollar amounts in thousands, except as separately indicated)
Note 1. Description of Organization and Business Operations and Basis of Presentation
Overview
Hyliion Holdings Corp. and its wholly-owned subsidiary design and develop hybrid and electrified powertrain systems for long haul “Class 8” semi-trucks which modify semi-tractors into hybrid and fully electric range extender vehicles, respectively. The Company’s hybrid powertrain system "Hybrid eX" utilizes intelligent electric drive axles with advanced algorithms and battery technology to optimize vehicle performance, enabling fleets to access an easy, efficient way to decrease fuel expenses, lower emissions and/or improve vehicle performance. The Company’s fully electric range extender systems utilize an intelligent electric powertrain with advanced algorithms to optimize emissions performance and efficiency with no new infrastructure required. The Hypertruck ERX system enables fleets to reduce the cost of ownership while providing the ability to deliver net-negative carbon emissions and operate fully electric when needed. The Company recently launched its commercial Hybrid eX and the Hypertruck ERX system is in the prototype phase.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
On October 1, 2020 (the “Closing Date”), Tortoise Acquisition Corp (“TortoiseCorp”) entered into a business combination agreement (the “Business Combination”) with each of the shareholders of Hyliion Inc. (“Legacy Hyliion”). Pursuant to the Business Combination, TortoiseCorp acquired all of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock from the Legacy Hyliion shareholders. In connection with the closing of the transaction, Tortoise Corp. changed its name to Hyliion Holdings Corp. For more information on this transaction see Note 3.
On the Closing Date, and in connection with the closing of the Business Combination, TortoiseCorp changed its name to Hyliion Holdings Corp. (the “Company” or “Hyliion”) and the Company’s common stock began trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol HYLN. Legacy Hyliion was deemed the accounting acquirer in the Business Combination based on an analysis of the criteria outlined in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 805. The determination was primarily based on Legacy Hyliion’s shareholders prior to the Business Combination having a majority of the voting interests in the combined company, Legacy Hyliion’s board of directors comprising a majority of the board of directors of the combined company, Legacy Hyliion’s existing shareholders’ control over decisions regarding the election and removal of directors and officers of the combined company’s board of directors, and Legacy Hyliion’s senior management comprising the senior management of the combined company. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of Legacy Hyliion issuing stock for the net assets of TortoiseCorp, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of TortoiseCorp are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded.
While TortoiseCorp was the legal acquirer in the Business Combination, because Legacy Hyliion was deemed the accounting acquirer, the historical financial statements of Legacy Hyliion became the historical financial statements of the combined company, upon the consummation of the Business Combination. As a result, the financial statements included in this report reflect (i) the historical operating results of Legacy Hyliion prior to the Business Combination; (ii) the combined results of TortoiseCorp and Legacy Hyliion following the closing of the Business Combination; (iii) the assets and liabilities of Legacy Hyliion at their historical cost; and (iv) the Company’s equity structure for all periods presented.
In accordance with guidance applicable to these circumstances, the equity structure has been restated in all comparative periods up to the Closing Date, to reflect the number of shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, issued to Legacy Hyliion shareholders and Legacy Hyliion convertible noteholders in connection with the recapitalization transaction. As such, the shares and corresponding capital amounts and earnings per share related to Legacy Hyliion redeemable convertible preferred stock and Legacy Hyliion common stock prior to the Business Combination have been retroactively restated as shares reflecting the exchange ratio established in the Business Combination.
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Hyliion Holdings Corp. and its wholly-owned subsidiary. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated upon consolidation. The consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Unites States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Any reference in these footnotes to the applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative GAAP as found in the Accounting Standards Codification and Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”). Certain prior period balances have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation in the consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes.
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Liquidity
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and settlement of liabilities in the normal course of business. The Company is an early-stage growth company and has generated negative cash flows from operating activities since inception.
On October 1, 2020, the Company consummated the Business Combination and raised net proceeds of $516.5 million net of transaction costs and expenses. At December 31, 2020, all outstanding warrants were either exercised or redeemed, with gross proceeds of $140.8 million raised, of which $16.3 million was collected during the first quarter of 2021 (see Note 8). At December 31, 2021, the Company had a cash and cash equivalents balance of $258.4 million and total investments of $299.0 million. Based on this, the Company has sufficient funds to continue to execute its business strategy for the next twelve months.
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Emerging Growth Company
Section 102(b)(1) of the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (“JOBS Act”) exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such election to opt out is irrevocable. The Company elected not to opt out of such extended transition period. As of June 30, 2021, the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the market value of our common stock that was held by non-affiliates was greater than $700 million. As a result, we became a large accelerated filer and no longer qualified as an emerging growth company on December 31, 2021, the end of our current fiscal year. Accordingly, we no longer qualify for the provisions of the JOBS Act that allow companies to adopt new or revised accounting standards when required by private company accounting standards. We have not previously elected to defer adoption of any new or revised accounting standards under the provisions of the JOBS Act.
Use of Estimates and Uncertainty of the Coronavirus Pandemic
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the balance sheet date, as well as reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. The Company’s most significant estimates and judgments involve revenue recognition, inventory, warranties, income taxes valuation of share-based compensation, including the fair value of common stock prior to the Business Combination. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions believed to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates, and such differences could be material to the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus outbreak a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern” and on March 11, 2020, declared the coronavirus outbreak a pandemic. In mid-March 2020, U.S. State Governors, local officials and leaders outside of the U.S. began ordering various “shelter-in-place” orders, which have had various impacts on the U.S. and global economies. This has required greater use of estimates and assumptions in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements.
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to evolve, the Company believes the extent of the impact to its businesses, operating results, cash flows, liquidity and financial condition will be primarily driven by the severity and duration of the coronavirus pandemic, the pandemic’s impact on the U.S. and global economies and the timing, scope and effectiveness of federal, state and local governmental responses to the pandemic. Those primary drivers are beyond the Company’s knowledge and control, and as a result, at this time the Company is unable to predict the cumulative impact, both in terms of severity and duration, that the coronavirus pandemic will have on its business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition, but it could be material if the current circumstances continue to exist for a prolonged period. Although the Company has made its best estimates based upon current information, actual results could materially differ from the estimates and assumptions developed by management. If so, the Company may be subject to future impairment charges as well as changes to recorded reserves and valuations.
Segment Information
ASC 280, Segment Reporting, defines operating segments as components of an enterprise where discrete financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision-maker (“CODM”) in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company operates as a single operating segment. The Company’s CODM is the chief executive officer, who has ultimate responsibility for the operating performance of the Company and the allocation of
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resources. The CODM uses cash flows as the primary measure to manage the business and does not segment the business for internal reporting or decision making.
Concentration of Supplier Risk
The Company is dependent on certain suppliers, the majority of which are single source suppliers, and the inability of these suppliers to deliver necessary components of the Company’s products in a timely manner at prices, quality levels and volumes that are acceptable, or the Company’s inability to efficiently manage these components from these suppliers, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity date of 90 days or less at the time of purchase to be cash and cash equivalents only if in checking, savings or money market accounts. Cash and cash equivalents include cash held in banks and money market accounts. Cash equivalents are carried at cost, which approximates fair value. The Company maintains cash in excess of federally insured limits at financial institutions. The Company makes such deposits with entities it believes are of high credit quality and has not incurred any losses related to these balances to date. Management believes its credit risk, with respect to the financial institutions to be minimal.
Restricted Cash
On July 2, 2021, the Company provided its corporate headquarters lessor with a letter of credit for $0.7 million to secure the performance of lease obligations. The Company made a restricted cash deposit for its obligation to pay any draws on the letter of credit by the lessor. Total cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash as presented in the consolidated statements of cash flows are summarized as follows:
December 31, 2021 December 31, 2020 December 31, 2019 December 31, 2018
Cash and cash equivalents $ 258,445  $ 389,705  $ 6,285  $ 1,097 
Restricted cash included in other non-current assets 665  —  —  — 
Total presented in the consolidated statements of cash flows $ 259,110  $ 389,705  $ 6,285  $ 1,097 
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable are stated at a gross invoice amount, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The allowance for doubtful accounts is maintained at a level considered adequate to provide for potential account losses on the balance based on management’s evaluation of the anticipated impact of current economic conditions, changes in the character and size of the balance, past and expected future loss experience, among other pertinent factors. At December 31, 2021 and 2020, accounts receivable included amounts receivable from customers of $45.0 thousand and nil, respectively. At December 31, 2021 and 2020, there was no allowance for doubtful accounts required based on management’s evaluation.
Investments
The Company’s investments consist of corporate bonds, U.S. treasury and agency securities, state and local municipal bonds and commercial paper, all of which are classified as held-to-maturity, with a maturity date of 36-months or less at the time of purchase. Management determines the appropriate classification of investments at the time of purchase and re-evaluates such designation as of each balance sheet date. Investments are classified as held-to-maturity when the Company has the positive intent and ability to hold the securities to maturity. Held-to-maturity securities are stated at amortized cost, adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity. Such amortization is included in interest income. Interest on securities classified as held-to-maturity is included in interest income.
The Company uses the specific identification method to determine the cost basis of securities sold.
Investments are impaired when a decline in fair value is judged to be other-than-temporary. The Company evaluates an investment for impairment by considering the length of time and extent to which market value has been less than cost or amortized cost, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer as well as specific events or circumstances that may influence the operations of the issuer and the Company’s intent to sell the security or the likelihood that it will be required to sell the security before recovery of the entire amortized cost. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is recorded to other income (expense) and a new cost basis in the investment is established.
Fair Value Measurements
ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements, clarifies that fair value is an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. As such, fair value is a market-
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based measurement that should be determined based upon assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. As a basis for considering such assumptions, ASC 820 establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
Level I: Quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets that the Company can access at the measurement date.
Level II: Significant other observable inputs other than level 1 prices such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data.
Level III: Significant unobservable inputs that reflect the Company’s own assumptions about the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability.
An asset’s or liability’s fair value measurement level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Valuation techniques used need to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.
The Company believes its valuation methods are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, however the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments could result in a different fair value measurement at the reporting date.
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, accounts receivable, investments, accounts payable and accrued expenses. The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximates fair value because of the short-term nature of those instruments. The fair value of investments are based on quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active. As a result, investments are classified within Level II of the fair value hierarchy.
Inventories
Inventory is comprised of raw materials, work in process and finished goods, using the moving-average cost method. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We review our inventory to determine whether its carrying value exceeds the net amount realizable we expect to receive upon the ultimate sale of the inventory. This requires us to determine the estimated selling price of inventory less the estimated cost to convert the inventory on-hand into a finished product and other costs, which we determined includes the cost of installation and validation, to align with the transfer of control to customers in our revenue policy.
Once inventory is written-down based on a lower of cost or net realizable value analysis, that amount establishes the new carrying value of inventory if written-down at year end, and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis. Interim impairments are reversed and reassessed at each reporting period.
During the fourth quarter of 2021, we changed from a research and development phase to a production phase for one of our products. Certain costs incurred for components acquired prior to our determination of reaching a commercial stage were previously expensed as research and development costs, resulting in zero cost basis for those components, which affected the moving average price. However, after inventory impairments recognized on December 31, 2021, inventory values and future inventory moving average prices will not be significantly affected by those zero cost items.
At December 31, 2021, our current projected costs of production for inventory items exceeds our sales prices. We expect to reduce costs based on increased production volumes, negotiated volume discounts, economies of scale and learning curve effects. Further, as we market these and other products, we may adjust our sales prices. It is possible that our efforts to achieve these cost reductions may take longer than anticipated and result in negative margin in future periods.
Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets
Prepaid expenses and other current assets include prepaid insurance, rent, supplies and amounts owed to the Company from the Company’s transfer agent (see Note 8) which are expected to be recognized, received or realized within the next 12 months.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment, net is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation, or if acquired in a business combination, at fair value at the date of acquisition. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method, based upon the following estimated useful lives:
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Production machinery and equipment
2 to 7 years
Vehicles
3 to 7 years
Leasehold improvements
shorter of lease term or 7 years
Demo fleet systems
2 to 3 years
Furniture and fixtures 3 years
Computers and related equipment
3 to 7 years
Major renewals and improvements are capitalized, while replacements, maintenance and repairs, which do not improve or extend the lives of the respective assets, are expensed as incurred. When property and equipment is retired or otherwise disposed of, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any gain or loss on the disposition is recorded in the consolidated statement of operations as a component of other income (expense).
Intangible Assets, Net
Intangible assets consist of developed technology and a non-compete agreement and are amortized over their estimated useful life which range from three to six years.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company reviews long-lived assets, including property and equipment and intangible assets with definite lives, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that an asset group’s carrying amount may not be recoverable. The Company conducts its long-lived asset impairment analysis in accordance with ASC 360-10, Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets, which requires the Company to group assets and liabilities at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities and evaluate the asset group against the sum of the undiscounted future cash flows. If the undiscounted cash flows do not indicate the carrying amount of the asset group is recoverable, an impairment charge is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds its fair value.
Revenue
The Company follows the five steps to recognize revenue from contracts with customers under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which are:
Step 1: Identify the contract(s) with a customer
Step 2: Identify the performance obligations in the contract
Step 3: Determine the transaction price
Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
Step 5: Recognize revenue when (or as) a performance obligation is satisfied
Revenue is comprised of sales of Hybrid eX Powertrains for long haul “Class 8” semi-trucks and specific other features and services that meet the definition of a performance obligation, including internet connectivity and data processing. We provide installation services for the Hybrid eX Powertrain onto the customers’ vehicle. The Company’s products are marketed and sold to end-user fleet customers in North America. When our contracts with customers contain multiple performance obligations and where material, the contract transaction price is allocated on a relative standalone selling price basis to each performance obligation. There is no meaningful basis on which to disaggregate revenue in the current year.
We recognize revenue on Hybrid eX Powertrain sales upon delivery and acceptance of the vehicle to the customer, which is when control transfers. Contracts are reviewed for significant financing components and payments are typically received within 30 days of delivery. We do not generally recognize credit losses due to the timing of customer payment shortly after delivery. The sale of a Hybrid eX Powertrain to an end-use fleet customer consists of a completed modification to the customer vehicle and the installation services involve significant integration of the Hybrid eX Powertrain with the customer’s vehicle. Installation services are not distinct within the context of the contract and together with the sale of the Hybrid eX Powertrain represents a single performance obligation. We do not offer any sales returns. Amounts billed to customers related to shipping and handling are classified as revenue, and we have elected to recognize the cost for freight and shipping when control has transferred to the customer as a cost of revenue. Our policy is to exclude taxes collected from a customer from the transaction price of contracts.
Leases
Lessee: We determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception of the contract. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, current portion of operating lease liabilities, and operating lease liabilities, net of current portion in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Finance leases are included in property and equipment, net, current portion of
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long-term debt, and long-term debt, net of current portion in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. We have lease agreements with lease and non-lease components, and have elected to utilize the practical expedient to account for lease and non-lease components together as a single combined lease component.
ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use underlying assets for the lease term, and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the leases. ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The discount rate used to calculate the present value for lease payments is the Company’s incremental borrowing rate, which is determined based on information available at lease commencement and is equal to the rate of interest that the Company would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term in an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. The Company uses the implicit rate when readily determinable.
The Company has entered into operating leases for corporate offices having initial lease terms of one to eight years. The Company has entered into finance leases primarily for vehicles and equipment, having initial terms of three years.
The Company’s real estate leases may include one or more options to renew, with the renewal extending the lease term for an additional one to five years. The exercise of lease renewal option is at the Company’s sole discretion. In general, the Company does not consider renewal options to be reasonably likely to be exercised, therefore renewal options are generally not recognized as part of the ROU assets and lease liabilities. Lease costs for lease payments are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term, unless there is a transfer of title or purchase option reasonably certain to be exercised. The Company does not record operating leases with an initial term of twelve months or less (“short-term leases”) in the consolidated balance sheets.
The Company’s vehicle and equipment leases may include transfer rights or options to purchase at the end of the lease that the Company is reasonably certain to exercise. Interest expense is recognized using the effective interest rate method, and the ROU asset is amortized over the useful life of the underlying asset.
Lessor: The Company also enters into arrangements whereby space within the real estate is subleased. At the lease commencement date these subleases are recognized as operating leases. Operating leases are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
The Company has entered into various trial and evaluation agreements that contain an operating lease component that is within the scope of ASC 842, Leases (“ASC 842”). These agreements also contain non-lease components related to certain stand-ready services where control transfers over time over the same period and based on the same pattern as the lease component. Because the Company has determined the lease component is the most predominant component of the arrangement and the timing and pattern of transfer for the lease and non-lease components associated with the lease component are the same, the Company has decided to elect the practical expedient not to separate the lease and non-lease component and accounts for the entire arrangement under ASC 842.
The trial and evaluation agreements contain only variable payments not based on an index or rate as a result of refund provisions within those contracts. The Company records accounts receivable when the Company meets the criteria within the trial and evaluation agreements to invoice the lessee. In accordance with ASC 842, the Company recognizes variable lease payments as profit or loss in the period in which the changes in facts and circumstances on which the variable lease payments are based occur, which will generally be the end of the trial period when the customer refund rights lapse. During the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, the Company did not recognize any lease income related to these trial and evaluation agreements either because the Company has not received any consideration from the lease contracts, or the uncertainty related to the consideration received has not been resolved.
Warranties
We provide limited assurance-type warranties under our contracts and do not offer extended warranties or maintenance contracts. The warranty period typically extends for the lesser of two years or 200,000 miles following transfer of control and solely relate to correction of product defects during the warranty period. We recognize the cost of the warranty upon transfer of control based on estimated and historical claims rates and fulfillment costs, which are variable. Should product failure rates and fulfillment costs differ from these estimates, material revisions to the estimated warranty liability would be required. Warranty expense is recorded as a component of cost of revenue.
Marketing, Promotional and Advertising Costs
Marketing, promotional and advertising costs are expensed as incurred and are included as an element of selling, general and administrative expense in the consolidated statement of operations. Marketing, promotional and advertising costs were $1.6 million, $0.3 million and nominal for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
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Research and Development Expense
Research and development costs did not meet the requirements to be recognized as an asset as the associated future benefits were at best uncertain and there was no alternative future use at the time the costs were incurred. Research and development costs include, but are not limited to, outsourced engineering services, allocated facilities costs, depreciation on equipment utilized in research and development activities, internal engineering and development expenses, materials, internally-developed software and employee related expenses (including salaries, benefits, travel, and share-based compensation) related to development of the Company’s products and services.
Share-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for share-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation, under which shared based payments that involve the issuance of common stock to employees and nonemployees and meet the criteria for equity-classified awards are recognized in the financial statements as share-based compensation expense based on the fair value on the date of grant. The Company issues stock option awards and restricted stock awards to employees and nonemployees, utilizing new shares. The Company has elected to recognize the adjustment to share-based compensation expense in the period in which forfeitures occur. We recognize compensation expense for awards with only service conditions on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award.
If factors change, and we utilize different assumptions including the probability of achieving performance conditions, share-based compensation cost on future award grants may differ significantly from share-based compensation cost recognized on past award grants. Future share-based compensation cost will increase to the extent that we grant additional share-based awards to employees and non-employees. If there are any modifications or cancellations of the underlying unvested securities, we may be required to accelerate any remaining unearned share-based compensation cost or incur incremental cost. Share-based compensation cost affects our research and development and selling, general and administrative expenses.
The Company utilized the Black-Scholes model to determine the fair value of the stock option awards issued prior to the year ended December 31, 2021, which required the input of subjective assumptions. These assumptions include estimating (a) the length of time grantees will retain their vested stock options before exercising them for employees and the contractual term of the option for nonemployees (“expected term”), (b) the volatility of the Company’s common stock price over the expected term, (c) expected dividends, and (d) the fair value of a share of common stock prior to the Business Combination. After the closing of the Business Combination, the Company’s board of directors determined the fair value of each share of common stock underlying stock-based awards based on the closing price of the Company’s common stock as reported by the NYSE on the date of grant.
The assumptions used in the Black-Scholes model are management’s best estimates, but the estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management judgment (see Note 9). As a result, if other assumptions had been used, the recorded share-based compensation expense could have been materially different from that depicted in the financial statements.
Income Taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes, under which deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities and net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
Due to the Company’s history of losses since inception, the net deferred tax assets have been fully offset by a valuation allowance at December 31, 2021 and 2020. Uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return are accounted for using the more likely than not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, there were no uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in the Company’s tax returns.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. The pronouncement is effective for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company adopted ASU 2019-12 on January 1, 2021 and there was no impact to the Company as a result of the adoption.
Net (Loss) Income Per Share
Basic (loss) income per share (“EPS”) is computed by dividing net loss (the numerator) by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period (the denominator). Diluted EPS attributable to common shareholders is computed by adjusting net loss by the weighted average number of common shares and potential common shares outstanding (if dilutive) during each period. Potential common shares include shares issuable upon exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock awards (see Note 9). The number of potential common shares outstanding are calculated using the treasury stock or if-converted method.
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Recent Accounting Pronouncements Issued
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses of Financial Instruments, which, together with subsequent amendments, amends the requirement on the measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held to replace the incurred loss model for financial assets measured at amortized cost and require entities to measure all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. We adopted ASU 2016-13 during the year ended December 31, 2021 and there was no material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Note 3. Reverse Recapitalization
On October 1, 2020, Legacy Hyliion and TortoiseCorp consummated the merger contemplated by the Business Combination, with Legacy Hyliion surviving the merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of TortoiseCorp.
Upon the closing of the Business Combination, TortoiseCorp’s certificate of incorporation was amended and restated to, among other things, increase the total number of authorized shares of capital stock to 260,000,000 shares, of which 250,000,000 shares were designated common stock, $.0001 par value per share, and of which 10,000,000 shares were designated preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share.
Immediately prior to the closing of the Business Combination, each
issued and outstanding share of Legacy Hyliion’s redeemable, convertible preferred stock, was converted into shares of Legacy Hyliion common stock based on a one-to-one ratio (see Note 8). The Business Combination was accounted for with a retrospective application of the Business Combination that results in 34,799,813 shares of redeemable, convertible preferred stock converting into the same number of shares of Legacy Hyliion common stock.
convertible note payable, plus accrued paid-in-kind interest, was converted into an aggregate 2,336,235 shares of Legacy Hyliion common stock at the predetermined discount (see Note 4).
Upon the consummation of the Business Combination, each share of Legacy Hyliion common stock issued and outstanding was cancelled and converted into the right to receive 1.45720232 shares (the “Exchange Ratio”) of the Company’s common stock (the “Per Share Merger Consideration”).
Additionally, Legacy Hyliion issued 1,000,000 shares of Legacy Hyliion common stock with an estimated grant date fair value of $10.00 per share to one of the convertible noteholders in connection with the commercial matters agreement (“Commercial Matters Agreement”) that was entered into in June 2020, that was not subject to the Exchange Ratio (see Note 4).
Outstanding stock options, whether vested or unvested, to purchase shares of Legacy Hyliion common stock granted under the 2016 Plan (“Legacy Options”) (see Note 9) converted into stock options for shares of the Company’s common stock upon the same terms and conditions that were in effect with respect to such stock options immediately prior to the Business Combination, after giving effect to the Exchange Ratio.
Outstanding warrants to purchase shares of TortoiseCorp Class A common stock remained outstanding at the Closing Date. The warrants became exercisable 30 days after the completion of the Business Combination and expired five years after the completion of the Business Combination or earlier upon redemption or liquidation. On November 30, 2020, the Company issued a notice of redemption to the warrant holders and on December 31, 2020, it redeemed all outstanding public warrants. See Note 8 for more information.
In connection with the Business Combination,
certain TortoiseCorp shareholders exercised their right to redeem certain of their outstanding shares for cash, resulting in the redemption of 3,308 shares of TortoiseCorp common stock for gross redemption payments of less than $0.1 million.
a number of investors purchased from the Company an aggregate of 30,750,000 shares of common stock (the “PIPE Shares”), for a purchase price of $10.00 per share and an aggregate purchase price of $307.5 million pursuant to separate subscription agreements entered into effective June 18, 2020 (the “PIPE”). The PIPE investment closed simultaneously with the consummation of the Business Combination.
an investor purchased 1,750,000 TortoiseCorp units (consisting of one share of common stock and one half of one warrant, the “Forward Purchase Units”), consisting of 1,750,000 shares of common stock (“Forward Purchase Shares”) and warrants to purchase 875,000 shares of common stock (“Forward Purchase Warrants”) for an aggregate purchase price of $17.5 million pursuant to a forward purchase agreement entered into effective February 6, 2019, as amended by the First Amendment to Amended and Restated Forward Purchase Agreement, dated June 18, 2020.
The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with GAAP. Under this method of accounting, TortoiseCorp was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. See Note 1 for further details.
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Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of Legacy Hyliion issuing stock for the net assets of TortoiseCorp, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of TortoiseCorp are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or intangible assets recorded.
Prior to the Business Combination, Legacy Hyliion and TortoiseCorp filed separate standalone federal, state and local income tax returns. As a result of the Business Combination Legacy Hyliion will file a consolidated income tax return. Although, for legal purposes, TortoiseCorp acquired Legacy Hyliion, and the transaction represents a reverse acquisition for federal income tax purposes. TortoiseCorp will be the parent of the consolidated group with Legacy Hyliion a subsidiary, but in the year of the closing of the Business Combination, Legacy Hyliion will file a full year tax return with TortoiseCorp joining in the return the day after the Closing Date.
The following table reconciles the elements of the Business Combination to the consolidated statements of cash flows and the consolidated statements of changes in stockholders’ equity as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020:
Cash - TortoiseCorp’s trust and cash (net of redemption) $ 236,484 
Cash - PIPE 307,500 
Cash - forward purchase units 17,500 
Less: transaction costs and advisory fees paid (45,030)
Net Business Combination and PIPE financing $ 516,454 
The number of shares of common stock issued immediately following the consummation of the Business Combination were:
Common stock, outstanding prior to Business Combination 23,300,917 
Less: redemption of TortoiseCorp shares (3,308)
Common stock of TortoiseCorp 23,297,609 
TortoiseCorp founder shares 5,825,230 
Shares issued in PIPE 30,750,000 
Shares issued in connection with forward purchase agreement 1,750,000 
Business Combination, PIPE, and forward purchase agreement financing shares 61,622,839 
Legacy Hyliion shares(1)
92,278,990 
Total shares of common stock immediately after Business Combination 153,901,829 
Hyliion Holdings Corp. exercise of warrants 15,414,592 
Total shares of common stock at December 31, 2020 169,316,421 
(1)The number of Legacy Hyliion shares was determined as follows:
Legacy Hyliion
shares
Legacy Hyliion
shares,
effected for
Exchange
Ratio
Balance at December 31, 2018 24,453,750  35,634,061 
Recapitalization applied to Series A outstanding at December 31, 2018 34,799,813  50,710,369 
Exercise of common stock options - 2019 286,874  418,033 
Exercise of common stock options - 2020 (pre-Closing) 763,216  1,112,160 
Conversion of convertible notes payable to common stock(2)
2,336,235  4,404,367 
92,278,990 
(2)The number of shares issued for the conversion of convertible notes payable to common stock is calculated by applying the Exchange Ratio to the Legacy Hyliion shares issued at the time of conversion and adding 1,000,000 shares issued in connection with the Commercial Matters Agreement. All fractions were rounded down.
Lock-Up Arrangements
Certain former stockholders of Legacy Hyliion and TortoiseCorp have agreed to lock-up restrictions regarding the future transfer shares of common stock. Such shares were not able to be transferred or otherwise disposed of for a period of six months through April 1, 2021, subject to certain exceptions.
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Transaction costs
Transaction costs incurred in connection with the Business Combination totaled approximately $45.0 million which were charged to additional paid-in capital for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Note 4. Debt
The carrying value of debt at December 31, 2021 and 2020, is summarized as follows:
December 31,
2021 2020
Paycheck Protection Program loan $ —  $ 908 
Finance lease obligations —  49 
—  957 
Less current portion —  (49)
Debt, net of current portion $ —  $ 908 
During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company issued a convertible note payable in exchange for cash totaling $5.0 million (the “2018 Note”). The 2018 Note bore interest at 6% per annum and matured in September 2020 (two years subsequent to its issuance date). The 2018 Note included the following embedded features:
(a)Automatic conversion upon the next equity financing of at least $5.0 million in proceeds. The conversion price was dependent upon the pre-money valuation of the Company in connection with the next equity financing, with the conversion price set at a 35% discount on the next equity financing price if the pre-money valuation was $100.0 million or less, or 35% multiplied by the quotient of $100.0 million divided by the pre-money valuation if it was greater than $100.0 million.
(b)Optional conversion upon a change in control. In the event of a change in control, the holder could elect to convert the 2018 Note into shares of common stock at a conversion price equal to (i) the product of the change in control purchase price multiplied by 65%, divided by (ii) the total number of outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company (on a fully-diluted basis).
(c)Optional redemption upon a change in control. In the event of a change in control, the holder could elect to request payment of all outstanding principal (with no penalty) and unpaid accrued interest.
(d)Automatic or optional redemption upon an event of default. Upon the occurrence of an event of default, the 2018 Note would either automatically become due and payable or could become due and payable at the holder’s option (based on the nature of the event of default). Upon such acceleration, all outstanding principal (with no penalty) and unpaid accrued interest would become payable.
(e)Additional interest of 3% (or a total of 9%) upon an event of default.
In addition to the above embedded features, the Company agreed that the holder of the 2018 Note would be the Company’s preferred supplier for certain components or products that the holder sells. See Note 16 for further details on this agreement.
The Company assessed the embedded features within the 2018 Note and determined that the automatic conversion feature upon next equity financing and optional conversion feature upon change in control (share-settled redemption features) and the additional interest feature met the definition of a derivative and were not clearly and closely related to the host contract and required separate accounting.
At issuance, the Company estimated the fair value of the automatic and optional conversion features to be approximately $1.8 million. At issuance, the Company concluded the fair value of the additional interest feature was de minimis.
Between February and July 2019, the Company issued a series of convertible notes payable in exchange for cash totaling $13.6 million (the “Initial 2019 Notes”). The Initial 2019 Notes bored interest at 6% per annum and matured two to five years after their respective issuance dates. The Initial 2019 Notes were only prepayable with the consent of the holders. One of the Initial 2019 Notes (totaling $1.8 million) was secured by substantially all of the assets of the Company, subordinate to the first priority, senior secured interest held by a note holder of a convertible note issued in January 2020. The holder of this note had first priority secured interest in these assets.
The Initial 2019 Notes included the following embedded features:
(a)Automatic or optional (for one of the Initial 2019 Notes) conversion upon the next equity financing of at least $15.0 million in proceeds (the “Next Equity Financing”). The conversion price was dependent upon the pre-money valuation of the Company in connection with the next equity financing, with the conversion price set at a 25% discount on the next equity
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financing price if the pre-money valuation was $100.0 million or less, or 25% multiplied by the quotient of $100.0 million divided by the pre-money valuation if it was greater than $100.0 million.
(b)Optional conversion (for one of the Initial 2019 Notes) upon a subsequent equity financing if the holder did not elect to convert upon the Next Equity Financing, at the price that was set by the subsequent equity financing (no discount).
(c)Optional conversion upon a change in control. In the event of a change in control, the holder could elect to convert the Initial 2019 Notes into shares of common stock at a conversion price equal to (i) the product of the change in control purchase price multiplied by 75%, divided by (ii) the total number of outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company (on a fully-diluted basis).
(d)Optional redemption upon a change in control. In the event of a change in control, the holder could elect to request payment of all outstanding principal (with no penalty) and unpaid accrued interest.
(e)Automatic or optional redemption upon an event of default. Upon the occurrence of an event of default, the Initial 2019 Notes would either automatically become due and payable or could become due and payable at the holder’s option (based on the nature of the event of default). Upon such acceleration, all outstanding principal (with no penalty) and unpaid accrued interest would become payable.
(f)Additional interest of 3% (or a total of 9%) upon an event of default.
In addition, the Company had the right to modify one of the Initial 2019 Notes (totaling $1.8 million) in the event the holder did not convert upon next equity financing to adjust the interest rate to 4% per annum.
The Company assessed the embedded features within the Initial 2019 Notes and determined that the automatic or optional conversion feature upon next equity financing and the optional conversion feature upon change in control (share-settled redemption features), the additional interest feature and the interest rate adjustment feature met the definition of a derivative and were not clearly and closely related to the host contract and required separate accounting.
At issuance, the Company estimated the fair value of the automatic and optional conversion features to be approximately $6.0 million. At issuance, the Company concluded the fair value of the additional interest feature and the interest rate adjustment feature was de minimis.
In December 2019, the Company issued a convertible note payable in exchange for cash totaling $3.2 million (the “December 2019 Note”). The December 2019 Note bore interest at 6% per annum and matured in December 2020 (one year subsequent to its issuance date). The December 2019 Note was only prepayable with the consent of the holder. The December 2019 Note was secured by substantially all of the assets of the Company, subordinate to the security interest held by one of the Initial 2019 Note holders. The December 2019 Note included the following embedded features:
(a)Automatic conversion upon the next equity financing of at least $35.0 million in proceeds. The conversion price would be based on the next equity financing per share price, with a 50% discount.
(b)Optional conversion upon the next equity financing of at least $15.0 million in proceeds. The conversion price would be based on the next equity financing per share price, with a 50% discount.
(c)Automatic conversion upon a subsequent equity financing of at least $35.0 million if the holder did not elect to convert upon any previous equity financing, at the price that was set by the subsequent equity financing (no discount).
(d)Optional conversion upon a change in control. In the event of a change in control, the holder could elect to convert the December 2019 Note into shares of common stock at a conversion price equal to (i) the product of the change in control purchase price multiplied by 50%, divided by (ii) the total number of outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company (on a fully-diluted basis).
(e)Optional redemption upon a change in control. In the event of a change in control, the holder could elect to request payment of all outstanding principal (with no penalty) and unpaid accrued interest.
(f)Automatic or optional redemption upon an event of default. Upon the occurrence of an event of default, the December 2019 Note would either automatically become due and payable or could become due and payable at the holder’s option (based on the nature of the event of default). Upon such acceleration, all outstanding principal (with no penalty) and unpaid accrued interest would become payable.
(g)Additional interest of 3% (or a total of 9%) upon an event of default.
In addition, in the event the holder did not convert upon an equity financing, the maturity date of the December 2019 Note would automatically extend by one year. In such situation, the holder also had the right to extend the maturity date for an additional two years beyond the modified maturity date.
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The Company assessed the embedded features within the December 2019 Note and determined that the automatic and optional conversion features upon next equity financing (share-settled redemption features), the additional interest feature and the term extension feature met the definition of a derivative and were not clearly and closely related to the host contract and required separate accounting. The Company also concluded that the conversion features did not represent beneficial conversion features.
At issuance and at December 2019, the Company estimated the fair value of the automatic and optional conversion features to be approximately $1.4 million. At issuance, the Company concluded the fair value of the additional interest and term extension features was de minimis.
During January 2020, the Company issued a convertible note payable in exchange for cash totaling $3.2 million (the “January 2020 Note”). The January 2020 Note bore interest at 6% per annum and matured in January 2025 (five years subsequent to its issuance date). The January 2020 Note was only prepayable with the consent of the holder. The January 2020 Note was secured by a first priority, senior secured interest in substantially all of the assets of the Company. The January 2020 Note included the following embedded features:
(a)Optional conversion upon the next equity financing of at least $15.0 million in proceeds. The conversion price would be based on the next equity financing per share price, with a 50% discount.
(b)Optional conversion upon a subsequent equity financing of at least $15.0 million if the holder did not elect to convert upon the next equity financing, at the price that was set by the subsequent equity financing (no discount).
(c)Optional conversion upon a change in control. In the event of a change in control, the holder could elect to convert the January 2020 Note into shares of common stock at a conversion price equal to (i) the product of the change in control purchase price multiplied by 50%, divided by (ii) the total number of outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company (on a fully-diluted basis).
(d)Optional redemption upon a change in control. In the event of a change in control, the holder could elect to request payment of all outstanding principal (with no penalty) and unpaid accrued interest.
(e)Optional redemption upon the Company obtaining at least $10.0 million in commercial debt which would result in the January 2020 Note having the same priority or being treated as subordinate to the commercial debt. In such scenario, the holder could elect to request payment of all outstanding principal (with no penalty) and unpaid accrued interest.
(f)Automatic or optional redemption upon an event of default. Upon the occurrence of an event of default, the January 2020 Note would either automatically become due and payable or could become due and payable at the holder’s option (based on the nature of the event of default). Upon such acceleration, all outstanding principal (with no penalty) and unpaid accrued interest would become payable.
(g)Additional interest of 3% (or a total of 9%) upon an event of default.
In addition, in the event the holder did not convert upon an equity financing or change in control event, the noteholder could extend the maturity date of the January 2020 Note by five years beyond the original maturity date.
In addition, in the event the holder does not convert upon an equity financing, the interest rate on the January 2020 Note would automatically be adjusted to a rate of 4% per annum.
The Company assessed the embedded features within the January 2020 Note and determined that the automatic and optional conversion features upon next equity financing (share-settled redemption features), the additional interest feature and the term extension feature met the definition of a derivative and were not clearly and closely related to the host contract and required separate accounting. The Company also concluded that the conversion features did not represent beneficial conversion features.
At issuance, the Company estimated the fair value of the automatic and optional conversion features to be approximately $2.7 million. At issuance, the Company has concluded the fair value of the additional interest and term extension features was de minimis.
The terms of the convertible notes payable included certain restrictive covenants related to the Company’s ability to enter into certain transactions or agreements, pay dividends, or take other similar corporate actions.
During June 2020, the holders of the convertible notes executed amendments (the “Note Amendments”) to their respective convertible notes clarifying the planned Business Combination would qualify as a next financing, as defined in the respective convertible notes. The convertible notes would either automatically convert or convert at the holder’s option (the election of which was evidenced by entering into the Note Amendments) in connection with such next financing (in this case the Business Combination). The convertible notes would convert into shares of common stock at a conversion price equal to (i) the valuation of the Company established in connection with such next financing, divided by (ii) the total number of shares of capital stock of the Company (on a fully diluted and as-converted basis), as established in the original respective convertible notes. This conversion price would then be discounted based on the negotiated conversion discounts that were established in the
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noteholders’ original convertible notes. The amended terms of the Note Amendments were determined to be clarifications of the existing terms and did not result in substantially different terms. Accordingly, the Note Amendments were accounted for as modifications.
In connection with the reverse recapitalization discussed in Note 3, immediately prior to the closing of the Business Combination, the convertible notes, plus accrued paid-in-kind interest, totaling $26.8 million were converted into an aggregate of 2,336,235 shares of Legacy Hyliion common stock, which were then exchanged for an aggregate of 3,404,367 shares of the Company’s common stock on the Closing Date. In addition, the Company issued 1,000,000 shares of Legacy Hyliion common stock to a noteholder of the 2018 Note, Initial 2019 Notes, and January 2020 Note, with a grant date fair value of $10.00 per share in accordance with the Commercial Matters Agreement.
In connection with this conversion of the convertible notes, the Company recorded a loss on extinguishment of $10.2 million included within other income (expense) on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Term Loan
During August 2020, the Company issued a term loan (the “Term Loan”) with a principal balance totaling $10.1 million that matured on the earlier of (i) December 15, 2020, (ii) the termination of the Business Combination or, (iii) the consummation of the Business Combination as provided in the Business Combination. In connection with the Term Loan, the Company paid $0.5 million of financing costs. The Term Loan bore interest at a rate equal to 6.5% plus the greater of (a) the Federal Funds rate plus 0.5%, (b) LIBOR Rate for a one-month interest period plus 1.0%, and (c) Prime Rate in effect on such day. While outstanding in 2020, the Term Loan bore interest at 8.5% per annum. The Term Loan plus accrued interest was repaid in full in October 2020.
Payroll Protection Program Loan
During May 2020, the Company received loan proceeds in the amount of $0.9 million under the Payroll Protection Program (the “PPP”). The PPP was established as part of Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act and provides for loans to qualifying businesses for amounts up to 2.5 times the average monthly payroll expenses of the business, subject to certain limitations. The loans and accrued interest were forgivable after eight weeks so long as the borrower used the loan proceeds for eligible purposes, including payroll, benefits, rent and utilities, and so long as the borrower maintained its pre-funding employment and wage levels. Although the Company used the PPP loan proceeds for purposes consistent with the provisions of the PPP and such usage met the criteria established for forgiveness of the loan, the Company repaid the balance of the PPP loan plus accrued interest during the three months ended March 31, 2021.
Finance Lease Obligations
The Company’s debt arising from finance lease obligations primarily relates to vehicles and equipment. See Note 10 for future maturities of finance lease obligations.
Note 5. Investments
The amortized cost, unrealized gains and losses, and fair value, and maturities of our held-to-maturity investments at December 31, 2021 and 2020 are summarized as follows:
Fair Value Measurements as of
December 31, 2021
Amortized Cost Gross Unrealized
Gains
Gross Unrealized
Losses
Fair Value
Commercial paper $ 73,908  $ $ (31) $ 73,879 
U.S. government agency bonds 4,450  —  (7) 4,443 
State and municipal bonds 17,797  —  (115) 17,682 
Corporate bonds and notes 202,849  (953) 201,899 
Total held-to-maturity investments $ 299,004  $ $ (1,106) $ 297,903 
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Fair Value Measurements as of
December 31, 2020
Amortized Cost Gross Unrealized
Gains
Gross Unrealized
Losses
Fair Value
U.S. treasury bills $ 149,996  $ —  $ (1) $ 149,995 
Commercial paper 37,963  —  (15) 37,948 
Corporate bonds and notes 49,892  —  (63) 49,829 
Total held-to-maturity investments $ 237,851  $ —  $ (79) $ 237,772 
December 31, 2021 December 31, 2020
Amortized Cost Fair Value Amortized Cost Fair Value
Due in one year or less $ 118,787  $ 118,714  $ 201,881  $ 201,864 
Due after one year through five years 180,217  179,189  35,970  35,908 
Total held-to-maturity securities $ 299,004  $ 297,903  $ 237,851  $ 237,772 
Note 6. Fair Value Measurements
The fair value measurements of the Company's assets at December 31, 2021 and 2020 are summarized as follows:
Fair Value Measurements as of December 31, 2021
Level I Level II Level III Total
Cash and cash equivalents $ 258,445  $ —  $ —  $ 258,445 
Restricted cash 665  —  —  665 
Held-to-maturity investments:
Commercial paper —  73,879  —  73,879 
U.S. government agency bonds —  4,443  —  4,443 
State and municipal bonds —  17,682  —  17,682 
Corporate bonds and notes —  201,899  —  201,899 
Total assets $ 259,110  $ 297,903  $ —  $ 557,013 
Fair Value Measurements as of December 31, 2020
Level I Level II Level III Total
Cash and cash equivalents $ 389,705  $ —  $ —  $ 389,705 
Held-to-maturity investments:
U.S. treasury bills —  149,995  —  149,995 
Commercial paper —  37,948  —  37,948 
Corporate bonds and notes —  49,829  —  49,829 
Total assets $ 389,705  $ 237,772  $ —  $ 627,477 
The rollforward of the Company’s Level 3 instruments at December 31, 2020 is summarized as follows*:
Balance at December 31, 2019 $ 8,351 
Issuance of convertible note payable derivative liability 2,656 
Fair value adjustments 1,358 
Settlement of convertible notes payable derivative liabilities (12,365)
Balance at December 31, 2020 $ — 
* There were no Level 3 instruments outstanding during the year ended December 31, 2021.
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Note 7. Inventory
The carrying value of our inventory at December 31, 2021 and 2020 is summarized as follows:
December 31,
2021 2020
Raw materials $ —  $ 132 
Work in process — 
Finished goods 110  — 
Total $ 114  $ 132 
We write-down inventory for any excess or obsolete inventories or when we believe that the net realizable value of inventories is less than the carrying value. During the year ended December 31, 2021, we recorded write-downs of $2.3 million, included in cost of revenues. During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we were in a research and development phase, and did not record substantial inventory amounts or cost of sales and related adjustments.
Note 8. Capital Structure
As discussed in Note 1 and Note 3, on October 1, 2020, the Company consummated the Business Combination, which has been accounted for as a reverse recapitalization. Pursuant to the Certificate of Incorporation as amended on October 1, 2020 and as a result of the reverse recapitalization, the Company has retrospectively adjusted the Legacy Hyliion preferred shares and Legacy Hyliion common shares issued and outstanding prior to October 1, 2020 to give effect to the Exchange Ratio used to determine the number of shares of common stock of the combined entity into which they were converted.
Preferred Stock
The Company is authorized to issue 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock with a par value of $0.0001 per share. The Company’s board of directors is authorized to fix the voting rights, if any, designations, powers, preferences, the relative, participating, option or other special rights and any qualifications, limitations and restrictions thereof, applicable to the shares of each series. At December 31, 2021 and 2020, there were no shares of preferred stock issued and outstanding.
Common Stock
At December 31, 2021, the following shares of common stock were reserved for future issuance:
Stock options issued and outstanding 3,157,889 
Authorized for future grant under 2020 Equity Incentive Plan 8,572,929 
11,730,818 
Warrants
Public Warrants: On March 4, 2019, TortoiseCorp completed an initial public offering that included warrants for shares of common stock (the “Public Warrants”). Each Public Warrant entitled the holder to the right to purchase one share of common stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share. No fractional shares were issued upon exercise of the Public Warrants. The Company could elect to redeem the Public Warrants, in whole and not in part, at a price of $0.01 per Public Warrant if (i) 30 days’ prior written notice of redemption is provided to the holders, and (ii) the last reported sale price of the Company’s common stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30-trading day period ending on the third business day prior to the date on which the Company sends the notice of redemption to the warrant holders. Upon issuance of a redemption notice by the Company, the warrant holders had a period of 30 days to exercise for cash, or on a cashless basis. On the Closing Date, there were 11,650,458 Public Warrants issued and outstanding.
Private Placement Warrants: Simultaneous with TortoiseCorp’s initial public offering in March 2019, Tortoise Borrower purchased warrants at a purchase price of $1.00 per warrant in a private placement (the “Private Placement Warrants”). The Private Placement Warrants could not be redeemed by the Company so long as the Private Placement Warrants are held by the initial purchasers, or such purchasers’ permitted transferees. The Private Placement Warrants had terms and provisions identical to those of the Public Warrants, including as to exercise price, exercisability and exercise period, except if the Private Placement Warrants were held by someone other than the initial purchasers’ permitted transferees, then the Private Placement Warrants were redeemable by the Company and exercisable by such holders on the same basis as the Public Warrants. On the Closing Date, there were 6,660,183 Private Warrants issued and outstanding.
Forward Purchase Warrants: Simultaneous with the consummation of the Business Combination in October 2020, 875,000 Forward Purchase Warrants to purchase shares of common stock were issued in connection with the forward purchase
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agreement (See Note 3). The Forward Purchase Warrants had terms and provisions identical to those of the Public Warrants, including as to exercise price, exercisability and exercise period, except that the Forward Purchase Warrants are subject to transfer restrictions and certain registration rights.
On November 30, 2020, the Company issued a notice of redemption of all its outstanding Public Warrants and Forward Purchase Warrants which was completed in December 2020. However, the Private Warrants held by the initial holders thereof or permitted transferees of the initial holders were not subject to this redemption. As of December 31, 2020, all outstanding Public Warrants and Forward Purchase Warrants were either exercised or redeemed by the holder. As of December 31, 2020, the Company’s transfer agent received gross proceeds of $140.8 million corresponding to the exercise of 15,786,127 warrants. However, due to the timing of the receipt of the warrant exercise and the cash, the Company’s transfer agent issued 15,414,592 shares of common stock as of December 31, 2020. The remaining 371,535 shares of common stock were issued in January 2021. Additionally, as of December 31, 2020, the Company’s transfer agent had not yet remitted $12.0 million of the gross proceeds associated with the shares of issued common stock to the Company and is included within prepaid expenses and other current assets on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2020. There were 281,065 warrants not exercised by the end of the redemption period that were redeemed for a price of $0.01 per warrant, and subsequently cancelled by the Company. The Company made the redemption payment on these cancelled warrants in January 2021. Certain holders of the warrants elected a cashless exercise, resulting in the forfeiture of 3,118,445 shares.
Note 9. Share-Based Compensation
2016 Equity Incentive Plan
For periods prior to the reverse recapitalization (See Note 3), the Hyliion Inc. 2016 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2016 Plan”), as amended in August 2017 and approved by the board of directors (the “Board”), permitted the granting of various awards including stock options (including both nonqualified options and incentive options), stock appreciation rights (“SARs”), stock awards, phantom stock units, performance awards and other share-based awards to employees, outside directors and consultants and advisors of the Company. Only stock options have been awarded to employees, consultants and advisors under the 2016 Plan.
Legacy Options converted into an option to purchase a number of shares of common stock equal to the product of the number of shares of Legacy Hyliion common stock and the Exchange Ratio at an exercise price per share equal to the exercise price of the Legacy Option divided by the Exchange Ratio. Each exchanged option is governed by the same terms and conditions applicable to the Legacy Option prior to the Business Combination. No further grants can be made under the 2016 Plan.
The option exercise price for all grantees equals the stock’s estimated fair value on the date of the grant, after giving effect to the Exchange Ratio. The Board determined the fair value of common stock at the time of grant by considering a number of objective and subjective factors, including independent third-party valuations of the Company’s common stock, operating and financial performance, the lack of liquidity of capital stock, and general and industry-specific economic outlook, amongst other factors. The Company believes the fair value of the stock options granted to nonemployees was more readily determinable than the fair value of the services received.
The fair value of each option is estimated on the date of the grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model in order to measure the compensation cost associated with the award. This model incorporates certain assumptions for inputs including an expected volatility in the market value of the underlying common stock, expected term, a risk-free interest rate, and the expected dividend yield of the underlying common stock. The following assumptions were used for options issued in the following periods*:
Year Ended December 31,
2020 2019
Expected volatility 70.0% 70.0%
Expected term 6.1 years
6.1 - 10 years
Risk-free interest rate 1.7%
1.4 - 3%
Expected dividend yield 0.0% 0.0%
* There were no options issued during the year ended December 31, 2021.
Expected volatility: The expected volatility was determined by examining the historical volatility of a group of industry peers, as the Company did not have any trading history for the Company’s common stock.
Expected term: For employees, the expected term is determined using the “simplified” method, as prescribed by the SEC’s Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107, Share-Based Payment, to estimate on a formula basis the expected term of the Company’s employee stock options which are considered to have “plain vanilla” characteristics. For nonemployees, the expected term represents the contractual term of the option.
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Risk-free interest rate: The risk-free interest rate was based upon quoted market yields for the United States Treasury instruments with terms that were consistent with the expected term of the Company’s stock options.
Expected dividend yield: The expected dividend yield was based on the Company’s history and management’s current expectation regarding future dividends.
Employee and nonemployee stock options generally vest over four years, with a maximum term of ten years from the date of grant. These awards become available to the recipient upon the satisfaction of a vesting condition based on a period of service.
Activity in the 2016 Plan for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 is summarized as follows:
Number of Options Weighted Average
Exercise Price (in Dollars)
Weighted Average
Remaining
Contractual Term
Outstanding at December 31, 2018 5,508,031  $ 0.11  8.7 years
Granted 3,213,131  $ 0.16 
Exercised (418,033) $ 0.14 
Forfeited (1,715,847) $ 0.13 
Outstanding at December 31, 2019 6,587,282  $ 0.13  8.2 years
Granted 2,797,828  $ 0.23 
Exercised (1,112,960) $ 0.11 
Forfeited (1,289,653) $ 0.19 
Outstanding at December 31, 2020 6,982,497  $ 0.16  7.8 years
Exercised (3,558,201) $ 0.17 
Forfeited (266,407) $ 0.18 
Outstanding at December 31, 2021 3,157,889  $ 0.16  6.6 years
Exercisable at December 31, 2021 1,793,912  $ 0.12  5.8 years
At December 31, 2021, the options outstanding and exercisable had an intrinsic value of $19.1 million and $10.9 million, respectively. There were no options with an exercise price greater than the market price on December 31, 2021 to exclude from the intrinsic value computation. The intrinsic value of options exercised during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 was $42.8 million, $18.4 million and $0.1 million, respectively.
Share-based compensation expense under the 2016 Plan for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 was $0.1 million, $0.3 million and $0.1 million, respectively. There was $0.2 million of unrecognized compensation expense related the 2016 Plan at December 31, 2021 which is expected to be recognized over the remaining vesting periods, with a weighted-average period of 1.8 years.
2020 Equity Incentive Plan
On October 1, 2020, the Company’s shareholders approved a new long-term incentive award plan (the “2020 Plan”) in connection with the Business Combination. The 2020 Plan is administered by the Board and the compensation committee. The selection of participants, allotment of shares, determination of price and other conditions are approved by the Board and the compensation committee at its sole discretion in order to attract and retain personnel instrumental to the success of the Company. Under the 2020 Plan, the Company may grant an aggregate of 12,200,000 shares of common stock in the form of nonstatutory stock options, incentive stock options, SARs, restricted stock awards, performance awards and other awards. No awards were granted under the 2020 Plan prior to the year ended December 31, 2021, and no stock options have been granted under the 2020 Plan.
Employee and nonemployee RSUs for which a grant date has been established generally vest over three to four years from the date of grant. These awards become available to the recipient upon the satisfaction of a vesting condition based on a period of service, and performance conditions for certain awards.
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Activity in the 2020 Plan for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 is summarized as follows:
Number of Units Weighted Average Grant Date Fair Value (in Dollars)
Nonvested at December 31, 2020 —  $ — 
Granted1
1,858,236  $ 11.24 
Vested (176,449) $ 12.64 
Forfeited2
(124,993) $ 12.09 
Nonvested at December 31, 20213
1,556,794  $ 11.01 
1 Excludes 1,985,914 shares issued where no accounting grant date has been established.
2 Excludes 75,000 shares issued and forfeited where no accounting grant date has been established.
3 Excludes 1,910,914 shares issued and nonvested where no accounting grant date has been established.
Share-based compensation expense under the 2020 Plan for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 was $4.8 million, nil and nil, respectively. The fair value of RSUs that vested during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 was $1.6 million, nil, and nil, respectively. There was $10.7 million of unrecognized compensation expense related to the 2020 Plan at December 31, 2021 which is expected to be recognized over the remaining vesting periods, subject to forfeitures, with a weighted-average period of 2.6 years.
Note 10. Leases
The Company enters into operating and finance leases for its corporate office, temporary office, vehicles and equipment. In addition, the Company enters into arrangements whereby portions of the leased premises are subleased to third parties and are classified as operating leases. In December 2021, the Company amended the lease for its corporate office. This amendment increased the amount of space under the original lease, adjusted the monthly lease payments, and decreased the term of the lease through 2027. The Company accounted for this extension as a lease modification and recorded a decrease to the operating lease ROU asset and lease liability. The lease amendment includes the option to extend the term for up to two consecutive terms of five years, which is not reasonably certain to be exercised at the modification date.
The following table provides a summary of the components of lease income, costs and rent, which are included within research and development and selling, general and administrative expense:
Year Ended December 31,
2021 2020 2019
Operating lease costs:
Operating lease cost $ 1,386  $ 1,389  $ 1,908 
Short-term lease cost 456  42 
Variable lease cost 469  (14) (140)
Sublessor income (38)