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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
_________________________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
_________________________________________________________
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number: 001-36089
_________________________________________________________
RingCentral, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
_________________________________________________________
Delaware 94-3322844
(State or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
20 Davis Drive
Belmont, California 94002
(Address of principal executive offices)
(650) 472-4100
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock RNG New York Stock Exchange
par value $0.0001
_________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer x Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
   
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No   x
As of April 30, 2021, there were 80,750,752 shares of Class A Common Stock issued and outstanding and 10,122,258 shares of Class B Common Stock issued and outstanding.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Item 1.
5
5
6
7
8
9
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
2

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in, but not limited to, the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts and can be identified by terms such as “anticipates”, “believes”, “could”, “seeks”, “estimates”, “expects”, “intends”, “may”, “plans”, “potential”, “predicts”, “projects”, “should”, “will”, “would” or similar expressions and the negatives of those terms. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:
our progress against short-term and long-term goals;
our future financial performance;
our anticipated growth, growth strategies and our ability to effectively manage that growth and effect these strategies;
the impact of the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic, any associated economic downturn, and related actions by individuals, governments and private industry on our business, future operating and financial performance, and markets;
our success in the enterprise market;
anticipated trends, developments and challenges in our business and in the markets in which we operate, as well as general macroeconomic conditions;
our ability to scale to our desired goals, particularly the implementation of new processes and systems and the addition to our workforce;
the impact of competition in our industry and innovation by our competitors;
our ability to anticipate and adapt to future changes in our industry;
our ability to predict subscriptions revenues, formulate accurate financial projections, and make strategic business decisions based on our analysis of market trends;
our ability to anticipate market needs and develop new and enhanced solutions and subscriptions to meet those needs, and our ability to successfully monetize them;
maintaining and expanding our customer base;
maintaining, expanding and responding to changes in our relationships with other companies;
maintaining and expanding our distribution channels, including our network of sales agents and resellers, and our strategic partnerships;
our success with our carrier partners;
our ability to sell, market, and support our solutions and services;
our ability to expand our business to larger customers as well as expanding domestically and internationally;
our ability to realize increased purchasing leverage and economies of scale as we expand;
the impact of seasonality on our business;
the impact of any failure of our solutions or solution innovations;
our reliance on our third-party product and service providers;
the potential effect on our business of litigation to which we may become a party;
our liquidity and working capital requirements;
the impact of changes in the regulatory environment;
3

our ability to protect our intellectual property and rely on open source licenses;
our expectations regarding the growth and reliability of the internet infrastructure;
the timing of acquisitions of, or making and exiting investments in, other entities, businesses or technologies;
our ability to successfully and timely execute on, integrate, and realize the benefits of any acquisition, investment, strategic partnership, or other strategic transaction we may make or undertake;
our capital expenditure projections;
the estimates and estimate methodologies used in preparing our condensed consolidated financial statements;
the political environment and stability in the regions in which we or our subcontractors operate;
the impact of economic downturns on us and our customers;
our ability to defend our systems and our customer information from fraud and cyber-attack;
our ability to prevent the use of fraudulent payment methods for our solutions;
our ability to retain key employees and to attract qualified personnel; and
the impact of foreign currencies on our non-U.S. business as we expand our business internationally.
Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be significantly different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. We discuss these risks in greater detail in the section entitled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Also, forward-looking statements represent our management’s beliefs and assumptions only as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. You should read this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be significantly different from what we expect.
Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to update the reasons actual results could differ significantly from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future.
4

PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
RINGCENTRAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited, in thousands)
March 31,
2021
December 31,
2020
Assets    
Current assets    
Cash and cash equivalents $ 463,067  $ 639,853 
Accounts receivable, net 166,852  176,034 
Deferred and prepaid sales commission costs 73,578  63,726 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets 40,206  46,516 
Total current assets 743,703  926,129 
Property and equipment, net 145,598  142,208 
Operating lease right-of-use assets 48,938  51,115 
Long-term investments 270,697  213,176 
Deferred and prepaid sales commission costs, non-current 680,988  667,779 
Goodwill 56,295  57,313 
Acquired intangibles, net 115,040  118,313 
Other assets 8,453  8,564 
Total assets $ 2,069,712  $ 2,184,597 
Liabilities, Temporary Equity, and Stockholders' Equity
Current liabilities
Accounts payable $ 44,719  $ 54,043 
Accrued liabilities 216,343  210,654 
Current portion of convertible senior notes, net 37,051  31,148 
Deferred revenue 146,245  142,223 
Total current liabilities 444,358  438,068 
Convertible senior notes, net 1,350,792  1,375,320 
Operating lease liabilities 36,070  38,722 
Other long-term liabilities 21,299  20,241 
Total liabilities 1,852,519  1,872,351 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 8)
Temporary equity (Note 6) 4,125  3,787 
Stockholders' equity
Common stock
Additional paid-in capital 582,157  673,950 
Accumulated other comprehensive income 3,394  6,806 
Accumulated deficit (372,492) (372,306)
Total stockholders' equity 213,068  308,459 
Total liabilities, temporary equity and stockholders’ equity $ 2,069,712  $ 2,184,597 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements
5

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(Unaudited, in thousands, except per share data)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2021 2020
Revenues    
Subscriptions $ 325,223  $ 243,104 
Other 27,133  24,408 
Total revenues 352,356  267,512 
Cost of revenues
Subscriptions 73,247  52,433 
Other 23,734  21,011 
Total cost of revenues 96,981  73,444 
Gross profit 255,375  194,068 
Operating expenses
Research and development 62,676  40,910 
Sales and marketing 179,249  131,312 
General and administrative 55,461  47,336 
Total operating expenses 297,386  219,558 
Loss from operations (42,011) (25,490)
Other income (expense), net
Interest expense (16,278) (7,502)
Other income (expense) 58,543  (27,517)
Other income (expense), net 42,265  (35,019)
Gain (loss) before income taxes 254  (60,509)
Provision for income taxes 440  212 
Net loss $ (186) $ (60,721)
Net loss per common share
Basic and diluted $ —  $ (0.70)
Weighted-average number of shares used in computing net loss per share
Basic and diluted 90,634  87,339 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements
6

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(Unaudited, in thousands)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2021 2020
Net loss $ (186) $ (60,721)
Other comprehensive income (loss)
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net (3,412) (1,617)
Comprehensive loss $ (3,598) $ (62,338)
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements
7

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(Unaudited, in thousands)
Common Stock Additional Paid-in Capital Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income Accumulated Deficit Total Stockholders' Equity
Shares Amount
Balance as of December 31, 2020 90,430  $ $ 673,950  $ 6,806  $ (372,306) $ 308,459 
Issuance of common stock in connection with Equity Incentive and Employee Stock Purchase plans, net of tax withholdings 438  —  (3,708) —  —  (3,708)
Share-based compensation —  —  59,993  —  —  59,993 
Equity component from partial repurchase of 2023 convertible senior notes —  —  (147,740) —  —  (147,740)
Temporary equity reclassification —  —  (338) —  —  (338)
Changes in other comprehensive income —  —  —  (3,412) —  (3,412)
Net loss —  —  —  —  (186) (186)
Balance as of March 31, 2021 90,868  $ $ 582,157  $ 3,394  $ (372,492) $ 213,068 
Common Stock Additional Paid-in Capital Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income Accumulated Deficit Total Stockholders' Equity
Shares Amount
Balance as of December 31, 2019 86,940  $ $ 1,033,053  $ 1,948  $ (289,310) $ 745,700 
Issuance of common stock in connection with Equity Incentive and Employee Stock Purchase plans, net of tax withholdings 875  —  (5,549) —  —  (5,549)
Share-based compensation —  —  37,001  —  —  37,001 
Equity component of 2025 convertible senior notes, net of issuance costs —  —  192,442  —  192,442 
Purchase of capped calls related to 2025 convertible senior notes —  —  (60,900) —  (60,900)
Equity component from partial repurchase of 2023 convertible senior notes —  —  (355,932) —  (355,932)
Changes in other comprehensive income —  —  —  (1,617) —  (1,617)
Net loss —  —  —  —  (60,721) (60,721)
Balance as of March 31, 2020 87,815  $ $ 840,115  $ 331  $ (350,031) $ 490,424 

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

8

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited, in thousands)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2021 2020
Cash flows from operating activities    
Net loss $ (186) $ (60,721)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization 24,577  16,548 
Share-based compensation 54,962  36,589 
Amortization of deferred and prepaid sales commission costs 15,644  9,809 
Amortization of debt discount and issuance costs 16,200  7,452 
Loss on early extinguishment of debt 658  7,250 
Repayment of convertible senior notes attributable to debt discount (4,712) (13,894)
Reduction of operating lease right-of-use assets 4,322  3,843 
Unrealized (gain) loss on investments (57,521) 22,246 
Foreign currency remeasurement loss 194  964 
Provision for bad debt 1,485  1,492 
Deferred income taxes (274) (33)
Other 153  45 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable 7,697  (6,935)
Deferred and prepaid sales commission costs (36,502) (22,544)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets 6,310  (8,958)
Other assets 818  131 
Accounts payable (8,109) 888 
Accrued liabilities 9,063  19,948 
Deferred revenue 4,022  2,806 
Operating lease liabilities (4,382) (3,783)
Other liabilities 2,536  (74)
Net cash provided by operating activities 36,955  13,069 
Cash flows from investing activities
Purchases of property and equipment (8,721) (6,861)
Capitalized internal-use software (9,757) (7,389)
Cash paid for acquisition of intangible assets (8,358) — 
Net cash used in investing activities (26,836) (14,250)
Cash flows from financing activities
Proceeds from issuance of convertible senior notes, net of issuance costs —  986,508 
Payments for 2023 convertible senior notes partial repurchase (178,911) (495,704)
Proceeds from issuance of stock in connection with stock plans 1,192  4,802 
Payments for capped calls and transaction costs —  (60,900)
Payments for taxes related to net share settlement of equity awards (4,900) (10,351)
Payment for contingent consideration for business acquisition (3,600) (3,548)
Repayment of financing obligations (277) (511)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities (186,496) 420,296 
Effect of exchange rate changes (409) (657)
Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash (176,786) 418,458 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash
Beginning of period 639,853  343,606 
End of period $ 463,067  $ 762,064 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow data:
Cash paid for interest $ 28  $ 85 
Cash paid for income taxes, net of refunds $ 320  $ 95 
Non-cash investing and financing activities
Equipment and capitalized internal-use software purchased and unpaid at period end $ 5,835  $ 7,151 
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements
9

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

Note 1. Description of Business and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Description of Business
RingCentral, Inc. (the “Company”) is a provider of software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) solutions that enables businesses to communicate, collaborate and connect. The Company was incorporated in California in 1999 and was reincorporated in Delaware on September 26, 2013.
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
The Company's unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes reflect all adjustments (all of which are normal, recurring in nature and those discussed in these notes) that are, in the opinion of management, necessary for a fair presentation of the interim periods presented. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The results of operations for the interim periods presented are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any subsequent quarter or for the entire year ending December 31, 2021. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in annual consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) have been condensed or omitted under the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on February 26, 2021.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The significant estimates made by management affect revenues, the allowance for doubtful accounts, valuation of long-term investments, deferred and prepaid sales commission costs, goodwill, useful lives of intangible assets, share-based compensation, capitalization of internally developed software, liability and equity allocation of convertible senior notes, return reserves, provision for income taxes, uncertain tax positions, loss contingencies, sales tax liabilities, and accrued liabilities. Management periodically evaluates these estimates and will make adjustments prospectively based upon the results of such periodic evaluations. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of the novel strain of coronavirus (“COVID-19”) as a global pandemic with widespread and detrimental effect on the global economy. The extent of the impact of COVID-19 on the Company's operational and financial performance will depend on certain developments, including the duration and spread of the outbreak, impact on the Company's customers and sales cycles, and its employees, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. As of the date of issuance of these financial statements, the Company is not aware of any specific event or circumstance that would require updating significant estimates or judgments or revising the carrying value of the Company's assets or liabilities as presented in the unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements. These estimates may change as new events occur and additional information is obtained. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates.
Segment Information
The Company has determined that the chief executive officer is the chief operating decision maker. The Company’s chief executive officer reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of assessing performance and making decisions on how to allocate resources. Accordingly, the Company has determined that it operates in a single reportable segment.
Concentrations
As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, none of the Company’s customers accounted for more than 10% of the Company’s total accounts receivable.
10

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
Long-lived assets by geographic location is based on the location of the legal entity that owns the asset. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, approximately 91% and 90% of the Company’s consolidated long-lived assets, respectively, were located in the U.S. No other single country outside of the U.S. represented more than 10% of the Company’s consolidated long-lived assets.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In March 2020, the FASB issued optional guidance for a limited time to ease the potential burden in accounting for or recognizing the effects of reference rate reform, particularly, the risk of cessation of the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") on financial reporting. The guidance provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. The amendments are elective and are effective upon issuance for all entities through December 31, 2022. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new guidance.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity's Own Equity, which simplifies the accounting for certain convertible instruments, amends the guidance on derivative scope exceptions for contracts in an entity's own equity, and modifies the guidance on diluted earnings per share calculations as a result of these changes. This new standard is effective for public entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The amendment is to be adopted through either a fully retrospective or modified retrospective method of transition. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new guidance on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
Note 2. Revenue and Cost of Revenue
The Company derives its revenues primarily from subscriptions, sale of products, and professional services. Revenues are recognized when control of these products and services are transferred to the customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those products and services.
Disaggregation of revenue
The following table provides information about disaggregated revenue by primary geographical markets:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
  2021 2020
Primary geographical markets    
North America 88  % 93  %
Others 12 
Total revenues 100  % 100  %
The Company derived over 90% of subscription revenues from RingCentral Office and RingCentral customer engagement solutions products for both of the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.
Deferred revenue
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company recognized revenue of $82.0 million that was included in the corresponding deferred revenue balance at the beginning of the year.
Remaining performance obligations
The typical subscription term ranges from one month to five years. Contract revenue as of March 31, 2021 that has not yet been recognized was approximately $1.5 billion. This excludes contracts with an original expected length of less than one year. Of these remaining performance obligations, the Company expects to recognize revenue of 51% of this balance over the next 12 months and 49% thereafter.
11

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
Other revenues and cost of revenues
Other revenues are primarily comprised of product revenue from the sale of pre-configured phones, professional services, and phone rentals. Product revenues from the sale of pre-configured phones were $11.6 million and $10.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Cost of product revenues were $10.4 million and $10.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Note 3. Financial Statement Components
Cash and cash equivalents consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2021 December 31, 2020
Cash $ 120,758  $ 124,853 
Money market funds 342,309  515,000 
Total cash and cash equivalents $ 463,067  $ 639,853 
Accounts receivable, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2021 December 31, 2020
Accounts receivable $ 137,287  $ 148,741 
Unbilled accounts receivable 35,361  32,477 
Allowance for doubtful accounts (5,796) (5,184)
Accounts receivable, net $ 166,852  $ 176,034 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2021 December 31, 2020
Prepaid expenses $ 24,781  $ 18,497 
Inventory 545  551 
Other current assets 14,880  27,468 
Total prepaid expenses and other current assets $ 40,206  $ 46,516 
Property and equipment, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2021 December 31, 2020
Computer hardware and software $ 174,571  $ 169,093 
Internal-use software development costs 100,514  90,361 
Furniture and fixtures 8,228  8,217 
Leasehold improvements 12,888  12,910 
Total property and equipment, gross 296,201  280,581 
Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization (150,603) (138,373)
Property and equipment, net $ 145,598  $ 142,208 
Total depreciation and amortization expense related to property and equipment was $13.0 million and $7.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
In the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company financed $4.7 million of property, equipment and software licenses through vendor financing arrangements at interest rates ranging up to 3.95% to be repaid over a three-year term. As of March 31, 2021, $3.2 million of the related equipment is collateralized under the vendor financing arrangement. The financing arrangements and the assets purchased under these arrangements are non-cash investing and financing activities.
12

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
The carrying value of goodwill is as follows (in thousands):
Balance at December 31, 2020 $ 57,313 
Foreign currency translation adjustments (1,018)
Balance at March 31, 2021 $ 56,295 
The carrying values of intangible assets are as follows (in thousands):
March 31, 2021 December 31, 2020
Estimated Lives Cost Accumulated
Amortization
Acquired
Intangibles, Net
Cost Accumulated
Amortization
Acquired
Intangibles, Net
Customer relationships
2 to 5 years
$ 21,665  $ 13,064  $ 8,601  $ 22,087  $ 12,289  $ 9,798 
Developed technology
2 to 5 years
158,445  52,006  106,439  149,987  41,472  108,515 
Total acquired intangible assets $ 180,110  $ 65,070  $ 115,040  $ 172,074  $ 53,761  $ 118,313 
Amortization expense from acquired intangible assets for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 was $11.6 million and $8.6 million, respectively. Amortization of developed technology is included in cost of revenues and amortization of customer relationships is included in sales and marketing expenses in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. As of March 31, 2021, the weighted-average amortization period for developed technology is approximately 2.9 years and for customer relationships is approximately 2.3 years.
Estimated amortization expense for acquired intangible assets for the following fiscal years is as follows (in thousands):
2021 (remaining) $ 35,863 
2022 41,679 
2023 19,504 
2024 15,890 
2025 onwards 2,104 
Total estimated amortization expense $ 115,040 
Accrued liabilities consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2021 December 31, 2020
Accrued compensation and benefits $ 45,452  $ 43,225 
Accrued sales, use, and telecom related taxes 30,130  31,311 
Accrued marketing 24,908  30,332 
Operating lease liabilities, short-term 16,678  16,267 
Other accrued expenses 99,175  89,519 
Total accrued liabilities $ 216,343  $ 210,654 
Deferred and Prepaid Sales Commission Costs
Amortization expense for the deferred and prepaid sales commission costs was $15.6 million and $9.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. There was no impairment loss in relation to the costs capitalized for the periods presented.
13

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
Note 4. Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company measures and reports certain cash equivalents, including money market funds and certificates of deposit, in addition to its long-term investments at fair value in accordance with the provisions of the authoritative accounting guidance that addresses fair value measurements. This guidance establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. The hierarchy is broken down into three levels based on the reliability of the inputs as follows:
Level 1:    Observable inputs that reflect unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2:    Other inputs, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3:    Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are based on management’s assumptions, including fair value measurements determined by using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies or similar techniques.
The financial assets carried at fair value were determined using the following inputs (in thousands):
Fair Value at March 31, 2021 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Cash equivalents:        
Money market funds $ 342,309  $ 342,309  $ —  $ — 
Noncurrent assets:
Long-term investments $ 270,697  $ —  $ —  $ 270,697 
Fair Value at December 31, 2020 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Cash equivalents:        
Money market funds $ 515,000  $ 515,000  $ —  $ — 
Noncurrent assets:
Long-term investments $ 213,176  $ —  $ —  $ 213,176 
The Company’s other financial instruments, including accounts receivable, accounts payable, and other current liabilities, are carried at cost, which approximates fair-value due to the relatively short maturity of those instruments.
Convertible Senior Notes
As of March 31, 2021, the fair value of the 0% convertible senior notes due 2026 (the “2026 Notes”) was approximately $658.9 million, 0% convertible senior notes due 2025 (the “2025 Notes”) was approximately $1.1 billion, and 0% convertible senior notes due 2023 (the “2023 Notes”) was approximately $142.1 million. The fair value for the convertible notes was determined based on the quoted price for such notes in an inactive market on the last trading day of the reporting period and is considered as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
Long-Term Investments
As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the fair value of the Company's long-term investments in convertible and redeemable preferred stock was $270.7 million and $213.2 million, respectively. The Company classifies its long-term investments as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy based on the nature of the fair value inputs and judgment involved in the valuation process. The Company uses a lattice model to value these investments and relies on observable inputs including share-price, credit spread, and volatility. The model also incorporates judgments relating to the probability of special redemption triggers, the expected holding period of the investment and interest rates. These investments are reported at fair value in long-term investments in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The Company's total net unrealized gain (loss) recorded in other income (expense), net, was $56.6 million and $(23.2) million for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Volatility in the global economic climate and financial markets, including the effects of the COVID-19
14

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
pandemic, could result in a significant change in the underlying share-price of the Company’s investees, resulting in a material change in the value of the long-term investments.
Note 5. Asset Acquisition
On March 18, 2021, the Company entered into an arrangement to acquire intellectual property rights for approximately $8.6 million. The transaction was accounted for as an asset acquisition, which will be amortized over its expected useful life of approximately five years.
Note 6. Convertible Senior Notes
In March 2018, the Company issued $460.0 million aggregate principal amount of 0% convertible senior notes due 2023 in a private placement, including the exercise in full of the over-allotment options of the initial purchasers (the "2023 Notes"). The 2023 Notes will mature on March 15, 2023, unless earlier repurchased or redeemed by the Company or converted pursuant to their terms. The total net proceeds from the debt offering, after deducting initial purchase discounts and debt issuance costs, were approximately $449.5 million.
In March 2020, the Company issued $1.0 billion aggregate principal amount of 0% convertible senior notes due 2025 in a private placement to qualified institutional buyers (the "2025 Notes"). The 2025 Notes will mature on March 1, 2025, unless earlier repurchased or redeemed by the Company or converted pursuant to their terms. The total net proceeds from the debt offering, after deducting initial purchase discounts and debt issuance costs, were approximately $986.5 million.
In September 2020, the Company issued $650.0 million aggregate principal amount of 0% convertible senior notes due 2026 in a private placement to qualified institutional buyers (the "2026 Notes"). The 2026 Notes will mature on March 15, 2026, unless earlier repurchased or redeemed by the Company or converted pursuant to their terms. The total net proceeds from the debt offering, after deducting initial purchase discounts and debt issuance costs, were approximately $640.2 million.
The 2023 Notes, 2025 Notes and 2026 Notes (collectively, the “Notes”) are senior, unsecured obligations of the Company that do not bear regular interest, and the principal amount of the Notes do not accrete. The Notes may bear special interest under specified circumstances relating to the Company's failure to comply with its reporting obligations under the indentures governing each of the Notes (collectively, the "Notes Indentures") or if the Notes are not freely tradeable as required by each respective Notes Indenture.
The Notes are senior unsecured obligations and will rank senior in right of payment to any of the Company’s indebtedness that is expressly subordinated in right of payment to the Notes (all Notes are equal in right of payment) with the Company’s existing and future liabilities that are not so subordinated; effectively junior in right of payment to any of the Company’s secured indebtedness to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness; and structurally junior to all indebtedness and other liabilities (including trade payables) of current or future subsidiaries of the Company.
Redemptions and repurchases of 2023 Notes
As of December 31, 2020, the Company had $80.2 million principal amount outstanding. Of this amount, the Company received early conversion requests of $34.9 million that remained unsettled as of December 31, 2020. Further, the Company received additional conversion requests of $4.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021. The Company settled the total principal balance of $39.0 million by paying $183.2 million in cash during the three months ended March 31, 2021. The outstanding principal balance as of March 31, 2021 was $41.2 million.
In March 2021, the Company delivered a notice to fully redeem the remaining $41.2 million principal of the 2023 Notes. On April 30, 2021, the Company settled the redemption by paying $153.3 million in cash.
As of March 31, 2021, of the outstanding principal balance, the Company reclassified $37.1 million net carrying amount of the liability component of the 2023 Notes as a current liability on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet. The equity component of $4.1 million was reclassified from stockholder's equity to temporary equity. The amount reclassified to temporary equity represents the difference between the principal and net carrying amount of the liability component of the outstanding 2023 Notes.
15

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
Other Terms of the Notes
2023 Note 2025 Note 2026 Note
$1,000 principal amount initially convertible into number of the Company’s Class A common stock par value $0.0001
12.2782 shares
2.7745 shares
2.3583 shares
Equivalent initial approximate conversion price per share
$ 81.45  $ 360.43  $ 424.03 
The conversion rate is subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain specified events but will not be adjusted for any accrued and unpaid special interest. In addition, upon the occurrence of a make-whole fundamental change or a redemption period, each as defined in the respective Notes Indentures, the Company will, in certain circumstances, increase the conversion rate by a number of additional shares for a holder that elects to convert its Notes in connection with such make-whole fundamental change or during the relevant redemption period.
The Notes will be convertible at certain times and upon the occurrence of certain events in the future. Further, on or after December 15, 2022 for the 2023 Notes, December 1, 2024 for the 2025 Notes, and December 15, 2025 for the 2026 Notes, until the close of business on the scheduled trading day immediately preceding the maturity date, holders of the Notes may convert all or a portion of their notes regardless of these conditions. Upon conversion, the Company will pay or deliver, as the case may be, either cash, shares of Class A Common Stock or a combination of cash and shares of Class A Common Stock, at the Company’s election. It is the Company’s current intent to settle the principal amount of the Notes with cash.
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the conditions allowing holders of the 2025 Notes and 2026 Notes to convert were not met. The Notes may be convertible thereafter if one or more of the conversion conditions specified in the indentures are satisfied during future measurement periods.
The Company may redeem the Notes at its option, on or after March 5, 2022 for the 2025 Notes and March 20, 2023 for the 2026 Notes, at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid special interest to, but excluding the redemption date, subject to certain conditions. No sinking fund is provided for the Notes.
Upon the occurrence of a fundamental change (as defined in each respective Notes Indentures) prior to the maturity date, holders may require the Company to repurchase all or a portion of the 2023 Notes, 2025 Notes, or 2026 Notes for cash at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be repurchased, plus any accrued and unpaid special interest to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date.
The net carrying amount of the liability component of the Notes as of March 31, 2021 were as follows (in thousands):
2023 Note 2025 Note 2026 Note
Principal $ 41,176  $ 1,000,000  $ 650,000 
Unamortized discount (3,789) (156,506) (126,676)
Unamortized issuance cost (336) (8,939) (7,087)
Net carrying amount (1) $ 37,051  $ 834,555  $ 516,237 
(1)As of March 31, 2021, the net carrying amount of the liability component of the 2023 Notes was classified as a current liability on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The following table sets forth the total interest expense recognized related to the Notes (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31, 2021
2021 2020
Amortization of debt discount $ 15,411  $ 6,987 
Amortization of debt issuance cost 789  465 
Total interest expense related to the Notes $ 16,200  $ 7,452 
16

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
Capped Calls
In connection with the offering of the Notes, the Company entered into privately-negotiated capped call transactions relating to each series of notes with certain counterparties (collectively the “Capped Calls”). The initial strike price of the Notes corresponds to the initial conversion price of each of the Notes. The Capped Calls are generally intended to reduce or offset the potential dilution to the Class A Common Stock upon any conversion of the Notes with such reduction or offset, as the case may be, subject to a cap based on the cap price. The Capped Calls are subject to either adjustment or termination upon the occurrence of specified extraordinary events affecting the Company, including a merger event; a tender offer; and a nationalization, insolvency or delisting involving the Company. In addition, the Capped Calls are subject to certain specified additional disruption events that may give rise to a termination of the Capped Calls, including changes in law; insolvency filings; and hedging disruptions. The Capped Call transactions are recorded in stockholders’ equity and are not accounted for as derivatives.
The following table below sets forth key terms and costs incurred for the Capped Calls related to each of the Notes:
2023 Note 2025 Note 2026 Note
Initial approximate strike price per share, subject to certain adjustments $ 81.45  $ 360.43  $ 424.03 
Initial cap price per share, subject to certain adjustments $ 119.04  $ 480.56  $ 556.10 
Net cost incurred (in millions) $ 49.9  $ 60.9  $ 41.8 
Class A common stock covered, subject to anti-dilution adjustments (in millions) 5.6 2.8 1.5
Settlement commencement date 1/13/2023 1/31/2024 2/13/2025
Settlement expiration date 3/13/2023 2/28/2024 3/13/2025
Note 7. Leases
The Company primarily leases facilities for office and data center space under non-cancelable operating leases for its U.S. and international locations. As of March 31, 2021, non-cancellable leases expire on various dates between 2021 and 2029.
The components of leases are as follows (in thousands):
March 31, 2021 December 31, 2020
Operating leases
Operating lease right-of-use assets $ 48,938  $ 51,115 
Accrued liabilities $ 16,678  $ 16,267 
Operating lease liabilities 36,070  38,722 
Total operating lease liabilities $ 52,748  $ 54,989 

Three Months Ended March 31,
2021 2020
Supplemental Cash Flow Information (in thousands)
Operating cash flows resulting from operating leases:
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities $ 5,072  $ 4,315 
New ROU assets obtained in exchange of lease liabilities:
Operating leases $ 2,302  $ 3,488 
17

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
Note 8. Commitments and Contingencies
Legal Matters
The Company is subject to certain legal proceedings described below, and from time to time may be involved in a variety of claims, lawsuits, investigations, and proceedings relating to contractual disputes, intellectual property rights, employment matters, regulatory compliance matters, and other litigation matters relating to various claims that arise in the normal course of business.
The Company determines whether an estimated loss from a contingency should be accrued by assessing whether a loss is deemed probable and can be reasonably estimated. The Company assesses its potential liability by analyzing specific litigation and regulatory matters using reasonably available information. The Company develops its views on estimated losses in consultation with inside and outside counsel, which involves a subjective analysis of potential results and outcomes, assuming various combinations of appropriate litigation and settlement strategies. Actual claims could settle or be adjudicated against the Company in the future for materially different amounts than the Company has accrued due to the inherently unpredictable nature of litigation. Legal fees are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.
TCPA Matter
On November 17, 2017, Joann Hurley (“Hurley”), filed a second amended complaint in an ongoing putative class action lawsuit pending in the United States District Court for the Southern District of West Virginia, adding the Company as a named defendant and alleging that the Company and other defendants violated the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (“TCPA”) and regulations promulgated thereunder by allegedly using an automated telephone dialing system to deliver prerecorded political messages to Hurley, an incumbent running for reelection, and others. Hurley alternatively alleged that the Company was vicariously liable for the actions of the other co-defendants. Hurley seeks statutory, compensatory, consequential, incidental and punitive damages, costs, and attorneys’ fees in connection with her claims. The Company was served with the second amended complaint on January 4, 2018. On March 23, 2018, the Company filed a motion to dismiss the complaint for lack of standing and failure to sufficiently state a claim on which relief may be granted. Hurley filed her opposition brief on April 6, 2018, and the Company filed its reply brief on April 13, 2018. On October 4, 2018, the district court issued its memorandum and opinion order granting in part and denying in part the Company’s motion to dismiss. The district court dismissed Hurley’s vicarious liability claim but allowed Hurley’s TCPA claim to proceed. The Company filed its answer and affirmative defenses to the second amended complaint on October 18, 2018. Hurley filed a motion to certify a class on July 9, 2019. The Company and another defendant filed oppositions to the motion, which were fully briefed and are pending decision by the court. Discovery closed on October 25, 2019. The Company filed a motion for summary judgment on November 14, 2019. Hurley opposed the motion, which also has been fully briefed and is pending decision by the court. The parties mediated the case before a private mediator on January 23, 2020, at which time a tentative settlement was achieved. A fairness hearing on the proposed settlement was held on January 25, 2021, at which time the Court tentatively gave final approval of the settlement. The Court thereafter entered its final order and judgment approving the settlement on February 9, 2021. The settlement became effective as of March 12, 2021, and is currently being administered. The condensed consolidated financial statements include an immaterial accrual for the amount settled.
Patent Infringement Matter
On April 25, 2017, Uniloc USA, Inc. and Uniloc Luxembourg, S.A. (together, “Uniloc”) filed in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas two actions against the Company alleging infringement of U.S. Patent Nos. 7,804,948; 7,853,000; and 8,571,194 by RingCentral’s Glip unified communications application. The plaintiffs seek a declaration that the Company has infringed the patents, damages according to proof, injunctive relief, as well as their costs, attorney’s fees, expenses and interest. On October 9, 2017, the Company filed a motion to dismiss or transfer requesting that the case be transferred to the United States District Court for the Northern District of California. In response to the motion, plaintiffs filed a first amended complaint on October 24, 2017. The Company filed a renewed motion to dismiss or transfer on November 15, 2017. Although briefing on that motion has been completed, the motion has not yet been decided. On February 5, 2018, Uniloc moved to stay the litigation pending the resolution of certain third-party inter partes review proceedings (“IPRs”) before the United States Patent and Trademark Office. On February 9, 2018, the court stayed the litigation pending resolution of the IPRs without prejudice to or waiver of the Company’s motion to dismiss or transfer. This litigation is still in its earliest stages. Based on the information known by the Company as of the date of this filing and the rules and regulations applicable to the
18

RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
preparation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements, it is not possible to provide an estimated amount of any such loss or range of loss that may occur. The Company intends to vigorously defend against this lawsuit.
CIPA Matter
On June 16, 2020, Plaintiff Meena Reuben (“Reuben”) filed a complaint against the Company for a putative class action lawsuit in California Superior Court for San Mateo County. The complaint alleges claims on behalf of a class of individuals for whom, while they were in California, the Company allegedly intercepted and recorded communications between individuals and the Company’s customers without the individual’s consent, in violation of the California Invasion of Privacy Act (“CIPA”) Sections 631 and 632.7. Reuben seeks statutory damages of $5,000 for each alleged violation of Sections 631 and 632.7, injunctive relief, and attorneys’ fees and costs, and other unspecified amount of damages. On July 7, 2020, the Court granted the parties’ stipulation to extend time for the Company to respond to the Reuben’s complaint. The Company has not responded to the complaint. This litigation is still in its earliest stages. Based on the information known by the Company as of the date of this filing and the rules and regulations applicable to the preparation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements, it is not possible to provide an estimated amount of any such loss or range of loss that may occur. The Company intends to vigorously defend against this lawsuit.
Zoom Matter
 On March 11, 2021, Zoom Video Communications, Inc. filed a lawsuit against RingCentral in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. Zoom’s lawsuit alleges that the Company breached the parties’ Strategic Alliance Agreement (“SAA”) and violated Zoom’s trademark rights by selling RingCentral's feature bundles including RingCentral Meetings, the Company’s white-label version of Zoom’s video conferencing services, after Zoom “terminated” the SAA. On March 15, 2021, the Company filed counterclaims against Zoom seeking, among other things, declaratory judgment that the SAA has not been terminated, that Zoom’s trademark claims are barred, and that Zoom is engaging in unfair competition, including by making false statements to customers. On March 17, 2021, the Court granted the Company’s motion and issued a temporary restraining order against Zoom. On March 28, 2021, the Court denied RingCentral’s request for a preliminary injunction against Zoom and dissolved the restraining order which enjoined Zoom from blocking new RingCentral Meetings customer activations for the duration of the parties’ litigation. The Court’s order provides in part that “Zoom is to continue to provide the Service, pursuant to the SAA, to all RingCentral customers who were under contract prior to January 31, 2021. Zoom is not required to provide the Service to any new customer RingCentral contracted with after January 31, 2021.” Based on the information known by the Company as of the date of this filing and the rules and regulations applicable to the preparation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements, currently it is not possible to provide an estimated amount of any such loss or range of loss that may occur. The Company intends to vigorously defend against this lawsuit and pursue its claims.
Other Matter
 On June 14, 2019, the Company filed suit in the Superior Court of California, County of Alameda, against Bright Pattern, Inc. and two of its officers, alleging that the defendants negotiated a potential acquisition of Bright Pattern by RingCentral fraudulently and in bad faith. The Company seeks its costs incurred in negotiating under the Letter of Intent ("LOI") that the parties entered into and damages for lost opportunity as a result of forgoing another acquisition opportunity, and attorneys’ fees and costs. On August 26, 2019, Bright Pattern filed a cross-complaint against the Company and two of its executive officers alleging breach of the LOI as well as tort claims arising from the Company's allegedly inducing Bright Pattern to enter into the LOI and subsequent extensions while allegedly misstating the timeframe for the proposed transaction. As damages, Bright Pattern seeks audit fees it allegedly incurred, a $5 million break-up fee, its alleged “cash burn” during the negotiations, and unspecified lost opportunity damages. The Company filed a demurrer to Bright Pattern’s amended cross-complaint, as well as a related motion to strike. On May 7, 2020, the court denied both the motion to strike and demurrer. The Court has set the matter for trial on March 14, 2022. This litigation is still in early stages. Based on the information known by the Company as of the date of this filing and the rules and regulations applicable to the preparation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements, it is not possible to provide an estimated amount of any loss or range of loss that may occur. The Company intends to vigorously prosecute and defend this lawsuit.
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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
Note 9. Share-Based Compensation
A summary of share-based compensation expense recognized in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations is as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
  2021 2020
Cost of revenues $ 4,742  $ 2,726 
Research and development 13,189  7,467 
Sales and marketing 21,343  11,291 
General and administrative 15,688  15,105 
Total share-based compensation expense $ 54,962  $ 36,589 
A summary of share-based compensation expense by award type is as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
  2021 2020
Options $ $ 24 
Employee stock purchase plan rights 2,023  1,391 
Restricted stock units 52,938  35,174 
Total share-based compensation expense $ 54,962  $ 36,589 
Equity Incentive Plans
As of March 31, 2021, a total of 21,876,791 shares remained available for grant under the RingCentral, Inc. Amended and Restated 2013 Equity Incentive Plan (“2013 Plan”).
A summary of option activity under all of the Company’s equity incentive plans as of March 31, 2021 and changes during the period then ended is presented in the following table:
Number of
Options
Outstanding
(in thousands)
Weighted-
Average
Exercise Price
Per Share
Weighted-
Average
Contractual
Term
(in Years)
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
(in thousands)
Outstanding at December 31, 2020 897  $ 12.02  1.7 $ 329,151 
Exercised (102) 11.66 
Canceled/Forfeited —  — 
Outstanding at March 31, 2021 795  $ 12.06  1.5 $ 227,134 
Vested and expected to vest as of March 31, 2021 795  $ 12.06  1.5 $ 227,134 
Exercisable as of March 31, 2021 795  $ 12.06  1.5 $ 227,134 
There were no options granted during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020. The total intrinsic value of options exercised during the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 were $37.4 million and $88.6 million, respectively. There is no remaining unamortized share-based compensation expense.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
The Company's Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”) allows eligible employees to purchase shares of the Company’s Class A Common Stock at a discounted price through payroll deductions.
As of March 31, 2021, there was a total of $1.1 million of unrecognized share-based compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, related to the ESPP, which will be recognized on a straight-line basis over the remaining weighted-
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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
average vesting period of approximately 0.1 years. As of March 31, 2021, a total of 5,574,320 shares were available for issuance under the ESPP.
Restricted Stock Units
The 2013 Plan provides for the issuance of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) to employees, directors, and consultants. RSUs issued under the 2013 Plan generally vest over four years. A summary of activity of RSUs under the 2013 Plan as of March 31, 2021, and changes during the period then ended is presented in the following table:
Number of
RSUs
Outstanding
(in thousands)
Weighted-
Average
Grant Date Fair
Value Per Share
Aggregate
Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
Outstanding at December 31, 2020 2,725  $ 162.04  $ 1,032,997 
Granted 101  436.91 
Released (348) 145.04 
Canceled/Forfeited (74) 155.37 
Outstanding at March 31, 2021 2,404  $ 176.23  $ 716,406 
As of March 31, 2021, there was a total of $301.2 million of unrecognized share-based compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, related to RSUs, which will be recognized on a straight-line basis over the remaining weighted-average vesting period of approximately 2.6 years.
Bonus Plan
The Company's board of directors (the "Board") adopted employee equity bonus plans (the “KEEB Plans”), which allow the recipients to earn fully vested shares of the Company’s Class A Common Stock upon the achievement of quarterly service and performance conditions. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company issued 19,761 RSUs under the KEEB Plans. The total requisite service period of each quarterly award is approximately 0.4 years.
The unrecognized share-based compensation expense was approximately $4.2 million, which will be recognized over the remaining service period of 0.1 years. The shares issued under the KEEB Plans will be issued from the reserve of shares available for issuance under the 2013 Plan.
Note 10. Income Taxes
The provision for income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, was $0.4 million and $0.2 million, respectively. The provision for income taxes for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 consisted primarily of foreign income taxes and state minimum taxes. For the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the provision for income taxes differed from the U.S. federal statutory rate primarily due to foreign and state taxes currently payable. The Company realized no benefit for the current year losses due to a full valuation allowance against the U.S. and foreign net deferred tax assets.
The realization of tax benefits of net deferred tax assets is dependent upon future levels of taxable income, of an appropriate character, in the periods the items are expected to be deductible or taxable. Based on the available objective evidence, the Company does not believe it is more likely than not that the net deferred tax assets will be realizable. Accordingly, the Company has provided a full valuation allowance against the entire domestic and the majority of the foreign net deferred tax assets as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020. The Company intends to maintain the full valuation allowance on the U.S. net deferred tax assets until sufficient positive evidence exists to support a reversal of, or decrease in, the valuation allowance.
During the three months ended March 31, 2021, there were no material changes to the total amount of unrecognized tax benefits.
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RINGCENTRAL, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
Note 11. Basic and Diluted Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed by giving effect to all potential shares of common stock, stock options, restricted stock units, ESPP, and convertible senior notes, to the extent dilutive. For the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, all such common stock equivalents have been excluded from diluted net loss per share as the effect to net loss per share would be anti-dilutive.
The following table sets forth the computation of the Company’s basic and diluted net loss per share of common stock (in thousands, except per share data):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
2021 2020
Numerator    
Net loss $ (186) $ (60,721)
Denominator:
Weighted-average common shares outstanding for basic and diluted net loss per share 90,634  87,339 
Basic and diluted net loss per share $ —  $ (0.70)
The following table summarizes the potentially dilutive common shares that were excluded from diluted weighted-average common shares outstanding because including them would have had an anti-dilutive effect (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
  2021 2020
Shares of common stock issuable under equity incentive awards outstanding 3,465  5,234 
Shares of common stock related to convertible senior notes 538  2,134 
Potential common shares excluded from diluted net loss per share 4,003  7,368 
Since the Company expects to settle the principal amount on its outstanding 2023, 2025, and 2026 Notes in cash and any excess in cash or shares of the Company’s Class A Common Stock, the Company uses the treasury stock method for calculating any potential dilutive effect of the conversion spread on diluted net income per share, if applicable. The conversion spread will have a dilutive impact on diluted net income per share of common stock when the average market price of the Company’s Class A Common Stock for a given period exceeds the conversion price of $81.45, $360.43, and $424.03 per share for the 2023, 2025, and 2026 Notes, respectively.
The denominator for diluted net income per share does not include any effect from the capped call transactions the Company entered into concurrently with the issuance of the 2023, 2025, and 2026 Notes as this effect would be anti-dilutive. In the event of conversion of a 2023, 2025, or 2026 Notes, if shares are delivered to the Company under the capped call, they will offset the dilutive effect of the shares that the Company would issue under the Notes.
Note 12. Related Party Transactions
In the ordinary course of business, the Company made purchases from Google Inc., at which one of the Company’s directors serves as President, Americas. Total payables to Google Inc. as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020 were $2.9 million and $2.1 million, respectively. Total expenses incurred from Google Inc. were $4.8 million and $6.3 million in the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") on February 26, 2021 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). As discussed in the section entitled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” the following discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ significantly from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed below and elsewhere in this report, particularly in the section entitled “Risk Factors” included under Part II, Item 1A below.
Overview
We are a leading provider of cloud communications, video meetings, collaboration, and contact center software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) solutions. We believe that our innovative, cloud-based communication and contact center solutions disrupt the large market for business communications and collaboration by providing flexible and cost-effective solutions that support mobile and distributed workforces. We enable convenient and effective communications for organizations across all their locations and employees, enabling them to be more productive and more responsive to their customers.
Our cloud-based business communications and collaboration solutions are designed to be easy to use, providing a single user identity across multiple locations and devices, including smartphones, tablets, PCs and desk phones. Our solutions can be deployed rapidly and configured and managed easily. Our cloud-based solutions are location and device independent. Through our platform, we enable third-party developers and customers to integrate our solution with leading business applications to customize their own business workflows. In April 2020, we announced RingCentral Video ("RCV"), which is another component offered as part of RingCentral Office.
We have a portfolio of cloud-based offerings that are subscription based, made available at different rates varying by the specific functionalities, services, and number of users. We primarily generate revenues from the sale of subscriptions to our offerings. Our subscription plans have monthly, annual, or multi-year contractual terms. We believe that this flexibility in contract duration is important to meet the different needs of our customers. For each of the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, subscriptions revenues accounted for 90% or more of our total revenues. The remainder of our revenues has historically been primarily comprised of product revenues from the sale and rental of pre-configured phones and professional services. We do not develop, manufacture, or otherwise touch the delivery of physical phones and offer it as a convenience for a total solution to our customers in connection with subscriptions to our services. We rely on third-party providers to develop and manufacture these devices and fulfillment partners to successfully serve our customers.
We continue to invest in our direct inside sales force while also developing indirect sales channels to market our brand and our subscription offerings. Our indirect sales channels who sell our solutions consist of:
a regional and global network of resellers;
carriers including AT&T, Inc. (“AT&T”), TELUS Communications Company (“TELUS”), BT Group plc (“BT”) and Vodafone Group Services Limited ("Vodafone");
strategic partners who market and sell our co-branded solutions directly and through their subsidiaries. Such partnerships include Avaya Holdings Corp. ("Avaya"); Atos SE ("Atos") and its subsidiary, Unify Software and Solutions GmbH & CO. KG ("Unify"); and Alcatel-Lucent Enterprise ("ALE").
Our revenue growth has primarily been driven by our flagship RingCentral Office and RingCentral customer engagement solutions product offering, which has resulted in an increased number of customers, increased average subscription revenue per customer, and increased retention of our existing customer and user base. We define a “customer” as any party that purchases or subscribes to our products and services directly or indirectly through our channel partners. As of March 31, 2021, we had customers from a range of industries, including financial services, education, healthcare, legal services, real estate, retail, technology, insurance, construction, hospitality, and state and local government, among others. For each of the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, the vast majority of our total revenues were generated in the U.S. and Canada, although we expect the percentage of our total revenues derived outside of the U.S. and Canada to grow as we continue to expand internationally.
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The growth of our business and our future success depend on many factors, including our ability to expand our customer base to larger customers, expand our indirect sales channels, continue to innovate, grow revenues from our existing customer base, expand our distribution channels, and scale internationally.
The worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in authorities implementing numerous measures to contain the virus, including travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders, and business limitations and shutdowns. The COVID-19 pandemic has created a global slowdown of economic activity which has and will likely continue to decrease demand for a broad variety of goods and services, while also disrupting sales channels and marketing activities for an unknown period of time until the disease is contained.
At this point, the full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact our financial condition or results of operations is uncertain. We may experience curtailed customer demand due to reduced customer spend, shortened contract duration, higher churn, lengthened payment terms, credit card declines, potential delays in professional services implementations, and reduction in demand for desktop phones, which could adversely impact our business, results of operations and overall financial performance in future periods. Additionally, the extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operational and financial performance will also depend on certain developments, including the duration and spread of the outbreak, actions taken to contain the virus or its impact, including the availability of effective vaccines and the speed at which they are administered to the public, impact on our partners, resellers, employees, vendors and customers, and employee or industry events, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted.
While our revenues and earnings are relatively predictable as a result of our subscription-based business model, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, may not be fully reflected in our results of operations and overall financial performance until future periods.
During the reporting period, we saw contributions from new bookings as more businesses transition to RingCentral in the work-from-anywhere environment. We continue to see more customers opting for the RingCentral apps on laptops and mobile devices over traditional desktop phones which has impacted demand for physical phone devices.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we continue to focus on maintaining business continuity, helping our employees, customers and communities, and preparing for the future and the long-term success of our business. For example, to support the health and well-being of our employees, customers, partners and communities in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a vast majority of our employees are working remotely and we have shifted some of our customer events to virtual-only experiences, and we may deem it advisable to similarly alter, postpone or cancel entirely additional customer, employee or industry events in the future. The changes we have implemented have not affected and are not expected to affect our ability to maintain operations, including financial reporting systems, internal control over financial reporting, and disclosure controls and procedures.
Further discussion of the potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business can be found in the section titled "Risk Factors" included in Part II, Item 1A below.
Key Business Metrics
In addition to United States generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) and financial measures such as total revenues, gross margin, and cash flows from operations, we regularly review a number of key business metrics to evaluate growth trends, measure our performance, and make strategic decisions. We discuss revenues and gross margin under “Results of Operations”, and cash flow from operations and free cash flows under “Liquidity and Capital Resources.” Other key business metrics are discussed below.
Annualized Exit Monthly Recurring Subscriptions
We believe that our Annualized Exit Monthly Recurring Subscriptions (“ARR”) is a leading indicator of our anticipated subscriptions revenues. We believe that trends in revenue are important to understanding the overall health of our business, and we use these trends in order to formulate financial projections and make strategic business decisions. Our ARR equals our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions multiplied by 12. Our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions equals the monthly value of all customer recurring charges at the end of a given month. For example, our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions at March 31, 2021 was $117.3 million. As such, our ARR at March 31, 2021 was $1.4 billion.
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RingCentral Office Annualized Exit Monthly Recurring Subscriptions
We calculate our RingCentral Office Annualized Exit Monthly Recurring Subscriptions (“Office ARR”) in the same manner as we calculate our ARR, except that primarily customer subscriptions from RingCentral Office and RingCentral customer engagement solutions customers are included when determining Monthly Recurring Subscriptions for the purposes of calculating this key business metric. We believe that trends in revenue with respect to these products are important to the understanding of the overall health of our business, and we use these trends in order to formulate financial projections and make strategic business decisions. Our Office ARR at March 31, 2021 was $1.3 billion.
Net Monthly Subscription Dollar Retention Rate
We believe that our Net Monthly Subscription Dollar Retention Rate provides insight into our ability to retain and grow subscriptions revenue, as well as our customers’ potential long-term value to us. We believe that our ability to retain our customers and expand their use of our solutions over time is a leading indicator of the stability of our revenue base and we use these trends in order to formulate financial projections and make strategic business decisions. We define our Net Monthly Subscription Dollar Retention Rate as (i) one plus (ii) the quotient of Dollar Net Change divided by Average Monthly Recurring Subscriptions.
We define Dollar Net Change as the quotient of (i) the difference of our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions at the end of a period minus our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions at the beginning of a period minus our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions at the end of the period from new customers we added during the period, all divided by (ii) the number of months in the period. We define our Average Monthly Recurring Subscriptions as the average of the Monthly Recurring Subscriptions at the beginning and end of the measurement period.
For example, if our Monthly Recurring Subscriptions were $118 at the end of a quarterly period and $100 at the beginning of the period, and $20 at the end of the period from new customers we added during the period, then the Dollar Net Change would be equal to ($0.67), or the amount equal to the difference of $118 minus $100 minus $20, all divided by three months. Our Average Monthly Recurring Subscriptions would equal $109, or the sum of $100 plus $118, divided by two. Our Net Monthly Subscription Dollar Retention Rate would then equal 99.4%, or approximately 99%, or one plus the quotient of the Dollar Net Change divided by the Average Monthly Recurring Subscriptions.
Our key business metrics for the five quarterly periods ended March 31, 2021 were as follows (dollars in millions):
  March 31, 2021 December 31, 2020 September 30, 2020 June 30, 2020 March 31, 2020
Net Monthly Subscription Dollar Retention Rate >99% >99% >99% >99% >99%
Annualized Exit Monthly Recurring Subscriptions $ 1,407.4  $ 1,299.5  $ 1,179.0  $ 1,106.5  $ 1,029.7 
RingCentral Office Annualized Exit Monthly Recurring Subscriptions $ 1,322.3  $ 1,215.2  $ 1,091.6  $ 1,018.3  $ 943.3 
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Results of Operations
The following tables set forth selected consolidated statements of operations data and such data as a percentage of total revenues. The historical results presented below are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future period (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
2021 2020
Revenues    
Subscriptions $ 325,223  $ 243,104 
Other 27,133  24,408 
Total revenues 352,356  267,512 
Cost of revenues    
Subscriptions 73,247  52,433 
Other 23,734  21,011 
Total cost of revenues 96,981  73,444 
Gross profit 255,375  194,068 
Operating expenses    
Research and development 62,676  40,910 
Sales and marketing 179,249  131,312 
General and administrative 55,461  47,336 
Total operating expenses 297,386  219,558 
Loss from operations (42,011) (25,490)
Other income (expense), net    
Interest expense (16,278) (7,502)
Other income (expense) 58,543  (27,517)
Other income (expense), net 42,265  (35,019)
Gain (loss) before income taxes 254  (60,509)
Provision for income taxes 440  212 
Net loss $ (186) $ (60,721)
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Percentage of Total Revenues *
Three Months Ended March 31,
2021 2020
Revenues    
Subscriptions 92  % 91  %
Other
Total revenues 100  100 
Cost of revenues  
Subscriptions 21  20 
Other
Total cost of revenues 28  27 
Gross profit 72  73 
Operating expenses  
Research and development 18  15 
Sales and marketing 51  49 
General and administrative 16  18 
Total operating expenses 84  82 
Loss from operations (12) (10)
Other income (expense), net  
Interest expense (5) (3)
Other income (expense) 17  (10)
Other income (expense), net 12  (13)
Gain (loss) before income taxes —  (23)
Provision for income taxes —  — 
Net loss —  % (23) %
* Percentages may not add up due to rounding.
Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2021 and 2020
Revenues
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands, except percentages) 2021 2020 $ Change % Change
Revenues        
Subscriptions $ 325,223  $ 243,104  $ 82,119  34  %
Other 27,133  24,408  2,725  11  %
Total revenues $ 352,356  $ 267,512  $ 84,844  32  %
Percentage of revenues        
Subscriptions 92  % 91  %    
Other    
Total 100  % 100  %    
Subscriptions revenue. Subscriptions revenue increased by $82.1 million, or 34%, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the respective prior year period. The increase was primarily a combination of the acquisition of new customers and upsells of seats and additional offerings to our existing customer base. This growth was primarily driven by an increase in sales to our mid-market and enterprise customers as we continue to move up market and increase sales through our direct and indirect sales channels. Although we expect to continue to add new customers and for existing customers to increase their usage of our product, we will continue to monitor the COVID-19 pandemic carefully and its impact on customer
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demand, contract duration, churn, payment terms, and credit card declines. Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and volatility in the market, including those resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, could also cause variability in our revenue.
Other revenues. Other revenues are primarily comprised of product revenue from the sale of pre-configured phones, phone rentals, and professional services.
Other revenues increased by $2.7 million, or 11%, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the respective prior year period, primarily due to the increase in product sales and professional services resulting from the overall growth in our business. Due to shelter in place restrictions adopted in many jurisdictions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we continued to see a shift towards using RingCentral apps on laptops and mobile devices over traditional desktop phones which impacted the demand of phones and timing of professional services. We will continue to monitor the COVID-19 pandemic carefully and its impact on phone and professional services revenue.
Cost of Revenues and Gross Margin
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands, except percentages) 2021 2020 $ Change % Change
Cost of revenues        
Subscriptions $ 73,247  $ 52,433  $ 20,814  40  %
Other 23,734  21,011  2,723  13  %
Total cost of revenues $ 96,981  $ 73,444  $ 23,537  32  %
Gross margins      
Subscriptions 77  % 78  %    
Other 13  % 14  %    
Total gross margin % 72  % 73  %    
Subscriptions cost revenues and gross margin. Cost of subscriptions revenues increased by $20.8 million, or 40%, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the respective prior year period. The primary drivers of the increase were increases in infrastructure support costs of $7.1 million, third-party costs to support our solution offerings of $6.9 million, personnel and contractor-related costs of $3.6 million, and amortization of acquired intangible assets of $2.9 million. Personnel and contactor related costs includes share-based compensation expense of $1.3 million. Gross margin remained relatively consistent period over period.
The increase in expenses was primarily driven by investments in our infrastructure and capacity to improve the availability of our subscription offerings, while also supporting the growth in new customers and increased usage of our subscriptions by our existing customer base. We expect subscription gross margin to be within a relatively similar range in the future. However, we continue to monitor the COVID-19 pandemic carefully and its impact on our customers.
Other cost of revenues and gross margin. Cost of other revenues increased by $2.7 million, or 13%, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the respective prior year period. This was primarily due to an increase in personnel costs of $2.3 million including share-based compensation expense. Gross margin remained relatively consistent period over period.
We continue to monitor the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on timing of professional services and transaction price of product sales.
Research and Development
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands, except percentages) 2021 2020 $ Change % Change
Research and development $ 62,676  $ 40,910  $ 21,766  53  %
Percentage of total revenues 18  % 15  %    
Research and development expenses increased by $21.8 million, or 53%, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the respective prior year period, primarily due to $17.9 million increase in personnel and contractor costs, $2.2
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million in professional fees, and $1.9 million in overhead costs to support our research and development efforts. The increase in personnel and contractor costs was mainly driven by approximately $10.7 million relating to headcount growth and $5.7 million share-based compensation expense.
The increases in research and development headcount and other expense categories were driven by continued investment in current and future software development projects for our applications. Given the continued emphasis and focus on product innovation, we expect research and development expenses to continue to increase in absolute dollars.
Sales and Marketing
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands, except percentages) 2021 2020 $ Change % Change
Sales and marketing $ 179,249  $ 131,312  $ 47,937  37  %
Percentage of total revenues 51  % 49  %    
Sales and marketing expenses increased by $47.9 million, or 37%, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the respective prior year period, primarily due to increases in personnel and contractor costs of $24.6 million, third-party commissions of $19.7 million, amortization of deferred sales commission costs of $5.8 million, and overhead costs of $1.1 million to support our sales and marketing efforts, partially offset by $3.6 million decrease in travel costs resulting from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the total increase in personnel and contractor costs, $14.2 million was primarily due to headcount growth and approximately $10.1 million was due to higher share-based compensation expense.
The increases in sales and marketing headcount and other expense categories were necessary to support our growth strategy to acquire new customers with a focus on larger customers, and to establish brand recognition to achieve greater penetration into the North America and international markets. Additionally, we expect sales and marketing expenses to continue to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to expand our presence in North America and international markets.
General and Administrative
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands, except percentages) 2021 2020 $ Change % Change
General and administrative $ 55,461  $ 47,336  $ 8,125  17  %
Percentage of total revenues 16  % 18  %    
General and administrative expenses increased by $8.1 million, or 17%, for the three months ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the respective prior year period, primarily due to increases in personnel and contractor costs of $3.3 million, business fees and taxes of $1.9 million, and overhead costs of $1.6 million.
We expect general and administrative expenses to continue to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to make additional investments in processes, systems, and personnel to support our anticipated revenue growth.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands, except percentages) 2021 2020 $ Change % Change
Interest expense $ (16,278) $ (7,502) $ (8,776) nm
Other income (expense) 58,543  (27,517) 86,060  nm
Other income (expense), net $ 42,265  $ (35,019) $ 77,284  nm
nm - not meaningful
Other income (expense), net increased by $77.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, as compared to the respective prior year period.
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Interest expense was higher by $8.8 million mainly due to increase in the amortization of debt discount and issuance costs from our 2025 and 2026 convertible senior notes issued in the first and third quarter of 2020.
Other income, net was higher by $86.1 million, primarily due to an increase of $79.7 million net unrealized gain recognized on our long-term investments, which may fluctuate due to volatility in investee’s stock price, $6.6 million lower loss on partial redemption of our convertible senior notes driven by lower conversions and changes in interest rates. This was partially offset by $0.9 million decrease in interest income on our investments as a result of a reduction in interest rates.
We expect interest income to further reduce in the future due to interest rate volatility in the current macroeconomic environment and reduction of our investments in money market funds.
Net loss
Net loss decreased by $60.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, as compared to the respective prior year period, mainly due to non-cash items including an increase of $79.7 million net unrealized gain recognized from our long-term investments, partially offset by $18.4 million higher share-based compensation expense primarily driven by equity awards granted to new and existing employees, and $3.0 million amortization of acquired intangible assets.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Liquidity is a measure of our ability to access sufficient cash flows to meet the short-term and long-term cash requirements of our business operations.
As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, we had cash and cash equivalents of $463.1 million and $639.9 million, respectively. We finance our operations primarily through sales to our customers, which could be billed either monthly or annually one year in advance. For customers with annual or multi-year contracts and those who opt for annual invoicing, we generally invoice only one annual period in advance and revenue is deferred for such advanced billings. We also finance our operations from proceeds from issuance of convertible senior notes and proceeds from issuance of stock under our stock plans.
In March 2021, we delivered a notice of full redemption to redeem the remaining $41.2 million aggregate principal of the 2023 Notes, which was settled in April 2021 for $153.3 million in cash. For additional details, refer to Note 6, Convertible Senior Notes, to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. We are in compliance with all covenants under the 2026, 2025 and 2023 Notes as of March 31, 2021.
In March 2021, we paid approximately $8.6 million to purchase certain intangible assets.
We believe that our operations, existing liquidity sources as well as capital resources and ability to raise cash through additional financing will satisfy our future cash requirements and obligations for at least the next 12 months. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including revenue growth and costs incurred to support customer growth, acquisitions and expansions, sales and marketing, research and development, increased general and administrative expenses to support the anticipated growth in our operations, and capital equipment required to support our growing headcount and in support of our co-location data center facilities, as well as the extent of the COVID-19 pandemic and its effect on our business. Our capital expenditures in future periods are expected to grow in line with our business. We continually evaluate our capital needs and may decide to raise additional capital to fund the growth of our business for general corporate purposes through public or private equity offerings or through additional debt financing. In the future, we may also make investments in or acquire businesses or technologies that could require us to seek additional equity or debt financing. Access to additional capital may not be available or on favorable terms. The uncertainty created by the changing markets and economic conditions related to the COVID-19 pandemic may also impact our customers’ ability to pay on a timely basis, which could negatively impact our operating cash flows.
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    The table below provides selected cash flow information (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
  2021 2020
Net cash provided by operating activities $ 36,955  $ 13,069 
Net cash used in investing activities (26,836) (14,250)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities (186,496) 420,296 
Effect of exchange rate changes (409) (657)
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents $ (176,786) $ 418,458 
Net Cash (Used in) Provided by Operating Activities
Cash used in or provided by operating activities is driven by the timing of customer collections, as well as the amount and timing of disbursements to our vendors, the amount of cash we invest in personnel, marketing, and infrastructure costs to support the anticipated growth of our business, payments under strategic arrangements, and amounts attributable to repayment of convertible notes.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $37.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021. The cash flow from operating activities was driven by timing of cash receipts from customers and carriers, offset by cash payments for personnel related costs and to vendors.
Net cash provided by operating activities for the three months ended March 31, 2021, increased by $23.9 million as compared to the respective prior year period. This change reflects working capital impacts resulting from the timing of payments and collections, and payment of a portion of the 2023 Notes related to interest.
Net Cash Used in Investing Activities
Our primary investing activities have consisted of our purchase of capital expenditures and internal-use software, and acquisition of intellectual properties. As our business grows, we expect our capital expenditures to continue to increase.
Net cash used in investing activities was $26.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, primarily due to capital expenditures including personnel-related costs associated with development of internal-use software of $18.5 million and our acquisition of intellectual property of $8.4 million in the first quarter of 2021 to complement and support our product development and enhancement initiatives.
Net cash used in investing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2021 increased by $12.6 million as compared to the respective prior year period. The increase was primarily due to our acquisition of intellectual property of $8.4 million in the first quarter of 2021 and increased investment in capital expenditures and internal-use software development of $4.2 million.
Net Cash (Used in) Provided by Financing Activities
Our primary financing activities have consisted of our partial conversion of our 2023 Notes, partially offset by raising proceeds through the issuance stock under our stock plans.
Net cash used in financing activities was $186.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2021, primarily due to cash paid of $178.5 million due to conversion requests for our 2023 Notes and $3.6 million settlement of our contingent consideration in connection with prior-year business acquisition and $3.7 million for net taxes paid in connection with our stock plans.
Net cash used in financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2021 increased by $606.8 million as compared to the respective prior year period primarily due to proceeds from both our 2026 Notes and 2025 Notes issued in 2020, offset by the partial settlement of the 2023 Notes. Refer to Note 6, Convertible Senior Notes, in the accompanying notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
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Non-GAAP Free Cash Flow
To supplement our statements of cash flows presented on a GAAP basis, we use non-GAAP measures of cash flows to analyze cash flow generated from our operations. We define free cash flow, a non-GAAP financial measure, as GAAP net cash provided by (used in) operating activities plus cash paid for strategic partnerships and repayments of convertible senior notes attributable to debt discount, reduced by purchases of property and equipment and capitalized internal-use software. We believe information regarding free cash flow provides useful information to management and investors in understanding the strength of liquidity and available cash. A limitation of the use of free cash flow is that it does not represent the total increase or decrease in our cash balance for the period. Free cash flow should not be considered in isolation or as an alternative to cash flows from operations, and should be considered alongside our other GAAP-based financial liquidity performance measures, such as net cash used in operating activities and our other GAAP financial results.
The following table presents a reconciliation of free cash flow to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities, the most directly comparable GAAP measure, for each of the periods presented (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
2021 2019
Net cash provided by operating activities $ 36,955  $ 13,069 
Repayment of convertible senior notes attributable to debt discount 4,712  13,894 
Non-GAAP net cash provided by operating activities 41,667  26,963 
Purchases of property and equipment (8,721) (6,861)
Capitalized internal-use software (9,757) (7,389)
Non-GAAP free cash flow $ 23,189  $ 12,713 
Backlog
We have generally signed new customers contracts with varying length, from month-to-month to multi-year terms for our subscription services. At any point in the contract term, there can be amounts allocated to services that we have not yet contractually performed, which constitute a backlog. Until we meet our performance obligations, we do not recognize them as revenues in our condensed consolidated financial statements. Given the variability in our contract length, we believe that backlog is not a reliable indicator of future revenues and we do not utilize backlog as a key management metric internally.
Deferred Revenue
Deferred revenue primarily consists of the unearned portion of monthly or annual invoiced fees for our subscriptions, which we recognize as revenue in accordance with our revenue recognition policy. For customers with multi-year contracts, we generally invoice for only one monthly or annual subscription period in advance. Therefore, our deferred revenue balance does not capture the full contract value of multi-year contracts. Accordingly, we believe that deferred revenue is not a reliable indicator of future revenues and we do not utilize deferred revenue as a key management metric internally.
Contractual Obligations and Commitments
Except as set forth below, and in Notes 3, 6, 7 and 8 in the accompanying notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, there were no significant changes in our commitments under contractual obligations, as disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Contingencies
We are and may be in the future subject to certain legal proceedings and from time to time may be involved in a variety of claims, lawsuits, investigations, and proceedings relating to contractual disputes, intellectual property rights, employment matters, regulatory compliance matters, and other matters relating to various claims that arise in the normal course of business. We record a provision for a liability when we believe that it is both probable that a liability has been incurred, and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Significant judgment is required to determine both probability and the estimated amount of loss. Such legal proceedings are inherently unpredictable and subject to significant uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. Should any of these estimates and assumptions change or prove to be incorrect, it could have a significant impact on our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.
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Off-balance Sheet Arrangements
During the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated organizations or financial partnerships, such as structured finance or special purpose entities that would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are exposed to market risk in the ordinary course of our business. Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. Our market risk exposure is primarily a result of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. We do not hold or issue financial instruments for trading purposes.
Foreign Currency Risk
The majority of our sales and contracts are denominated in U.S. dollars, and therefore our net revenue is not currently subject to significant foreign currency risk. As part of our international operations, we charge customers in British Pounds, European Union (“EU”) Euro, Canadian Dollars and Australian Dollars, among others. Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and volatility in the market, including those resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, will cause variability in our revenue. However, this impact has not been significant during the three months ended March 31, 2021. Our operating expenses are generally denominated in the currencies of the countries in which our operations are located, which are primarily in the U.S., and to a lesser extent in Canada, Europe, and Asia-Pacific. The functional currency of our foreign subsidiaries is generally the local currency. Our consolidated results of operations and cash flows are, therefore, subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and may be adversely affected in the future due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. To date, we have not entered into any hedging arrangements with respect to foreign currency risk. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, a hypothetical 10% change in foreign currency exchange rates applicable to our business would not have had a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements. As our international operations continue to expand, risks associated with fluctuating foreign currency rates may increase. We will continue to reassess our approach to managing these risks.
Interest Rate Risk
As of March 31, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents of $463.1 million. We invest our cash and cash equivalents in short-term money market funds. We have experienced a decline in the interest rates associated with money market funds over the last several quarters. Declines in interest rates would reduce future interest income. For the three months ended March 31, 2021, a hypothetical 10% increase or decrease in overall interest rates would not have had a material impact on our interest income. The carrying amount of our cash equivalents reasonably approximates fair values. Due to the short-term nature of our money-market funds, we believe that exposure to changes in interest rates will not have a material impact on the fair value of our cash equivalents. Interest income may further reduce in the future due to interest rate volatility in the current macroeconomic environment.
As of March 31, 2021, we had $37.1 million, $834.6 million, and $516.2 million outstanding from the 2023 Notes, 2025 Notes, and 2026 Notes (collectively the "Notes"), respectively. We carry the Notes at face value less unamortized discount on our balance sheet, and we present the fair value for required disclosure purposes only. The Notes have a zero percent fixed annual interest rate and, therefore, we have no economic exposure to changes in interest rates. The fair value of the Notes is exposed to interest rate risk. Generally, the fair value of our fixed interest rate Notes will increase as interest rates decline and decrease as interest rates increase. In addition, the fair values of the Notes are affected by our stock price. The fair value of the Notes will generally increase as our common stock price increases and will generally decrease as our common stock price decrease in value.
Market Risk
As of March 31, 2021, we had long-term investments in convertible and redeemable preferred stock of $270.7 million. These equity investments are subject to market related risks that could decrease or increase the fair value of our holdings. These equity investments are adjusted to fair value based on market inputs at the balance sheet date, which are subject to market-related risks that could decrease or increase the fair value of our holdings, including the potential impacts from COVID-19. A fluctuation in the investee's stock price, volatility or a combination of both could have an adverse impact on the fair value of our
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investment. A hypothetical adverse stock price or volatility change of 10% could have resulted in a potential decrease of up to $22.4 million in the fair-value of our investment as of March 31, 2021.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2021. The term “disclosure controls and procedures,” as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act, means controls and other procedures of a company that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by a company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the company’s management, including its principal executive and principal financial officers, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2021, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There was no change in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q that has significantly affected, or is reasonably likely to significantly affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
We have not experienced any material impact to our internal controls over financial reporting although since March 2020 most of our employees and extended workforce are now working remotely due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We are continually monitoring and assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our internal controls to address impacts to their design, implementation and operating effectiveness.
Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls and Procedures
In designing and evaluating our disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any disclosure controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In addition, the design of disclosure controls and procedures must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints and that management is required to apply its judgment in evaluating the benefits of possible controls and procedures relative to their costs.
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PART II — OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. Legal Proceedings
Information with respect to this item may be found in Note 8, Commitments and Contingencies, in the accompanying notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q under “Legal Matters”, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the risk factors set forth below. The risks and uncertainties described in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also affect our business. See Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for a discussion of the forward-looking statements that are qualified by these risk factors. If any of these known or unknown risks or uncertainties actually occurs and have a material adverse effect on us, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be seriously harmed. In addition, the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic environment may exacerbate the risks described below, any of which could have a material impact on us. This situation is changing rapidly and additional impacts may arise that we are not currently aware of.
Summary Risk Factors
An investment in our Class A Common Stock involves a high degree of risk, and the following is a summary of key risk factors when considering an investment. You should read this summary together with the more detailed description of each risk factor contained in the subheadings further below.
We have incurred significant losses and negative cash flows in the past and anticipate continuing to incur losses for at least the foreseeable future, and we may therefore not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
Our quarterly and annual results of operations have fluctuated in the past and may continue to do so in the future. As a result, we may fail to meet or to exceed the expectations of research analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate.
Our rapid growth and the quickly changing markets in which we operate make it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects, which may increase the risk of investing in our stock.
Our future operating results will rely in part upon the successful execution of our strategic partnerships with Avaya, Atos/Unify, Alcatel-Lucent Enterprise, Vodafone and others, which may not be successful.
We face intense competition in our markets and may lack sufficient financial or other resources to compete successfully.
We rely and may in the future rely significantly on our strategic partners, resellers, and carriers to sell our subscriptions; our failure to effectively develop, manage, and maintain our indirect sales channels could materially and adversely affect our revenues.
To deliver our subscriptions, we rely on third parties for our network connectivity and for certain of the features in our subscriptions.
Interruptions or delays in service from our third-party data center hosting facilities and co-location facilities could impair the delivery of our subscriptions, require us to issue credits or pay penalties and harm our business.
Failures in Internet infrastructure or interference with broadband access could cause current or potential users to believe that our systems are unreliable, possibly leading our customers to switch to our competitors or to avoid using our subscriptions.
A cyber-attack, information security breach or denial of service event could delay or interrupt service to our customers, harm our reputation, or subject us to significant liability.
Increased customer turnover, or costs we incur to retain and upsell our customers, could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.
If we are unable to attract new customers to our subscriptions or upsell to those customers on a cost-effective basis, our business will be materially and adversely affected.
The dual class structure of our common stock as contained in our charter documents has the effect of concentrating voting control with a limited number of stockholders that held our stock prior to our initial public
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offering, including our founders and our executive officers, employees and directors and their affiliates, and venture capital investors, and limiting other stockholders’ ability to influence corporate matters.
Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry
We have incurred significant losses and negative cash flows in the past and anticipate continuing to incur losses for at least the foreseeable future, and we may therefore not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
We have incurred substantial net losses since our inception. Over the past few years, we have spent considerable amounts of time and money to develop new business communications solutions and enhanced versions of our existing business communications solutions to position us for future growth. Additionally, we have incurred substantial losses and expended significant resources upfront to market, promote and sell our solutions and expect to continue to do so in the future. We also expect to continue to invest for future growth, including for advertising, customer acquisition, technology infrastructure, storage capacity, services development and international expansion. In addition, as a public company, we incur significant accounting, legal, and other expenses.
We expect to continue to incur losses for at least the foreseeable future and will have to generate and sustain increased revenues to achieve future profitability. Achieving profitability will require us to increase revenues, manage our cost structure, and avoid significant liabilities. Revenue growth may slow, revenues may decline, or we may incur significant losses in the future for a number of possible reasons, including general macroeconomic conditions, increasing competition (including competitive pricing pressures), a decrease in the growth of the markets in which we compete, in particular the SaaS market, or if we fail for any reason to continue to capitalize on growth opportunities. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen operating expenses, difficulties, complications, delays, service delivery, and quality problems and other unknown factors that may result in losses in future periods. If these losses exceed our expectations or our revenue growth expectations are not met in future periods, our financial performance will be harmed and our stock price could be volatile or decline.
Our quarterly and annual results of operations have fluctuated in the past and may continue to do so in the future. As a result, we may fail to meet or to exceed the expectations of research analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate.
Our quarterly and annual results of operations have varied historically from period to period, and we expect that they will continue to fluctuate due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:
our ability to retain existing customers, resellers, and carriers, and expand our existing customers’ user base, and attract new customers;
our ability to introduce new solutions;
the actions of our competitors, including pricing changes or the introduction of new solutions;
our ability to effectively manage our growth;
our ability to successfully penetrate the market for larger businesses;
the mix of annual and multi-year subscriptions at any given time;
the timing, cost, and effectiveness of our advertising and marketing efforts;
the timing, operating cost, and capital expenditures related to the operation, maintenance and expansion of our business;
our ability to successfully and timely execute on, integrate, and realize the benefits of any acquisition, investment, strategic partnership, or other strategic transaction or partnership we may make or undertake;
service outages or actual or perceived information security breaches and any related impact on our reputation;
our ability to accurately forecast revenues and appropriately plan our expenses;
our ability to realize our deferred tax assets;
costs associated with defending and resolving intellectual property infringement and other claims;
changes in tax laws, regulations, or accounting rules;
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the timing and cost of developing or acquiring technologies, services or businesses, and our ability to successfully manage any such acquisitions;
the impact of foreign currencies on our business as we continue to expand our business internationally; and
the impact of worldwide economic, political, industry, and market conditions, including the continued effects of the global outbreak of COVID-19.
The extent to which the global COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact our results will depend on future developments, which are uncertain and cannot be fully predicted, including the duration of the pandemic, travel restrictions and social distancing in the U.S. and other countries, business closures or business disruptions, the effectiveness of actions taken by governments and private businesses to attempt to contain and treat the disease, and the availability of effective vaccines and the speed at which they are administered to the public. Any prolonged shutdown of a significant portion of global economic activity or downturn in the global economy, along with any adverse effects on industries in which our customers operate, could materially and adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Any one of the factors above, or the cumulative effect of some or all of the factors referred to above, may result in significant fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results of operations. This variability and unpredictability could result in our failure to meet our publicly announced guidance or the expectations of securities analysts or investors for any period, which could cause our stock price to decline. In addition, a significant percentage of our operating expenses is fixed in nature and is based on forecasted revenues trends. Accordingly, in the event of revenue shortfalls, we may not be able to mitigate the negative impact on net income (loss) and margins in the short term. If we fail to meet or exceed the expectations of research analysts or investors, the market price of our shares could fall substantially, and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class-action suits.
The global COVID-19 pandemic could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, COVID-19 was reported in China and, in March 2020, the World Health Organization declared it a pandemic. This contagious disease outbreak has continued to spread across the globe and is impacting worldwide economic activity and financial markets. In light of the uncertain and rapidly evolving situation relating to the spread of COVID-19, we have taken precautionary measures intended to minimize the risk of the virus to our employees, our customers, and the communities in which we operate, which could negatively impact our business. We are, with certain exceptions, requiring all employees around the globe to work remotely and have closed all of our offices. We have also suspended all non-essential travel worldwide for our employees. While we have a distributed workforce and our employees are accustomed to working remotely or working with other remote employees, our workforce is not fully remote. Our employees travel frequently to establish and maintain relationships with one another, our customers and prospective customers, resellers and other channel partners, and investors. Although we continue to monitor the situation and may adjust our current policies as more information and public health guidance becomes available, temporarily suspending travel and restricting the ability to do business in person could negatively affect our customer success efforts, sales and marketing efforts, challenge our ability to enter into customer and other commercial contracts in a timely manner and our ability to source, assess, negotiate, and successfully implement and execute on, and realize the benefits of, acquisitions, investments, strategic partnerships and other strategic transactions, slow down our recruiting efforts, or create operational or other challenges, any of which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, if a natural disaster, power outage, connectivity issue, or other event occurred that impacted our employees’ ability to work remotely, it may be difficult or, in certain cases, impossible, for us to continue our business for a substantial period of time. The increase in remote working may also result in privacy, security and fraud concerns as well as increase our exposure to potential wage and hour issues. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has and will continue to disrupt the operations of our customers, resellers and other channel partners, strategic partners, suppliers and other third-party providers for an indefinite period of time, including as a result of travel restrictions and/or business shutdowns, all of which could continue to negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, to address customer hardships, in vertical markets most impacted by COVID-19, such as retail and hospitality, we are actively working with some customers to provide greater flexibility to manage challenges they are facing, but we cannot be assured that they will not reduce their number of users or terminate their subscriptions altogether. Furthermore, some governments have enacted indefinite orders prohibiting providers of telecommunications services from discontinuing service for non-payment. This could adversely affect us by increasing the risk of non-payment by our customers. We may also incur further costs by opting not to discontinue services to non-paying customers for reasons such as maintaining goodwill. More generally, the COVID-19 pandemic could continue to adversely affect economies and financial markets globally, continuing the economic downturn, which could decrease technology spending and continue to adversely affect demand for our solutions and harm our business. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact our financial condition or results of operations remains uncertain.
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Our rapid growth and the quickly changing markets in which we operate make it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects, which may increase the risk of investing in our stock.
We have grown rapidly since 2009, when we introduced RingCentral Office, our current flagship product. We have encountered and expect to continue to encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing markets. If our assumptions regarding these uncertainties are incorrect or change in reaction to changes in our markets, or if we do not manage or address these risks successfully, our results of operations could differ materially from our expectations, and our business could suffer.
Growth may place significant demands on our management and our infrastructure.
We continue to experience substantial growth in our business. This growth has placed and may continue to place significant demands on our management, organizational structure, and our operational and financial infrastructure. As our operations grow in size, scope, and complexity, we will need to increase our sales and marketing efforts and add additional sales and marketing personnel in various regions worldwide and improve and upgrade our systems and infrastructure to attract, service, and retain an increasing number of customers. For example, we expect the volume of simultaneous calls to increase significantly as our customer base grows. Our network hardware and software may not be able to accommodate this additional simultaneous call volume. The expansion of our systems and infrastructure will require us to commit substantial financial, operational, and technical resources in advance of an increase in the volume of business, with no assurance that the volume of business will increase. Any such additional capital investments will increase our cost base.
Continued growth could also strain our ability to maintain reliable service levels for our customers, resellers, and carriers develop and improve our operational, financial and management controls, enhance our billing and reporting systems and procedures and recruit, train and retain highly skilled personnel. In addition, our existing systems, processes, and controls may not prevent or detect all errors, omissions, or fraud. We may also experience difficulties in managing improvements to our systems, processes, and controls or in connection with third-party software licensed to help us with such improvements. Any future growth, particularly as we continue to expand internationally, would add complexity to our organization and require effective communication and coordination throughout our organization. To manage any future growth effectively, we must continue to improve and expand our information technology and financial, operating, security and administrative systems and controls, and our business continuity and disaster recovery plans and processes. Additionally, our productivity and the quality of our solutions and services may be adversely affected if we do not integrate and train our new employees quickly and effectively, particularly doing so remotely in the short term during the COVID-19 pandemic. If we fail to achieve the necessary level of efficiency in our organization as we grow, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
Our future operating results will rely in part upon the successful execution of our strategic partnerships with Avaya, Atos/Unify, Alcatel-Lucent Enterprise, Vodafone and others, which may not be successful.
A strategic partnership between two independent businesses is a complex, costly, and time-consuming process that will require significant management attention and resources. Realizing the benefits of our strategic partnerships, particularly our relationships with Avaya Holdings Corp. (“Avaya”) and its subsidiaries, Atos SE (“Atos”) and its subsidiaries, including Unify Software and Solutions GmbH & CO. KG (“Unify”), and ALE Holding (“ALE Holding”) and its subsidiaries, including ALE International (“ALE International” and together “ALE”) and Vodafone Business (“Vodafone”) and its subsidiaries, will depend in part on our ability to work with our strategic partners to develop, market and sell co-branded solutions, such as Avaya Cloud Office by RingCentral (“ACO”), Unify Office by RingCentral (“UO”), and Rainbow Office powered by RingCentral (“Rainbow Office”). Setting up and maintaining the operations and processes of these strategic partnerships may cause us to incur significant costs, disrupt our business and, if implemented ineffectively, would limit the expected benefits to us. In addition, the process of bringing ACO, UO, Rainbow Office and other co-branded solutions to market may take longer than anticipated or fail to materialize, which could negate or reduce our anticipated benefits and revenue opportunities. In addition, we must be successful in marketing and selling ACO to realize the benefits of our prepayment to Avaya of $345 million in our Class A Common Stock. The failure to successfully and timely implement and operate our strategic partnerships could harm our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of these partnerships and could adversely affect our results of operations.
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We face intense competition in our markets and may lack sufficient financial or other resources to compete successfully.
The cloud-based business communications and collaboration solutions industry is competitive, and we expect competition to increase in the future. We face intense competition from other providers of business communications and collaboration systems and solutions.
Our competitors include traditional on-premise, hardware business communications providers such as ALE, Avaya Inc., Cisco Systems, Inc., Mitel Networks Corporation, NEC Corporation, Siemens Enterprise Networks, LLC, their resellers, and others, as well as companies such as Microsoft Corporation and Cisco Systems, Inc., and their resellers that license their software. In addition, certain of our carriers and strategic partners, such as AT&T, BT, TELUS, Avaya, Vodafone, and Atos sell or are expected to sell our solutions, but they are also competitors for business communications. These companies have significantly greater resources than us and currently, or may in the future, develop and/or host their own or other solutions through the cloud. Such competitors may not be successful in or cease marketing and selling our solutions to their customers and ultimately be able to transition some or all of those customers onto their competing solutions, which could materially and adversely affect our revenues and growth. We also face competition from other cloud companies and established communications providers that resell on-premise hardware, software, and hosted solutions, such as 8x8, Inc., Amazon.com, Inc., Dialpad, Inc., Fuze, Inc., StarBlue, Inc., Intermedia.net, Inc., J2 Global, Inc., LogMeIn, Inc, Microsoft Corporation, Nextiva, Inc., Twilio Inc., Vonage Holdings Corp., West Corporation, and Zoom Video Communications, Inc., which has introduced a voice solution. Established communications providers, such as AT&T, Verizon Communications Inc., Sprint Corporation and Comcast Corporation in the U.S., TELUS and others in Canada, and BT, Vodafone Group plc, and others in the U.K., that resell on-premise hardware, software, and hosted solutions, compete with us in business communications and currently, or may in the future, develop and/or host their own cloud solutions. We may also face competition from other large Internet companies, such as Alphabet Inc. (Google Voice), Facebook, Inc., Oracle Corporation, and salesforce.com, inc., any of which might launch its own cloud-based business communications services or acquire other cloud-based business communications companies in the future. We also compete against providers of communications platform as a service solutions and messaging software platforms with APIs such as Twilio Inc., Vonage Holdings Corp., and Slack Technologies, Inc., on which customers can build diverse solutions by integrating cloud communications into business applications. We face competition with respect to this solution from contact center and customer relationship management providers such as Amazon.com, Inc., Aspect Software, Inc., Avaya Inc., Five9, Inc., NICE InContact, Genesys Telecommunications Laboratories, Inc., Serenova, LLC, Talkdesk, Inc., Vonage Holdings Corp., salesforce.com, inc., and Twilio Inc. We also face competition from digital engagement vendors such as eGain Corporation, Lithium Technologies, LLC, LivePerson, Inc., SparkCentral Inc., among others named above that may offer similar features.
Many of our current and potential competitors have longer operating histories, significantly greater resources and name recognition, more diversified offerings, and larger customer bases than we have. As a result, these competitors may have greater credibility with our existing and potential customers and may be better able to withstand an extended period of downward pricing pressure. In addition, certain of our competitors have partnered with, or been acquired by, and may in the future partner with or acquire, other competitors to offer services, leveraging their collective competitive positions, which makes it more difficult to compete with them and could significantly and adversely affect our results of operations. Demand for our platform is also sensitive to price. Many factors, including our marketing, user acquisition and technology costs, and our current and future competitors’ pricing and marketing strategies, can significantly affect our pricing strategies. Our competitors may be able to adopt more aggressive pricing policies and devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of their services than we can to ours. Some of these service providers have in the past and may choose in the future to sacrifice revenues in order to gain market share by offering their services at lower prices or for free, or offering alternative pricing models, such as “freemium” pricing, in which a basic offering is provided for free with advanced features provided for a fee, on the services they offer. Our competitors may also offer bundled service arrangements offering a more complete service offering, despite the technical merits or advantages of our subscriptions. In addition, some of the commercially available solutions in the markets in which we compete, such as video and web conferencing solutions of our competitors, including Zoom Video Communications and Microsoft Corporation, have seen dramatically increased adoption, usage and publicity in connection with the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Competition could result in a decrease to our prices, slow our growth, increase our customer turnover, reduce our sales, or decrease our market share.
We rely and may in the future rely significantly on our strategic partners, resellers, and carriers to sell our subscriptions; our failure to effectively develop, manage, and maintain our indirect sales channels could materially and adversely affect our revenues.
Our future success depends on our continued ability to establish and maintain a network of channel relationships, and we expect that we will need to expand our network in order to support and expand our historical base of smaller enterprises as
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well as attract and support larger customers and expand into international markets. An increasing portion of our revenues are derived from our network of sales agents and resellers, which we refer to collectively as resellers, many of which sell or may in the future decide to sell their own services or services from other business communications providers. We generally do not have long-term contracts with these resellers, and the loss of or reduction in sales through these third parties could materially reduce our revenues. Our competitors may in some cases be effective in causing our current or potential resellers to favor their services or prevent or reduce sales of our subscriptions. Furthermore, while AT&T, BT, TELUS, Avaya, Atos (through its subsidiary Unify), ALE, and Vodafone also sell our solutions, they are also competitors for business communications. These companies have significantly greater resources than us and currently, or may in the future, develop and/or host their own or other solutions through the cloud. Such competitors may cease marketing or selling our solutions to their customers and ultimately be able to transition some or all of those customers onto their competing solutions, which could materially and adversely affect our revenues and growth. In this regard, AT&T launched a competing hosted business communications solution in 2016, and new subscriptions for our solution sold by AT&T declined to an immaterial level in 2017 and into 2018. In August 2018, we entered into a revised agreement with AT&T, under which AT&T resumed reselling our solutions, and sales of our solutions by AT&T have increased as a result, but there can be no guarantee that AT&T will not cease reselling our solutions in the future. We also recently entered into certain agreements for strategic partnerships with Avaya, Atos, ALE, and Vodafone to sell certain of our solutions. Avaya introduced the ACO solution at the end of the first quarter of 2020, Atos and Unify introduced the UO solution during the third quarter of 2020, and ALE introduced the Rainbow Office solution during the first quarter of 2021; however, there can be no guarantee that Avaya, Atos, Unify, ALE, Vodafone and/or any of their respective channel partners will be successful in marketing or selling our solutions or that they will not cease marketing or selling our solutions in the future. If AT&T, Avaya, Atos, Unify, ALE, Vodafone and/or any of their respective channel partners are not successful in marketing and selling our solutions or cease to market and sell our solutions, our revenues and growth could be significantly and adversely affected. If we fail to maintain relationships with our resellers and other channel partners, carriers and strategic partners or fail to develop new and expanded relationships in existing or new markets, or if our networks of indirect channel relationships are not successful in their sales efforts, sales of our subscriptions may decrease and our operating results would suffer. Further, the ability of our resellers, carriers and strategic partners to market and sell our solutions could be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, we may not be successful in managing, training, and providing appropriate incentives to our existing resellers and other channel partners, carriers and strategic partners, and they may not be able to commit adequate resources in order to successfully sell our solutions.
Recruiting and retaining qualified resellers and other channel partners and carriers in our network and training them in our technology and subscription offerings requires significant time and resources. To develop and expand our indirect sales channels, we must continue to scale and improve our processes and procedures to support these channels, including investment in systems and training. Many resellers and other channel partners and carriers may not be willing to invest the time and resources required to train their staff to effectively market our subscriptions.
To deliver our subscriptions, we rely on third parties for our network connectivity and for certain of the features in our subscriptions.
We currently use the infrastructure of third-party network service providers, including CenturyLink, Inc. and Bandwidth.com, Inc. in North America and several others internationally, to deliver our subscriptions over their networks. Our third-party network service providers provide access to their Internet protocol (“IP”) networks and public switched telephone networks, and provide call termination and origination services, including 911 emergency calling in the U.S. and equivalent services internationally, and local number portability for our customers. We expect that we will continue to rely heavily on third-party network service providers to provide these subscriptions for the foreseeable future.
Through our wholly-owned local exchange carrier subsidiary, RCLEC, Inc. (“RCLEC”), we also obtain certain connectivity and network services directly from incumbent local exchange carriers (“ILECS”) and from other competitive local exchange carriers (“CLECs”) in certain geographic markets at lower prices than we pay for such services through third-party network service providers. However, RCLEC also uses the infrastructure of third-party network service providers to deliver its services and the ILECs may favor themselves and their affiliates may not provide network services to us at lower prices than we could obtain through third-party CLECs, or at all. If we are unable to continue to reduce our pricing as a result of obtaining network services through our subsidiary, we may be forced to rely on other third-party network service providers and be unable to effectively lower our cost of service. Historically, our reliance on third-party networks has reduced our operating flexibility and ability to make timely service changes and control quality of service, and we expect that this will continue for the foreseeable future. If any of these network service providers stop providing us with access to their infrastructure, fail to provide these services to us on a cost-effective basis or at reasonable levels of quality and security, cease operations, or otherwise terminate these services, the delay caused by qualifying and switching to another third-party network service provider, if one is available, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
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In addition, we currently use and may in the future use third-party service providers to deliver certain features of our subscriptions. For example, although we introduced our own video and web conferencing solution in April 2020, many of our customers continue to use Zoom Video Communications for HD video and web conferencing and screen sharing features, Bandwidth.com for texting capabilities, and NICE inContact, Inc. for contact center capabilities. In the future, we may not continue to have long-term contracts with any or all of these third-party providers. Any of these service providers could elect or attempt to stop providing us with access to their services or our contracts with these third-party providers may terminate, expire, or be breached. If any of these service providers ceases to provide us with their services, fails to provide these services to us on a cost-effective basis or at reasonable levels of quality and security, ceases operations, or otherwise terminates or discontinues these services, the delay caused by qualifying and switching to another third-party service provider, if one is available, or building a proprietary replacement solution could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Furthermore, in light of the on-going litigation with Zoom, we are no longer offering or selling RingCentral Meetings to new customers and are instead offering our own RingCentral Video solution to new and prospective customers. Our inability to offer and sell RingCentral Meetings may cause some prospective customers not to purchase our services and/or existing customers not to renew their contracts for our services or to renew for a fewer number of seats.
Finally, if problems occur with any of these third-party network or service providers, it may cause errors or poor call quality in our subscriptions, and we could encounter difficulty identifying the source of the problem. These third-party network or service providers have been and will continue to be adversely impacted or overloaded by the large increase in traffic caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and remote work, which could increase our exposure to damage from service interruptions. The occurrence of errors or poor call quality in our subscriptions, whether caused by our systems or a third-party network or service provider, may result in the loss of our existing customers, delay or loss of market acceptance of our subscriptions, termination of our relationships and agreements with our resellers or carriers, or liability for failure to meet service level agreements, and may seriously harm our business and results of operations.
We rely on third-party software that may be difficult to replace or which could cause errors or failures of our subscriptions.
We rely on software licensed from certain third parties in order to offer our solutions. In some cases, we integrate third-party licensed software components into our platform. This software may not continue to be available at reasonable prices or on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any loss of the right to use any of this software could significantly increase our expenses and otherwise result in delays in the provisioning of our solutions until equivalent technology is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained, and integrated. Any errors or defects in third-party software could result in errors or a failure of our solutions, which could harm our business.
Interruptions or delays in service from our third-party data center hosting facilities and co-location facilities could impair the delivery of our subscriptions, require us to issue credits or pay penalties and harm our business.
We currently serve our North American customers from geographically disparate data center hosting facilities in North America, where we lease space from Equinix, Inc., and other providers, and we serve our European customers from third-party data center hosting facilities in Europe. We also use third-party co-location facilities located in various international regions to serve our customers in these regions. Certain of our solutions are hosted by third party data center facilities including Amazon Web Services, Inc. (“AWS”), NICE inContact, Inc., and Google Cloud Platform. In addition, RCLEC uses third-party co-location facilities to provide us with network services at several locations. Damage to, or failure of, these facilities, the communications network providers with whom we or they contract, or with the systems by which our communications providers allocate capacity among their customers, including us, or software errors, have in the past and could in the future result in interruptions in our services. Additionally, in connection with the addition of new data centers or expansion or consolidation of our existing data center facilities, we may move or transfer our data and our customers’ data to other data centers. Despite precautions that we take during this process, any unsuccessful data transfers may impair or cause disruptions in the delivery of our subscriptions. Interruptions in our subscriptions may reduce our revenues, may require us to issue credits or pay penalties, subject us to claims and litigation, cause customers to terminate their subscriptions and adversely affect our renewal rates and our ability to attract new customers. Our ability to attract and retain customers depends on our ability to provide customers with a highly reliable subscription and even minor interruptions in our subscriptions could harm our brand and reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business.
As part of our current disaster recovery arrangements, our North American and European infrastructure and our North American and European customers’ data is currently replicated in near real-time at data center facilities in the U.S. and Europe, respectively. We do not control the operation of these facilities or of our other data center facilities or RCLEC’s co-location facilities, and they are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunications
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failures, and similar events. They may also be subject to human error or to break-ins, sabotage, acts of vandalism, and similar misconduct.
Despite precautions taken at these facilities, the occurrence of a natural disaster, public health crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, human error, an act of terrorism or other unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our subscriptions. Even with the disaster recovery arrangements in place, our subscriptions could be interrupted.
We may also be required to transfer our servers to new data center facilities in the event that we are unable to renew our leases on acceptable terms, if at all, or the owners of the facilities decide to close their facilities, and we may incur significant costs and possible subscription interruption in connection with doing so. In addition, any financial difficulties, such as bankruptcy or foreclosure, faced by our third-party data center operators, or any of the service providers with which we or they contract may have negative effects on our business, the nature and extent of which are difficult to predict. Additionally, if our data centers are unable to keep up with our increasing needs for capacity, our ability to grow our business could be materially and adversely impacted.
Failures in Internet infrastructure or interference with broadband access could cause current or potential users to believe that our systems are unreliable, possibly leading our customers to switch to our competitors or to avoid using our subscriptions.
Unlike traditional communications services, our subscriptions depend on our customers’ high-speed broadband access to the Internet. Increasing numbers of users and increasing bandwidth requirements may degrade the performance of our services and applications due to capacity constraints and other Internet infrastructure limitations. As our customer base grows and their usage of our services increases, we will be required to make additional investments in network capacity to maintain adequate data transmission speeds, the availability of which may be limited, or the cost of which may be on terms unacceptable to us. If adequate capacity is not available to us as our customers’ usage increases, our network may be unable to achieve or maintain sufficiently high reliability or performance. In addition, if Internet access service providers have outages or deteriorations in their quality of service, our customers will not have access to our subscriptions or may experience a decrease in the quality of our services. Frequent or persistent interruptions could cause current or potential users to believe that our systems or services are unreliable, leading them to switch to our competitors or to avoid our subscriptions, and could permanently harm our reputation and brands.
In addition, users who access our subscriptions and applications through mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, must have a high-speed connection, such as Wi-Fi, 3G, 4G, 5G, or LTE, to use our services and applications. Currently, this access is provided by companies that have significant and increasing market power in the broadband and Internet access marketplace, including incumbent phone companies, cable companies, and wireless companies. Some of these providers offer solutions and subscriptions that directly compete with our own offerings, which can potentially give them a competitive advantage. Also, these providers could take measures that degrade, disrupt or increase the cost of user access to third-party services, including our subscriptions, by restricting or prohibiting the use of their infrastructure to support or facilitate third-party services or by charging increased fees to third parties or the users of third-party services, any of which would make our subscriptions less attractive to users, and reduce our revenues.
Further, in January 2018, the Federal Communications Commission (the “FCC”) released an order reclassifying broadband Internet access as an information service, subject to certain provisions of Title I of the Communications Act. Among other things, the order eliminates rules adopted in 2015 that prohibited broadband providers from blocking, impairing, or degrading access to legal content, applications, services, or non-harmful devices, or engaging in the practice of paid prioritization, e.g., the favoring of some lawful Internet traffic over other traffic in exchange for higher payments. The order was contested in federal court, was largely affirmed by a three-judge panel; the request for rehearing was denied and the parties declined to appeal the decision to the Supreme Court. A number of states have enacted or are considering legislation or executive actions that would regulate the conduct of broadband providers. We cannot predict whether the FCC order or state initiatives will be modified, overturned, or vacated by legal action of the court, federal or state legislation, or the FCC. Under the new FCC rules, broadband Internet access providers may be able to charge web-based services such as ours for priority access to customers, which could result in increased costs and a loss of existing users, impair our ability to attract new users, and materially and adversely affect our business and opportunities for growth.
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Interruptions in our services caused by undetected errors, failures, or bugs in our subscriptions could harm our reputation, result in significant costs to us, and impair our ability to sell our subscriptions.
Our subscriptions may have errors or defects that customers identify after they begin using them that could result in unanticipated interruptions of service. Internet-based services frequently contain undetected errors and bugs when first introduced or when new versions or enhancements are released. While the substantial majority of our customers are small and medium-sized businesses, the use of our subscriptions in complicated, large-scale network environments may increase our exposure to undetected errors, failures, or bugs in our subscriptions. Although we test our subscriptions to detect and correct errors and defects before their general release, we have, from time to time, experienced significant interruptions in our subscriptions as a result of such errors or defects and may experience future interruptions of service if we fail to detect and correct these errors and defects. The costs incurred in correcting such defects or errors may be substantial and could harm our results of operations. In addition, we rely on hardware purchased or leased and software licensed from third parties to offer our subscriptions.
Any defects in, or unavailability of, our or third-party software or hardware that cause interruptions of our subscriptions could, among other things:
cause a reduction in revenues or delay in market acceptance of our subscriptions;
require us to pay penalties or issue credits or refunds to our customers, resellers, or carriers, or expose us to claims for damages;
cause us to lose existing customers and make it more difficult to attract new customers;
divert our development resources or require us to make extensive changes to our software, which would increase our expenses and slow innovation;
increase our technical support costs; and
harm our reputation and brand.
We rely on third parties, including third parties outside the U.S., for some of our software development, quality assurance, operations, and customer support.
We currently depend on various third parties for some of our software development efforts, quality assurance, operations, and customer support services. Specifically, we outsource some of our software development and design, quality assurance, and operations activities to third-party contractors that have employees and consultants located in St. Petersburg, Russia, Odessa, Ukraine, and Manila, the Philippines. In addition, we outsource a portion of our customer support, inside sales and network operation control functions to third-party contractors located in Manila, the Philippines. Our dependence on third-party contractors creates a number of risks, in particular, the risk that we may not maintain service quality, control, or effective management with respect to these business operations. These third parties have been and will continue to be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic as a result of widespread illness and disruptions or restrictions on employees’ ability to work, which may continue to affect their ability to perform satisfactorily or at all.
In addition, recent political and military events in Ukraine, poor relations between the U.S. and Russia, and sanctions by the U.S. and the EU against Russia could have an adverse impact on our third-party software development and quality assurance operations in Ukraine and Russia. Additionally, we rely on purchased or leased hardware and software licensed from third parties in order to offer our subscriptions, and in some cases, we integrate third-party licensed software components into our platform. Any errors or defects in third-party hardware or software could result in errors or a failure of our subscriptions which could harm our business.
We anticipate that we will continue to depend on these and other third-party relationships in order to grow our business for the foreseeable future. If we are unsuccessful in maintaining existing and, if needed, establishing new relationships with third parties, our ability to efficiently operate existing services or develop new services and provide adequate customer support could be impaired, and, as a result, our competitive position or our results of operations could suffer.
A cyber-attack, information security breach or denial of service event could delay or interrupt service to our customers, harm our reputation, or subject us to significant liability.
Our operations depend on our ability to protect our production and corporate information technology services from interruption or damage from unauthorized entry, computer malware or other events beyond our control. We have, from time to time, been subject to communications fraud and cyber-attacks by malicious actors, and denial of service events, and we may be subject to similar attacks in the future. We cannot assure you that our backup systems, regular data backups, security controls
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and other procedures currently in place, or that may be in place in the future, will be adequate to prevent significant damage, system failure, service outages, data breach, data loss, or increased charges from our technology vendors.
Also, our subscriptions are web-based. The amount of data we store for our users increases as our business grows. We host services, which includes hosting customer data, both in co-located data centers and in multiple public cloud services. Our solutions allow users to store files, tasks, calendar events, messages and other data indefinitely on our services or as may be directed by our customers. We also maintain sensitive data related to our technology and business, and that of our employees, strategic partners, and customers, including intellectual property, proprietary business information and personally identifiable information (also called personal data) on our own systems and in multiple vendors’ cloud services. As a result of maintaining larger volumes of data and user files and/or as a result of our continued movement up market, or movement into new customer segments and acquisition of larger and more recognized customers, we may become more of a target for hackers, nation states and other malicious actors.
In addition, we use third-party vendors which, in some cases, have access to our data and our customers’ data. We employ layered security measures and have a means of working with third parties who report vulnerabilities to us. Despite the implementation of security measures by us or our vendors, our computing devices, infrastructure, or networks, or our vendors’ computing devices, infrastructure, or networks, may be vulnerable to hackers, computer viruses, worms, other malicious software programs, or similar disruptive problems that are caused by or through a security weakness or vulnerability in our or our vendors’ infrastructure, network, or business practices or our or our vendors’ customers, employees, business partners, consultants, or other Internet users who attempt to invade our or our vendors’ corporate and personal computers, tablets, mobile devices, software, data networks, or voice networks. If there is a security weakness or vulnerability in our, our vendors’, or our customers’ infrastructure, networks, or business practices that is successfully targeted, we could face increased costs, liability claims, including contractual liability claims relating to security obligations in agreements with our partners and our customers, fines, claims, investigations and other proceedings, reduced revenue, or harm to our reputation or competitive position. In addition, even if not targeted, in strengthening our security controls or in remediating security vulnerabilities, we could incur increased costs and capital expenditures. The COVID-19 pandemic is generally increasing the attack surface available to criminals, as more companies and individuals work online, and as such, the risk of a cybersecurity incident potentially occurring, and our investment in risk mitigations against such an incident, is increasing. Also, cyber-attacks, including on the supply chain, appear to be increasing in sophistication. For example, while we do not use SolarWinds products in our environment, we have evaluated our internal systems and networks and found no evidence of unauthorized access to customer data as a result of the issue. We continue to investigate, including reaching out to our third party supply chain partners to understand whether there have been impacts to vendors in our supply chain. We continue to monitor for insights to enhance our code review and security-by-design process to help prevent a similar incident. We cannot provide assurances that our preventative efforts will be successful.
Further, in some cases we do not have in place disaster recovery facilities for certain ancillary services, such as email delivery of messages. We rely on encryption and authentication technology to ensure secure transmission of and access to confidential information, including customer credit card numbers, debit card numbers, direct debit information, customer communications, and files uploaded by our customers. Advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptography, discovery of software bugs or vulnerabilities, discovery of hardware bugs or vulnerabilities, social engineering activities, or other developments may result in a compromise or breach of the technology we use to protect our data and our customer data, or of the data itself.
Additionally, third parties have attempted in the past, and may attempt in the future, to induce domestic and international employees, consultants, or customers into disclosing sensitive information, such as user names, provisioning data, customer proprietary network information (“CPNI”) or other information in order to gain access to our customers’ user accounts or data, or to our data. CPNI includes information such as the phone numbers called by a customer, the frequency, duration, and timing of such calls, and any services purchased by the consumer, such as call waiting, call forwarding, and caller ID, in addition to other information that may appear on a customer’s bill. Third parties may also attempt to induce employees, consultants, or customers into disclosing sensitive information regarding our intellectual property and other confidential business information, our customers, the customer information we hold, or our information technology systems. In addition, the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, to perform hacking, phishing and social engineering, or to sabotage systems change and evolve frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, may be new and previously unknown or little-known, or may not be detected or understood until well after such actions are conducted. We may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures, and any security breach or other incident may take longer than expected to remediate or otherwise address. Any system failure or security breach that causes interruptions or data loss in our operations or in the computer systems of our customers or leads to the misappropriation of our or our customers’ confidential or personal information could result in significant liability to us, loss of our intellectual property, cause our subscriptions to be perceived as not being secure, cause considerable harm to us and our reputation (including requiring
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notification to customers, regulators, or the media), and deter current and potential customers from using our subscriptions. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
It is critical to our business that our information and our employees’, strategic partners’, and customers’ sensitive information remains secure and that our customers perceive that this information is secure. An information security incident could result in unauthorized access to, loss of, or unauthorized disclosure of such information. A cybersecurity breach could expose us to litigation, indemnity obligations, government investigations, contractual liability, and other possible liabilities. Additionally, a cyber-attack or other information security incident, whether actual or perceived, could result in negative publicity, which could harm our reputation and reduce our customers’ confidence in the effectiveness of our solutions, which could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results. A breach of our security systems could also expose us to increased costs, including remediation costs, disruption of operations, or increased cybersecurity protection costs, that may have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, a cybersecurity breach of our customers’ systems can also result in exposure of their authentication credentials, unauthorized access to their accounts, exposure of their account information and data (including CPNI), and fraudulent calls on their accounts, which can subsequently have similar actual or perceived impacts to us as described above. A cybersecurity breach of our partners’ or vendors’ systems can result in similar actual or perceived impacts.
While we maintain cybersecurity insurance, our insurance may be insufficient to cover all liabilities incurred by privacy or security incidents. We also cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be adequate for data handling or data security liabilities actually incurred, that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that an insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, including our financial condition, operating results, and reputation.
Laws, regulations, and enforcement actions relating to security and privacy of information continue to evolve. We have incurred and expect to continue to incur significant expenses to prevent security incidents. It is possible that, in order to support changes to applicable laws and to support our expansion of sales into new geographic areas or into new industry segments, we will need to increase or change our cybersecurity systems and expenditures. Further, it is possible that changes to laws and regulations relating to security and privacy may make it more expensive to operate in certain jurisdictions and may increase the risk of our non-compliance with such changing laws and regulations.
Potential problems with our information systems could interfere with our business and operations.
We rely on our information systems and those of third parties for processing customer orders, distribution of our subscriptions, billing our customers, processing credit card transactions, customer relationship management, supporting financial planning and analysis, accounting functions and financial statement preparation, and otherwise running our business. Information systems may experience interruptions, including interruptions of related services from third-party providers, which may be beyond our control. Such business interruptions could cause us to fail to meet customer requirements. All information systems, both internal and external, are potentially vulnerable to damage or interruption from a variety of sources, including without limitation, computer viruses, security breaches, energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, telecommunication failures, employee or other theft, and third-party provider failures. In addition, since telecommunications billing is inherently complex and requires highly sophisticated information systems to administer, our internally developed billing system, which is currently being implemented, may experience errors or we may improperly operate the system, which could result in the system incorrectly calculating the fees owed by our customers for our subscriptions or related taxes and administrative fees. Any such errors in our customer billing could harm our reputation and cause us to violate truth in billing laws and regulations. Our current internally developed billing system requires us to process an increasing number of invoices manually, which could result in billing errors. Any errors or disruption in our information systems and those of the third parties upon which we rely could have a significant impact on our business. In addition, we may implement further and enhanced information systems in the future to meet the demands resulting from our growth and to provide additional capabilities and functionality. The implementation of new systems and enhancements is frequently disruptive to the underlying business of an enterprise, and can be time-consuming and expensive, increase management responsibilities, and divert management attention.
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We depend largely on the continued services of our senior management and other highly-skilled employees, and if we are unable to hire, retain, manage and motivate our employees, we may not be able to grow effectively and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Our future performance depends on the continued services and contributions of our senior management and other key employees to execute on our business plan, and to identify and pursue opportunities and services innovations. The loss of services of senior management or other key employees could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our development and strategic objectives. In particular, we depend to a considerable degree on the vision, skills, experience, and effort of our co-founder, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Vladimir Shmunis. None of our executive officers or other senior management personnel is bound by a written employment agreement and any of them may therefore terminate employment with us at any time with no advance notice. The replacement of any of these senior management personnel would likely involve significant time and costs, and such loss could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives. The loss of the services of our senior management or other key employees for any reason could adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Our future success also depends on our ability to continue to attract and retain highly skilled personnel. We believe that there is, and will continue to be, intense competition for highly skilled technical and other personnel with experience in our industry in the San Francisco Bay Area, where our headquarters is located, in Denver, Colorado, where our U.S. sales and customer support office and our network operations center is located, and in other locations where we maintain offices. In addition, changes to U.S. immigration policies, particularly to H-1B and other visa programs, and restrictions on travel (including but not limited to current travel restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic) could restrain the flow of technical and professional talent into the U.S. and may inhibit our ability to hire qualified personnel. We must provide competitive compensation packages and a high-quality work environment to hire, retain, and motivate employees. If we are unable to retain and motivate our existing employees and attract qualified personnel to fill key positions, we may be unable to manage our business effectively, including the development, marketing, and sale of existing and new subscriptions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. To the extent we hire personnel from competitors, we may be subject to allegations that they have been improperly solicited or divulged proprietary or other confidential information. Volatility in, or lack of performance of, our stock price may also affect our ability to attract and retain key personnel.
Increased customer turnover, or costs we incur to retain and upsell our customers, could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.
Although we have entered into long-term contracts with larger customers, those customers who do not have long-term contracts with us may terminate their subscriptions at any time without penalty or early termination charges. We cannot accurately predict the rate of customer terminations or average monthly subscription cancellations or failures to renew, which we refer to as turnover. Our customers with subscription agreements have no obligation to renew their subscriptions for our service after the expiration of their initial subscription period, which is typically between one and three years. In the event that these customers do renew their subscriptions, they may choose to renew for fewer users, shorter contract lengths, or for a less expensive subscription plan or edition. We cannot predict the renewal rates for customers that have entered into subscription contracts with us.
Customer turnover, as well as reductions in the number of users for which a customer subscribes, each could have a significant impact on our results of operations, as does the cost we incur in our efforts to retain our customers and encourage them to upgrade their subscriptions and increase their number of users. Our turnover rate could increase in the future if customers are not satisfied with our subscriptions, the value proposition of our subscriptions or our ability to otherwise meet their needs and expectations. Turnover and reductions in the number of users for whom a customer subscribes may also increase due to factors beyond our control, including the failure or unwillingness of customers to pay their monthly subscription fees due to financial constraints and the impact of a slowing economy. In addition, any economic downturn resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic could cause financial hardship for our customers, decrease technology spending and materially and negatively impact our customers’ willingness to enter into or renew subscriptions with us, or cause our customers to seek a decrease in the number of users or solutions for which they subscribe. For example, to address customer hardships, in vertical markets most impacted by COVID-19, such as retail and hospitality, we are actively working with some customers to provide greater flexibility to manage challenges they are facing, but we cannot be assured that they will not reduce their number of users or terminate their subscriptions altogether. Due to turnover and reductions in the number of users for whom a customer subscribes, we must acquire new customers, or acquire new users within our existing customer base, on an ongoing basis simply to maintain our existing level of customers and revenues. If a significant number of customers terminate, reduce, or fail to renew their subscriptions, we may be required to incur significantly higher marketing expenditures than we currently
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anticipate in order to increase the number of new customers or to upsell existing customers, and such additional marketing expenditures could harm our business and results of operations.
Our future success also depends in part on our ability to sell additional subscriptions and additional functionalities to our current customers. This may require increasingly sophisticated and more costly sales efforts and a longer sales cycle. Any increase in the costs necessary to upgrade, expand and retain existing customers could materially and adversely affect our financial performance. If our efforts to convince customers to add users and, in the future, to purchase additional functionalities are not successful, our business may suffer. In addition, such increased costs could cause us to increase our subscription rates, which could increase our turnover rate.
If we are unable to attract new customers to our subscriptions or upsell to those customers on a cost-effective basis, our business will be materially and adversely affected.
In order to grow our business, we must continue to attract new customers and expand the number of users in, and services provided to, our existing customer base on a cost-effective basis. We use and periodically adjust the mix of advertising and marketing programs to promote our subscriptions. Significant increases in the pricing of one or more of our advertising channels would increase our advertising costs or may cause us to choose less expensive and perhaps less effective channels to promote our subscriptions. As we add to or change the mix of our advertising and marketing strategies, we may need to expand into channels with significantly higher costs than our current programs, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic and global slowdown of economic activity has and will continue to disrupt our sales channels and our ability to attract new customers, which may require us to adjust our advertising and marketing programs or make further investments in these programs. We will incur advertising and marketing expenses in advance of when we anticipate recognizing any revenues generated by such expenses, and we may fail to otherwise experience an increase in revenues or brand awareness as a result of such expenditures. We have made in the past, and may make in the future, significant expenditures and investments in new advertising campaigns, and we cannot assure you that any such investments will lead to the cost-effective acquisition of additional customers. If we are unable to maintain effective advertising programs, our ability to attract new customers could be materially and adversely affected, our advertising and marketing expenses could increase substantially, and our results of operations may suffer.
Some of our potential customers learn about us through leading search engines, such as Google, Yahoo!, and Bing. While we employ search engine optimization and search engine marketing strategies, our ability to maintain and increase the number of visitors directed to our website is not entirely within our control. If search engine companies modify their search algorithms in a manner that reduces the prominence of our listing, or if our competitors’ search engine optimization efforts are more successful than ours, or if search engine companies restrict or prohibit us from using their services, fewer potential customers may click through to our website. In addition, the cost of purchased listings has increased in the past and may increase in the future. A decrease in website traffic or an increase in search costs could materially and adversely affect our customer acquisition efforts and our results of operations.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been an increase in the rate of adoption of video and web conferencing solutions; however, we cannot predict whether or for how long these patterns will continue.
A significant portion of our revenues today come from small and medium-sized businesses, which may have fewer financial resources to weather an economic downturn.
A significant portion of our revenues today come from small and medium-sized businesses. These customers may be materially and adversely affected by economic downturns to a greater extent than larger, more established businesses. These businesses typically have more limited financial resources, including capital-borrowing capacity, than larger entities. The COVID-19 pandemic has had adverse effects on economies and financial markets globally, which have particularly impacted many small and medium sized businesses. Any economic downturn resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and preventative measures taken by governments and private business worldwide could decrease technology spending and adversely affect demand for our offerings and harm our business and results of operations. Although the U.S. government and others throughout the world have taken steps to provide monetary and fiscal assistance to individuals and businesses affected by the pandemic, it is unclear whether government actions will successfully avert or mitigate any economic downturn. As the majority of our customers pay for our subscriptions through credit and debit cards, weakness in certain segments of the credit markets and in the U.S. and global economies has resulted in and may in the future result in increased numbers of rejected credit and debit card payments, which could materially affect our business by increasing customer cancellations and impacting our ability to engage new small and medium-sized customers. If small and medium-sized businesses experience financial hardship as a result of a
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weak economy, industry consolidation or for any other reason, the overall demand for our subscriptions could be materially and adversely affected.
We face significant risks in our strategy to target medium-sized and larger businesses for sales of our subscriptions and, if we do not manage these efforts effectively, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Sales to medium-sized and larger businesses continue to grow in both absolute dollars and as a percentage of our total sales. As we continue to target more of our sales efforts to medium-sized and larger businesses, we expect to incur higher costs and longer sales cycles and we may be less effective at predicting when we will complete these sales. In these market segments, the decision to purchase our subscriptions generally requires the approval of more technical personnel and management levels within a potential customer’s organization, and therefore, these types of sales require us to invest more time educating these potential customers about the benefits of our subscriptions. In addition, larger customers may demand more features, integration services, and customization, and may require highly skilled sales and support personnel. Our investment in marketing our subscriptions to these potential customers may not be successful, which could significantly and adversely affect our results of operations and our overall ability to grow our customer base. Furthermore, many medium-sized and larger businesses that we target for sales may already purchase business communications solutions from our larger competitors. As a result of these factors, these sales opportunities may require us to devote greater research and development resources and sales support to individual customers, and invest in hiring and retaining highly skilled personnel, resulting in increased costs and could likely lengthen our typical sales cycle, which could strain our sales and support resources. Moreover, these larger transactions may require us to delay recognizing the associated revenues we derive from these customers until any technical or implementation requirements have been met.
Support for smartphones and tablets are an integral part of our solutions. If we are unable to develop robust mobile applications that operate on mobile platforms that our customers use, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Our solutions allow our customers to use and manage our cloud-based business communications solution on smart devices. As new smart devices and operating systems are released, we may encounter difficulties supporting these devices and services, and we may need to devote significant resources to the creation, support, and maintenance of our mobile applications. In addition, if we experience difficulties in the future integrating our mobile applications into smart devices or if problems arise with our relationships with providers of mobile operating systems, such as those of Apple Inc. or Alphabet Inc. (the parent company of Google Inc.), our future growth and our results of operations could suffer.
If we are unable to develop, license, or acquire new services or applications on a timely and cost-effective basis, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
The cloud-based business communications industry is an emerging market that is characterized by rapid development of and changes in customer requirements, frequent introductions of new and enhanced services, and continuing and rapid technological advancement. We cannot predict the effect of technological changes or the introduction of new, disruptive technologies on our business, and the market for cloud-based business communications may develop more slowly than we anticipate, or develop in a manner different than we expect, and our solutions could fail to achieve market acceptance. Our continued growth depends on continued use of voice and video communications by businesses, as compared to email and other data-based methods, and future demand for and adoption of Internet voice and video communications systems and services. In addition, to compete successfully in this emerging market, we must anticipate and adapt to technological changes and evolving industry standards, and continue to design, develop, manufacture, and sell new and enhanced services that provide increasingly higher levels of performance and reliability at lower cost. Currently, we derive a majority of our revenues from subscriptions to RingCentral Office, and we expect this will continue for the foreseeable future. However, our future success will also depend on our ability to introduce and sell new services, features, and functionality that enhance or are beyond the subscriptions we currently offer, as well as to improve usability and support and increase customer satisfaction. Our failure to develop solutions that satisfy customer preferences in a timely and cost-effective manner may harm our ability to renew our subscriptions with existing customers and create or increase demand for our subscriptions and may materially and adversely impact our results of operations.
The introduction of new services by competitors or the development of entirely new technologies to replace existing offerings could make our solutions obsolete or adversely affect our business and results of operations. Announcements of future releases and new services and technologies by our competitors or us could cause customers to defer purchases of our existing subscriptions, which also could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. We
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may experience difficulties with software development, operations, design, or marketing that could delay or prevent our development, introduction, or implementation of new or enhanced services and applications. We have in the past experienced delays in the planned release dates of new features and upgrades and have discovered defects in new services and applications after their introduction. We cannot assure you that new features or upgrades will be released according to schedule, or that, when released, they will not contain defects. Either of these situations could result in adverse publicity, loss of revenues, delay in market acceptance, or claims by customers brought against us, all of which could harm our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition. Moreover, the development of new or enhanced services or applications may require substantial investment, and we must continue to invest a significant amount of resources in our research and development efforts to develop these services and applications to remain competitive. We do not know whether these investments will be successful. If customers do not widely adopt any new or enhanced services and applications, we may not be able to realize a return on our investment. If we are unable to develop, license, or acquire new or enhanced services and applications on a timely and cost-effective basis, or if such new or enhanced services and applications do not achieve market acceptance, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.
If we fail to continue to develop our brand or our reputation is harmed, our business may suffer.
We believe that continuing to strengthen our current brand will be critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our subscriptions and will require continued focus on active marketing efforts. The demand for and cost of online and traditional advertising have been increasing and may continue to increase. Accordingly, we may need to increase our investment in, and devote greater resources to, advertising, marketing, and other efforts to create and maintain brand loyalty among users. Brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenues, and even if they do, any increased revenues may not offset the expenses incurred in building our brand. In addition, if we do not handle customer complaints effectively, our brand and reputation may suffer, we may lose our customers’ confidence, and they may choose to terminate, reduce or not to renew their subscriptions. Many of our customers also participate in social media and online blogs about Internet-based software solutions, including our subscriptions, and our success depends in part on our ability to minimize negative and generate positive customer feedback through such online channels where existing and potential customers seek and share information. If we fail to sufficiently invest in, promote and maintain our brand, our business could be materially and adversely affected.
If we experience excessive fraudulent activity or cannot meet evolving credit card association merchant standards, we could incur substantial costs and lose the right to accept credit cards for payment, which could cause our customer base to decline significantly.
Most of our customers authorize us to bill their credit card accounts directly for service fees that we charge. If customers pay for our subscriptions with stolen credit cards, we could incur substantial third-party vendor costs for which we may not be reimbursed. Further, our customers provide us with credit card billing information online or over the phone, and we do not review the physical credit cards used in these transactions, which increases our risk of exposure to fraudulent activity. We also incur charges, which are referred to in the industry as chargebacks, from the credit card companies from claims that a customer did not authorize the specific credit card transaction to purchase our subscription. If the number of chargebacks becomes excessive, we could be assessed substantial fines or be charged higher transaction fees, and we could lose the right to accept credit cards for payment. In addition, credit card issuers may change merchant and/or service provider standards, including data protection standards, required to utilize their services from time to time. We have established and implemented measures intended to comply with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (“PCI DSS”) in the U.S., Canada, and the U.K. If we fail to maintain compliance with such standards or fail to meet new standards, the credit card associations could fine us or terminate their agreements with us, and we would be unable to accept credit cards as payment for our subscriptions. If we fail to maintain compliance with current service provider standards, such as PCI DSS, or fail to meet new standards, customers may choose not to use our services for certain types of communication they have with their customers. If such a failure to comply with relevant standards occurs, we may also face legal liability if we are found to not comply with applicable laws that incorporate, by reference or by adoption of substantially similar provisions, merchant or service provider standards, including PCI DSS. Our subscriptions may also be subject to fraudulent usage, including but not limited to revenue share fraud, domestic traffic pumping, subscription fraud, premium text message scams, and other fraudulent schemes. This usage can result in, among other things, substantial bills from our vendors, for which we would be responsible, for terminating fraudulent call traffic. In addition, third parties may have attempted in the past, and may attempt in the future, to induce employees, sub-contractors, or consultants into disclosing customer credentials and other account information, which can result in unauthorized access to customer accounts and customer data, unauthorized use of customers’ services, charges to customers for fraudulent usage and costs that we must pay to carriers. Although we implement multiple fraud prevention and detection controls, we cannot assure you that these controls will be adequate to protect against fraud. Substantial losses due to fraud or our inability to accept credit card payments could cause our paid customer base to significantly decrease, which would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and ability to grow our business.
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We are in the process of expanding our international operations, which exposes us to significant risks.
We have significant operations in the U.S., Canada, the U.K., Russia, China, Ukraine, the Philippines and France. We also sell our solutions to customers in other countries in the EU and in Australia, and we expect to grow our international presence in the future. The future success of our business will depend, in part, on our ability to expand our operations and customer base worldwide. Operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention and will subject us to regulatory, economic, and political risks that are different from those in the U.S. Due to our limited experience with international operations and developing and managing sales and distribution channels in international markets, our international expansion efforts may not be successful. In addition, we will face risks in doing business internationally that could materially and adversely affect our business, including:

our ability to comply with differing and evolving technical and environmental standards, telecommunications regulations, and certification requirements outside the U.S.;
difficulties and costs associated with staffing and managing foreign operations;
our ability to effectively price our subscriptions in competitive international markets;
potentially greater difficulty collecting accounts receivable and longer payment cycles;
the need to adapt and localize our subscriptions for specific countries;
the need to offer customer care in various native languages;
reliance on third parties over which we have limited control, including those that market and resell our subscriptions;
availability of reliable broadband connectivity and wide area networks in targeted areas for expansion;
lower levels of adoption of credit or debit card usage for Internet related purchases by foreign customers and compliance with various foreign regulations related to credit or debit card processing and data protection requirements;
difficulties in understanding and complying with local laws, regulations, and customs in foreign jurisdictions;
restrictions on travel to or from countries in which we operate or inability to access certain areas;
export controls and economic sanctions;
changes in diplomatic and trade relationships, including tariffs and other non-tariff barriers, such as quotas and local content rules;
U.S. government trade restrictions, including those which may impose restrictions, including prohibitions, on the exportation, re-exportation, sale, shipment or other transfer of programming, technology, components, and/or services to foreign persons;
our ability to comply with different and evolving laws, rules, and regulations, including the European General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”) and other data privacy and data protection laws, rules and regulations;
compliance with various anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and U.K. Bribery Act of 2010;
more limited protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
adverse tax consequences;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
exchange control regulations, which might restrict or prohibit our conversion of other currencies into U.S. dollars;
restrictions on the transfer of funds;
new and different sources of competition;
natural disasters or global health crises, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;
political and economic instability created by the U.K.'s departure from the EU (“Brexit”); and
deterioration of political relations between the U.S. and other countries in which we operate, particularly Russia, Ukraine, China, and the Philippines; or
political or social unrest, economic instability, conflict or war in such countries, or sanctions implemented by the U.S. against these countries, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Our failure to manage any of these risks successfully could harm our future international operations and our overall business.
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We may expand through acquisitions of, investments in, or strategic partnerships or other strategic transactions with other companies, each of which may divert our management’s attention, result in additional dilution to our stockholders, increase expenses, disrupt our operations, and harm our results of operations.
Our business strategy may, from time to time, include acquiring or investing in complementary services, technologies or businesses, strategic investments and partnerships, or other strategic transactions, such as our investment in and strategic partnerships with Avaya, Atos, ALE and Vodafone. We cannot assure you that we will successfully identify suitable acquisition candidates or transaction counterparties, securely or effectively integrate or manage disparate technologies, lines of business, personnel and corporate cultures, realize our business strategy or the expected return on our investment, or manage a geographically dispersed company. Any such acquisition, investment, strategic partnership, or other strategic transaction could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. The process of negotiating, effecting, and realizing the benefits from acquisitions, investments, strategic partnerships, and strategic transactions is complex, expensive and time-consuming, and may cause an interruption of, or loss of momentum in, development and sales activities and operations of both companies, and we may incur substantial cost and expense, as well as divert the attention of management. We may issue equity securities which could dilute current stockholders’ ownership, incur debt, assume contingent or other liabilities and expend cash in acquisitions, investments, strategic partnerships, and other strategic transactions which could negatively impact our financial position, stockholder equity, and stock price.
Acquisitions, investments, strategic partnerships, and other strategic transactions involve significant risks and uncertainties, including:
the potential failure to achieve the expected benefits of the acquisition, investment, strategic partnership, or other strategic transaction;
unanticipated costs and liabilities;
difficulties in integrating new solutions and subscriptions, software, businesses, operations, and technology infrastructure in an efficient and effective manner;
difficulties in maintaining customer relations;
the potential loss of key employees of any acquired businesses;
the diversion of the attention of our senior management from the operation of our daily business;
the potential adverse effect on our cash position to the extent that we use cash for the transaction consideration;
the potential significant increase of our interest expense, leverage, and debt service requirements if we incur additional debt to pay for an acquisition, investment, strategic partnership, or other strategic transaction;
the potential issuance of securities that would dilute our stockholders’ percentage ownership;
the potential to incur large and immediate write-offs and restructuring and other related expenses;
the potential liability or expenses associated with new types of data stored, existing security obligations or liabilities, unknown weaknesses in our solutions, insufficient security measures in place, and compromise of our networks via access to our systems from assets not previously under our control; and
the inability to maintain uniform standards, controls, policies, and procedures.
Any acquisition, investment, strategic partnership, or other strategic transaction could expose us to unknown liabilities. Moreover, we cannot assure you that we will realize the anticipated benefits of any acquisition, investment, strategic partnership, or other strategic transaction. In addition, our inability to successfully operate and integrate newly acquired businesses or newly formed strategic partnerships appropriately, effectively, and in a timely manner could impair our ability to take advantage of future growth opportunities and other advances in technology, as well as on our revenues, gross margins, and expenses.
For example, in connection with our strategic partnership with Avaya, we purchased $125.0 million of Avaya Series A Preferred Stock and made an advance of $375.0 million, predominantly for future fees, as well as for certain licensing rights (paid primarily in our Class A Common Stock). These are significant investments on which we may not realize the anticipated benefits for various reasons, including a lack of success in the marketing and sale of ACO, potential or actual financial distress, insolvency, or bankruptcy of Avaya or any of its subsidiaries, or other facts or circumstances that may limit our ability to recover, or realize benefits from, these investments.
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We may be subject to liabilities on past sales for taxes, surcharges, and fees and our operating results may be harmed if we are required to collect such amounts in jurisdictions where we have not historically done so.
We believe we collect state and local sales tax and use, excise, utility user, and ad valorem taxes, fees, or surcharges in all relevant jurisdictions in which we generate sales, based on our understanding of the applicable laws in those jurisdictions. Such tax, fees and surcharge laws and rates vary greatly by jurisdiction, and the application of such taxes to e-commerce businesses, such as ours, is a complex and evolving area. There is uncertainty as to what constitutes sufficient “in state presence” for a state to levy taxes, fees, and surcharges for sales made over the Internet, and after the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling in South Dakota v. Wayfair, U.S. states may require an online retailer with no in-state property or personnel to collect and remit sales tax on sales to the state’s residents, which may permit wider enforcement of sales tax collection requirements. Therefore, the application of existing or future laws relating to indirect taxes to our business, or the audit of our business and operations with respect to such taxes or challenges of our positions by taxing authorities, all could result in increased tax liabilities for us or our customers that could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and our relationships with our customers.
We may be unable to use some or all of our net operating loss carryforwards, which could materially and adversely affect our reported financial condition and results of operations.
As of December 31, 2020, we have federal net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”) of $1.4 billion, of which $272.9 million expire between 2023 and 2037 and the remainder do not expire. Additionally, we have state net operating loss carryforwards of $1.1 billion which will begin to expire in 2021. We also have federal research tax credit carryforwards that will begin to expire in 2028. Realization of these net operating loss and research tax credit carryforwards depends on future income, and there is a risk that our existing carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
In addition, under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, our ability to utilize NOLs or other tax attributes, such as research tax credits, in any taxable year may be limited if we experience an “ownership change.” An “ownership change” generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders, who each own at least 5% of our stock, increase their collective ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws.
No material deferred tax assets have been recognized on our Consolidated Balance Sheets related to these NOLs, as they are fully offset by a valuation allowance. If we have previously had, or have in the future, one or more Section 382 “ownership changes,” including in connection with our initial public offering or another offering, or if we do not generate sufficient taxable income, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of our NOLs, even if we achieve profitability. If we are limited in our ability to use our NOLs in future years in which we have taxable income, we will pay more taxes than if we were able to fully utilize our NOLs. This could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
If we are unable to effectively process local number and toll-free number portability provisioning in a timely manner, our growth may be negatively affected.
We support local number and toll-free number portability, which allows our customers to transfer to us and thereby retain their existing phone numbers when subscribing to our services. Transferring numbers is a manual process that can take up to 15 business days or longer to complete. A new customer of our subscriptions must maintain both our subscription and the customer’s existing phone service during the number transferring process. Any delay that we experience in transferring these numbers typically results from the fact that we depend on third-party carriers to transfer these numbers, a process that we do not control, and these third-party carriers may refuse or substantially delay the transfer of these numbers to us. Local number portability is considered an important feature by many potential customers, and if we fail to reduce any related delays, we may experience increased difficulty in acquiring new customers. Moreover, the FCC requires Internet voice communications providers to comply with specified number porting timeframes when customers leave our subscription for the services of another provider. Several international jurisdictions have imposed similar number portability requirements on subscription providers like us. If we or our third-party carriers are unable to process number portability requests within the requisite timeframes, we could be subject to fines and penalties. Additionally, in the U.S., both customers and carriers may seek relief from the relevant state public utility commission, the FCC, or in state or federal court for violation of local number portability requirements.
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Our business could suffer if we cannot obtain or retain direct inward dialing numbers or are prohibited from obtaining local or toll-free numbers or if we are limited to distributing local or toll-free numbers to only certain customers.
Our future success depends on our ability to procure large quantities of local and toll-free direct inward dialing numbers (“DIDs”) in the U.S. and foreign countries in desirable locations at a reasonable cost and without restrictions. Our ability to procure and distribute DIDs depends on factors outside of our control, such as applicable regulations, the practices of the communications carriers that provide DIDs, the cost of these DIDs, and the level of demand for new DIDs. Due to their limited availability, there are certain popular area code prefixes that we generally cannot obtain. Our inability to acquire DIDs for our operations would make our subscriptions less attractive to potential customers in the affected local geographic areas. In addition, future growth in our customer base, together with growth in the customer bases of other providers of cloud-based business communications, has increased, which increases our dependence on needing sufficiently large quantities of DIDs.
We may not be able to manage our inventory levels effectively, which may lead to inventory obsolescence that would force us to incur inventory write-downs.
Our vendor-supplied phones have lead times of up to several months for delivery to our fulfillment agents and are built to forecasts that are necessarily imprecise. It is likely that, from time to time, we will have either excess or insufficient product inventory. In addition, because we rely on third-party vendors for the supply of our vendor-supplied phones, our inventory levels are subject to the conditions regarding the timing of purchase orders and delivery dates that are not within our control. Excess inventory levels would subject us to the risk of inventory obsolescence, while insufficient levels of inventory may negatively affect relations with customers. For instance, our customers rely upon our ability to meet committed delivery dates, and any disruption in the supply of our subscriptions could result in loss of customers or harm to our ability to attract new customers. Any reduction or interruption in the ability of our vendors to supply our customers with vendor-supplied phones, including as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, could cause us to lose revenue, damage our customer relationships and harm our reputation in the marketplace. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We currently depend on three phone device suppliers and two fulfillment agents to configure and deliver the phones that we sell and any delay or interruption in manufacturing, configuring and delivering by these third parties would result in delayed or reduced shipments to our customers and may harm our business.
We rely on three suppliers to provide phones that we offer for sale to our customers that use our subscriptions, and we rely on two fulfillment agents to configure and deliver the phones that we sell to our customers. Accordingly, we could be adversely affected if such third parties fail to maintain competitive phones or configuration services or fail to continue to make them available on attractive terms, or at all. These suppliers have been and will continue to be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, which could affect their ability to perform satisfactorily or at all.
If our fulfillment agents are unable to deliver phones of acceptable quality, or if there is a reduction or interruption in their ability to supply the phones in a timely manner, our ability to bring services to market, the reliability of our subscriptions and our relationships with customers or our overall reputation in the marketplace could suffer, which could cause us to lose revenue. We expect that it could take several months to effectively transition to new third-party manufacturers or fulfillment agents.
If our vendor-supplied phones are not able to interoperate effectively with our own back-end servers and systems, our customers may not be able to use our subscriptions, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Phones must interoperate with our back-end servers and systems, which contain complex specifications and utilize multiple protocol standards and software applications. Currently, the phones used by our customers are manufactured by only three third-party providers. If any of these providers changes the operation of their phones, we will be required to undertake development and testing efforts to ensure that the new phones interoperate with our system. In addition, we must be successful in integrating our solutions with strategic partners' devices in order to market and sell these solutions. These efforts may require significant capital and employee resources, and we may not accomplish these development efforts quickly or cost-effectively, if at all. If our vendor-supplied phones do not interoperate effectively with our system, our customers’ ability to use our subscriptions could be delayed or orders for our subscriptions could be canceled, which would harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
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We may require additional capital to pursue our business objectives and to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances. If capital is not available to us, our business, results of operations, and financial condition may be adversely affected.
We intend to continue to make expenditures and investments to support the growth of our business and may require additional capital to pursue our business objectives and respond to business opportunities, challenges, or unforeseen circumstances, including the need to develop new solutions or enhance our existing solutions, enhance our operating infrastructure, and acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. However, additional funds may not be available when we need them on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. Any debt financing that we secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities. In addition, the restrictive covenants in credit facilities we may secure in the future may restrict us from being able to conduct our operations in a manner required for our business and may restrict our growth, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
We cannot assure you that we will be able to comply with any such restrictive covenants. In the event that we are unable to comply with these covenants in the future, we would seek an amendment or waiver of the covenants. We cannot assure you that any such waiver or amendment would be granted. In such event, we may be required to repay any or all of our existing borrowings, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to borrow under our existing credit agreements, or obtain alternative funding arrangements on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
In addition, volatility in the credit markets, including any due to the COVID-19 pandemic, may have an adverse effect on our ability to obtain debt financing. The conversion of our 0% convertible senior notes due 2023 (the “2023 Notes”), our 0% convertible senior notes due 2025 (the “2025 Notes”) and our 0% convertible senior notes due 2026 (the “2026 Notes” and, together with the 2023 Notes and the 2025 Notes, the “Notes”) and any future issuances of other equity or any future issuances of equity or convertible debt securities could result in significant dilution to our existing stockholders, and any new equity or convertible debt securities we issue could have rights, preferences, and privileges superior to those of holders of our Class A Common Stock. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, when we require it, our ability to continue to pursue our business objectives and to respond to business opportunities, challenges, or unforeseen circumstances could be significantly limited, and our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
Risks Related to Regulatory Matters
Our subscriptions are subject to regulation, and future legislative or regulatory actions could adversely affect our business and expose us to liability in the U.S. and internationally.
Federal Regulation
Our business is regulated by the FCC. As a communications services provider, we are subject to existing or potential FCC regulations relating to privacy, disability access, porting of numbers, maintaining records for disconnected numbers, cooperation with law enforcement, Federal Universal Service Fund (“USF”) contributions, Enhanced 911 (“E-911”), outage reporting, call authentication, call spoofing, call blocking and other requirements and regulations. FCC classification of our Internet voice communications services as telecommunications services could result in additional federal and state regulatory obligations. If we do not comply with FCC rules and regulations, we could be subject to FCC enforcement actions, fines, loss of licenses, and possibly restrictions on our ability to operate or offer certain of our subscriptions. Any enforcement action by the FCC, which may be a public process, would hurt our reputation in the industry, possibly impair our ability to sell our subscriptions to customers and could have a materially adverse impact on our revenues.
Through RCLEC, we also provide competitive local exchange carrier (“CLEC”) services which are regulated by the FCC as traditional telecommunications services. Our CLEC services depend on certain provisions of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 that require incumbent local exchange carriers (“ILECs”) to provide us facilities and services that are necessary to provide our services. Over the past several years, the FCC has reduced or eliminated a number of regulations governing ILECs’ wholesale offerings. If ILECs were no longer required by law to provide such services to us, or ceased to provide these services at reasonable rates, terms and conditions, our business could be adversely affected and our cost of providing CLEC services could increase. This could have a materially adverse impact on our results of operations and cash flows.
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In addition, the federal Telephone Consumer Protection Act (“TCPA”) and FCC rules implementing the TCPA, prohibit sending unsolicited facsimile advertisements or making illegal robocalls, subject to certain exceptions. The FCC may take enforcement action against persons or entities that send “junk faxes,” or make illegal robocalls and individuals also may have a private cause of action. Although the FCC’s rules prohibiting unsolicited fax advertisements or making illegal robocalls apply to those who “send” the advertisements or make the calls, fax transmitters or other service providers that have a high degree of involvement in, or actual notice of, unlawful sending of junk faxes or making of illegal robocalls and have failed to take steps to prevent such transmissions may also face liability under the FCC’s rules, or in the case of illegal robocalls, Federal Trade Commission rules. We take significant steps designed to prevent our systems from being used to make illegal robocalls or send unsolicited faxes on a large scale, and we do not believe that we have a high degree of involvement in, or notice of, the use of our systems to broadcast junk faxes or make illegal robocalls. However, because fax transmitters and related service providers do not enjoy an absolute exemption from liability under the TCPA and related FCC rules, we could face FCC or FTC inquiry and enforcement or civil litigation, or private causes of action, if someone uses our system for such purposes. If any of these were to occur, we could be required to incur significant costs and management’s attention could be diverted. Further, if we were to be held liable for the use of our service to send unsolicited faxes or make illegal robocalls or to settle any action or proceeding, any judgment, settlement, or penalties could cause a material adverse effect on our operations.
State Regulation
States currently do not regulate our Internet voice communications subscriptions, which are considered to be nomadic because they can be used from any broadband connection. However, a number of states require us to register as a Voice over Internet Protocol (“VoIP”) provider, contribute to state USF, contribute to E-911, and pay other surcharges and annual fees that fund various utility commission programs, while others are actively considering extending their public policy programs to include the subscriptions we provide. We pass USF, E-911 fees, and other surcharges through to our customers, which may result in our subscriptions becoming more expensive or require that we absorb these costs. State public utility commissions may attempt to apply state telecommunications regulations to Internet voice communications subscriptions like ours.
RCLEC services are subject to regulation by the public utility regulatory agency in those states where we provide local telecommunications services. This regulation includes the requirement to obtain a certificate of public convenience and necessity or other similar licenses prior to offering our CLEC services. We may also be required to file tariffs that describe our CLEC services and provide rates for those services. We are also required to comply with regulations that vary by state concerning service quality, disconnection and billing requirements. State commissions also have authority to review and approve interconnection agreements between incumbent phone carriers and CLECs such as our subsidiary.
Both we and RCLEC are also subject to state consumer protection laws, as well as U.S. state or municipal sales, use, excise, gross receipts, utility user and ad valorem taxes, fees, or surcharges.
International Regulation
As we expand internationally, we may be subject to telecommunications, consumer protection, data protection, emergency call services, and other laws, regulations, taxes, and fees in the foreign countries where we offer our subscriptions. Any foreign regulations could impose substantial compliance costs on us, restrict our ability to compete, and impact our ability to expand our service offerings in certain markets. Moreover, the regulatory environment is constantly evolving and changes to the applicable regulations could impose additional compliance costs and require modifications to our technology and operations. Internationally, we currently offer our subscriptions in Canada, the U.K., Australia, and several European countries. We also offer our Global Office solution, enabling our multinational customers in the U.S., U.K., Canada, and other locations where we sell our solutions, to establish local phone solutions in various countries internationally. We may be subject to telecommunications, consumer protection, data protection, emergency call services, call authentication, and other laws and regulations in additional countries as we continue to expand our Global Office solution internationally.
In addition, our international operations are potentially subject to country-specific governmental regulation and related actions that may increase our costs or impact our solution and service offerings or prevent us from offering or providing our solutions and subscriptions in certain countries. Certain of our subscriptions may be used by customers located in countries where VoIP and other forms of IP communications may be illegal or require special licensing or in countries on a U.S. embargo list. Even where our solutions are reportedly illegal or become illegal or where users are located in an embargoed country, users in those countries may be able to continue to use our solutions and subscriptions in those countries notwithstanding the illegality or embargo. We may be subject to penalties or governmental action if customers continue to use our solutions and subscriptions in countries where it is illegal to do so, and any such penalties or governmental action may be costly and may harm our business and damage our brand and reputation. We may be required to incur additional expenses to meet applicable international regulatory requirements or be required to discontinue those subscriptions if required by law or if we cannot or will not meet those requirements.
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The increasing growth and popularity of Internet voice communications, video conferencing and messaging heighten the risk that governments will regulate or impose new or increased fees or taxes on these services. To the extent that the use of our subscriptions continues to grow, and our user base continues to expand, regulators may be more likely to seek to regulate or impose new or additional taxes, surcharges or fees on our subscriptions.
We process, store, and use personal information and other data, which subjects us and our customers to a variety of evolving international statutes, governmental regulation, industry standards and self-regulatory schemes, contractual obligations, and other legal obligations related to privacy and data protection, which may increase our costs, decrease adoption and use of our solutions and subscriptions, and expose us to liability.
In the course of providing our services, we collect, store, and process many types of data, including personal data. Moreover, our customers can use our subscriptions to store contact and other personal or identifying information, and to process, transmit, receive, store, and retrieve a variety of communications and messages, including information about their own customers and other contacts. Customers are able, and may be authorized under certain circumstances, to use our subscriptions to transmit, receive, and/or store personal information.
There are a number of federal, state, local, and foreign laws and regulations, as well as contractual obligations and industry standards, that provide for certain obligations and restrictions with respect to data privacy and security, and the collection, storage, retention, protection, use, processing, transmission, sharing, disclosure, and protection of personal information and other customer data. We expect that with the implementation of our Global Office solution, we may become subject to additional data privacy regulations in other countries throughout the world. The scope of these obligations and restrictions is changing, subject to differing interpretations, and may be inconsistent among countries or conflict with other rules, and their status remains uncertain. Failure to comply with obligations and restrictions related to data privacy and security in any jurisdiction in which we operate could subject us to lawsuits, fines, criminal penalties, statutory damages, consent decrees, injunctions, adverse publicity, and other losses that could harm our business.
For example, the GDPR, which came into force in May 2018, strengthened the existing data protection regulations in the EU and its provisions include increasing the maximum level of fines that EU regulators may impose for the most serious of breaches to the greater of €20 million or 4% of worldwide annual turnover. Such fines would be in addition to (i) the rights of individuals to sue for damages in respect of any data privacy breach which causes them to suffer harm and (ii) the right of individual member states to impose additional sanctions over and above the administrative fines specified in the GDPR. Other examples include, but are not limited to, Canadian anti-spam legislation and Australia’s Spam Act 2003, as amended.
Until recently, we used the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield framework as well as the Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield framework and EU Standard Contractual Clauses (“Model Clauses”) to protect data exports between the European Economic Area (the “EEA”) and U.S. On July 16, 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union, invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield as a mechanism to transfer EU personal data to the U.S. and imposed additional requirements for data transfers under Model Clauses. On September 8, 2020 the Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner of Switzerland issued an opinion concluding that the Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield did not provide an adequate level of protection for data transfers from Switzerland to the U.S. pursuant to Swiss data protection law. We rely on alternative data transfer mechanisms such as the Model Clauses where we previously relied on the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield and Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield frameworks. Data protection authorities may require measures be put in place in addition to Model Clauses for transfers to countries outside of the EEA, Switzerland and the U.K.. We may, in addition to other impacts, experience additional costs associated with increased compliance burdens following this decision, and we and our customers face the potential for regulators in the EEA, Switzerland or the U.K. to apply different standards to the transfer of personal data from the EEA, Switzerland or the U.K. to the U.S. and other non-EEA countries, and to block, or require ad hoc verification of measures taken with respect to, certain data flows from the EEA, Switzerland and the U.K. to the U.S and other non-EEA countries. We also may be required to engage in new contract negotiations with third parties that aid in processing data on our behalf.
The European Commission has proposed new legislation to enhance privacy protections for users of communications services and to enhance protection for individuals against online tracking technologies. The proposed legislation, the Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications (the “e-Privacy Regulation”), is currently undergoing legislative scrutiny. When introduced, the e-Privacy Regulation is expected to impose greater potential liabilities upon communications service providers, including potential fines for the most serious of breaches of the greater of €20 million or 4% of worldwide annual turnover. New rules introduced by the e-Privacy Regulation are likely to include enhanced consent requirements for communications service providers in order to use communications content and communications metadata to deliver value added services, as well as restrict the use of data related to corporations and other non-natural persons. These restrictions, if adopted, may affect our future business growth in the EEA.
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The future of cross-border data flows from the EEA to the U.K. following the U.K.’s exit from the EU on January 31, 2020 is uncertain. Although the transition period ended on December 31, 2020, the UK-EU Trade and Cooperation Agreement delays any restrictions on cross-border data flows from the EEA to the U.K. for up to six months (the “Bridge”). A draft decision determining the “adequacy” of the privacy regime in the U.K. was published by the European Commission on February 19, 2021, and a legislative process is now in motion. This process may not conclude with a favorable outcome within the Bridge. If the EU does not provide the U.K. with an adequacy determination during the Bridge, it may become necessary for us to implement additional data export solutions like the Model Clauses to enable the continued flow of personal data to our U.K. operations from our EEA customers and affiliates. These solutions may take time and be challenging to put in place and, if not implemented promptly before or immediately following the Bridge, our business may be disrupted, and we may be exposed to potential regulatory fines and civil claims.
These developments and future regulatory guida