UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 


 

FORM 10-K

 


 

Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 

For Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2022.

 

Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the transition period from                       to                    

 

Commission file number: 001-32830

 

ex_386915img001.jpg

 

INDIA GLOBALIZATION CAPITAL, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

Maryland

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

20-2760393

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

 

10224 Falls Road, Potomac, Maryland

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

 

20854

(Zip Code)

 

(301) 983-0998

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Common Stock

IGC

NYSE American LLC

(Title of each class)

(Trading Symbol)

(Name of each exchange on which registered)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None.

 

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

☐ Yes ☑ No

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

☐ Yes ☑ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

☑ Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

☑ Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ☐

 

Accelerated filer ☐

Non-accelerated filer ☑

 

Smaller reporting company ☑

Emerging growth company ☐

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management assessment of the effectiveness of its Internal Control Over Financial Reporting under section 404 (b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its annual report. ☐ 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

☐ Yes ☑ No

 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, as of September 30, 2021, the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $70,376,026. Solely for purposes of this disclosure, shares of common stock held by executive officers and directors of the Registrant as of such date have been excluded because such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of executive officers and directors as affiliates is not necessarily a conclusive determination for any other purposes.

 

51,744,353 shares of our common stock were outstanding as of June 6, 2022.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

None

 

 

 

 

INDIA GLOBALIZATION CAPITAL, INC.

FORM 10-K

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31, 2022

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

Business

5

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

19

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

31

Item 2.

Properties

32

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

32

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

32

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

33

Item 6.

[Reserved]

34

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

35

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

45

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

46

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

71

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

71

Item 9B.

Other Information

71

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections.

71

   

    

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance

72

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

77

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

79

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

80

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

81

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

83

Item 16.

Form 10-K Summary

83

Signatures

84

 

 

 

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND IMPORTANT FACTORS

 

This report and the documents incorporated in this report by reference contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Additionally, we or our representatives may, from time to time, make other written or verbal forward-looking statements. In this report and the documents incorporated by reference, we discuss plans, expectations, and objectives regarding our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Without limiting the foregoing, statements that are in the future tense, and all statements accompanied by terms such as “believe,” “project,” “expect,” “trend,” “estimate,” “forecast,” “assume,” “intend,” “plan,” “target,” “anticipate,” “outlook,” “preliminary,” “will likely result,” “will continue,” and variations of them and similar terms are intended to be “forward-looking statements” as defined by federal securities laws. We caution you not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which are based upon assumptions, expectations, plans, and projections. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, including those identified in the “Risk Factors” included in this report and in the documents incorporated by reference that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date when they are made. Except as required by federal securities law, we do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events, circumstances, changes in expectations, or the occurrence of unanticipated events after the date of those statements.

 

Forward-looking statements are based upon, among other things, our assumptions with respect to:

 

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our results of operations, including the delay in our ability to launch certain projects;

our ability to successfully register trademarks and patents, create and market new products and services, including trading in Hong Kong and other parts of South Asia, contract for infrastructure projects and rental of equipment in India, and achieve customer acceptance in the industries we serve;

current and future economic and political conditions, including in Hong Kong, North America, Colombia, and India;

our ability to accurately predict the future demand for our products and services;

our ability to successfully market our hemp-based products in countries and states where hemp and hemp products are legal;

our ability to maintain a stock listing on a national securities exchange;

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our existing product candidates and any other product candidates we may develop, and the labeling under any approval we may obtain;

our ability to timely complete regulatory filings;

our ability to obtain the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) approval for an Investigational New Drug Application (“INDA”) and to successfully run medical trials, including a phase 2 trial for IGC-AD1;

the outcome of medical trials that are conducted on our Investigational Drug Candidates and products;

our ability to fund the costs of clinical trials and other related expenses;

our ability to maintain our intellectual property position and our ability to maintain and protect our intellectual property rights;

competition and general acceptance of phytocannabinoids for alternative, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical therapies;

our ability to effectively compete and our dependence on market acceptance of our brands and products within and outside the United States;

federal and state legislation, and administrative policy regulating phytocannabinoids;

our ability (based in part on regulatory concerns) to license our products to processors that can produce pharmaceutical grade phytocannabinoids;

our ability to obtain and protect patents for the use of phytocannabinoids in our formulations; and

our ability to obtain and install equipment for processing and manufacturing hemp and hemp products.

 

You should consider the limitations on, and risks associated with, forward-looking statements and not unduly rely on the accuracy of predictions contained in such forward-looking statements. As noted above, these forward-looking statements speak only as of the date when they are made. Moreover, in the future, we may make forward-looking statements through our senior management that involve the risk factors and other matters described in this report, as well as other risk factors subsequently identified, including, among others, those identified in our filings with the SEC in our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and our current reports on Form 8-K.

 

This document contains statements and claims that are not approved by the FDA, including statements on hemp and hemp extracts, including cannabidiol and other cannabinoids. These statements and claims are intended to be in compliance with state laws, specifically in states where medical cannabis has been legalized, and the diseases which we anticipate our products will target are approved conditions for treatment or usage with cannabis or cannabinoids.

 

 

PART I

 

Unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this report toIGC,” “the Company,” “we,” “our,andusrefer to India Globalization Capital, Inc., together with the subsidiaries identified in Exhibit 21.1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We exclude our investments and minority non-controlling interests and any information provided by them is not incorporated by reference in this report. They should not be considered part of this report.

 

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

 

Corporate History

 

IGC has two business segments: Infrastructure and Life Sciences. We are a Maryland corporation established in 2005 with a fiscal year that is the 52- or 53-week period that ends on March 31.

 

Infrastructure Segment

 

The India based infrastructure segment involves the execution of construction contracts.

 

Life Sciences Segment

 

Biopharmaceutical: Since 2014, this part of our business has focused primarily on the potential uses of phytocannabinoids, including Tetrahydrocannabinol (“THC”) and Cannabidiol (“CBD”), in combination with other compounds to treat multiple diseases, including Alzheimer’s. As a company engaged in the clinical-stage biopharmaceutical industry, we focus our research and development efforts, subject to results of future clinical trials, on seeking pharmaceutical solutions that may a) alleviate neuropsychiatric symptoms such as agitation, anxiety, and depression associated with dementia in Alzheimer’s disease; and b) halt the onset, progression, or cure Alzheimer’s disease. We currently have one investigational new drug candidate, “IGC-AD1”, in a Phase 2 clinical trial for agitation in dementia from Alzheimer’s. IGC-AD1 is a cannabis-based compound, which is made up of ultra-low doses of THC along with another compound as active ingredients. The second molecule, TGR-63, is an enzyme inhibitor that has been shown, in pre-clinical trials, to reduce neurotoxicity in Alzheimer’s cell lines. Neurotoxicity causes cell dysfunction and death in Alzheimer’s disease. If shown to be efficacious in halting this process, this inhibitor has the potential to treat Alzheimer’s disease by ameliorating Aβ plaques.

 

Over the Counter Products: We have created a cannabinoid-based women’s wellness brand, Holief™ available through online channels and a CBD-caffeine-infused energy drink, Sunday Seltzer™, available through wholesale channels.

 

 

Holief™  is an all-natural, non-GMO, vegan, line of over the counter (“OTC”) products aimed at treating menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) and premenstrual symptoms (“PMS”).

 

 

o

Sunday Seltzer™ is an all-natural, organic, carbonated energy drink with natural caffeine from green tea extract, CBD, vitamins B, vitamin C, no added sugars, and no preservatives. The energy drink is available in two flavors, pomegranate-lemon, and peach-ginger. In addition, Sunday Seltzer™ is also available in four flavors with CBD, vitamins B, vitamin C, and no caffeine.

 

Both Holief™ and Sunday Seltzer™ are compliant with relevant federal, state, and local laws, and regulations.

 

Alzheimers disease

 

The National Institute on Aging (“NIA”) at the National Institutes of Health (“NIH”) defines Alzheimer’s as an irreversible progressive brain disorder that destroys memory and thinking skills. According to the Alzheimer’s Association, approximately 10% of Americans over 65 have Alzheimer’s disease and many more could be undiagnosed. Some researchers suspect that half of the 80 and over population will develop Alzheimer’s (Piedmont Healthcare, (n.d); Alzheimer’s Association, 2021). Alzheimer’s is the third leading cause of death, after heart disease and cancer. (NIA, 2019). The Alzheimer’s crisis is growing and by 2030, World Health Organization (“WHO” 2020), estimates that 55 million people worldwide will have dementia. With no approved cure the global cost of dementia is expected to rise to about $2.8 trillion by 2030.

 

Dementia is a broader term used to describe the loss of cognitive functioning, including thinking, remembering, reasoning, and behavioral abilities. The WHO believes Alzheimer’s may be responsible for up to 70% of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease, and the dementia associated with it, is a progressive disease. Symptoms such as agitation, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance (sundown syndrome), delusions, and hallucinations often begin to appear in patients in their mid-60s.

 

 

The NIA categorizes Alzheimer’s in three stages - mild, moderate, and severe (NIA, 2019). Symptoms of mild Alzheimer’s can include wandering (getting lost, not remembering the way home), trouble handling money and paying bills, repeating questions, and personality or behavior changes. As the disease progresses to moderate, there is damage to the areas of the brain that control language, reasoning, sensory processing, and conscious thought. Patients can have difficulty with multistep tasks such as getting dressed. Behavioral problems including hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and impulsive behavior can also increase. When severe Alzheimer’s sets in, plaques and tangles spread throughout the patient’s brain and the brain shrinks significantly. People with severe Alzheimer’s are completely dependent on others for care. They cannot communicate, and near the end of their life, they may be largely bed-ridden as the body shuts down (NIA, 2021).

 

Currently, there are limited options to help Alzheimer’s patients with the debilitating symptoms of the disease or relief for the burden placed on their caregivers (Cheng, 2017). Our Phase 1 trial for IGC-AD1 may provide hope for those patients suffering from mild to severe dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease.

 

Alzheimers Disease (AD) Pathology

 

Alzheimer’s pathology can be divided into two categories, familial or inherited AD and sporadic AD. The histopathology of early onset familial AD and late onset sporadic AD are indistinguishable. Both forms of AD are characterized by extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles (Gӧtz, et al., 2011). Simplistically, in normal brain functioning a large protein called Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) is cleaved into smaller fragments called Aβ proteins. In a normal brain these are subsequently broken down further and cleared. However, in AD brains these Aβ proteins are not broken down and cleared; they instead stick to one another, and deposit as inter neuronal sticky plaque—that is, they deposit as plaque between neurons. In the brain, within a neuron tau (τ) is a key protein that holds together the transport scaffold. As an analogy, it is the brick and mortar of the highway over which nutrients are transported within a neuron. In an AD brain, tau breaks down due to a process called hyperphosphorylation and is unable to hold the transport highway. The breakdown results in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and eventually leads to neuronal death.

 

The misfolded structure of Aβ proteins, along with NFTs, generate a characteristic tendency for their aggregation (Chiti & Dobson, 2006) around damaged or dead neurons and within cerebral vasculature in the brain. It manifests by memory loss followed by progressive dementia. It has long been believed that Aβ1–40 (Aβ40) and Aβ1–42 (Aβ42) aggregates are the constituents of the insoluble plaques that are characteristic of AD. This disease is also associated with neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress (Campbell & Gowran, 2007; Rich, et al., 1995). However, the continuous aggregation of Aβ proteins along with hyperphosphorylation of tau protein inside the cell, causing NFT formation, are generally accepted as the major etiological factors of the neuronal cell death associated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (Octave, 1995; Reitz, et al., 2011; Pillay, et al., 2004).

 

IGC-AD1 Studies on Alzheimers

 

While investigating cannabinoid-based combination therapies, researchers at the University of South Florida (“USF”) discovered the potential for cannabis to play a role in treating Alzheimer’s. The discovery was featured on Dr. Sanjay Gupta’s CNN show Weed 2. This work also led to several patent filings including one that was granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”). In the fiscal year 2018, IGC acquired exclusive rights to the research data and patent filing. The research on the active ingredients of IGC-AD1 (IGC-AD1 Actives) showed that they, in combination, had potentially positive effects on Alzheimer’s disease. Specifically, the pre-clinical research on the IGC-AD1 Actives showed the following:

 

Impact on plaque levels: Cao et al., (2014) reported a dose-dependent decrease in Aβ40 levels in N2a/APPswe cells (AD cell lines) in the presence of the IGC-AD1 Actives, after 24 hours of incubation. Furthermore, repeated exposure reduced Aβ40 levels without changing APP levels, a novel non-obvious and important finding as APP is a key protein associated with brain functioning. The mode of action is attributed to its direct interaction with Aβ protein and inhibition of Aβ aggregation (Cao et al., 2014).

 

Impact on Tau Protein: IGC-AD1 Actives lowered the level of phosphorylated Tau (pTau) expression in N2a/APPswe cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mode of action was attributed to the direct interaction of IGC AD1 Actives with GSK3 protein kinase, which lowers pTau expression (Cao et al., 2014).

 

Impact on neurotoxicity: Analysis on the neurotoxicity at various doses in N2a/APPswe cells after incubation for up to 24 hours showed that the Actives were non-toxic to cells at all doses (Cao et al., 2014).

 

Impact on Mitochondria: In a novel and non-obvious finding it was discovered that THC in low doses has the unique property of enhancing mitochondrial functioning in isolated mitochondria obtained from N2a/AβPPswe cells (Cao et al., 2014). This finding is contrary to what THC does at higher doses, alluding to a bi-phasic nature of THC.

 

 

Results with a mouse model: Cao’s group extended their in vivo study to aged APP/PS1 mice to evaluate THC’s neuroprotective effects on behavioral models. They used a radial arm water maze (RAWM) to test spatial memory. RAWM tests revealed that treating aged APP/PS1 mice with low doses of THC for three months increased their spatial learning skills in a dose-dependent way (Wang et al., 2022).

 

Based on the evidence, we hypothesize that IGC-AD1 may have several AD modifying benefits, including:

 

 

Reduction in Aβ expression without a reduction in APP.

 

 

Reduction in Aβ aggregation and consequently plaques.

 

 

Enhanced mitochondrial functioning.

 

 

Reduction in the phosphorylation of tau and consequently a reduction in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs).

 

Research has shown that micro-dosing of THC could increase the functioning of mitochondria on AD cell lines and potentially promote the growth of new pathways (neurogenesis) (Suliman, et al., 2017). Micro-dosing of THC affects the brain radically differently from the normal dosing in the FDA-approved prescription drug, Dronabinol. For example, there is a significant body of research showing that THC is neuro-toxic at normal levels, but micro-doses of THC have been shown to be non-toxic to neurons. With the exciting results of these pre-clinical studies, the Company developed an oral formulation, IGC-AD1, and completed a Phase 1 trial on AD patients.

 

IGC-AD1 Clinical Trial Data

 

To the best of our knowledge, the Company’s Phase 1 clinical trial testing the safety and tolerability of IGC-AD1 is the first human clinical trial using low doses of THC, in combination with another molecule, to treat symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer’s patients. THC is a naturally occurring cannabinoid produced by the cannabis plant. It is known for being a psychoactive substance that can impact mental processes in a positive or negative way depending on the dosage. THC is biphasic, meaning that low and high doses of the substance may affect mental and physiological processes in substantially different ways. For example, in some patients, low doses may relieve a symptom, whereas high doses may amplify a symptom. IGC’s trial is based on low dosing and controlled trials on patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease.

 

A double blind, single-site, randomized, three cohort, multiple-ascending dose (MAD) clinical trial (FDA IND Number: 146069, NCT04749563) was conducted using the investigational new drug (IND) IGC-AD1. IGC received approval to proceed with the Phase 1 clinical trial from the FDA on July 30, 2020. The primary objective was safety and tolerability in elderly patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. The secondary objective was measuring changes in neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) using the neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) as well as to assess the risk of suicide using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). The exploratory objective was to measure the pharmacokinetics (PK) and the impact of polymorphisms of the gene CYP2C9 on PK. In all three cohorts, ten participants received IGC-AD1 and two received a placebo. There were at least four days of washout between the cohorts. In Cohort one, Cohort two, and Cohort three the doses were q.d. (once per day), b.i.d. (twice per day), and t.i.d. (three times per day), respectively. The trial concluded that all three dosing levels were safe with no serious or life-threatening events or deaths reported.

 

On December 1, 2021, IGC submitted the Clinical/Statistical Report (CSR) to the FDA on its Phase 1 trial titled “A Phase I Randomized Placebo-Controlled MAD Study to Evaluate Safety and Tolerability of IGC-AD1 In Subjects with Dementia Due to Alzheimer’s Disease.” Data that is relevant to the Phase 1 protocol and the design of the Phase 2 trial are presented here. The data presented here is not exhaustive.

 

Primary Endpoint: Safety & Tolerability (S&T)

 

S&T was assessed by recording both solicited and non-solicited Adverse Events (AEs). The solicited AEs, assessed daily, were somnolence, falls, dizziness, asthenia, suicidal ideation, hypertension, psychiatric symptoms, and paradoxical nausea. All AEs were graded as mild, moderate, severe, life-threatening, and serious (SAE).

 

● In all three Cohorts, a) there were no SAEs, b) no life-threatening AEs, and c) no deaths.

 

● One AE, mild dizziness, reported in Cohort 1, was deemed to be related to IGC-AD1. All other AEs across all cohorts were deemed to be not related to IGC-AD1 or to the placebo.

 

● In Cohort 1, in the group that received IGC-AD1 (N=10), 50% reported hypertension, 40% reported asthenia, 30% reported somnolence and dizziness, 20% reported psychiatric symptoms, and 10% reported falls. One case of dizziness was deemed by the principal investigator (PI) to be related to IGC-AD1. In the placebo group (N=2) 100% reported hypertension, and 50% reported somnolence and falls.

 

 

● In Cohort 2 for the IGC-AD1 group, 60% reported psychiatric symptoms, 50% reported somnolence and asthenia, 30% reported hypertension, 20% reported nausea and dizziness, and 10% reported falls and suicidal ideation. In the placebo group 100% reported somnolence, 50% reported dizziness and hypertension.

 

● In Cohort 3 for the IGC-AD1 group, 70% reported somnolence, 60% reported psychiatric symptoms, 50% reported dizziness and asthenia, and 30% reported hypertension. In the placebo group 100% reported somnolence, and 50% reported hypertension and psychiatric symptoms.

 

Secondary Endpoints: Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)

 

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (NPS) such as delusions, hallucinations, agitation/aggression, depression, anxiety, elation/euphoria, apathy, disinhibition, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, sleep disorders, and appetite/eating disorders are prevalent in patients who have Alzheimer’s disease (Phan et al., 2019). NPS in Alzheimer’s is a significant burden on patients and caregivers, and at some point, in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, more than 97% of patients suffer from at least one symptom. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) (Cummings et al., 1994) measures the severity of each symptom and establishes both individual symptom scores as well as an overall NPI score. Separately, the NPI also scores caregiver distress (NPI-D). The NPI is used by about 50% of neurologists to assess and treat Alzheimer’s patients (Fernandez et al., 2010).

 

In the Phase 1 trial conducted on patients with Alzheimer’s disease, we measured changes in NPS as assessed by the NPI-12 as well as caregiver distress as assessed by the NPI-D. In the Phase 1 trial (N=10), seven received the active medication and at baseline they had symptomatic Agitation with domain scores between two and twelve. In Cohorts two and three six Participants had symptomatic Agitation. We measured and analyzed the change in the mean NPI score for Agitation between Day 1 and Day 10 and between Day 1 and Day 15 for all three cohorts.

 

 

As shown in Table below, our analysis shows Cohort 2 had the largest absolute change in the mean Agitation score between Day one and Day ten (53% drop, p=.085) as well as between Day 1 and Day 15 (67% drop, p=.05).

 

Table 1: NPI analysis for each of the three cohorts

 

Domain

Cohort 1 (n=7)

Cohort 2 (n=6)

Cohort 3 (n=5)

Agitation

Baseline

Day

Day

Baseline

Day

Day

Baseline

Day 10

Day

Day 0

10

15

Day 0

10

15

Day 0

15

Mean Score

4.7

3.3

3

4.3

2.1

1.5

4.2

3.2

1.4

Mean Change

-

1.4

1.7

-

2.2

2.8

-

1

2.8

Mean Change%

-

37%

48%

-

53%

67%

-

23%

67%

p-values

-

0.058

0.045

-

0.085

0.05

-

0.29

0.045

P(T<=t) two-tail

                 

 

According to the NPI Test, a reduction of 4 points or 30% in the score is considered clinically meaningful. In addition, we also used a paired 2-tailed t-test with 9 degrees of freedom to assess the statistical significance of the decrease both in the overall NPI and individual NPI domains.

 

● In Cohort 1 for those on IGC-AD1, the mean NPI decreased from a baseline 31.5 (SD 27.2) to 16.7 (SD 16.2) on day 10 (p = 0.0044) and 14.8 (SD 16.0) on day 15 (p = 0.0095).

 

o Individual domains that showed improvement were in Agitation (p = .05), Dilutions (p = .05), Anxiety (p = .09), and Appetite and Eating Disorders (p = .01).

 

● In Cohort 2 for those on IGC-AD1, the mean NPI decreased from a baseline of 22.2 (SD 14.8) to 10.4 (SD 11.5) on day 10 (p = 0.0026) and 12.4 (SD14.7) on day 15 (p = 0.0127).

 

o Individual domains that showed improvement were Agitation (p = .06), Irritability (p = .04), and Depression (p = .01).

 

 

● In Cohort 3 for those on IGC-AD1 the mean NPI decreased from a baseline of 16.0 (SD14.7) to 14.6 (SD10.9) on day 10 (p = 0.6751) and 7.9 (SD 9.0) on day 15 (p = 0.0113).

 

o Individual domains that showed improvement was Agitation (p = .06).

 

Phase 2 Clinical Trial Update

 

The Company has initiated a protocol titled “A Phase 2, Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo- controlled, trial of the safety and efficacy of IGC-AD1 on agitation in participants with dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease”. The protocol is powered at 146 Alzheimer’s patients with half receiving placebo and is a superiority, parallel group study. While subject to changes, we expect to conduct the trial at four sites, two in Canada and two in the U.S. The primary end point is agitation in dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease as rated by the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) over a six-week period. The Phase 2 trial will also look at eleven exploratory objectives, including, changes in anxiety, changes in cognitive processes such as attention, orientation, language, and visual spatial skills as well as memory, changes in depression, delusions, hallucinations, euphoria/elation, apathy, disinhibition, irritability, aberrant motor behavior, sleep disorder, appetite, quality of life, and caregiver burden. In addition, the trial will evaluate the impact of CYP450 polymorphisms and specifically CYP2C9 on each of the NPS and assess any reductions in psychotropic drugs, among others. Each participant will receive two doses of IGC-AD1 (b.i.d.) or two doses of placebo per day for six-weeks.

 

Rationale For IGC-AD1 Phase 2

 

The rationale for targeting agitation associated with dementia due to Alzheimer’s:

 

Currently, there is no approved medication for agitation associated with dementia in AD, and about 76% of AD patients suffer from agitation as rated by the CMAI (Van der Mussele, et al., 2015). While there can be no guarantee, we expect the Phase 2 trial to take between 12 and 18 months to complete, barring a variety of unknown factors such as a resurgence of COVID and the enforcement of lockdowns and travel restrictions.

 

Symptoms of AD depend on the stage of the disease: preclinical, mild, moderate, or severe. NPS like agitation, apathy, delusions, hallucinations, and sleep impairment are common accompaniments of dementia. Loss of functionality, including progressive difficulty in performing instrumental and basic activities of daily living are also seen with disease progression (Tang et al., 2019). There is a spectrum of behavioral disorders that can affect patients with AD. These include Agitation (including “sundown syndrome”), anxiety, disturbance of sleep cycle, depression, inappropriate sexual behavior, disinhibition, and irritability, among others (Lyketsos et al., 2011). These behavioral disturbances not only affect patient’s quality of life but also cause extreme emotional distress for the caregivers. These disturbances can become very difficult to manage, so most of the time, combinational therapy is used (Matsunaga, et al., 2015). This can cause secondary undesirable effects, such as excessive sleepiness, which diminishes the capability of the patient to be active and alert during the day; dizziness, which can increase the risk for falls (Allan, et al., 2005); worsening of cognitive function, which in turn worsens functionality (Paterniti S, et al., 2002); and even death due to cardiovascular complications (Qiu, et. Al., 2006).

 

NMI Compounds

 

Researchers at the Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (“JNCASR”), in India, conducted approximately 10 years of research and discovery work on naphthalene monoimide (“NMI”) compounds and the role of NMI compounds on neurotoxicity associated with Alzheimer’s. In Alzheimer’s patients, neurotoxicity is linked to beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques and Neuro Fibrillary Tangles (NFT). JNCASR’s research based on Alzheimer’s cell lines identified one lead NMI molecule, TGR-63, from a family of NMI molecules, with the potential to reduce beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques. Further, they demonstrated that the molecule reduces cognitive decline in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s. Their results were published in Advanced Therapeutics under the title “Naphthalene Monoimide Derivative Ameliorates Amyloid Burden and Cognitive Decline in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease” on January 28, 2021.

 

On November 11, 2021, Hamsa Biopharma India Pvt. Ltd. (“Hamsa Biopharma”), a directly owned subsidiary of the Company, executed a Term Sheet with JNCASR, and on March 28, 2022, entered into an agreement for exclusive global rights corresponding to the molecules, technology, patent, and patent filings. The completion of outstanding items in the agreement occurred on May 10, 2022, and the agreement with JNCASR was filed on Form 8K on May 12, 2022. Pursuant to the agreement, IGC (through Hamsa Biopharma) acquired exclusive global rights to the molecule, which it intends to pursue as a drug development candidate, subject to further study, research, and development.

 

 

Rationale for the Acquisition of TGR-63

 

As described above, IGC is currently engaged in human trials with IGC-AD1 that targets certain symptoms associated with dementia in Alzheimer’s. IGC-AD1 is currently being tested as a symptom modifying agent. Subject to further study, research, and development, TGR-63, on the other hand, could give the Company a potential disease modifying agent to expand the Company’s pursuit of a drug that can potentially treat or modify Alzheimer’s.

 

Intellectual Property

 

Our goal is to use our intellectual property (“IP”) to develop products that we can bring to market in one or more of the following channels:

 

1. Pharmaceutical products that are subject to FDA-approvals. We currently have one Alzheimer’s symptom modifying investigational drug candidate (IGC-AD1) in Phase 2 clinical trials under an INDA filed with the FDA, and a potential Alzheimer’s disease modifying drug development candidate (TGR-63) in a pre-clinical stage.

 

2. Branded wellness and lifestyle products to be sold in multiple retail and online channels, subject to applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations.

 

3. Partnerships and licensing agreements with third parties who can accelerate bringing our IP to market.

 

The Company holds all rights to the patents that it filed with the USPTO. In Fiscal 2017, the Company also acquired exclusive rights to the data and the patent filing from USF. Subsequent to Fiscal 2022, the Company acquired exclusive rights to the data and the patent filing from JNCASR.

 

The Company believes the registration of patents is an important part of its business strategy and future success. However, the Company cannot guarantee that these patent filings will lead to a successful registration with the USPTO. Please see Item 1A, Risk Factors- “We may not successfully register the provisional patents with the USPTO.”

 

The Table below provides a status of our patent filings:

 

Formulation

Indication

Provisional Filing

PCT Filing

Status

IGC-501

Pain

09/16/14

09/16/15

Patent issued on 11/06/2018 (#10,117,891)

IGC-502

Seizures

01/25/15

01/14/16

Patent issued on 08/05/2020 (#10,751,300)

IGC-503

Seizures

04/01/15

03/25/16

Pending

IGC-504

Eating Disorders

08/12/15

08/11/16

Patent issued on 03/24/2020

(#10,596,159 B2)

IGC-505

Seizures

06/15/16

06/15/16

Patent issued on 06/07/2022
(#11,351,152 B2)

IGC-506

Eating Disorders

02/28/17

02/27/18

Pending

IGC-507

Alzheimer’s Disease

07/30/15

01/03/19

Patent licensed exclusively by IGC

Patent issued on 07/20/2021

(#11,065,225)

IGC-508

CNS Disorders

03/29/18

03/29/19

Pending

IGC-509

Fatigue and energy restoration

10/04/18

10/04/19

Pending

IGC-510

Stammering, Tourette’s syndrome

05/23/19

07/21/20

Pending

IGC 511

CBD & Method for Treating Pain (2nd)

07/17/20

07/17/21

Pending

IGC 512

Stress relief & calm restoring beverage

12/02/20

Anticipated in Fiscal 2023

Pending

IGC 513

Alzheimer’s Disease

09/17/21

Anticipated in Fiscal 2023

Pending

IGC 514 (JNCASR)

NMI compounds

   

Patent licensed exclusively by IGC

Granted on January 5, 2016

#9230708 B2

IGC 515 (JNCASR)

NMI Alzheimer’s

07/22/2021

Anticipated in Fiscal 2023

Pending

 

 

COVID-19 Update

 

The infrastructure business, based in India and Hong Kong, had significantly lower revenue in Fiscal Year 2022 due to the continued impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and restrictions imposed by governmental entities. We have limited visibility into when economic conditions will recover in India and Hong Kong. Specifically:

 

 

1.

We incurred increased expenses on a $1.2 million road-building contract in India due to COVID-19 restrictions.

 

2.

We manufactured, distributed, and donated alcohol-based hand sanitizers to help communities hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. We incurred the expense to provide hand sanitizers to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (“FEMA”), the Navajo Nation in Arizona, the Crow reservation in Montana, and the Sioux reservation in South Dakota.

 

3.

Pandemic restrictions made it impossible to transport and process our harvested hemp crop in Arizona on a timely basis. This resulted in a $1.7 million adjustment to our inventory that also impacted our SG&A.

 

Products & Services

 

In Fiscal 2022, we created and began marketing two brands, Holief™ and Sunday Seltzer™, in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Our brands generated $287,000 in revenue. Although there can be no assurance,  we believe these brand concepts have significant potential in the growing cannabinoid-based wellness and lifestyle market. However, COVID-19 did force the Company to delay and limit the marketing of our brands that include Holief™ and Sunday Seltzer™:

 

Holief™

 

In Fiscal 2022 we completed the development and branding of Holief™. The word “Holief” was created by combining the words “holistic” and “relief.” The brand includes multiple, hemp-based CBD-infused products for women. Holief™ includes a patented formulation with menthol and CBD, for treating the pain and symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and period cramps. These products provide an all-natural alternative to opioids and other pain medications. The Holief™ product line includes creams, gummies, and herbal extracts. Additional plant-based ingredients that have been shown to relieve PMS symptoms such as primrose oil and peppermint oil are included in many Holief™ formulations. Holief™ is developing a cloud-based platform to connect the 31.3 million women (Statista, 2021) that suffer dysmenorrhea and PMS with health care professionals who can help. The products are available online and through Amazon and other online channels.

 

Sunday Seltzer™

 

In Fiscal 2022 the Company completed the development and branding of Sunday Seltzer™, a premium hemp-based CBD infused seltzer. Sunday Seltzer™ is an all-natural, organic, carbonated energy drink with natural caffeine from green tea extract, CBD, vitamins B, vitamin C, no added sugars, and no preservatives. The energy drink is available in two flavors, pomegranate-lemon, and peach-ginger. In addition, Sunday Seltzer™ is available in four flavors with no caffeine.

 

Infrastructure segment

 

The Company’s infrastructure business has been operating since 2008, it includes: (i) Execution of Construction Contracts – The Company is executing a $1.2 million road-building contract in Kerala, India and was recently awarded another road reconstruction project for $289 thousand; and (ii) Rental of Heavy Construction Equipment – We rent equipment, such as a motor grader and rollers, to construction contractors. There was minimal revenue from rentals in Fiscal 2022 due to seasonality and COVID-19 pandemic disruptions.

 

Business Strategy

 

The Life Sciences business strategy includes:

 

 

1.

Subject to FDA approval, developing IGC-AD1 as a drug for treating agitation in dementia due to Alzheimer’s and investigating and developing TGR-63 for the potential treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

 

 

2.

Marketing Holief™, Sunday Seltzer™ and white label services.

 

 

We believe developing a drug for either symptoms or as a disease modifying agent has considerable risk due to the need for multi-year trials and FDA approval. However, there is considerable upside and significant value creation to the extent we obtain first-to-market advantage, of which there can be no assurance. If we were to obtain first-to-market advantage, such advantage could result in significant growth if and when an approved drug launches. Our Holief™ strategy includes expanding the line of products and developing online services that connect women with healthcare professionals who can help with PMS and dysmenorrhea. Building an online community that brings women together can create brand equity and loyalty.

 

We believe that additional investment in clinical trials, research, and development (“R&D”), facilities, marketing, advertising, and acquisition of complementary products and businesses will be critical to ongoing growth of the Life Sciences segment. These investments will fuel the development and delivery of innovative products that drive positive patient and customer experiences. We hope to leverage our R&D and intellectual property to develop ground-breaking, science-based products that are proven effective through clinical trials, subject to FDA approval. We believe this strategy can improve our existing products and lead to the creation of new hemp-based products that can provide treatment options for multiple conditions, symptoms, and side effects.

 

Our Infrastructure strategy includes:

 

 

competitively bidding on construction contracts, such as building roads, bridges, and other civil works in Kerala, India, and;

 

 

leasing heavy construction equipment.

 

Markets and Distribution

 

Life Sciences segment

 

There is a growing awareness around the perceived benefits of CBD-infused personal care products. U.S. sales of cannabis and hemp-derived CBD products are expected to increase in all channels—dispensary, general retail, and pharmaceutical, to $20.5 billion by 2025, a compound annual growth rate (“CAGR”) of more than 40% (BDSA, 2020). With diversified CBD-based brands in multiple markets, including infused seltzer (Sunday Seltzer™) and pain relief (Holief™), we are well positioned to take advantage of these market trends. The U.S. cannabis-infused drink market is expected to reach $1.4 billion by 2023 (Statista, 2020). Approximately 31.3 million (Statista, 2021) women in America suffer from dysmenorrhea and PMS.

 

Our Life Sciences revenue is less than 1% of the relevant global market, which implies tremendous opportunity for growth. We also plan to market these brands to the fast-growing U.S. Hispanic and Latino market. It is projected that the Hispanic and Latino population will grow from 59 million with a GDP of $2.6 trillion in 2018 to 111.22 million by 2060 (Statista, 2021).

 

In Fiscal 2022, our sales and suppliers were concentrated which represents some risk. One customer accounted for over 10% of sales. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic could continue to affect our operations and result in lower revenue and/or higher costs in Fiscal 2023.

 

Infrastructure segment

 

In Fiscal 2022, our infrastructure business focused on projects in the state of Kerala. While executing this construction project, we took advantage of other opportunities to generate revenue from our infrastructure assets. We also lease our small fleet of heavy construction equipment, including grader, rollers etc. to construction companies.

 

Our infrastructure business revenue is less than 1% of the global revenue of the rental, construction, and commodities markets. We currently have 1 customer and 1 subcontractor/supplier of infrastructure materials. Our ability to grow is limited by the disruption to the Hong Kong economy and the impact of COVID-19. If and when the economy recovers, there is potential opportunity for growth given the total size of the market.

 

Business Seasonality

 

The infrastructure segment has historically experienced seasonality with limited construction work available during the monsoon season. The hemp business also has seasonality as most of the hemp harvest in America occurs in the fall. Pricing pressure is based on the volume of hemp biomass being harvested.

 

 

Competition

 

Competition for the Company’s products and services varies by market:

 

1. Life Sciences segment: We are developing affordable medical products including products subject to FDA approval, which can help individuals suffering from debilitating diseases like Alzheimer’s. While we face competition from well-funded pharmaceutical companies, our products are differentiated by the use of cannabinoids. With our existing research, patent filings, and experienced team we have an early-mover advantage in cannabinoid-based products to treat the symptoms of Alzheimer’s. Our wellness and lifestyle products compete with multiple well-established companies, in the food, beverage, and skincare industries. We also face competition from companies with experience in wholesaling hemp crude extract and hemp isolate as well as companies that provide white labeling and tolling services. It is unclear how future FDA guidance and ruling on hemp-based CBD-infused food, beverage, and cosmetic products will impact the market.

 

2. Infrastructure segment: The infrastructure industry in India and Hong Kong is highly competitive. Our differentiation is based primarily on price and local and industry knowledge of construction requirements in the regions where we operate.

 

Regulatory

 

Despite the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, the FDA has not established guidance or rules on the infusion of hemp-based CBD into food and beverage products. This creates a complicated framework of local rules and regulations that we must navigate. When federal rules are clearly set, we expect the demand for CBD-based food and beverages will increase. We also believe competition will increase as major food and beverage manufacturers will enter the market.

 

Core business competencies and advantages

 

Our core competencies include:

 

 

a network of doctors, scientists with Ph.D. degrees, and intellectual property legal experts with a sophisticated understanding of drug discovery, research, FDA filings, intellectual protection, and product formulation;

 

knowledge of various cannabinoid strains, their phytocannabinoid profile, extraction methodology, and impact on various pathways;

 

knowledge of plant and cannabinoid-based combination therapies;

 

knowledge of research and development in the field;

 

patents IGC-501, IGC-502, IGC-504, and IGC-507 for treatment of pain, treatment of seizures in humans and veterinary animals, treatment of cachexia and eating disorders in humans and veterinary animals, and Alzheimer’s Disease, respectively; and

 

facilities and a team with experience in manufacturing, marketing, and selling products. These competencies have enabled us to make progress on our business goals, specifically completing the Phase 1 clinical trial of IGC-AD1, which has the potential to positively impact the lives of millions of patients suffering from the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, subject to FDA approval.

 

Licenses, Technology, and Cybersecurity

 

We have intellectual property attorneys that advise, counsel, and represent the Company regarding the filing of patents or provisional patent applications, copyrights applications, and trademark applications; trade secret laws of general applicability; employee confidentiality and invention assignment. Most of our data, including our accounting data, is stored in the cloud which helps us mitigate the overall risk of losing data. We have a cybersecurity policy in place and are in the process of implementing tighter cybersecurity measures to safeguard against hackers. The Company holds all rights to the patents that have been filed by us with the USPTO.

 

 

The table below summarizes the nature of the activity, type of license required and held, and encumbrances in obtaining permits for each location where the Company operated through its subsidiaries in Fiscal 2022:

 

Location

Nature of Activity

Type of License Required

Type of License held

Encumbrances in

Obtaining Permit

U.S.

Life Sciences products and General Management

General business

License to grow hemp;

Industrial Alcohol User

Permit;

Clinical Trials;

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) certification.

General business licenses; License to grow hemp;

Industrial Alcohol User Permit; Clinical Trials

GMP Certificate.

None.

India

Infrastructure Contract, Rental of heavy equipment and land

General business license

Business registrations with tax authorities in various states in India

None.

Colombia

Life Sciences products and General Management

General business license;

Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos (INVIMA) Permits;

Fondo Nacional De Estupefacientes (FNE) Permits.

General business license;

Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos (INVIMA) Permits;

Fondo Nacional De Estupefacientes (FNE) Permits.

None.

Hong Kong

Purchase and Resale of physical commodities

General business license

General business license

None.

 

Governmental Regulations

 

In the U.S. we are subject to oversight and regulations, for some or all of our activities, by the following agencies: SEC, state regulators, NYSE, FTC, and the FDA. The cannabis plant consists of several strains or varieties. Hemp and Marijuana are both cannabis plants. Under the 2018 Farm Bill, Hemp is classified as a cannabis plant that has 0.3% or less THC by dry weight. Marijuana is classified as a cannabis plant that has THC above 0.3% by dry weight.

 

Marijuana remains illegal under federal law, including in those states in which the use of marijuana has been legalized for medical and or recreational use. On the other hand, the 2018 Farm Bill, which was effective January 1, 2019, contains provisions that make industrial hemp legal. Although hemp is legal at the federal level, most states have created licensing and testing processes for the growing, processing, and sale of hemp and hemp-derived products.

 

For our business, we must apply for licenses in states where we desire to grow and process hemp. For example, in the state of Arizona, where we grew hemp, we were required to apply for licenses and register with the state the geo-location of all our operations, including the land on which hemp was grown and the facilities where hemp will be processed. These regulations are evolving, differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and are subject to change.

 

FDA Approval Process

 

In the U.S., pharmaceutical products are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or the FDC Act, and other federal and state statutes and regulations, govern the research, development, testing, manufacturing, storage, recordkeeping, approval, labeling, promotion and marketing, distribution, post-approval monitoring, and reporting, sampling, and importing and exporting of pharmaceutical products, among other things. Failure to comply with applicable U.S. requirements may subject a company to a variety of administrative or judicial sanctions, such as the imposition of clinical holds, FDA refusal to approve pending New Drug Applications (“NDA”), warning letters, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, restitution, disgorgement, civil penalties, and criminal prosecution.

 

Pharmaceutical product development in the U.S. typically involves pre-clinical laboratory and animal tests and the submission to the FDA of an Investigational New Drug (“IND”), which must become effective before clinical testing may commence. For commercial approval, the sponsor must submit adequate tests by all methods reasonably applicable to show that the drug is safe for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the proposed labeling. The sponsor must also submit substantial evidence, generally consisting of adequate, well-controlled clinical trials to establish that the drug will have the effect it purports or is represented to have under the conditions of use prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the proposed labeling. In certain cases, the FDA may determine that a drug is effective based on one clinical study plus confirmatory evidence. Satisfaction of FDA premarket approval requirements typically takes many years and the actual time required may vary substantially based upon the type, complexity of the product, or disease.

 

 

Pre-clinical tests include laboratory evaluation of product chemistry, formulation, and toxicity, as well as animal trials to assess the characteristics and potential safety and efficacy of the product. The conduct of the pre-clinical tests must comply with federal regulations and requirements, including the FDA’s good laboratory practices regulations and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (“USDA’s”) regulations implementing the Animal Welfare Act. The results of pre-clinical testing are submitted to the FDA as part of an IND along with other information, including information about product chemistry, manufacturing and controls, and a proposed clinical trial protocol. Long-term pre-clinical tests, such as animal tests of reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity, may continue after the IND is submitted.

 

A 30-day waiting period after the submission of each IND is required prior to the commencement of clinical testing in humans. If the FDA has not imposed a clinical hold on the IND or otherwise commented or questioned the IND within this 30-day period, the clinical trial proposed in the IND may begin.

 

Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational new drug to healthy volunteers or patients under the supervision of a qualified investigator. Clinical trials must be conducted: (i) in compliance with federal regulations; (ii) in compliance with Good Clinical Practice (“GCP”), an international standard meant to protect the rights and health of patients and to define the roles of clinical trial sponsors, administrators, and monitors; and (iii) under protocols detailing the objectives of the trial, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated. Each protocol involving testing on U.S. patients and subsequent protocol amendments must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND.

 

The FDA may order the temporary, or permanent, discontinuation of a clinical trial at any time or impose other sanctions if it believes that the clinical trial either is not being conducted in accordance with FDA requirements or presents an unacceptable risk to the clinical trial patients. The trial protocol and informed consent information for patients in clinical trials must also be submitted to an institutional review board, or IRB, for approval. An IRB may also require the clinical trial at the site to be halted, either temporarily or permanently, for failure to comply with the IRB’s requirements or may impose other conditions.

 

Clinical trials to support NDAs for marketing approval are typically conducted in three sequential phases, but the phases may overlap. In general, in Phase 1, the initial introduction of the drug into healthy human subjects or patients, the drug is tested to assess metabolism, pharmacokinetics, pharmacological actions, side effects associated with increasing doses and, if possible, early evidence on effectiveness. Phase 2 usually involves trials in a limited patient population to determine the effectiveness of the drug for a particular indication, dosage tolerance and optimum dosage, and to identify common adverse effects and safety risks. If a compound demonstrates evidence of effectiveness and an acceptable safety profile in Phase 2 evaluations, Phase 3 trials are undertaken to obtain the additional information about clinical efficacy and safety in a larger number of patients, typically at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites, to permit the FDA to evaluate the overall benefit-risk relationship of the drug and to provide adequate information for the labeling of the drug. In most cases, the FDA requires two adequate and well-controlled Phase 3 clinical trials to demonstrate the efficacy of the drug. The FDA may, however, determine that a drug is effective based on one clinical study plus confirmatory evidence. Only a small percentage of investigational drugs complete all three phases and obtain marketing approval. In some cases, the FDA may require post-market studies, known as Phase 4 studies, to be conducted as a condition of approval in order to gather additional information on the drug’s effect in various populations and any side effects associated with long-term use. Depending on the risks posed by the drugs, other post-market requirements may be imposed.

 

After completion of the required clinical testing, an NDA is prepared and submitted to the FDA. The FDA approval of the NDA is required before marketing of the product may begin in the U.S. The NDA must include the results of all pre-clinical, clinical, and other testing and a compilation of data relating to the product’s pharmacology, chemistry, manufacture, and controls. The cost of preparing and submitting an NDA is substantial.

 

The FDA has 60 days from its receipt of an NDA to determine whether the application will be accepted for filing based on the agency’s threshold determination that it is sufficiently complete to permit substantive review. Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth review. Under the statute and implementing regulations, the FDA has 180 days (the initial review cycle) from the date of filing to issue either an approval letter or a complete response letter, unless the review period is adjusted by mutual agreement between the FDA and the applicant or as a result of the applicant submitting a major amendment. In practice, the performance goals established pursuant to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act have effectively extended the initial review cycle beyond 180 days. The FDA’s current performance goals call for the FDA to complete review of 90 percent of standard (non-priority) NDAs within 10 months of receipt and within six months for priority NDAs, but two additional months are added to standard and priority NDAs for a new molecular entity (“NME”).

 

 

The FDA may also refer applications for novel drug products, or drug products that present difficult questions of safety or efficacy, to an advisory committee, which is typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts, for review, evaluation, and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved. The FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee, but it generally follows such recommendations. Before approving an NDA, the FDA will typically inspect one or more clinical sites to assure compliance with GCP. Additionally, the FDA will inspect the facility or the facilities at which the drug is manufactured. The FDA will not approve the product unless compliance with the current GMP is satisfactory, and the NDA contains data that provide substantial evidence that the drug is safe and effective in the indication studied.

 

After the FDA evaluates the NDA and the manufacturing facilities, it issues either an approval letter or a complete response letter. A complete response letter generally outlines the deficiencies in the submission and may require substantial additional testing, or information, for the FDA to reconsider the application. If, or when, those deficiencies have been addressed to the FDA’s satisfaction in a resubmission of the NDA, the FDA will issue an approval letter. The FDA has committed to reviewing 90 percent of resubmissions within two to six months depending on the type of information included.

 

An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications. As a condition of NDA approval, the FDA may require a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (“REMS”) to help ensure that the benefits of the drug outweigh the potential risks. REMS can include medication guides, communication plans for health care professionals, and elements to assure safe use (“ETASU”). ETASU can include, but are not limited to, special training or certification for prescribing or dispensing, dispensing only under certain circumstances, special monitoring, and the use of patient registries. The requirement for a REMS can materially affect the potential market and profitability of the drug. Moreover, product approval may require substantial post-approval testing and surveillance to monitor the drug’s safety or efficacy. Once granted, product approvals may be withdrawn if compliance with regulatory standards is not maintained, or problems are identified following initial marketing.

 

Disclosure of Clinical Trial Information

 

Sponsors of clinical trials of certain FDA-regulated products, including prescription drugs, are required to register and disclose certain clinical trial information on a public website maintained by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Information related to the product, patient population, phase of the investigation, study sites and investigator and other aspects of the clinical trial is made public as part of the registration. Disclosure of the results of these trials can be delayed for up to two years if the sponsor certifies that it is seeking approval of an unapproved product or that it will file an application for approval of a new indication for an approved product within one year. Competitors may use this publicly available information to gain knowledge regarding the design and progress of our development programs.

 

The Hatch-Waxman Act

 

Orange Book Listing

 

In seeking approval for a drug through an NDA, applicants are required to list with the FDA each patent the claims of which cover the applicant’s product. Upon approval of a drug, each of the patents listed in the application for the drug is then published in the FDA’s Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, commonly known as the Orange Book. Drugs listed in the Orange Book can, in turn, be cited by potential generic competitors in support of approval of an abbreviated new drug application (“ANDA”). An ANDA provides for the marketing of a drug product that has the same active ingredients in the same strengths and dosage form as the listed drug and has been shown through bioequivalence testing to be bioequivalent to the listed drug. Other than the requirement for bioequivalence testing, ANDA applicants are not required to conduct or submit results of pre-clinical or clinical tests to prove the safety or effectiveness of their drug product. Drugs approved in this way are considered to be therapeutically equivalent to the listed drug, are commonly referred to as “generic equivalents” to the listed drug, and can often be substituted by pharmacists under prescriptions written for the original listed drug in accordance with state law.

 

The ANDA applicant is required to certify to the FDA concerning any patents listed for the approved product in the FDA’s Orange Book. Specifically, the applicant must certify that: (i) the required patent information has not been filed; (ii) the listed patent has expired; (iii) the listed patent has not expired but will expire on a particular date, and approval is sought after patent expiration; or (iv) the listed patent is invalid or will not be infringed by the new product. The ANDA applicant may also elect to submit a section viii statement, certifying that its proposed ANDA labeling does not contain (or carves out) any language regarding the patented method-of-use, rather than certify to a listed method-of-use patent. If the applicant does not challenge the listed patents, the ANDA application will not be approved until all the listed patents claiming the referenced product have expired.

 

 

A certification that the new product will not infringe the already approved product’s listed patents, or that such patents are invalid, is called a Paragraph IV certification. If the ANDA applicant has provided a Paragraph IV certification to the FDA, the applicant must also send notice of the Paragraph IV certification to the NDA and patent holders once the ANDA has been accepted for filing by the FDA. The NDA and patent holders may then initiate a patent infringement lawsuit in response to the notice of the Paragraph IV certification. The filing of a patent infringement lawsuit within 45 days of the receipt of a Paragraph IV certification automatically prevents the FDA from approving the ANDA until the earlier of 30 months, expiration of the patent, settlement of the lawsuit, or a decision in the infringement case that is favorable to the ANDA applicant. The ANDA application also will not be approved until any applicable non-patent exclusivity listed in the Orange Book for the referenced product has expired.

 

Exclusivity

 

Upon NDA approval of a new chemical entity or NCE, which is a drug that contains no active moiety that has been approved by the FDA in any other NDA, that drug receives five years of marketing exclusivity during which time the FDA cannot receive any ANDA or 505(b)(2) application seeking approval of a drug that references a version of the NCE drug. Certain changes to a drug, such as the addition of a new indication to the package insert, are associated with a three-year period of exclusivity during which the FDA cannot approve an ANDA or 505(b)(2) application that includes the change.

 

An ANDA or 505(b)(2) application may be submitted one year before NCE exclusivity expires if a Paragraph IV certification is filed. If there is no listed patent in the Orange Book, there may not be a Paragraph IV certification and thus no ANDA or 505(b)(2) application may be filed before the expiration of the exclusivity period.

 

For a botanical drug, the FDA may determine that the active moiety is one or more of the principal components or the complex mixture as a whole. This determination would affect the utility of any five-year exclusivity as well as the ability of any potential generic competitor to demonstrate that it is the same drug as the original botanical drug.

 

Five-year and three-year exclusivities do not preclude FDA approval of a 505(b)(1) application for a duplicate version of the drug during the period of exclusivity, provided that the 505(b)(1) applicant conducts or obtains a right of reference to all of the preclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and effectiveness.

 

Patent Term Extension

 

After NDA approval, owners of relevant drug patents may apply for up to a five-year patent extension. The allowable patent term extension is calculated as half of the drug’s testing phase — the time between IND submission and NDA submission — and all of the review phase — the time between NDA submission and approval up to a maximum of five years. The time can be shortened if the FDA determines that the applicant did not pursue approval with due diligence. The total patent term after the extension may not

exceed 14 years.

 

For patents that might expire during the application phase, the patent owner may request an interim patent extension. An interim patent extension increases the patent term by one year and may be renewed up to four times. For each interim patent extension granted, the post-approval patent extension is reduced by one year. The director of the PTO must determine that approval of the drug covered by the patent for which a patent extension is being sought is likely. Interim patent extensions are not available for a drug for which an NDA has not been submitted.

 

Orphan Drugs

 

Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan drug designation to drugs intended to treat a rare disease or condition generally a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the U.S. (or affects more than 200,000 in the U.S. and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available in the U.S. a drug for such disease or condition will be recovered from sales in the U.S. of such drug). Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting an NDA. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the generic identity of the drug and its potential orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review and approval process. The first NDA applicant to receive FDA approval for a particular active ingredient to treat a particular disease with FDA orphan drug designation is entitled to a seven-year exclusive marketing period in the U.S. for that product, for that indication. During the seven-year exclusivity period, the FDA may not approve any other applications to market the same drug for the same disease, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan drug exclusivity. If the FDA designates an orphan drug based on a finding of clinical superiority, the FDA must provide a written notification to the sponsor that states the basis for orphan designation, including “any plausible hypothesis” relied upon by the FDA. The FDA must also publish a summary of its clinical superiority findings upon granting orphan drug exclusivity based on clinical superiority. Orphan drug exclusivity does not prevent the FDA from approving a different drug for the same disease or condition, or the same drug for a different disease or condition. Among the other benefits of orphan drug designation are tax credits for certain research and a waiver of the NDA application user fee.

 

 

Special Protocol Assessment

 

A company may reach an agreement with the FDA under the Special Protocol Assessment (“SPA”), process as to the required design and size of clinical trials intended to form the primary basis of an efficacy claim. According to its performance goals, the FDA is supposed to evaluate the protocol within 45 days of the request to assess whether the proposed trial is adequate, and that evaluation may result in discussions and a request for additional information. A SPA request must be made before the proposed trial begins, and all open issues must be resolved before the trial begins. If a written agreement is reached, it will be documented and made part of the administrative record. Under the FDC Act and FDA guidance implementing the statutory requirement, an SPA is generally binding upon the FDA except in limited circumstances, such as if the FDA identifies a substantial scientific issue essential to determining safety or efficacy after the study begins, public health concerns emerge that were unrecognized at the time of the protocol assessment, the sponsor and the FDA agree to the change in writing, or if the study sponsor fails to follow the protocol that was agreed upon with the FDA.

 

U.S. Coverage and Reimbursement

 

Significant uncertainty exists as to the coverage and reimbursement status of our lead product candidates, such as IGC-AD1 or any other for which we may seek regulatory approval. Sales in the U.S. will depend in part on the availability of adequate financial coverage and reimbursement from third-party payors, which include government health programs such as Medicare, Medicaid, TRICARE, and the Veterans Administration, as well as managed care organizations and private health insurers. Prices at which we or our customers seek reimbursement for our product candidates can be subject to challenge, reduction, or denial by payors.

 

The process for determining whether a payor will provide coverage for a product is typically separate from the process for setting the reimbursement rate that the payor will pay for the product. Third-party payors may limit coverage to specific products on an approved list or formulary, which might not include all the FDA-approved products for a particular indication. Also, third-party payors may refuse to include a branded drug on their formularies or otherwise restrict patient access to a branded drug when a less costly generic equivalent or another alternative is available. Medicare Part D, Medicare’s outpatient prescription drug benefit, contains protections to ensure coverage and reimbursement for oral oncology products, and all Part D prescription drug plans are required to cover substantially all oral anti-cancer agents. However, a payor’s decision to provide coverage for a product does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be available. Private payors often rely on the lead of the governmental payors in rendering coverage and reimbursement determinations. Sales of products such as IGC-AD1 or any other product candidates will therefore depend substantially on the extent to which the costs of our products will be paid by third-party payors. Achieving favorable coverage and reimbursement from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (“CMS”) and/or the Medicare Administrative Contractors is typically a significant gating issue for successful introduction of a new product.

 

Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price and examining the medical necessity and cost-effectiveness of medical products and services, in addition to their safety and efficacy. In order to obtain coverage and reimbursement for any product that might be approved for marketing, we may need to conduct studies in order to demonstrate the medical necessity and cost-effectiveness of any products, which would be in addition to the costs expended to obtain regulatory approvals. Third-party payors may not consider our product candidates to be medically necessary or cost-effective compared to other available therapies, or the rebate percentages required to secure favorable coverage may not yield an adequate margin over cost or may not enable us to maintain price levels sufficient to realize an appropriate return on our investment in drug development.

 

Human Capital Management and Environment, Health, and Safety

 

Workplace Safety & Employee Care During COVID-19. Workplace safety is always a top priority for the Company. To create and sustain a safe and healthy workplace, we have implemented initiatives designed to address risk evaluation, education and training of employees, use of appropriate personal protective equipment, and compliance with relevant health and safety standards.

 

Employees. As of March 31, 2022, we employed a team of approximately 52 full-time employees in our two segments. We also have contract workers and advisors in the U.S., India, Colombia, and Hong Kong.

 

Available Information

 

The Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The Company is subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and files or furnishes reports, proxy statements, and other information with the SEC. Such reports and other information filed by the Company with the SEC are available free of charge on the Company’s website at www.igcinc.us when such reports are available on the SEC’s website. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. The contents of these websites are not incorporated into this filing. Further, the Company’s references to the URLs for these websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.

 

 

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

 

You should carefully consider the following risk factors, together with all other information included in this report in evaluating the Company and our common stock. If any of the following risks and uncertainties develops into actual events, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. In that case, the trading price of our common stock and other securities also could be adversely affected. We make various statements in this section, which constituteforward-looking statements.SeeForward-Looking Statements.

 

Risks Related to Our Business, Industry and Operations:

 

Our cannabinoid strategy makes it difficult to raise money as a public company.

 

Marijuana and hemp plants are both the same species, the dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Most countries differentiate hemp from marijuana by the amount of THC. Under the 2018 Farm Bill, hemp is classified as a cannabis plant that has 0.3% or less THC by dry weight. Marijuana is classified as a cannabis plant that has THC above 0.3% by dry weight. Both marijuana and hemp produce other cannabinoids such as CBD.

 

CBD mentioned in the context of products, refers to hemp extracts naturally rich in cannabinoids like CBD, but with 0.3% or less THC by dry weight. Despite having no direct involvement in selling marijuana, the Company is often incorrectly classified as a “cannabis company” or a “marijuana company,” with all the nuances that accompany that label, including being blacklisted by banks, investment banks, and until recently by the largest stock clearing services company. The near-monopoly nature of some of these institutions, especially clearing houses, makes it difficult for the Company to raise money, deposit share certificates, or even have investment banking relationships. As we cannot control how others perceive us, there can be no assurance that we will be able to raise enough capital for our planned expansion.

 

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) interim final rule related to statutory amendments to the Controlled Substances Act made by the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (AIA), regarding the scope of regulatory controls over marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinols and other related constituents may have an adverse impact on our Company.

 

Effective August 21, 2020, the interim rule to align DEA regulations in response to hemp legalization under the 2018 Farm Bill became effective. In order to meet the AIA’s definition of hemp, and thus qualify for the exception in the definition of marijuana, a cannabis-derived product must itself contain 0.3% or less delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (“THC”) on a dry weight basis. It is not enough that a product is labeled or advertised as “hemp.” Cannabis-derived products that exceed the 0.3% THC limit do not meet the statutory definition of “hemp” and are Schedule I controlled substances, regardless of claims made to the contrary in the labeling or advertising of the products. Further, a cannabis derivative, extract or product that exceeds the 0.3% THC limit is a Schedule I controlled substance, even if the plant from which it was derived contained 0.3% or less THC on a dry weight basis. While we strive to ensure compliance, further tightening of these definitions may have an adverse impact on our products.

 

The Company depends on the performance of carriers, wholesalers, retailers, and other resellers.

 

The Company distributes its products through wholesalers, retailers, and resellers, many of whom may distribute products from competing manufacturers. The Company also intends to sell its products and resell third-party products in most of its major markets directly to consumers, small and mid-sized businesses, and other customers through its retail and online stores and its direct sales force. The Company intends to invest in programs to enhance reseller sales, including staffing selected resellers’ stores with Company employees and contractors and improving product placement displays. These programs can require a substantial investment while not assuring return or incremental sales. The financial condition of these resellers could weaken, these resellers could stop distributing the Company’s products, or uncertainty regarding demand for some or all the Company’s products could cause resellers to reduce their ordering and marketing of the Company’s products.

 

Our revenue decreased and we have a history of operating losses and there can be no assurance that we can again achieve or maintain profitability.

 

Our revenue declined from Fiscal 2021 to Fiscal 2022. Our short-term focus is to gain market share for our Life Sciences segment. However, we have had a history of operating losses. For Fiscal 2022 and Fiscal 2021, we had a net loss of approximately $15 million and $8.8 million, respectively. Accordingly, there can be no guarantee that our efforts will be successful. If we continue to have losses, we will be required to seek additional financing. No assurance can be given that we can raise any such financing and such financing could be dilutive to our shareholders.

 

 

We may engage in strategic transactions that could impact our liquidity, increase our expenses, and present significant distractions to our management, and which ultimately may not be successful.

 

From time to time, we may consider strategic transactions, such as acquisitions of companies, asset purchases, and out-licensing or in-licensing of products, product candidates, or technologies, particularly those arrangements that seek to leverage other organizations’ internal platforms or competencies for the benefit of our products or potential products. Additional potential transactions that we may consider may include a variety of different business arrangements, including spin-offs, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, restructurings, divestitures, business combinations, and investments. Any such transaction may require us to incur non-recurring or other charges that may increase our near and long-term expenditures, and may pose significant integration challenges or disrupt our management or business, which could adversely affect our operations and financial results. For example, these transactions may entail numerous operational and financial risks, including:

 

 

exposure to unknown or unanticipated liabilities, including foreign laws with which we are unfamiliar;

 

disruption of our business and diversion of our management’s time and attention to develop acquired products, product candidates, or technologies;

 

the incurrence of substantial debt or dilutive issuances of equity securities to pay for acquisitions, which we may not be able to obtain on favorable terms, if at all;

 

higher than expected acquisition and integration costs;

 

write-downs of assets or goodwill or impairment charges;

 

increased amortization expenses;

 

difficulty and cost in combining the operations and personnel of any acquired businesses with our operations and personnel;

 

entering a long-term relationship with a partner that proves to be unreliable or counterproductive;

 

impairment of relationships with key suppliers or customers of any acquired businesses due to changes in management and ownership; and

 

inability to retain key employees of any acquired businesses.

 

There can be no assurance that we will undertake or successfully complete any transactions of the nature described above. Any transactions that we do complete could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects if we are unable to execute on the planned objectives or capitalize on the relationship in the manner that was originally contemplated.

 

A pandemic, epidemic, or outbreak of an infectious disease, such as COVID-19, may materially and adversely affect our business and operations.

 

The outbreak of COVID-19 has affected most of the world, including the U.S., South America, European and Asian countries. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the United States and global economies and has and may continue to affect our operations and those of third parties on which we rely, including by causing disruptions in the supply of our products candidates and the conduct of current and future clinical trials. As the end of the COVID-19 pandemic remains unknown, the full extent of the impact of COVID-19 on the Company remains unknown as well.

 

The impact of COVID-19 on our operations is reflected in reduced revenue and increased expenses in both our Infrastructure and the Life Sciences segments.

 

In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic may affect the operations of the FDA and other health authorities, which could result in delays of reviews and approvals, including with respect to our product candidates. The evolving COVID-19 pandemic is also likely to directly or indirectly impact the pace of enrollment in our clinical trial for IGC-AD1 for at least the next several months and possibly longer as patients may avoid or may not be able to travel to healthcare facilities and physicians' offices unless due to a health emergency. Such facilities and offices may also be required to focus limited resources on non-clinical trial matters, including treatment of COVID-19 patients, and may not be available, in whole or in part, for clinical trial services or our other product candidates. Additionally, while the potential economic impact brought by, and the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic is difficult to assess or predict, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global financial markets may reduce our ability to access capital, which could negatively impact our short-term and long-term liquidity. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is highly uncertain and subject to change. We do not yet know the full extent of potential delays or impacts on our business, financing, or clinical trial activities or on healthcare systems, or the global economy as a whole. However, these effects could have a material impact on our liquidity, capital resources, operations, and business and those of the third parties on which we rely. The continued impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on the Company as well as on the regions in which we do business cannot be predicted.

 

 

Global Operations

 

We operate on a global scale and could be affected by currency fluctuations, capital and exchange controls, global economic conditions including inflation, expropriation and other restrictive government actions, changes in intellectual property legal protections and remedies, trade regulations, tax laws and regulations, and procedures and actions affecting approval, production, pricing, and marketing of, reimbursement for and access to our products, as well as impacts of political or civil unrest or military action, including but not limited to the current conflict between Russia and Ukraine, terrorist activity, unstable governments, and legal systems, inter-governmental disputes, public health outbreaks, epidemics, pandemics, natural disasters or disruptions related to climate change.

 

Some emerging market countries may be particularly vulnerable to periods of financial or political instability or significant currency fluctuations or may have limited resources for healthcare spending. As a result of these and other factors, our strategy to grow in emerging markets may not be successful, and growth rates in these markets may not be sustainable.

 

Government financing and economic pressures can lead to negative pricing pressure in various markets where governments take an active role in setting prices, access criteria (e.g., through health technology assessments) or other means of cost control.

 

We continue to monitor the global trade environment and potential trade conflicts and impediments that could impact our business. If trade restrictions or tariffs reduce global economic activity, potential impacts could include declining sales; increased costs; volatility in foreign exchange rates; a decline in the value of our financial assets and pension plan investments; required increases of our pension funding obligations; increased government cost control efforts; delays or failures in the performance of customers, suppliers and other third parties on whom we may depend for the performance of our business; and the risk that our allowance for doubtful accounts may not be adequate.

 

We may fail to expand our growing and manufacturing capability in time to meet market demand for our products and product candidates, and the FDA may refuse to accept our facilities or those of our contract manufactures as being suitable for the production of our products and product candidates. Any problems in our growing or manufacturing process could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

In addition, before we can begin commercial manufacture of any medicinal product candidates for sale in the U.S., we must obtain FDA regulatory approval for the product, which requires a successful FDA inspection of the manufacturing facilities, which in turn includes the facilities of the processor(s) and quality systems in addition to other product-related approvals.

 

The Company established a Good Manufacturing Practice (“GMP”) certified processing facility in the State of Washington for processes such as: a) production of products such as lotions, creams, and oils, among others, to support our products and to support white labeling; b) extraction of hemp into crude oil; and c) distillation of crude oil into hemp extracts.

 

Due to the complexity of the processes used to manufacture our product candidates, we may be unable to initially or continue to pass federal, state, or international regulatory inspections in a cost-effective manner. If we are unable to comply with manufacturing regulations, we may be subject to fines, unanticipated compliance expenses, recall or seizure of any approved products, total or partial suspension of production, and/or enforcement actions, including injunctions, and criminal or civil prosecution. These possible sanctions would adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

 

Legal claims could be filed that may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. We may in the future face risks of litigation and liability claims, the extent of such exposure can be difficult or impossible to estimate and which can negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our operations are subject to numerous laws and regulations of the U.S., India, Colombia, and Hong Kong relating to the protection of the public and necessary disclosures regarding financial services. Liability under these laws involves inherent uncertainties. Violations of financial regulation laws are subject to civil, and, in some cases, criminal sanctions. We may not have been, or may not be, or may be alleged to have not been or to not be, at all times, in complete compliance with all requirements, and we may incur costs or liabilities in connection with such requirements or allegations. We may also incur unexpected interruptions to our operations, administrative injunctions requiring operation stoppages, fines judgments, settlements, or other financial obligations or penalties, which could negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations. See Item 3, Legal Proceedings of this report for further information on the current status of legal proceedings, if any. There can also be no assurance that any insurance coverage we take will be adequate or that we will prevail in any future cases. We can provide no assurance that we will be able to obtain liability insurance that would protect us from any such lawsuits. In the event that we are not covered by insurance, our management could expend significant time and resources addressing any such issues. And the legal fees necessary to defend against multiple lawsuits can be significant, impacting the Company’s overall bottom line when not covered by insurance or where the fees exceed the Company’s insurance policy limits.

 

 

Our Company is in a highly regulated industry. Significant and unforeseen changes in policy may have material impacts on our business.

 

Continued development in the phytocannabinoids industry is dependent upon continued state legislative authorization of cannabinoids as well as legislation and regulatory policy at the federal level. The federal Controlled Substances Act currently makes cannabinoids use and possession illegal on a national level. While there may be ample public support for legislative authorization, numerous factors impact the legislative process. Any one of these factors could slow or halt use and handling of cannabinoids in the U.S. or in other jurisdictions, which would negatively impact our development of phytocannabinoids-based therapies and our ability to test and productize these therapies.

 

Many U.S. state laws conflict with the federal Controlled Substances Act. While we do not, and do not intend, to distribute or sell marijuana in the U.S., it is unclear whether regulatory authorities in the U.S. would object to the registration or public offering of securities in the U.S. by our Company, to the status of our Company as a reporting company, or even to investors investing in our Company, if we engage in legal cannabinoids cultivation and supply pursuant to the laws and authorization of the jurisdiction where the activity takes place. In addition, the status of cannabinoids under the Controlled Substances Act may have an adverse effect on federal agency approval of pharmaceutical use of phytocannabinoid products. Any such objection or interference could delay indefinitely or increase substantially the costs to access the equity capital markets, test our therapies, or create products from the Life Sciences segment.

 

Our Company is inexperienced in conducting pre-clinical and clinical trials.

 

Our Company is inexperienced in conducting pre-clinical and clinical trials. Our attempt at demonstrating safety, efficacy and ultimate useability may fail because of our lack of experience in designing, managing, and conducting clinical trials resulting in unanticipated or adverse outcomes. Such outcomes may have an adverse effect on our stock price.

 

Clinical trials are expensive, time-consuming, and difficult to design and implement, and involve an uncertain outcome.

 

Clinical testing is expensive and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain. Failure can occur at any time during the clinical trial process. Because the results of preclinical studies and early clinical trials are not necessarily predictive of future results, IGC-AD1 and our other compounds may not have favorable results in later preclinical and clinical studies or receive regulatory approval. We may experience delays in initiating and completing any clinical trials that we intend to conduct, and we do not know whether planned clinical trials will begin on time, need to be redesigned, enroll patients on time or be completed on schedule, or at all. Clinical trials can be delayed or terminated for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to:

 

 

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities disagreeing as to the design or implementation of our clinical studies;

 

obtaining regulatory approval to commence a trial;

 

reaching an agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations (“CROs”), and clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;

 

obtaining Institutional Review Board (“IRB”) approval at each site, or Independent Ethics Committee (“IEC”) approval at sites outside the United States;

 

recruiting suitable patients to participate in a trial in a timely manner and in sufficient numbers;

 

having patients complete a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;

 

imposition of a clinical hold by regulatory authorities, including as a result of unforeseen safety issues or side effects or failure of trial sites to adhere to regulatory requirements or follow trial protocols;

 

clinical sites deviating from trial protocol or dropping out of a trial;

 

addressing patient safety concerns that arise during the course of a trial;

 

adding a sufficient number of clinical trial sites; or

 

manufacturing sufficient quantities of product candidate for use in clinical trials.

 

We could also encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, the IRBs or IECs of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted, the Data Safety Monitoring Board (“DSMB”), for such trial or the FDA or other regulatory authorities. Such authorities may impose such a suspension or termination due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a drug, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial. Furthermore, we rely on CROs and clinical trial sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our clinical trials and, while we have agreements governing their committed activities, we have limited influence over their actual performance.

 

 

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA and comparable foreign authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for IGC-AD1 or any other product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.

 

The time required to obtain approval by the FDA and comparable foreign authorities is unpredictable but typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. In addition, approval policies, regulations or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions. We have not obtained regulatory approval for any product candidate, and it is possible that we will never obtain regulatory approval for IGC-AD1 or any other product candidate. We are not permitted to market any of our pharmaceutical product candidates in the United States until we receive regulatory approval of an NDA from the FDA. The regulatory approval process can be affected by, among other things, the following:

 

 

we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a product candidate is safe and effective for its proposed indication;

 

serious and unexpected drug-related side effects experienced by participants in our clinical trials or by individuals using drugs similar to our product candidates, or other products containing the active ingredient in our product candidates;

 

negative or ambiguous results from our clinical trials or results that may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities for approval;

 

we may be unable to demonstrate that a product candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;

 

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;

 

the data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates may not be acceptable or sufficient to support the submission of an NDA or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere, and/or we may be required to conduct additional clinical trials;

 

the FDA or comparable foreign authorities may disagree regarding the formulation, labeling and/or the specifications of our product candidates;

 

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve or find deficiencies with the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; and

 

the approval policies or regulations of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

 

Prior to obtaining approval to commercialize a product candidate in the United States or abroad, we must demonstrate with substantial evidence from well-controlled clinical trials, and to the satisfaction of the FDA or foreign regulatory agencies, that such product candidates are safe and effective for their intended uses. Results from preclinical studies and clinical trials can be interpreted in different ways. Even if the preclinical or clinical data for our product candidates are promising, such data may not be sufficient to support approval by the FDA and other regulatory authorities. For diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, the FDA has stated that one single Phase 3 trial is adequate for approval if it demonstrates robust and unquestionable efficacy. However, the circumstances under which a single adequate and controlled study can be used as the sole basis of demonstrating efficacy of a drug are exceptional.

 

The FDA or any foreign regulatory bodies can delay, limit, or deny approval of our product candidates or require us to conduct additional preclinical or clinical testing or abandon a program for many reasons, including:

 

 

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials;

 

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our safety interpretation of our drug;

 

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our efficacy interpretation of our drug;

 

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may regard our Chemistry Manufacturing and Controls package as inadequate.

 

Of the large number of drugs in development, only a small percentage successfully complete the regulatory approval processes and are commercialized. This lengthy approval process, as well as the unpredictability of future clinical trial results, may result in us failing to obtain regulatory approval to market IGC-AD1 or another product candidate, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

 

In addition, the FDA or the applicable foreign regulatory agency also may approve a product candidate for a more limited indication or patient population than we originally requested, and the FDA or applicable foreign regulatory agency may approve a product candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that product candidate. Any of the foregoing scenarios could materially harm the commercial prospects for our product candidates.

 

 

We have concentrated our research and development efforts on the treatment of Alzheimers Disease, which has seen limited success in drug development. Further, IGC-AD1 is based on a new approach to treating symptoms of Alzheimers Disease, which makes it difficult to predict the time and cost of development and subsequent obtaining of regulatory approval.

 

Efforts by biopharmaceutical and pharmaceutical companies in treating Alzheimer’s Disease have seen limited success in drug development, and there are no FDA-approved disease modifying therapeutic options available for patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. We cannot be certain that our approach will lead to the development of approvable or marketable products. The only drugs approved by the FDA to treat Alzheimer’s Disease to date address the disease’s symptoms. Alzheimer’s Disease drug candidates have the highest failure rate of approximately 99.6%. As a result, the FDA has a limited set of products to rely on in evaluating IGC-AD1. This could result in a longer than expected regulatory review process, increased expected development costs or the delay or prevention of commercialization of IGC-AD1 for the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease.

 

Enrollment and retention of patients in clinical trials is an expensive and time-consuming process and could be made more difficult or rendered impossible by multiple factors outside our control.

 

The timely completion of clinical trials in accordance with their protocols depends, among other things, on our ability to enroll a sufficient number of patients who remain in the study until its conclusion. We may encounter delays in enrolling, or be unable to enroll, a sufficient number of patients to complete any of our clinical trials, and even once enrolled, we may be unable to retain a sufficient number of patients to complete any of our trials. Patient enrollment and retention in clinical trials depends on many factors, including:

 

 

the patient eligibility criteria defined in the protocol;

 

the size of the patient population required for analysis of the trial’s primary endpoints;

 

the nature of the trial protocol;

 

the existing body of safety and efficacy data with respect to the product candidate;

 

the proximity of patients to clinical sites;

 

our ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience;

 

clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the product candidate being studied in relation to other available therapies, including any new drugs that may be approved for the indications we are investigating;

 

competing clinical trials being conducted by other companies or institutions;

 

our ability to maintain patient consents; and

 

the risk that patients enrolled in clinical trials will drop out of the trials before completion.

 

Our product candidates may cause serious adverse events or undesirable side effects, which may delay or prevent marketing approval, or, if approved, require them to be taken off the market, require them to include safety warnings or otherwise limit their sales.

 

Serious adverse events or undesirable side effects caused by IGC-AD1, or any other product candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or other comparable foreign authorities. Results of any clinical trial we conduct could reveal a high and unacceptable severity and prevalence of side effects or unexpected characteristics.

 

If unacceptable side effects arise in the development of our product candidates, we, the FDA, or the IRBs at the institutions in which our studies are conducted, or the DSMB, if constituted for our clinical trials, could recommend a suspension or termination of our clinical trials, or the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities could order us to cease further development of or deny approval of a product candidate for any or all targeted indications. In addition, drug-related side effects could affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete a trial or result in potential product liability claims. In addition, these side effects may not be appropriately recognized or managed by the treating medical staff. We expect to have to train medical personnel using our product candidates to understand the side effect profiles for our clinical trials and upon any commercialization of any of our product candidates. Inadequate training in recognizing or managing the potential side effects of our product candidates could result in patient injury or death. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition, and prospects significantly.

 

 

Additionally, if one or more of our product candidates receives marketing approval, and we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by such products, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including:

 

 

additional restrictions may be imposed on the marketing of the particular product or the manufacturing processes for the product or any component thereof;

 

regulatory authorities may withdraw approvals of such product;

 

regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label, such as a “black box” warning or contraindication;

 

we may be required to implement a REMS or create a medication guide outlining the risks of such side effects for distribution to patients;

 

we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients;

 

the product may become less competitive; and

 

our reputation may suffer.

 

Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of a product candidate, if approved, and could significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

 

Our product candidates may be unable to achieve the expected market acceptance, consequently, limiting our ability to generate revenue from new products.

 

Even when product development is successful and regulatory approval has been obtained, our ability to generate sufficient revenue depends on the acceptance of our products by customers. We cannot assure you that our products will achieve the expected level of market acceptance and revenue. The market acceptance of any product depends on several factors such as, the price of the product, the effect of the product, the taste of the product, reputation of the Company, competition, and marketing and distribution support.

 

The success and acceptance of a product in one state may not be replicated in other states or may be negatively affected by our activities in another state. Any factors preventing or limiting the market acceptance of our products could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

The nature of our products, customer base and sales channels cause us to lack visibility regarding future demand for our products, which makes it difficult for us to predict our revenues or operating results.

 

It is important to the success of our business that we have the ability to accurately predict the future demand for our products. However, several factors contribute to a lack of visibility with respect to future orders, including:

 

 

the lengthy and unpredictable sales cycle for our products that can extend from 6 to 24 months or longer;

 

the project-driven nature of our customers’ requirements;

 

the uncertainty of the extent and timing of market acceptance of our new products;

 

the requirement to obtain industry certifications or regulatory approval for some products; and

 

the diversity of our product lines and geographic scope of our product distribution.

 

This lack of visibility impacts our ability to forecast inventory requirements. An overestimate of our customers’ future requirements for products may lead to excess inventory, which would increase costs and potentially require us to write-off inventory that becomes obsolete. If we underestimate our customers’ future requirements, we may have inadequate inventory, which could interrupt and delay delivery of our products to our customers and could cause our revenues to decline. If any of these events occur, they could negatively impact our revenues, which could prevent us from achieving or sustaining profitability.

 

Some, but not all, of the factors that could affect our ability to achieve results are described in forward-looking statements. If one or more of these factors materialize, or if any underlying assumptions prove incorrect, our actual results, performance or achievements may vary materially from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

 

Business interruptions could delay us in the process of developing our product candidates and could disrupt our product sales.

 

Loss of our manufacturing facilities, stored inventory or laboratory facilities through fire, theft, natural disasters or other causes, or loss of our botanical raw material due to pathogenic infection, waste, destruction, or other causes, could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet demand for our products or to continue product development activities and to conduct our business. Failure to supply our partners with commercial products may lead to adverse consequences.

 

 

Currency fluctuations may reduce our assets and profitability.

 

We have assets located in foreign countries that are valued in foreign currencies. Fluctuation of the U.S. dollar relative to the foreign currency may adversely affect our assets and profit.

 

Our business relies heavily on our management team and any unexpected loss of key officers may adversely affect our operations.

 

The continued success of our business is largely dependent on the continued services of our key employees. The loss of the services of certain key personnel, without adequate replacement, could have an adverse effect on our performance. Our senior management, as well as the senior management of our subsidiaries, plays a significant role in developing and executing the overall business plan, maintaining client relationships, proprietary processes, and technology. While no one is irreplaceable, the loss of the services of any would be disruptive to our business.

 

Our quarterly revenue, operating results and profitability will vary.

 

Factors that may contribute to the variability of quarterly revenue, operating results or profitability include:

 

 

Fluctuations in revenue due to seasonality of the marketplace, which results in uneven revenue and operating results over the year;

 

Additions and departures of key personnel;

 

Strategic decisions made by us and our competitors, such as acquisitions, divestitures, spin-offs, joint ventures, strategic investments, and changes in business strategy; and

 

Economic conditions, including but not limited to, the adverse impact on operating results due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

We may not successfully register the provisional patents with the USPTO.

 

We have filed fifteen (15) provisional patents with the USPTO, in the combination therapy space, for the indications of pain, Alzheimer’s, medical refractory epilepsy, eating disorders, and cachexia as part of our intellectual property strategy focused on the phytocannabinoid-based health care industry. Although, six patents have been issued, there is no guarantee that our remaining applications will result in a successful registration with the USPTO. If we are unsuccessful in registering patents, our ability to create a valuable line of products can be adversely affected. This in turn may have a material and adverse impact on the trading price of our common stock.

 

We may be unable to protect our intellectual property rights and/or intellectual property rights licensed to us and may be subject to intellectual property litigation and infringement claims by third parties.

 

We intend to protect our intellectual property through limited patents and our unpatented trade secrets and know-how through confidentiality or license agreements with third parties, employees, and consultants, and by controlling access to and distribution of our proprietary information. However, this method may not afford complete protection, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as in the U.S. and unauthorized parties may copy or otherwise obtain and use our products, processes, or technology. Additionally, there can be no assurance that others will not independently develop similar know-how and trade secrets. We are also dependent upon the owners of intellectual property rights licensed to us under various wholesale license agreements to protect and defend those rights against third party claims. If third parties take actions that affect our rights, the value of our intellectual property, similar proprietary rights or reputation or the licensors who have granted us certain rights under wholesale license agreements, or we are unable to protect the intellectual property from infringement or misappropriation, other companies may be able to offer competitive products at lower prices, and we may not be able to effectively compete against these companies. We also face the risk of claims that we have infringed third parties’ intellectual property rights. Any claims of intellectual property infringement, even those without merit, may require us to:

 

 

defend against infringement claims which are expensive and time consuming;

 

cease making, licensing, or using, either temporarily or permanently, products that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;

 

re-design, re-engineer, or re-brand our products or packaging; or

 

enter into royalty or licensing agreements to obtain the right to use a third party’s intellectual property.

 

 

In the event of claims by third parties for infringement of intellectual property rights we license from third parties under wholesale license agreements, we could be liable for costs of defending allegations of infringement, and there are no assurances the licensors will either adequately defend the licensed intellectual property rights or that they would prevail in the related litigation. In that event, we would incur additional costs and may be deprived from generating royalties from these agreements.

 

We may face risks relating to health care privacy and security laws.

 

We may be subject to various privacy and security regulations, including but not limited to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”), as amended by The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (“HITECH”), and their respective implementing regulations, including the related final published omnibus rule. HIPAA mandates, among other things, the adoption of uniform standards for the electronic exchange of information in common health care transactions, as well as standards relating to the privacy and security of individually identifiable health information. These obligations would require the Company to adopt administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to protect such information. Among other things, HITECH makes HIPAA’s privacy and security standards directly applicable to “business associates” — independent contractors or agents of covered entities that receive or obtain protected health information in connection with providing a service on behalf of a covered entity. HITECH also increased the civil and criminal penalties that may be imposed against covered entities, business associates, and possibly other persons, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the federal HIPAA laws and seek attorney’s fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions. In addition, state laws govern the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, some of which are more stringent than HIPAA and many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thereby complicating compliance efforts. Failure to comply with these laws, where applicable, can result in the imposition of significant civil and criminal penalties.

 

Some of our lines of business will rely on third-party service providers to host and deliver services and data, and any interruptions or delays in these hosted services, security, or privacy breaches, including cybersecurity attacks, or failures in data collection could expose us to liability claims, increased costs, reduced revenue, and harm our business and reputation.

 

Our lines of business and services, but especially our development of hemp-based cannabinoid combination therapies for products, including Hyalolex™, Drops of Clarity™, and our long-term use and/or development of blockchain technologies to solve critical issues facing the cannabinoids industry, rely on services hosted and controlled directly by our suppliers and distributors and their third-party service providers. We do not have redundancy for all our systems; many of our critical applications reside in only one of our data centers, and our disaster recovery planning may not account for all eventualities. These facts could cause reputational harm, loss of customers, or loss of future business, thereby reducing our revenue.

 

Our suppliers and distributors and their third-party service providers hold customer data, some of which is hosted in third-party facilities. A security incident or cybersecurity attack at those facilities or ours may compromise the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of customer data. We have a cybersecurity policy in place, however, unauthorized access to customer data stored on our computers or networks may be obtained through break-ins, breaches of our secure network by an unauthorized party, employee theft or misuse, or other misconduct. It is also possible that unauthorized access to customer data may be obtained through inadequate use of security controls by customers. Accounts created with weak passwords could allow cyber-attackers to gain access to customer data. If there were an inadvertent disclosure of customer information, or if a third party were to gain unauthorized access to the information we possess on behalf of our customers, our operations could be disrupted, our reputation could be damaged, and we could be subject to claims or other liabilities. In addition, such perceived or actual unauthorized disclosure of the information we collect, or breach of our security could damage our reputation, result in the loss of customers, and harm our business.

 

Hardware or software failures or errors in our systems or those of our suppliers and distributors or their third-party service providers, could result in data loss or corruption, cause the information that we collect to be incomplete or contain inaccuracies that our customers regard as significant, or cause us to fail to meet committed service levels. Furthermore, our ability to collect and report data may be delayed or interrupted by several factors, including access to the internet, the failure of our network or software systems or security breaches. In addition, computer viruses or other malware may harm our systems, causing us to lose data, and the transmission of computer viruses or other malware could expose us to litigation. We may also find, on occasion, that we cannot deliver data and reports in near real time because of several factors, including failures of our network or software. If we supply inaccurate information or experience interruptions in our ability to capture, store and supply information in near real time or at all, our reputation could be harmed, we could lose customers, or we could be found liable for damages or incur other losses.

 

All our data is stored on the cloud on multiple servers which helps us mitigate the overall risk of losing data. We are in the process of implementing tighter cybersecurity measures to safeguard against hackers. Complying with these security measures and compliances would incur further costs.

 

 

The states in which we and our distributors and suppliers and their service providers operate require that we maintain certain information about our customers and transactions. If we fail to maintain such information, we could be in violation of state laws. Laws and regulations relating to the handling of personal data may impede the adoption of our services or result in increased costs, legal claims, fines against us, or reputational damage.

 

We face risks associated with the manufacture of our products which could adversely affect our business and financial results.

 

We are subject to the risks inherent in manufacturing our products, including industrial accidents, environmental events, strikes and other labor disputes, disruptions in supply chain or information systems, loss or impairment of key manufacturing sites or suppliers, product quality control, safety, increase in commodity prices and energy costs, licensing requirements and other regulatory issues, as well as natural disasters and other external factors over which we have no control. If such an event were to occur, it could have an adverse effect on our business and financial results.

 

The Company is exposed to the risk of write-downs on the value of its inventory and other assets, in addition to purchase commitment cancellation risk.

 

The Company records a write-down for product and component inventories that become obsolete or exceed anticipated demand, or for which cost exceeds net realizable value. The Company may also accrue necessary cancellation fee reserves for orders of excess products and components. The Company reviews long-lived assets, including capital assets held at its suppliers’ facilities and inventory prepayments, for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate the assets may not be recoverable. If the Company determines that an impairment has occurred, it records a write-down equal to the amount by which the carrying value of the asset exceeds its fair value. Although the Company believes its inventory, capital assets, inventory prepayments, and other assets and purchase commitments are currently recoverable, no assurance can be given that the Company will not incur write-downs, fees, impairments, and other charges given the rapid and unpredictable pace of product obsolescence in the industries in which the Company competes.

 

The Company orders components for its products and builds inventory in advance of product announcements and shipments. Manufacturing purchase obligations cover the Company’s forecasted component and manufacturing requirements, typically for periods up to 150 days. Because the Company’s markets are volatile, competitive, and subject to rapid technology and price changes, there is a risk the Company will forecast incorrectly and order or produce excess or insufficient amounts of components or products, or not fully utilize firm purchase commitments.

 

Our accounting personnel may make unintentional errors.

 

Given our small size and foreign operations, a small unrectified mistake in the preparation of financial statements and the maintenance of our books and records in accordance with U.S. GAAP and SEC rules and regulations may constitute a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting. For more information, please see Item 9A, “Controls and Procedures.”

 

Risks Related to ownership of our common stock:

 

Future sales of common stock by us could cause our stock price to decline and dilute your ownership in our Company.

 

Our certificate of incorporation authorizes the issuance of up to 150,000,000 shares of common stock, par value of $0.0001 per share, and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value of $0.0001 per share. We are not restricted from issuing additional shares of our common stock or preferred stock, including any securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for, or that represent the right to receive, common stock or preferred stock or any substantially similar securities. The market price of our common stock could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of our common stock by us in the market or the perception that such sales could occur. If we raise funds by issuing additional securities in the future or stock options to purchase our common stock are exercised, the newly issued shares will also dilute your percentage ownership in our Company.

 

 

Our common stock price has fluctuated considerably and has recently reached our highest price levels, which may not be sustained.

 

The market price of shares of our common stock has fluctuated substantially in recent years and is likely to fluctuate significantly from its current level. Our common stock has also been volatile, with our 52-week closing price range being at a low of $0.74 and a high of $4.65 per share. Future announcements concerning the introduction of new products, services, or technologies or changes in product pricing policies by us or our competitors, or changes in earnings estimates by analysts, among other factors, could cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate substantially. Also, stock markets have experienced extreme price and volume volatility in the last year. This volatility has had a substantial effect on the market prices of securities of many public companies for reasons frequently unrelated to the operating performance of the specific companies. These broad market fluctuations may also cause declines in the market price of our common stock. Investors seeking short-term liquidity should be aware that we cannot assure that the stock price will continue at these or any higher levels.

 

A possibleshort squeezedue to a sudden increase in demand of our common stock that largely exceeds supply may lead to further price volatility in our common stock.

 

Investors may purchase shares of our common stock to hedge existing exposure in our common stock or to speculate on the price of our common stock. Speculation on the price of our common stock may involve long and short exposures. To the extent aggregate short exposure exceeds the number of shares of our common stock available for purchase in the open market, investors with short exposure may have to pay a premium to repurchase our common stock for delivery to lenders of our common stock. Those repurchases may in turn, dramatically increase the price of our common stock until investors with short exposure are able to purchase additional shares of common stock to cover their short position. This is often referred to as a “short squeeze.” A short squeeze could lead to volatile price movements in shares of our common stock that are not directly correlated to the performance or prospects of our Company and once investors purchase the shares necessary to cover their short position the price of our common stock may decline. We believe that the recent volatility in our common stock may be due, in part, to short squeezes that may be temporarily increasing the price of our common stock, which could result in a loss of some or all of your investment in our common stock.

 

Our management team will have broad discretion over the use of Company funds.

 

Our management will use their discretion to direct the use of Company funds. We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of IGC shares in ATM offerings, sales proceeds, sale of capital assets, and other funds to fund working capital and capital expenditure requirements. It may also be used for clinical trials, share repurchases, debt repayments, investments, including but not limited to, mutual funds, treasury bonds, cryptocurrencies, and other asset classes. Management’s judgments may not result in positive returns on investor investment and the investor will not have an opportunity to evaluate the economic, financial, or other information upon which the Management bases its decisions. The Company may invest the funds, pending their use, in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value. The failure by management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses, and these financial losses could have a material adverse effect on our business and cause the price of our common stock to decline.

 

Our publicly filed reports are subject to review by the SEC, and any significant changes or amendments required as a result of any such review may result in material liability to us and may have a material adverse impact on the trading price of our common stock.

 

The reports of publicly traded companies are subject to review by the SEC from time to time for the purpose of assisting companies in complying with applicable disclosure requirements, and the SEC is required to undertake a comprehensive review of a company’s reports at least once every three years under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. SEC reviews may be initiated at any time. We could be required to modify, amend, or reformulate information contained in prior filings as a result of an SEC review, as well as the state in filings that we have inadequate control or expertise over financial reporting. Any modification, amendment, or reformulation of information contained in such reports could be significant and result in material liability to us and have a material and adverse impact on the trading price of our common stock.

 

We do not anticipate declaring any cash dividends on our common stock.

 

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock and do not plan to pay any cash dividends in the near future. Our current policy is to retain all funds and earnings for use in the operation and expansion of our business.

 

 

Maryland anti-takeover provisions and certain anti-takeover effects of our Charter and Bylaws may inhibit a takeover at a premium price that may be beneficial to our stockholders.

 

Maryland anti-takeover provisions and certain anti-takeover effects of our charter and bylaws may be utilized, under some circumstances, as a method of discouraging, delaying, or preventing a change of control of our Company at a premium price that would be beneficial to our stockholders. For more detailed information about these provisions, please see “Anti-takeover Law, Limitations of Liability and Indemnification” as follows:

 

Business Combinations

 

Under the Maryland General Corporation Law, some business combinations, including a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in some circumstances, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities, are prohibited for a period of time and require an extraordinary vote. These transactions include those between a Maryland corporation and the following persons (a “Specified Person”):

 

An interested stockholder, who is defined as any person (other than a subsidiary) who beneficially owns 10% or more of the corporation’s voting stock, or who is an affiliate or an associate of the corporation who, at any time within a two-year period prior to the transaction, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s voting stock; or an affiliate of an interested stockholder.

 

A person is not an interested stockholder if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. The board of directors of a Maryland corporation also may exempt a person from these business combination restrictions prior to the time the person becomes a Specified Person and may provide that its exemption be subject to compliance with any terms and conditions determined by the board of directors. Transactions between a corporation and a Specified Person are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which such stockholder becomes a Specified Person. After five years, any business combination must be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by at least 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation and two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of shares other than voting stock held by the Specified Person with whom the business combination is to be effected, unless the corporation’s stockholders receive a minimum price as defined by Maryland law and other conditions under Maryland law are satisfied.

 

A Maryland corporation may elect not to be governed by these provisions by having its board of directors exempt various Specified Persons, by including a provision in its charter expressly electing not to be governed by the applicable provision of Maryland law or by amending its existing charter with the approval of at least 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation and two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of shares other than those held by any Specified Person. Our Charter does not include any provision opting out of these business combination provisions.

 

Control Share Acquisitions

 

The Maryland General Corporation Law also prevents, subject to exceptions, an acquirer who acquires sufficient shares to exercise specified percentages of voting power of a corporation from having any voting rights except to the extent approved by two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter not including shares of stock owned by the acquiring person, any directors who are employees of the corporation and any officers of the corporation. These provisions are referred to as the control share acquisition statute.

 

The control share acquisition statute does not apply to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction, or to acquisitions approved or exempted prior to the acquisition by a provision contained in the corporation’s charter or bylaws. Our Bylaws include a provision exempting us from the restrictions of the control share acquisition statute, but this provision could be amended or rescinded either before or after a person acquired control shares. As a result, the control share acquisition statute could discourage offers to acquire our common stock and could increase the difficulty of completing an offer.

 

 

Board of Directors

 

The Maryland General Corporation Law provides that a Maryland corporation which is subject to the Exchange Act and has at least three outside directors (who are not affiliated with an acquirer of the company) under certain circumstances may elect by resolution of the board of directors or by amendment of its charter or bylaws to be subject to statutory corporate governance provisions that may be inconsistent with the corporation’s charter and bylaws. Under these provisions, a board of directors may divide itself into three separate classes without the vote of stockholders such that only one-third of the directors are elected each year. A board of directors classified in this manner cannot be altered by amendment to the charter of the corporation. Further, the board of directors may, by electing to be covered by the applicable statutory provisions and notwithstanding the corporation’s charter or bylaws:

 

 

provide that a special meeting of stockholders will be called only at the request of stockholders entitled to cast at least a majority of the votes entitled to be cast at the meeting,

 

reserve for itself the right to fix the number of directors,

 

provide that a director may be removed only by the vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors, and

 

retain for itself sole authority to fill vacancies created by an increase in the size of the board or the death, removal, or resignation of a director.

 

In addition, a director elected to fill a vacancy under these provisions serves for the balance of the unexpired term instead of until the next annual meeting of stockholders. A board of directors may implement all or any of these provisions without amending the charter or bylaws and without stockholder approval. Although a corporation may be prohibited by its charter or by resolution of its board of directors from electing any of the provisions of the statute, we have not adopted such a prohibition. We have adopted a staggered board of directors with three separate classes in our charter and given the board the right to fix the number of directors, but we have not prohibited the amendment of these provisions. The adoption of the staggered board may discourage offers to acquire our common stock and may increase the difficulty of completing an offer to acquire our stock. If our Board chose to implement the statutory provisions, it could further discourage offers to acquire our common stock and could further increase the difficulty of completing an offer to acquire our common stock.

 

Effect of Certain Provisions of our Charter and Bylaws

 

In addition to the Charter and Bylaws provisions discussed above, certain other provisions of our Bylaws may have the effect of impeding the acquisition of control of our Company by means of a tender offer, proxy fight, open market purchases or otherwise in a transaction not approved by our Board of Directors. These provisions of Bylaws are intended to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited proposal for the restructuring or sale of all or substantially all of our assets or an unsolicited takeover attempt, which our Board believes is otherwise unfair to our stockholders. These provisions, however, also could have the effect of delaying, deterring, or preventing a change in control of our Company.

 

Our Bylaws provide that with respect to annual meetings of stockholders, (i) nominations of individuals for election to our Board of Directors and (ii) the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders may be made only pursuant to our notice of the meeting, by or at the direction of our Board of Directors, or by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in our Bylaws.

 

Special meetings of stockholders may be called only by the chief executive officer, the board of directors or the secretary of our Company (upon the written request of the holders of a majority of the shares entitled to vote). At a special meeting of stockholders, the only business that may be conducted is the business specified in our notice of meeting. With respect to nominations of persons for election to our Board of Directors, nominations may be made at a special meeting of stockholders only pursuant to our notice of meeting, by or at the direction of our Board of Directors, or if our Board of Directors has determined that directors will be elected at the special meeting, by a stockholder who is entitled to vote at the meeting and has complied with the advance notice procedures set forth in our Bylaws.

 

These procedures may limit the ability of stockholders to bring business before a stockholders meeting, including the nomination of directors and the consideration of any transaction that could result in a change in control and that may result in a premium to our stockholders.

 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

None.

 

 

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

 

Our corporate headquarters is located in Potomac, Maryland. We own property of approximately 40,000 square feet that is used for general management and R&D operations. In addition, we are leasing, through December 2025, approximately 16,000 square feet in Vancouver, Washington for manufacturing, sales, and distribution of our Life Sciences segment products and services. In Puerto Rico, we own property of approximately 1,355 square feet that we use primarily for medical trials and related operations. In addition, we own and have short-term lease facilities in the U.S., and India that are used for sales, storage accounting, management, and R&D. We own approximately 5 acres of land in India. The Company believes its existing facilities and equipment, which are used by all reportable segments, are in good operating condition and are suitable for the conducting of its business.

 

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

The Company may be involved in legal proceedings, claims, and assessments arising in the ordinary course of business. Such matters are subject to many uncertainties, and outcomes are not predictable with assurance. There are no such matters that are deemed material to the consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2022.

 

As of March 31, 2022, the Company and one of its officers are parties to the following litigation matters:

 

Apogee Financial Investments, Inc., et al. v. India Globalization Capital, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 1:21-cv-03809 (U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York). On April 29, 2021, Apogee Financial Investments, Inc. (“Apogee”) and John R. Clarke (“Clarke”) filed a complaint against the Company and IGC’s President and Chief Executive Officer, Ram Mukunda (“Mukunda”) (the “Apogee Litigation”). The litigation was originally initiated by IGC on February 8, 2021 (India Globalization Capital, Inc. v. Apogee Financial Investments, Inc., Civil Action No. 1:21-cv-01131, U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York), wherein IGC alleged that Apogee breached a purchase agreement dated December 18, 2014, related to IGC’s intended purchase of a business known as Midtown Partners & Co., LLC (“Midtown”). In response to the original lawsuit filed by IGC, Apogee and Clarke filed a counterclaim as well as the Apogee Litigation. On June 28, 2021, Apogee and Clarke filed an amended complaint. On July 23, 2021, IGC and Mukunda moved to partially dismiss the counterclaim and the Apogee Litigation. On March 7, 2022, the Court granted the motion to dismiss in substantial part, leaving only two claims: Apogee’s cross-claim against the Company for alleged breach of the purchase agreement; and Clarke’s claim against the Company for alleged breach of an alleged promise to issue him shares of the Company. The Company considers the counterclaim and the Apogee Litigation to be ordinary, routine litigation incidental to the business. The Company and Mukunda deny any and all liability and, in particular, deny many of the factual allegations contained in the Apogee Litigation. Both the Company and Mukunda intend to vigorously defend the litigation and are represented by counsel for that purpose.

 

As of March 31, 2022, the Company and two of its officers were parties to the following litigation matters:

 

Tchatchou v. India Globalization Capital, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 8:18-cv-03396 (U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland). On November 2, 2018, IGC shareholder Alde-Binet Tchatchou instituted a shareholder class action complaint on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated in the United States District Court for the District of Maryland. On May 13, 2019, the plaintiff filed an amended complaint against IGC, Ram Mukunda, and Claudia Grimaldi, (collectively, the “Class Action Defendants”), alleging violations of federal securities laws. On February 28, 2019, all pending shareholder class actions were consolidated, and the Tchatchou litigation was designated as the lead case.

 

Harris-Carr v. India Globalization Capital, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 8:18-cv-03408 (U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland). On November 2, 2018, IGC shareholder Gabe Harris-Carr instituted a shareholder class action complaint on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated in the United States District Court for the District of Maryland. IGC, Ram Mukunda, and Claudia Grimaldi were named as defendants. On February 28, 2019, all pending shareholder class actions, including the Harris-Carr litigation, were consolidated, and the Tchatchou litigation, described above, was designated as the lead case. On May 13, 2019, the plaintiff in the Tchatchou litigation filed an amended complaint, which becomes the operative complaint for the consolidated matter and supersedes the Harris-Carr complaint.

 

The Company reached a settlement of the Tchatchou and Harris-Carr litigations during Fiscal 2022, subject to court approval. After the end of the Company’s Fiscal Year, the Court approved the settlement, and all shareholder class action matters have been resolved and dismissed as a result.

 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

Not applicable.

 

 

PART II

 

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANTS COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

Our common stock is listed on the NYSE American under the symbol “IGC” with CUSIP number 45408X308. The common stock of the Company is also quoted on the Frankfurt, Berlin, and Stuttgart (XETRA2) stock exchanges in Germany (ticker symbol: IGS1).

 

We also have 91,472 units outstanding that can be separated into common stock. Ten units may be separated into one share of common stock. The unit holders are requested to contact the Company or our transfer agent, Continental Stock Transfer & Trust, to separate their units into common stock.

 

Further information on the securities can be referred to in Note 13, “Securities” of Part II, Item 8.

 

Securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans

 

The following table shows (in thousands), as of March 31, 2022, information regarding outstanding awards available under our compensation plans (including individual compensation arrangements) under which our equity securities may be delivered.

 

Plan category

 

(a)

Number of

securities to be

issued upon

exercise of

outstanding

options,

warrants and

rights (1)

(in thousands)

 

 

(b)

Weighted-

average exercise

price of

outstanding

options,

warrants and

rights

 

 

(c)

Number of

securities

available for

future

issuance

(excluding

shares in

column (a)(1)

(in thousands)

 

Equity compensation plans approved by security holders:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018 Omnibus Incentive Plan (1)

 

 

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

 

-

 

Special Grant (2)

 

 

6,293

 

 

$

1.17

 

 

 

-

 

 

(1) Consists of our 2018 Omnibus Incentive Plans, as approved by our stockholders on November 8, 2017. See Note 14, “Stock-Based Compensation” of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this report.

(2) Consists of 2 million shares as a special grant of common stock, as approved by our stockholders on January 7, 2020, 2.5 million shares as a special grant of common stock, as approved by our stockholders on January 11, 2021, and 3.5 million shares as a special grant of common stock, as approved by our stockholders on October 15, 2021.

 

Holders of Record

 

As of June 6, 2022, we had approximately 41 registered shareholders of record of our common stock and 2 registered unit holders. The number of record holders does not include persons who held our common stock in nominee or “street name” accounts through brokers. Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company is the transfer agent and registrar for our common stock.

 

Dividend policy

 

We have not declared or paid any dividends on our common stock. We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings, if any, for the development, operation, and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determinations related to dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors.

 

Unregistered sales of equity securities

 

None.

 

 

Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers

 

None.

 

ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

 

 

 

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENTS DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The following is a discussion and analysis of the consolidated statement of operations, liquidity and capital resources, and summary of cash flows, which apply to Fiscal 2022 ending on March 31, 2022 and Fiscal 2021 ending on March 31, 2021. These statements should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes that appear elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

In addition to historical information, this report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the plans and results discussed in forward-looking statements. We encourage you to review the risks and uncertainties discussed in the sections entitled Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and “Forward-Looking Statements” are included at the beginning of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

The risks and uncertainties can cause actual results to differ significantly from those in our forward-looking statements or implied in historical results and trends. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements made by us, which speak only as of the date they are made. We disclaim any obligation, except as specifically required by law and the rules of the SEC, to publicly update or revise any such statements to reflect any change in our expectations or in events, conditions, or circumstances on which any such statements may be based, or that may affect the likelihood that actual results will differ from those set forth in the forward-looking statements.

 

Overview

 

IGC has two segments: Life Sciences and Infrastructure.

 

Infrastructure Segment

 

The infrastructure business, operating since 2008. The Company intends to continue infrastructure operations as the COVID-19 pandemic permits, including:

 

(i) Execution of Construction Contracts – The Company is executing a $1.2 million road-building contract in Kerala, India and was recently awarded another road reconstruction project for $289 thousand.

 

(ii) Rental of Heavy Construction Equipment – We rent equipment, such as motor grader and rollers, to construction contractors. There was minimal revenue from rentals in Fiscal 2022 due to seasonality and COVID-19 pandemic disruptions.

 

Life Sciences Segment

 

Over the Counter Products:

 

We have created a cannabinoid-based women’s wellness brand, Holief™ for the online channel and a CBD and caffeine infused energy drink, Sunday Seltzer™, for distribution in wholesale channels.

 

 

Holief™ is an all-natural, non-GMO, vegan, line of over the counter (“OTC”) products aimed at treating menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) and premenstrual symptoms (“PMS”). The products are available online and through Amazon and other online channels.

 

 

o

Sunday Seltzer™ is an all-natural, organic, carbonated energy drink with natural caffeine from green tea extract, CBD, vitamins B, vitamin C, no added sugars, and no preservatives. The energy drink is available in two flavors, pomegranate-lemon, and peach-ginger. In addition, Sunday Seltzer™ is also available in four flavors with CBD, vitamins B, vitamin C, and no caffeine.

 

Both Holief™, and Sunday Seltzer™ are compliant with relevant federal, state, and local laws, and regulations.

 

 

Biopharmaceutical:

 

Since 2014, we have focused a portion of our business on the application of phytocannabinoids such as Tetrahydrocannabinol (“THC”) and Cannabidiol (“CBD”), among others, in combination with other compounds, to address efficacy for various ailments and diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. As previously disclosed, IGC submitted IGC-AD1, our investigational drug candidate for Alzheimer’s, to the FDA under Section 505(i) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and received approval on July 30, 2020, to proceed with the Phase 1 trial on Alzheimer’s patients.

 

The Company completed all dose escalation studies, and as announced by the Company on December 2, 2021, the results of the clinical trial have been submitted in the Clinical/Statistical Report (“CSR”) filed with the FDA. The Company is motivated by the potential that, with future successful results from appropriate further trials, IGC-AD1 could contribute to relief for some of the 55 million people around the world expected to be impacted by Alzheimer’s disease by 2030 (WHO, 2021).

 

We have a two-pronged approach for our Alzheimer’s drug development strategy, the first prong is to investigate IGC-AD1 as an Alzheimer’s symptoms modifying agent and the second is to investigate TGR-63 as a disease modifying agent. This involves conducting more trials on IGC-AD1 over the next few years, subject to FDA approval, with the anticipated goal of demonstrating safety and efficacy and potentially obtaining FDA approval for IGC-AD1 as a cannabinoid-based new drug that can help manage agitation for patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. The second prong is to investigate the potential efficacy of TGR-63 on memory and/or decreasing or managing plaques and tangles, some of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease.

 

Our pipeline of investigational and development cannabinoid formulations also includes pain creams and tinctures for pain relief. We believe that the biopharmaceutical component of our Life Sciences strategy will take several more years to mature and involves considerable risk; however, we also believe it may involve greater defensible growth potential and first-to-market advantage.

 

Although there can be no assurance, we believe that additional investment in clinical trials, research, and development (“R&D”), facilities, marketing, advertising, and acquisition of complementary products and businesses supporting our Life Sciences segment will be critical to the development and delivery of innovative products and positive patient and customer experiences. We hope to leverage our R&D and intellectual property to develop ground-breaking, science-based products that are proven effective through planned pre-clinical and clinical trials. Although there can be no assurance, we believe this strategy has the potential to improve existing products and lead to the creation of new products, which, based on scientific study and research, may offer positive results for the management of certain conditions, symptoms, and side effects.

 

While the bulk of our medium and longer-term focus is on clinical trials and getting IGC-AD1 to be an FDA approved drug, our shorter-term strategy, is to use our resources to provide white label services and market Holief™ and Sunday Seltzer™. We believe this may provide us with several profit opportunities, although there can be no assurance of such profit opportunities.

 

COVID-19 Update

 

The infrastructure business, based in India and Hong Kong, had significantly lower revenue in Fiscal Year 2022 due to the continued impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and restrictions imposed by governmental entities. We have limited visibility into when economic conditions will recover in India and especially Hong Kong. Specifically:

 

 

1.

We incurred increased expenses on a $1.2 million road-building contract in India due to COVID-19 restrictions.

 

2.

We manufactured, distributed, and donated alcohol-based hand sanitizers to help communities hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic. We incurred the expense to provide hand sanitizers to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (“FEMA”), the Navajo Nation in Arizona, the Crow reservation in Montana, and the Sioux reservation in South Dakota.

 

3.

Pandemic restrictions made it difficult to transport and process our harvested hemp crop in Arizona on a timely basis. This resulted in a $1.7 million adjustment to our inventory that also increased our SG&A.

 

 

 

The Global Economic Environment

 

In addition to the industry-specific factors such as regulations around cannabinoid research, we are exposed to economic cycles. Factors in the global economic environment that may impact our operations include, among other things, currency fluctuations, capital and exchange controls, global economic conditions including inflation, restrictive government actions, changes in intellectual property, legal protections and remedies, trade regulations, tax laws and regulations and procedures and actions affecting approval, production, pricing, and marketing of our products, as well as impacts of political or civil unrest or military action, including the current conflict between Russia and Ukraine, terrorist activity, unstable governments, and legal systems, inter-governmental disputes, public health outbreaks, epidemics, pandemics, natural disasters or disruptions related to climate change.

 

Operational Excellence

 

We remain focused on continuing to build excellence broadly in three areas, cannabinoid-based investigations, drug development and product manufacturing, and online marketing. We believe these will give us a competitive advantage, including building an increasingly agile and adaptable commercialization engine with a strong customer-focused market expertise.

 

Workplace and Employees

 

We support broad public health strategies designed to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and are focused on the health and welfare of our employees. We have mobilized to enable our employees to accomplish our most critical goals through a combination of remote work and in-person initiatives. In addition to rolling out new technologies and collaboration tools, we have implemented processes and resources to support our employees in the event an employee receives a positive COVID-19 diagnosis. We have developed plans regarding the opening of our sites to enable our employees to return to work in our global offices, the field, and our manufacturing facilities, which take into account applicable public health authority and local government guidelines, and which are designed to ensure community and employee safety. We are moving to a more flexible mix of virtual and in-person working to advance our culture, drive innovation and agility and enable greater balance and well-being for our workforce.

 

Research and Development

 

With respect to our clinical trial activities, we have taken measures to implement remote and virtual approaches, including remote data monitoring where possible, to maintain safety and trial continuity, and to preserve study integrity. We have seen delays in initiating trial sites, due to COVID-19. We cannot guarantee that we will continue to perform our trials in a timely and satisfactory manner as a result of the evolving effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Similarly, our ability to recruit and retain patients and principal investigators, and site staff who, as health care providers, may have heightened exposure to COVID-19, may adversely impact our clinical trial operations.

 

Fiscal 2022 Highlights

 

 

On March 28, 2022, Hamsa Biopharma India Pvt. Ltd., a directly owned subsidiary of the Company, signed a License Agreement with Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (“JNCASR”), an autonomous institution under the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, to obtain an exclusive license on the developed proprietary technology and know-how, and ownership or assignment of certain patents and patent filings relating to small molecule inhibitors with a naphthalene monoimide scaffold. The agreement with JNCASR is filed on Form 8K on May 12, 2022.

 

 

On February 11, 2022, the Company received a Good Manufacturing Practice (“GMP“) certification for its R&D facility in Maryland.

 

 

The Company completed all dose escalation studies, and as announced by the Company on December 2, 2021, the results of the Phase 1 clinical trial on IGC’s THC based investigational new drug candidate, IGC-AD1, for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, have been submitted in the Clinical/Statistical Report (“CSR”) filed with the FDA.

 

 

 October 28, 2021, the Company won Best CBD Topical award for its broad-spectrum hemp extract cream called Holi Wonder™ at the U.S. CBD Expo event held in Chicago, Illinois, U.S.

 

 

 

On October 5, 2021, the Company received a Good Manufacturing Practice (“GMP”) certification for its facilities in Vancouver, Washington, U.S. where it makes its products.

 

 

On September 17, 2021, the Company filed a provisional patent application with the USPTO for our IGC-513 for compositions and methods for treating patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease.

 

 

The Company licenses a patent filing from the University of South Florida titled “Ultra-Low dose THC as a potential therapeutic and prophylactic agent for Alzheimer’s Disease.” The USPTO issued a patent (#11,065,225) for this filing on July 20, 2021. The granted patent relates to IGC’s proprietary formulation, IGC-AD1, intended to assist in the treatment of individuals living with Alzheimer’s disease.

 

 

During Fiscal 2022, the Company raised approximately $4.1 million of net proceeds from the issuance of equity stock. The Company had entered an “at the market” (“ATM”) offering pursuant to the Sales Agreement (the “Agreement”) entered on January 13, 2021, with The Benchmark Company, LLC (the “Sales Agent”) for the issuance and sale of up to $75 million of the Company’s shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Shares”).

 

 

On June 10, 2021, the Company received forgiveness for the full amount borrowed as per the Paycheck Protection Program Promissory Note (the “PPP Note”) of approximately $430 thousand. The PPP Note was established pursuant to the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) and administered by the U.S. Small Business Administration (“SBA”).

 

Results of Operations

 

Fiscal 2022 compared to Fiscal 2021

 

The following table presents an overview of our results of operations for Fiscal 2022 and Fiscal 2021:

 

Statement of Operations (in thousands, audited)

 

   

Fiscal

                 
   

2022

($)
   

2021

($)
   

Change

($)
   

Percent

Change

 

Revenue

    397       898       (501 )     (56 )%

Cost of revenue

    (203 )     (785 )     582       (74 )%

Gross profit

    194       113       81       72 %

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    (13,292 )     (7,908 )     (5,384 )     68 %

Research and development expenses

    (2,330 )     (929 )     (1,401 )     151 %

Operating loss

    (15,428 )     (8,724 )     (6,704 )     77 %

Impairment

    (49 )     (169 )     120       (71 )%

Other income, net

    461       82       379       462 %

Loss before income taxes

    (15,016 )     (8,811 )     (6,205 )     70 %

Income tax expense/benefit

    -       -       -       -  

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

    (15,016 )     (8,811 )     (6,205 )     70 %

 

Revenue – Revenue in Fiscal 2022 and Fiscal 2021, was primarily derived from our Life Sciences segment, which involved sales of in-house brands and alcohol-based hand sanitizers, among others. Revenue was approximately $397 thousand and $898 thousand for Fiscal 2022 and Fiscal 2021, respectively. In Fiscal 2022 we de-emphasized the manufacturing and sale of low margin hand sanitizers and shifted our focus to higher margin white label services and the sale of products under our brands. This decreased our revenue. The infrastructure business had lower revenue in Fiscal 2022 due to the continued impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and restrictions imposed by government entities.

 

Cost of revenue – Cost of revenue amounted to approximately $203 thousand for Fiscal 2022, compared to $785 thousand in Fiscal 2021. This decrease in the cost of revenue was attributable to decreased revenue. The cost of revenue in Fiscal 2022 is primarily attributable to the cost of raw materials, labor, and other direct overheads required to produce our products. Our gross margin increased from 12% to 48%, which reflects our increased focus on higher-margin services and the sale of products under our brand.

 

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses – Selling, general and administrative expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses, sales commission, professional fees, legal fees, marketing, other corporate expenses, allocated general overhead and provisions, depreciation, and write-offs relating to doubtful accounts and advances, if any. Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased by approximately $5.3 million or 68% to $13.2 million for Fiscal 2022, from approximately $7.9 million for Fiscal 2021. The increase of approximately $5.3 million is attributed to one-time expenses, which include law-suit settlement expenses of approximately $264 thousand; impairment of facility of $833 thousand; net realizable value (“NRV”) adjustment of $1.7 million for the hemp crop; approximately $475 thousand in provisions for advances paid; and approximately $1.7 million in provisions against inventory that was stolen at our vendor’s facility. In addition, the increase of approximately $1.3 million is attributable to an increase in non-cash expenses. Adjusting for approximately $5.3 million in one-time and non-cash expenses, the SG&A for the fiscal year 2022 was lower by approximately $500 thousand.

 

Research and Development expenses: Research and Development (“R&D”) expenses were attributed to our Life Sciences segment. The R&D expenses increased by approximately $1.4 million or 151% to $2.3 million in Fiscal 2022, from approximately $929 thousand for Fiscal 2021. Expenses increased by $1.4 million due to the now completed Phase 1 clinical trial. We expect R&D expenses to increase with the progression of Phase 2 trials on IGC-AD1 and pre-clinical trials on TGR-63.

 

Impairment loss – Impairment loss amounted to approximately $49 thousand for Fiscal 2022, compared to $169 thousand in Fiscal 2021. This decrease in the impairment loss was attributable to the Company recording an impairment of $169 thousand as of March 31, 2021, in Evolve I. During Fiscal 2022, the Company received 44 thousand shares of IGC common stock, which had been granted pursuant to the Purchase Agreement. Accordingly, the Company canceled the shares and impaired its remaining investment of approximately $37 thousand.

 

Other Income, net –Other income for Fiscal 2022 and 2021 is approximately $461 thousand and $82 thousand, respectively. The increase was due to the forgiveness of a PPP loan in the amount of $430 thousand. Other income includes interest income, rental income, dividend income, and unrealized gains from marketable securities, net, and income from sale of scrap, among others.

 

Liquidity and capital resources

 

Our sources of liquidity are cash and cash equivalents, funds raised through “at the market” (“ATM”) offerings, cash flows from operations, short-term and long-term borrowings, and short-term liquidity arrangements. The Company continues to evaluate various financing sources and options to raise working capital to help fund current research and development programs and operations. The Company does not have any material long-term debt, capital lease obligations or other long-term liabilities, except as disclosed in this report. Please refer to Note 12, “Commitments and contingencies”, Note 11, “Loans and Other Liabilities” and Note 9, “Leases” in Item 8 of this report for further information on Company commitments and contractual obligations.

 

While the Company believes its existing balances of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and other short-term liquidity arrangements will be sufficient to satisfy its working capital needs, capital asset purchases, share repurchases, debt repayments, investments, including but not limited to, mutual funds, treasury bonds, cryptocurrencies, and other asset classes, clinical trials and other liquidity requirements, if any, associated with its existing operations over the next 12 months, it will raise money as and when it is able to do so. The Company continues to utilize the ATM to raise capital. Shares issuable under the ATM could be dilutive to the Company’s shareholders. In addition, the Company shifted its focus to higher margin white label services and the sale of products under our brands. Management is actively monitoring the impact of COVID-19 on the Company’s financial condition, liquidity, operations, suppliers, industry, legal expenses, and workforce.

 

Please refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors” for further information on the risks related to the Company.

 

   

(in thousands, audited)

                 
                                 
   

As of

March 31, 2022

($)

   

As of

March 31, 2021

($)

   

Change

($)

   

Percent Change

 

Cash, cash equivalents

    10,460       14,548       (4,088 )     (28 )%

Working capital

    12,670       21,149       (8,470 )     (40 )%

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

Cash and cash equivalents decreased by approximately $4 million to $10.5 million in Fiscal 2022, from $14.5 million in Fiscal 2021, a decrease of approximately 28%.

 

The major decrease was due to approximately $741 thousand used in the purchase of property, plant, and equipment and acquisition of intangible assets and a net cash loss of approximately $7.5 million, part of which was set-off with approximately $4.1 million of net proceeds from the issuance of equity stock through an ATM offering.

 

Summary of Cash flows

 

   

(in thousands, audited)

                 
                                 
   

Fiscal

                 
   

2022

($)
   

2021

($)
   

Change

($)

   

Percent Change

 

Cash used in operating activities

    (7,462 )     (10,800 )     3,338       (31

)%

Cash (used in)/provided by investing activities

    (742 )     3,387       (4,129 )     (122

)%

Cash provided by financing activities

    4,142       14,688       (10,546 )     (72

)%

Effects of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

    (26 )     15       (41 )     (273

)%

Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

    (4,088 )     7,290       (11,378 )     (156 )%

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the period

    14,548       7,258       7,290       100

%

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the period

    10,460       14,548       (4,088 )     (28 )%

 

Operating Activities

 

Net cash used in operating activities for Fiscal 2022, was approximately $7.5 million. It consists of a net loss of approximately $15 million, a positive impact on cash due to non-cash expenses of approximately $5 million, and changes in operating assets and liabilities of approximately $2.5 million. Non-cash expenses consist of an amortization/depreciation charge of approximately $651 thousand, impairment of investment of $49 thousand, provision against debtor & advances of $1.7 million, stock-based expenses of approximately $2.2 million, and a one-time impairment of PPE of $833 thousand and an off set of $430 thousand due to the forgiveness of a PPP Loan. In addition, changes in operating assets and liabilities had a positive impact of approximately $2.5 million on cash, of which approximately $1.9 million is due to an adjustment in inventory and approximately $504 thousand increase in accounts payable..

 

Net cash used in operating activities for Fiscal 2021 was approximately $10.8 million. It consists of a net loss of approximately $8.8 million, a positive impact on cash due to non-cash expenses of approximately $1.3 million, and a negative impact due to changes in operating assets and liabilities of approximately $3.3 million. Non-cash expenses consist of an amortization/depreciation charge of approximately $478 thousand, impairment of investment of $169 thousand, and stock-based expenses of approximately $658 thousand. In addition, changes in operating assets and liabilities had a negative impact of approximately $3.3 million on cash, of which approximately $1.2 million is due to an adjustment in inventory, approximately $2.2 million due to deposits and advances, and a positive impact of approximately $100 thousand for other adjustments in net assets.

 

Investing Activities

 

Net cash used in investing activities for Fiscal 2022, was approximately $742 thousand, which comprises approximately $535 thousand for the acquisition and filing expenses related to intellectual property, approximately $207 thousand for the purchase of property, plant, and equipment.

 

Net cash provided by investing activities during Fiscal 2021 was approximately $3.4 million which comprises approximately $122 thousand for the acquisition and filing expenses related to intellectual property, purchase of property, plant, and equipment of $1.5 million, sale of property, plant, and equipment of approximately $47 thousand and investments of approximately $149 thousand in non-marketable securities, and proceeds from investment of approximately $5 million, in marketable securities.

 

 

Financing Activities

 

Net cash provided by financing activities was approximately $4.1 million for Fiscal 2022, which comprises net proceeds from issuance of equity stock through the ATM offering, net of all expenses related to the issuance of stock.

 

Net cash provided by financing activities was approximately $14.7 million for Fiscal 2021, which comprises proceeds from borrowings of approximately $580 thousand, repayment of loan of approximately $50 thousand, and approximately $14.2 million net proceeds from ATM sales.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with U.S. GAAP and the Company’s discussion and analysis of its financial condition and operating results require the Company’s management to make judgments, assumptions, and estimates that affect the amounts reported in its consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience, as appropriate, and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates, and such differences may be material.

 

Management believes that the following accounting policies are the most critical to understanding and evaluating our consolidated financial condition and results of operations.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

The Company recognizes revenue under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606). The core principle of this standard is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.

 

ASC 606 prescribes a 5-step process to achieve its core principle. The Company recognizes revenue from trading, rental, or product sales as follows:

 

I. Identify the contract with the customer.

II. Identify the contractual performance obligations.

III. Determine the amount of consideration/price for the transaction.

IV. Allocate the determined amount of consideration/price to the performance obligations.

V. Recognize revenue when or as the performing party satisfies performance obligations.

 

The consideration/price for the transaction (performance obligation(s)) is determined as per the agreement or invoice (contract) for the services and products in the Infrastructure and Life Sciences segment.

 

Revenue in the Infrastructure segment is recognized for the renting business when the equipment is rented and terms of the agreement have been fulfilled during the period. Revenue from the execution of infrastructure contracts is recognized on the basis of the output method as and when part of the performance obligation has been completed and approval from the contracting agency has been obtained after survey of the performance completion as of that date. In the Life Sciences segment, the revenue from the wellness and lifestyle business is recognized once goods have been sold to the customer and the performance obligation has been completed. In retail sales, we offer consumer products through our online stores. Revenue is recognized when control of the goods is transferred to the customer. This generally occurs upon our delivery to a third-party carrier or, to the customer directly. Revenue from tolling services is recognized when the performance obligation, such as processing of the material, has been completed and output material has been transferred to the customer.

 

 

Net sales disaggregated by significant products and services for Fiscal 2022 and 2021 are as follows:

 

   

(in thousands)

Year Ended March 31

 
   

2022

($)
   

2021

($)
 

Infrastructure segment

               

Rental income (1)

    23       1  

Construction contracts (2)

    15       174  
                 

Life Sciences segment

               

Wellness and lifestyle (3)

    316       688  

White label services (4)

    43       35  

Total

    397       898  

 

(1) Rental income consists of income from rental of heavy construction equipment.

(2) Construction income consists of the execution of contracts directly or through subcontractors.

(3) Relates to revenue from the Life Sciences segment including the sale of wellness and lifestyle products such as hand sanitizers, bath bombs, lotions, gummies, beverages, hemp crude extract, hemp isolate, and hemp distillate.

(4) Relates to revenue from the Life Sciences segment, including income white label services, which refers to a fully supported product or service that is made by us but sold by another company.

 

Accounts receivable

 

We make estimates of the collectability of our accounts receivable by analyzing historical payment patterns, customer concentrations, customer creditworthiness, and current economic trends. If the financial condition of a customer deteriorates, additional allowances may be required. We had $124 thousand of accounts receivable, net of provision for the doubtful debt of $93 thousand as of March 31, 2022, as compared to $175 thousand of accounts receivable, net of provision for the doubtful debt of $63 thousand as of March 31, 2021. Most of our account receivables are from infrastructure segment.

 

Short-term and long-term investments

 

Our policy for short-term and long-term investments is to establish a high-quality portfolio that preserves principal, meets liquidity needs, avoids inappropriate concentrations, and delivers an appropriate yield in relationship to our investment guidelines and market conditions. Short-term and long-term investments consist of corporate, various government agency and municipal debt securities, as well as certificates of deposit that have maturity dates that are greater than 90 days. Certificates of deposit and commercial paper are carried at cost which approximates fair value. Available-for-sale securities: Investments in debt securities that are classified as available for sale shall be measured subsequently at fair value in the statement of financial position.

 

Investments are initially measured at cost, which is the fair value of the consideration given for them, including transaction costs. Where the Company’s ownership interest is in excess of 20% and the Company has a significant influence, the Company has accounted for the investment based on the equity method in accordance with ASC Topic 323, “InvestmentsEquity method and Joint Ventures.” Under the equity method, the Company’s share of the post-acquisition profits or losses of the equity investee is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations and its share of post-acquisition movements in accumulated other comprehensive income / (loss) is recognized in other comprehensive income / (loss). Where the Company does not have significant influence, the Company has accounted for the investment in accordance with ASC Topic 321, “Investments-Equity Securities.

 

As of March 31, 2022, the Company does not have any investment in marketable securities.

 

 

Impairment

 

The Company regularly reviews its investment portfolio to determine if any security is other-than-temporarily impaired, which would require the Company to record an impairment charge in the period any such determination is made. In making this determination, the Company evaluates, among other things, the duration and extent to which the fair value of a security is less than its cost; the financial condition of the issuer and any changes thereto; and the Company’s intent to sell, or whether it will more likely than not be required to sell, the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis. The Company’s assessment of whether a security is other-than-temporarily impaired could change in the future due to new developments or changes in assumptions related to any particular security, which would have an adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and operating results. The estimated amount of liability is based on the information available to us with respect of bank debt and other borrowings. During Fiscal 2022 and Fiscal 2021 the Company impaired investments of approximately $49 thousand and $169 thousand, respectively.

 

Inventory

 

Inventory is valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value, which is defined as estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation.

 

Inventory consists of raw materials, finished goods related to wellness products, hand sanitizers, finished hemp-based products, beverages, among others as well as work-in-progress such as extracted crude oil, hemp-based isolate, growing crops, and herbal oils, among others. Work-in-progress also includes product manufacturing in process, costs of growing hemp, in accordance with applicable laws and regulations including but not limited to labor, utilities, fertilizers, and irrigation. Inventory is primarily accounted for using the weighted average cost method. Primary costs include raw materials, packaging, direct labor, overhead, shipping, and the depreciation of manufacturing equipment. Manufacturing overhead and related expenses include salaries, wages, employee benefits, utilities, maintenance, and property taxes.

 

Harvested crops are measured at net realizable value, with changes recognized in profit or loss only when the harvested crop:

 

- has a reliable, readily determinable, and realizable market value;

- has relatively insignificant and predictable costs of disposal; and

- is available for immediate delivery.

 

The Company believes its harvested crops do not have a readily available market. Hence, in fiscal 2021, the Company values its harvested crops at cost. Please refer to Note 3, “Inventory,” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.

 

Abnormal amounts of idle facility expense, freight, handling costs, scrap, discontinued products and wasted material (spoilage) are expensed in the period they are incurred. For further information refer to Note 3, “inventory” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Stock-Based compensation

 

The Company accounts for stock-based compensation to employees and non-employees in conformity with the provisions of ASC Topic 718, “Stock-Based Compensation.” The Company expenses stock-based compensation to employees over the requisite vesting period based on the estimated grant-date fair value of the awards. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur. Stock-based awards are recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite vesting period. For stock-based employee compensation cost recognized at any date will be at least equal to the amount attributable to the share-based compensation that is vested at that date.

 

For performance-based awards, stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the expected performance achievement period of individual performance milestones when the achievement of each individual performance milestone becomes probable by best of management estimate. For performance-based awards with a vesting schedule based entirely on the attainment of performance conditions, stock-based compensation expense associated with each tranche is recognized over the expected achievement period for the operational milestone, beginning at the point in time when the relevant operational milestone is considered probable to be achieved.

 

For market-based awards, stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the expected achievement period. The fair value of such awards is estimated on the grant date using binomial lattice model.

 

 

The Company estimates the fair value of stock option grants using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent Management’s best estimates. Generally, the closing share price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant is considered the fair-value of the share. The volatility factor is determined based on the Company’s historical stock prices. The expected term represents the period that our stock-based awards are expected to be outstanding. The Company has never declared or paid any cash dividends. For further information refer to Note 14, “Stock-Based Compensation” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Income Taxes

 

The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statements and tax base of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are established when necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. The Company has incurred net operating loss for financial-reporting and tax-reporting purposes. Accordingly, for Federal and State income tax purposes, the benefit for income taxes has been offset entirely by a valuation allowance against the related federal, state, and foreign deferred tax assets.

 

Foreign currency translation

 

IGC operates in India, U.S., Colombia, and Hong Kong, and a substantial portion of the Company’s financials are denominated in the Indian Rupee (“INR”), the Hong Kong Dollar (“HKD”), or the Colombian Peso (“COP”). As a result, changes in the relative values of the U.S. Dollar (“USD”), the INR, the HKD, or the COP affect financial statements.

 

The accompanying financial statements are reported in USD. The INR, HKD, and COP are the functional currencies for certain subsidiaries of the Company. The translation of the functional currencies into U.S. dollars is performed for assets and liabilities using the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date and for revenues and expenses using average exchange rates prevailing during the reporting periods. Adjustments resulting from the translation of functional currency financial statements to reporting currency are accumulated and reported as other comprehensive income/(loss), a separate component of shareholders’ equity. Transactions in currencies other than the functional currency during the year are converted into the functional currency at the applicable rates of exchange prevailing when the transactions occurred. Transaction gains and losses are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations. The exchange rates used for translation purposes are as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

Period End Average Rate

 

 

 

Period End Rate

Period

 

 

 

(P&L rate)

 

 

 

(Balance sheet rate)

Year ended March 31, 2022

 

INR

 

 

74.50

 

Per

USD

 

INR

 

 

75.91

 

Per

USD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HKD

 

 

7.78

 

Per

USD

 

HKD

 

 

7.83

 

Per

USD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COP

 

 

3,830

 

Per

USD

 

COP

 

 

3,748

 

Per

USD

Year ended March 31, 2021

 

INR

 

 

74.23

 

Per

USD

 

INR

 

 

73.15

 

Per

USD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HKD

 

 

7.75

 

Per

USD

 

HKD

 

 

7.77

 

Per

USD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COP

 

 

3,693

 

Per

USD

 

COP

 

 

3,691

 

Per

USD

 

Cybersecurity

 

We have a cybersecurity policy in place and have implemented tighter cybersecurity measures to safeguard against hackers. Complying with these security measures and compliances is expected to incur further expenses. In Fiscal 2022 and Fiscal 2021, there were no known or detected breaches in cybersecurity.

 

 

Recently issued and adopted accounting pronouncements

 

Changes to U.S. GAAP are established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in the form of accounting standards updates (ASUs) to the FASB’s Accounting Standards Codification. The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASUs. Newly issued ASUs not listed are expected to have no impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations, because either the ASU is not applicable, or the impact is expected to be immaterial. Recent accounting pronouncements which may be applicable to us are described in Note 2, “Significant Accounting Policies” in our Consolidated Financial Statements contained herein in Part II, Item 8.

 

Off-balance sheet arrangements

 

We do not have any outstanding derivative financial instruments, off-balance sheet guarantees, interest rate swap transactions or foreign currency forward contracts. Furthermore, we do not have any retained or contingent interest in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity that serves as credit, liquidity, or market risk support to such entity. We do not have any variable interest in an unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit support to us or that engages in leasing, hedging or research and development services with us.

 

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

Item 7A does not apply to us because we are a smaller reporting company.

 

 

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

Page

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firms (PCAOB ID 5341)

47

Consolidated Balance Sheets

48

Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

49

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

50

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

51

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

52

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

To the shareholders and the board of directors of India Globalization Capital, Inc.

 

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

 

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of India Globalization Capital, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the "Company") as of March 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, stockholders’ equity and cash flows, for each of the two years in the period ended March 31, 2022, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "consolidated financial statements"). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company as at March 31, 2022 and 2021, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended March 31, 2022, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

Basis for Opinion

 

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's consolidated financial statements based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

 

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the Consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audit, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

 

Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

Critical Audit Matters

 

Critical audit matters are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. We determined that there are no critical audit matters.

 

Manohar Chowdhry & Associates

Chartered Accountants

 

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2018.

 

Chennai, India

June 10, 2022

 

 

India Globalization Capital, Inc.

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except share data)

 

   

March 31,

2022

($)

   

March 31,

2021

($)

 

ASSETS

               

Current assets:

               

Cash and cash equivalents

    10,460       14,548  

Accounts receivable, net

    125       175  

Inventory

    3,548       5,478  

Investment in non-marketable securities

    -       80  

Deposits and advances

    978       3,236  

Total current assets

    15,111       23,517  
                 

Intangible assets, net

    917       407  

Property, plant and equipment, net

    9,419       10,840  

Non-marketable securities

    -       12  

Claims and advances

    937       603  

Operating lease asset

    450       488  

Total long-term assets

    11,723       12,350  

Total assets

    26,834       35,867  

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY

               

Current liabilities:

               

Accounts payable

    981       476  

Accrued liabilities and others

    1,457       1,588  

Short-term loans

    3       304  

Total current liabilities

    2,441       2,368  
                 

Long-term loans

    144       276  

Other liabilities

    16       15  

Operating lease liability

    341       405  

Total non-current liabilities

    501       696  

Total liabilities

    2,942       3,064  
                 

Commitments and ContingenciesSee Note 12

   
 
     
 
 
                 

Stockholders' equity:

               

Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value: authorized 1,000,000 shares, no shares issued or outstanding as of March 31, 2022, or March 31, 2021.

            -  

Common stock and additional paid-in capital, $0.0001 par value: 150,000,000 shares authorized; 51,054,017 and 47,827,273 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2021, respectively.

    116,019       109,720  

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

    (2,968 )     (2,774 )

Accumulated deficit

    (89,159 )     (74,143 )

Total stockholders' equity

    23,892       32,803  

Total liabilities and stockholders' equity

    26,834       35,867  

 

The accompanying notes should be read in connection with these consolidated financial statements.

 

 

India Globalization Capital, Inc.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(in thousands, except loss per share and share data)

 

   

Years Ended March 31,

 
   

2022

($)
   

2021

($)
 

Revenue

    397       898  

Cost of revenue

    (203 )     (785 )

Gross profit

    194       113  

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    (13,292 )     (7,908 )

Research and development expenses

    (2,330 )     (929 )

Operating loss

    (15,428 )     (8,724 )

Impairment of investment

    (49 )     (169 )

Other income, net

    461       82  

Loss before income taxes

    (15,016 )     (8,811 )

Income tax expense/benefit

    -       -  

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

    (15,016 )     (8,811 )

Foreign currency translation adjustments

    (194 )     76  

Comprehensive loss

    (15,210 )     (8,735 )
                 

Loss per share attributable to common stockholders:

               

Basic & diluted

  $ (0.30 )   $ (0.21 )

Weighted-average number of shares used in computing loss per share amounts:

    49,991,631       41,963,382  

 

The accompanying notes should be read in connection with these consolidated financial statements.

 

 

India Globalization Capital, Inc.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF STOCKHOLDERSEQUITY

(in thousands)

 

   

Number of

Common Shares

   

Common Stock

and Additional

Paid in Capital

($)

   

Accumulated

Deficit

($)

   

Accumulated Other

Comprehensive Loss

($)

   

Total Stockholders'

Equity

($)

 

Balances as of April 1, 2020

    39,320       94,754       (65,367 )     (2,850 )     26,537  

Common stock-based compensation & expenses, net

    1,894       708       -       -       708  

Issuance of common stock through offering (net of expenses)

    6,513       14,158       -       -       14,158  

Common stock issued for investment

    100       100       -       -       100  

Other adjustments

    -       -       35       -       35  

Net loss

    -       -       (8,811 )     -       (8,811 )

Gain on foreign currency translation

    -       -       -       -       76  

Balances as of March 31, 2021

    47,827       109,720       (74,143 )     (2,774 )     32,803  
                                         
                                         

Balances as of April 1, 2021

    47,827       109,720       (74,143

)

    (2,774

)

    32,803  

Common stock-based compensation & expenses, net

    1,520       2,197       -       -       2,197  

Issuance of common stock through offering (net of expenses)

    1,750       4,145       -       -       4,415  

Common stock issued for investment

    -       -       -       -       -  

Other adjustments

    (43 )     (43 )     -       -       (43 )

Net loss

    -       -       (15,016 )     -       (15,016 )

Gain on foreign currency translation

    -       -       -       (194 )     (194 )

Balances as of March 31, 2022

    51,054       116,019       (89,159 )     (2,968 )     23,892  

 

The accompanying notes should be read in connection with these consolidated financial statements.

 

 

India Globalization Capital, Inc.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(in thousands)

 

   

Years Ended March 31,

 
   

2022

($)
   

2021

($)
 

Cash flows from operating activities:

               

Net loss

    (15,016 )     (8,811 )

Adjustment to reconcile net loss to net cash:

               

Depreciation and amortization

    651       478  

Provision against debtors and advances

    1,718       -  

Permanent impairment of PPE

    833       -  

Impairment of non-marketable securities

    49       169  

Common stock-based compensation and expenses, net

    2,197       658  

Forgiveness of PPP Loan

    (430 )     -  
                 

Changes in:

               

Accounts receivables, net

    50       (42 )

Inventory

    1,930       (1,233 )

Deposits and advances

    541       (2,198 )

Claims and advances

    (334 )     93  

Accounts payable

    504       (287 )

Accrued and other liabilities

    (129 )     373  

Operating lease asset

    38       -  

Operating lease liability

    (64 )     -  

Net cash used in operating activities

    (7,462 )     (10,800 )
                 

Cash flow from investing activities:

               

Purchase of property, plant, and equipment

    (207 )     (1,470 )

Proceed from marketable securities

    -       47  

Investment in marketable securities

    -       5,081  

Investment in non-marketable securities

    -       (149 )

Acquisition and filing cost of patents and rights

    (535 )     (122 )

Net cash used in investing activities

    (742 )     3,387  
                 

Cash flows from financing activities:

               

Issuance of equity stock through offering (net of expenses)

    4,145       14,158  

Proceeds from/repayment of long-term loan

    (3 )     530  

Net cash provided by financing activities

    4,142       14,688  
                 

Effects of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

    (26 )     15  

Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

    (4,088 )     7,290  

Cash and cash equivalents at the beginning of the period

    14,548       7,258  

Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the period

    10,460       14,548  
                 

Supplementary information:

               

Cash paid for interest

    -       -  

Non-cash items:

               

Common stock issued/granted for stock-based compensation, including patent acquisition

    2,197       808  

Forgiveness of PPP Loan

    (430 )     -  

Amortization of operating lease

    115       22  

 

The accompanying notes should be read in connection with these consolidated financial statements.

 

 

India Globalization Capital, Inc.

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

For Fiscal Years Ended March 31, 2022, and 2021

 

Unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this report to “IGC,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to India Globalization Capital, Inc., together with our subsidiaries.

 

NOTE 1NATURE OF OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENTS PLANS

 

Since 2014, our team has been committed to researching the application of cannabinoids such as THC and CBD in combination with other compounds to address various ailments, including Alzheimer's disease. With our research, we have developed intellectual property, formulations, and wellness and lifestyle brands. IGC submitted IGC-AD1, our investigational drug candidate for Alzheimer’s, to the FDA under Section 505(i) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and received approval on July 30, 2020, to proceed with the Phase 1 trial on Alzheimer’s patients. The Company completed all dose escalation studies, and as announced by the Company on December 2, 2021, the results of the clinical trial have been submitted in the Clinical/Statistical Report (“CSR”) filed with the FDA. The Company is motivated by the potential that, with future successful results from appropriate further trials, IGC-AD1 could contribute to relief for some of the 55 million people around the world expected to be impacted by Alzheimer’s disease by 2030 (WHO, 2020). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first human clinical trial using ultra low doses of THC, in combination with another molecule, to treat symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer’s patients. THC is a naturally occurring cannabinoid produced by the cannabis plant. It is known for being a psychoactive substance that can impact mental processes in a positive or negative way depending on the dosage. THC is biphasic, meaning that low and high doses of the substance may affect mental and physiological processes in substantially different ways. For example, in some patients, low doses may relieve a symptom, whereas high doses may amplify a symptom. Ultimately, the goal of IGC’s research is to discover and analyze whether, and at what level of dosing, IGC-AD1 provides relief of a given symptom. IGC’s trial is based on micro dosing on patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. With further trials, subject to FDA approvals, the Company intends to pursue the efficacy of IGC-AD1 for indications of Agitation in patients with dementia from Alzheimer’s.

 

The Company has filed fifteen (15) patent applications to address various diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Central Nervous System (“CNS”) disorders, pain, stammering, seizures in cats and dogs, eating disorders, stress-relief, and calm-restoring beverage, and fatigue. As of March 31, 2022, our portfolio includes six granted patents..

 

In addition, we license a patent filing from the University of South Florida titled “Ultra-Low dose THC as a potential therapeutic and prophylactic agent for Alzheimer’s Disease.” The USPTO issued a patent (#11,065,225) for this filing on July 20, 2021. The granted patent relates to IGC’s proprietary formulation, IGC-AD1, intended to assist in the treatment of individuals living with Alzheimer’s disease.

 

On November 11, 2021, Hamsa Biopharma India Pvt. Ltd., a directly owned subsidiary of the Company, executed a Term Sheet with JNCASR and subsequently entered into an agreement for exclusive global rights corresponding to the molecules, technology, patent, and patent filings that were the subject of JNCASR’s research into naphthalene monoimide (NMI) compounds and the role of NMI compounds have on neurotoxicity associated with Alzheimer’s. The agreement with JNCASR was filed on Form 8K on May 12, 2022.

 

IGC has two segments: Infrastructure and Life Sciences.

 

Infrastructure Segment

 

The India and Hong Kong based infrastructure business includes:

 

(i) Execution of Construction Contracts – The Company is executing a $1.2 million road-building contract in Kerala, India and was recently awarded another road reconstruction project for $289 thousand.

 

(ii) Rental of Heavy Construction Equipment – We rent equipment, such as motor grader and rollers, to construction contractors.

 

There was minimal revenue from rentals in Fiscal 2022 due to seasonality and COVID-19 pandemic disruptions.

 

 

Life Sciences Segment

 

Biopharmaceutical: Since 2014, this part of our business has focused on the potential uses of phytocannabinoids, including THC and Cannabidiol (“CBD”), in combination with other compounds to treat multiple diseases, including Alzheimer’s.

 

Over the Counter Products: We have created a cannabinoid-based women’s wellness brand, Holief™ available through online channels and a CBD-caffeine-infused energy drink, Sunday Seltzer™, for distribution in wholesale channels.

 

 

Holief™ is an all-natural, non-GMO, vegan, line of over the counter (“OTC”) products aimed at treating menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) and premenstrual symptoms (“PMS”). The products are available online and through Amazon and other online channels.

 

 

o

Sunday Seltzer™ is an all-natural, organic, carbonated energy drink with natural caffeine from green tea extract, CBD, vitamins B, vitamin C, no added sugars, and no preservatives. The energy drink is available in two flavors, pomegranate-lemon, and peach-ginger. In addition, Sunday Seltzer™ is also available in four flavors with CBD, vitamins B, vitamin C, and no caffeine.

 

Both Holief™, and Sunday Seltzer™ are compliant with relevant federal, state, and local laws, and regulations.

 

The Company’s principal office is in Maryland. Additionally, the Company has a facility in Washington state, Colombia South America, and India.

 

As of March 31, 2022, the Company had the following operating subsidiaries: Techni Bharathi Private Limited (TBL), IGCare LLC, Holi Hemp LLC, IGC Pharma LLC, SAN Holdings LLC, Sunday Seltzer, LLC, Hamsa Biopharma India Pvt. Ltd. and Colombia-based beneficially-owned subsidiary Hamsa Biopharma Colombia SAS (formerly Hamsa Biochem SAS) (Hamsa). The Company’s fiscal year is the 52- or 53-week period that ends on March 31. The Company is a Maryland corporation established in 2005. The Company’s filings are available on www.sec.gov.

 

NOTE 2SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

a) Principles of consolidation

 

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and all its subsidiaries. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated. In the opinion of the Company’s management, the consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, which are normal and recurring in nature, necessary for fair financial statement presentation. Transactions between the Company and its subsidiaries are eliminated in the consolidated financial statements.

 

b) Use of estimates

 

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (U.S. GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

 

Management believes that the estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements are prudent and reasonable. Significant estimates and assumptions are generally used for, but not limited to allowance for uncollectible accounts receivable; sales returns; normal loss during production; future obligations under employee benefit plans; the useful lives of property, plant, and equipment; intangible assets; valuations; impairment of goodwill and investments; recoverability of advances; the valuation of options granted, and warrants issued; and income tax and deferred tax valuation allowances, if any. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Appropriate changes in estimates are made as management becomes aware of changes in circumstances surrounding the estimates. Critical accounting estimates could change from period to period and could have a material impact on IGC’s results, operations, financial position, and cash flows. Changes in estimates are reflected in the financial statements in the period in which changes are made and, if material, their effects are disclosed in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.

 

c) Revenue recognition

 

The Company recognizes revenue under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). The core principle of this standard is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services.

 

 

ASC 606 prescribes a 5-step process to achieve its core principle. The Company recognizes revenue from trading, rental, or product sales as follows:

 

I. Identify the contract with the customer.

II. Identify the contractual performance obligations.

III. Determine the amount of consideration/price for the transaction.

IV. Allocate the determined amount of consideration/price to the contractual obligations.

V. Recognize revenue when or as the performing party satisfies performance obligations.

 

The consideration/price for the transaction (performance obligation(s)) is determined as per the agreement or invoice (contract) for the services and products in the Infrastructure segment and Life Sciences segment. Refer to Note 17 - “Revenue Recognition.”

 

d) Cost of Revenue

 

Our cost of revenue includes costs associated with in-house and outsourced distribution, labor expense, components, manufacturing overhead, and outbound freight for our products division. In our products division, cost of revenue also includes the cost of refurbishing or repackaging, if required, on products returned by customers that will be offered for resale.

 

(e) Earnings/(Loss) per Share

 

The computation of basic loss per share for Fiscal 2022, excludes potentially dilutive securities of approximately 6,302,149 shares which includes share options, unvested shares such as restricted shares and restricted share units, granted to employees, non-employees and advisors, and shares from the conversion of outstanding units, if any, because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.

 

The weighted average number of shares outstanding for Fiscal 2022 and 2021, used for the computation of basic earnings per share (“EPS”) is 49,991,631 and 41,963,382, respectively. Due to the loss incurred during Fiscal 2022 and 2021, all the potential equity shares are anti-dilutive, and accordingly, the fully diluted EPS is equal to the basic EPS.

 

f) Income taxes

 

The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes, which requires an entity to recognize deferred tax liabilities and assets. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequence attributable to the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the enacted tax rate expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that included the enactment date. A valuation allowance is established and recorded when management determines that some or all of the deferred tax assets are not likely to be realized and therefore, it is necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.

 

In evaluating a tax position for recognition, management evaluates whether it is more-likely-than-not that a position will be sustained upon examination, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, based on technical merits of the position. If the tax position meets the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, the tax position is measured and recognized in the Company’s financial statements as the largest amount of tax benefit that, in management’s judgment, is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon settlement. As of March 31, 2022, and 2021, there was no significant liability for income tax associated with unrecognized tax benefits.

 

g) Accounts receivable

 

We make estimates of the collectability of our accounts receivable by analyzing historical payment patterns, customer concentrations, customer creditworthiness, and current economic trends. If the financial condition of a customer deteriorates, additional allowances may be required. We had $124 thousand of accounts receivable, net of provision for doubtful debt of $93 thousand as of March 31, 2022, as compared to $175 thousand of accounts receivable, net of provision for doubtful debt of $63 thousand as of March 31, 2021.

 

 

h) Cash and cash equivalents

 

For financial statement purposes, the Company considers all highly liquid debt instruments with a maturity of three months or less, to be cash equivalents. The Company maintains its cash in bank accounts in the U.S., India, Colombia, and Hong Kong, which at times may exceed applicable insurance limits. The cash and cash equivalents in the Company on March 31, 2022 and 2021, was approximately $10,460 thousand and $14,548 thousand, respectively.

 

i) Short-term and long-term investments

 

Our policy for short-term and long-term investments is to establish a high-quality portfolio that preserves principal, meets liquidity needs, avoids inappropriate concentrations, and delivers an appropriate yield in relationship to our investment guidelines and market conditions. Short-term and long-term investments consist of corporate, various government agency and municipal debt securities, as well as certificates of deposit that have maturity dates that are greater than 90 days. Certificates of deposit and commercial paper are carried at cost which approximates fair value. Available-for-sale securities: Investments in debt securities that are classified as available for sale shall be measured subsequently at fair value in the statement of financial position.

 

Investments are initially measured at cost, which is the fair value of the consideration given for them, including transaction costs. Where the Company’s ownership interest is in excess of 20% and the Company has a significant influence, the Company has accounted for the investment based on the equity method in accordance with ASC Topic 323, “InvestmentsEquity method and Joint Ventures.” Under the equity method, the Company’s share of the post-acquisition profits or losses of the equity investee is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations and its share of post-acquisition movements in accumulated other comprehensive income / (loss) is recognized in other comprehensive income / (loss). Where the Company does not have significant influence, the Company has accounted for the investment in accordance with ASC Topic 321, “Investments-Equity Securities.

 

As of March 31, 2022, investment in marketable securities is valued at fair value and investment in non-marketable securities with ownership less than 20% is valued at cost as per ASC Topic 321, “Investments-Equity Securities.

 

j) Property, plant, and equipment (PP&E)

 

Property and equipment are recorded at cost net of accumulated depreciation and depreciated over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method.

 

Upon retirement or disposition, cost and related accumulated depreciation of the property and equipment are de-recognized, and any gain or loss is reflected in the results of operation. Cost of additions and substantial improvements to property and equipment are capitalized. The cost of maintenance and repairs of the property and equipment are charged to operating expenses as incurred.

 

k) Fair value of financial instruments

 

ASC 820, “Fair Value Measurement” defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. It also establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:

 

Level 1: Observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets;

Level 2: Inputs, other than the quoted prices in active markets, that are observable either directly or indirectly; and

Level 3: Unobservable inputs in which there is little or no market data, which require the reporting entity to develop its own assumptions.

 

The carrying amounts of the Company’s financial instruments include cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, approximate their fair values due to the nature of the items. Please refer to Note 15, “Fair value of financial instruments,” for further information.

 

 

l) Concentration of credit risk and significant customers

 

Financial instruments, which potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk, are primarily comprised of cash and cash equivalents, investments, accounts receivable and unbilled accounts receivable, if any. The Company places its cash, investments in highly rated financial institutions. The Company adheres to a formal investment policy with the primary objective of preservation of principal, which contains credit rating minimums and diversification requirements. Management believes its credit policies reflect normal industry terms and business risk. The Company does not anticipate non-performance by the counterparties and, accordingly, does not require collateral. During Fiscal 2021, sales were spread across customers in Asia and U.S. and the credit concentration risk is low.

 

m) StockBased Compensation

 

The Company accounts for stock-based compensation to employees and non-employees in conformity with the provisions of ASC Topic 718, “Stock-Based Compensation.” The Company expenses stock-based compensation to employees over the requisite vesting period based on the estimated grant-date fair value of the awards. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur. Stock-based awards are recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite vesting period. For stock-based employee compensation cost recognized at any date will be at least equal to the amount attributable to the share-based compensation that is vested at that date.

 

For performance-based awards, stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the expected performance achievement period of individual performance milestones when the achievement of each individual performance milestone becomes probable. For performance-based awards with a vesting schedule based entirely on the attainment of performance conditions, stock-based compensation expense associated with each tranche is recognized over the expected achievement period for the operational milestone, beginning at the point in time when the relevant operational milestone is considered probable to be achieved.

 

For market-based awards, stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the expected achievement period. The fair value of such awards is estimated on the grant date using Monte Carlo simulations.

 

The Company estimates the fair value of stock option grants using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent Management’s best estimates. Generally, the closing share price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant is considered the fair-value of the share. The volatility factor is determined based on the Company’s historical stock prices. The expected term represents the period that our stock-based awards are expected to be outstanding. The Company has never declared or paid any cash dividends. For further information refer to Note 14, “Stock-Based Compensation” of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

n) Commitments and contingencies

 

Liabilities for loss contingencies arising from claims, assessments, litigations, fines and penalties and other sources are recorded when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the assessment and/or remediation can be reasonably estimated. We record associated legal fees as incurred. Information regarding our commitments and contingencies is incorporated by reference in Note 12, “Commitments and contingencies” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

o) Impairment of longlived assets

 

The Company reviews its long-lived assets, with finite lives, for impairment whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of assets may not be fully recoverable. Such circumstances include, though are not limited to, significant or sustained declines in revenues or earnings, future anticipated cash flows, business plans, and material adverse changes in the economic climate, such as changes in the operating environment, competitive information, and impact of changes in government policies. For assets that the Company intends to hold for use, if the total of the expected future undiscounted cash flows produced by the assets or subsidiary company is less than the carrying amount of the assets, a loss is recognized for the difference between the fair value and carrying value of the assets. For assets, the Company intends to dispose of by sale, a loss is recognized for the amount by which the estimated fair value less cost to sell is less than the carrying value of the assets. Fair value is determined based on quoted market prices, if available, or other valuation techniques including discounted future net cash flows. Unlike goodwill, long-lived assets are assessed for impairment only where there are any specific indicators for impairment.

 

 

p) Intangible assets

 

The Company's intangible assets are accounted for in accordance with ASC Topic 350, IntangiblesGoodwill and Other. Intangible assets having indefinite lives are not amortized, but instead are reviewed annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the assets might be impaired, to assess whether their fair value exceeds their carrying value. We perform an impairment analysis on March 1 annually on the indefinite-lived intangible assets following the steps laid out in ASC 350-30-35-18. Our annual impairment analysis includes a qualitative assessment to determine if it is necessary to perform the quantitative impairment test. In performing a qualitative assessment, we review events and circumstances that could affect the significant inputs used to determine if the fair value is less than the carrying value of the intangible assets. If quantitative analysis is necessary, we would analyze various aspects including revenues from the business, associated with the intangible assets. In addition, intangible assets will be tested on an interim basis if an event or circumstance indicates that it is more likely than not that an impairment loss has been incurred. The Company has analyzed a variety of factors in light of the known impact to date of the COVID-19 pandemic on its business to determine if a circumstance could trigger an impairment loss, and, at this time and based on the information presently known, does not believe it is more likely than not that an impairment loss has been incurred.

 

Intangible assets with finite useful lives are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated period of benefit. In accordance with ASC 360-10-35-21, definite lived intangibles are reviewed annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the assets might be impaired, to assess whether their fair value exceeds their carrying value.

 

The Company intends to capitalize trademarks and related expenses exceeding $2,500 per trademark. Management may also capitalize trademarks and related expenses up to $2,500 per trademark based on its potential and benefit in coming years.

 

q) Inventory

 

Inventory is valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value, which is defined as estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation.

 

Inventory consists of raw materials, finished goods related to wellness products, hand sanitizers, finished hemp-based products, beverages, among others as well as work-in-progress such as extracted crude oil, hemp-based isolate, growing crops, and herbal oils, among others. Work-in-progress also includes product manufacturing in process, costs of growing hemp, in accordance with applicable laws and regulations including but not limited to labor, utilities, fertilizers and irrigation. Inventory is primarily accounted for using the weighted average cost method. Primary costs include raw materials, packaging, direct labor, overhead, shipping and the depreciation of manufacturing equipment. Manufacturing overhead and related expenses include salaries, wages, employee benefits, utilities, maintenance, and property taxes.

 

Harvested crops are measured at net realizable value, with changes recognized in profit or loss only when the harvested crop:

 

- has a reliable, readily determinable, and realizable market value;

- has relatively insignificant and predictable costs of disposal; and

- is available for immediate delivery.

 

The Company believes its harvested crops do not have a readily available market. Hence in Fiscal 2021, the Company values its harvested crops at cost. Please refer to Note 3, “Inventory,” for further information.

 

Abnormal amounts of idle facility expense, freight, handling costs, scrap, discontinued products and wasted material (spoilage) are expensed in the period they are incurred.

 

r) Cybersecurity

 

We have a cybersecurity policy in place and tighter cybersecurity measures to safeguard against hackers. In Fiscal 2022, there were no impactful breaches in cybersecurity.

 

s) Research and Development Expenses

 

During Fiscal 2022 and 2021, the Company recorded research and development expenses of approximately $2.3 million and $0.9 million, respectively. All research and development costs are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.

 

 

t) Leases

 

Lessor Accounting

 

Under the current ASU guidance, contract consideration will be allocated to its lease components and non-lease components (such as maintenance). For the Company as a lessor, any non-lease components will be accounted for under ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” unless the Company elects a lessor practical expedient to not separate the non-lease components from the associated lease component. The amendments in ASU 2018-11 also provide lessors with a practical expedient, by class of underlying asset, to not separate non-lease components from the associated lease component and, instead, to account for those components as a single component if the non-lease components otherwise would be accounted for under the new revenue guidance (“Topic 606”). To elect the practical expedient, the timing and pattern of transfer of the lease and non-lease components must be the same and the lease component must meet the criteria to be classified as an operating lease if accounted for separately. If these criteria are met, the single component will be accounted for under either Topic 842 or Topic 606 depending on which component(s) are predominant. The lessor practical expedient to not separate non-lease components from the associated component must be elected for all existing and new leases.

 

As lessor, the Company expects that post-adoption substantially all existing leases will have no change in the timing of revenue recognition until their expiration or termination. The Company expects to elect the lessor practical expedient to not separate non-lease components such as maintenance from the associated lease for all existing and new leases and to account for the combined component as a single lease component. The timing of revenue recognition is expected to be the same for the majority of the Company’s new leases as compared to similar existing leases; however, certain categories of new leases could have different revenue recognition patterns as compared to similar existing leases.

 

For leases that are accounted for as operating leases, income is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease contract. Generally, when a lease is more than 180 days delinquent (where more than three monthly payments are owed), the lease is classified as being on nonaccrual and the Company stops recognizing leasing income on that date. Payments received on leases in nonaccrual status generally reduce the lease receivable. Leases on nonaccrual status remain classified as such until there is sustained payment performance that, in the Company’s judgment, would indicate that all contractual amounts will be collected in full.

 

Lessee Accounting

 

The Company adopted ASU 2016-02 effective April 1, 2019, using the modified retrospective approach. The standard establishes a right-of-use model (“ROU”) that requires a lessee to recognize a ROU asset and lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with a term longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the income statement. In connection with the adoption, the Company will elect to utilize the modified retrospective presentation whereby the Company will continue to present prior period financial statements and disclosures under ASC Topic 840. In addition, the Company will elect the transition package of three practical expedients permitted within the standard, which eliminates the requirements to reassess prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs. Further, the Company will adopt a short-term lease exception policy, permitting us to not apply the recognition requirements of this standard to short-term leases (i.e., leases with terms of 12 months or less), and an accounting policy to account for lease and non-lease components as a single component for certain classes of assets.

 

Under ASU 2016-02 (Topic 842), lessees are required to recognize the following for all leases (with the exception of short-term leases) on the commencement date: (i) lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis; and (ii) right-of-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term.

 

At the commencement date, the Company recognizes the lease liability at the present value of the lease payments not yet paid, discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease or, if that rate cannot be readily determined, the Company’s incremental borrowing rate for the same term as the underlying lease. The right-of-use asset is recognized initially at cost, which primarily comprises the initial amount of the lease liability, plus any initial direct costs incurred, consisting mainly of brokerage commissions, less any lease incentives received. All right-of-use assets are reviewed for impairment. There was no impairment for right-of-use lease assets as of March 31, 2021.

 

The Company categorizes leases at their inception as either operating or finance leases. On certain lease agreements, the Company may receive rent holidays and other incentives. The Company recognizes lease costs on a straight-line basis without regard to deferred payment terms, such as rent holidays, that defer the commencement date of required payments. Please refer to Note 9, “Leases,” for further information.

 

 

u) Recently issued and adopted accounting pronouncements

 

Changes to U.S. GAAP are established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) in the form of accounting standards updates (“ASUs”) to the FASB’s Accounting Standards Codification. The Company considers the applicability and impact of all ASUs. Accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by FASB that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements upon adoption. The Company does not discuss recent pronouncements that are not anticipated to have an impact on or are unrelated to its consolidated financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, or disclosures.

 

NOTE 3INVENTORY

 

   

(in thousands)

 
   

As of

March 31, 2022

($)

   

As of

March 31, 2021

($)

 

Raw materials

    2,247       2,294  

Work-in-progress

    584       2,199  

Finished goods

    717       985  

Total

    3,548       5,478  

 

Inventory in the form of work-in-progress as of March 31, 2022, comprises, but it is not limited to, various hemp-based extracts such as crude oil, hemp distillate, and hemp isolate. Inventory also includes cost related to growing crops like seeds, fertilizer, other raw materials, labor, farm related overheads and the depreciation of farming equipment, hand sanitizers, gummies, lotions, beverages, and personal protective equipment, among others.

 

During Fiscal 2022, the Company wrote off approximately $252 thousand of inventory due to abnormal amounts of idle facility expense, freight, handling costs, scrap, and wasted material (spoilage) as compared to approximately $307 thousand for Fiscal 2021. The Company also made an NRV adjustment of $1.7 million due to fall in the price of hemp derivatives because of COVID, leading to lower foot traffic and store closures. As a result, it impacts decrease in demand and price. These charges were recorded in Selling, General and Administrative Expenses.

 

NOTE 4DEPOSITS AND ADVANCES

 

   

(in thousands)

 
   

As of

March 31, 2022

($)

   

As of

March 31, 2021

($)

 

Advances to suppliers and consultants

    170       1,295  

Other receivables and deposits

    472       1,745  

Prepaid expense and other current assets

    336       196  

Total

    978       3,236  

 

The Advances to suppliers and consultants primarily relate to advances to suppliers in our Life Sciences and Infrastructure segment. Advances for Property, Plant, and Equipment include an advance paid for the equipment. Prepaid and other current assets include approximately $170 thousand statutory advances for Fiscal 2022, as compared to $36 thousand in Fiscal 2021. Other receivables and deposits as of March 31, 2021, consist of an inventory of $1.7 million that was on deposit with a vendor. The vendor reported the inventory as stolen and filed an insurance claim. The Company created a provision for the $1.9 million on stolen inventory and other advances and receivables during Fiscal 2022. We are simultaneously pursuing the vendor for compensation. The Company decided to move advances paid to some suppliers worth approximately $586 thousand to claims and advances, considering recovering might take more than 12 months.

.

 

NOTE 5INTANGIBLE ASSETS

 

Amortized intangible assets

 

(in thousands)

 
   

As of

March 31, 2022

($)

   

As of

March 31, 2021

($)

 

Patents

    290       220  

Other intangibles

    32       32  

Accumulated amortization

    (51 )     (26 )

Total amortized intangible assets

    271       226  
                 

Other intangible assets

               

Patents

    646       181  

Other intangibles

    -       -  

Total unamortized intangible assets

    646       181  

Total intangible assets

    917       407  

 

The value of intangible assets includes the cost of acquiring patent rights, supporting data, and the expense associated with filing 13 patents. It also includes acquisition costs related to domains, and licenses.

 

The amortization of patent and patent rights with finite life is up to 20 years, commencing from the date of grant or acquisition. The amortization expense in Fiscal 2022 and 2021, amounted to approximately $24 thousand and $16 thousand, respectively.

 

The Company regularly reviews its intangible assets to determine if any intangible asset is other-than-temporarily impaired, which would require the Company to record an impairment charge in the period and concluded that, as of March 31, 2022, there was no impairment.

 

Estimated amortization expense

 

(in thousands)

($)

 

For the year ended 2023

    26  

For the year ended 2024

    29  

For the year ended 2025

    32  

For the year ended 2026

    35  

For the year ended 2027

    38  

 

NOTE 6PROPERTY, PLANT, AND EQUIPMENT

 

   

(in thousands, except useful life)

 
   

Useful Life (years)

   

As of

March 31, 2022

($)

   

As of

March 31, 2021

($)

 

Land

    N/A       4,438       4,606  

Buildings & facilities

    25       2,810       3,817  

Plant and machinery

    5-20       4,594       4,579  

Computer equipment

    3       241       216  

Office equipment

    3-5       145       111  

Furniture and fixtures

    5       141       130  

Vehicles

    5       163       165  

Construction in progress

    N/A       108       50  

Total gross value

            12,639       13,674  

Less: accumulated depreciation

            (3,220 )     (2,834 )

Total property, plant and equipment, net

            9,419       10,840  

 

 

The depreciation expense in Fiscal 2022 and 2021, amounted to approximately $627 thousand and $462 thousand, respectively. The net decrease in total Property, Plant & Equipment is primarily due to depreciation and foreign exchange translations because of a decrease in value of foreign currencies. In fiscal 2022, Company found cost efficient and advance facility outside the US, so it decided to impair facility worth of $833 thousand. The construction in progress relates to the Maryland office extension. For more information, please refer to Note 18, “Segment Information” for the non-current assets other than financial instruments held in the country of domicile and foreign countries.

 

NOTE 7INVESTMENTS IN NON-MARKETABLE SECURITIES

 

Short-term investment

 

   

(in thousands)

 
   

As of

March 31,

2022

($)

   

As of

March 31,

2021

($)

 

Investment in Evolve I (i)

    -       80  

Total

    -       80  

 

(i)

On May 12, 2020, the Company acquired approximately 19.8% shareholding in Evolve I, Inc. (“Evolve”), a Washington corporation (“Evolve”) under the terms of a Share Subscription Agreement (“SSA”) for a consideration of approximately $249 thousand. However, based on an assessment of the business environment, the Company decided to dispose of the holding and amicably exit the acquisition. In light of the above, the Company recorded an impairment charge of $169 thousand as of March 31, 2021. During Fiscal 2022, the Company received back partial shares of IGC common stock, which had been given pursuant to the SSA, in exchange for the return of its shareholding in Evolve. Accordingly, the Company canceled the partial shares received by it and impaired its remaining investment of approximately $37 thousand.

 

Long-term investment

 

   

(in thousands)

 
   

As of

March 31,

2022

($)

   

As of

March 31,

2021

($)

 

Investment in equity shares of unlisted company

    -       12  

Total

    -       12  

 

The Company regularly reviews its investment portfolio to determine if any security is permanently impaired, which would require the Company to record an impairment charge in the period. Due to the impact of COVID-19 on our infrastructure business, the Company impaired its investment.

 

NOTE 8CLAIMS AND ADVANCES

 

   

(in thousands)

 
   

As of

March 31, 2022

($)

   

As of

March 31, 2021

($)

 

Claims receivable (1)

    368       382  

Non-current deposits

    -       18  

Non-current advances (2)

    569       203  

Total

    937       603  

 

(1)

The claims receivable is due from the Cochin International Airport (“CIA”) that is partially owned by the State Government of Kerala. While the Company has initiated collection proceedings in the Commercial Court of Ernakulam, it believes it will be difficult to receive the amount in the next 12 months because of the time required for legal collection proceedings. The decrease in claims receivable was mainly due to foreign exchange translation as a result of decrease in value of Indian Rupee.

 

 

(2)

Includes a loan of $200 thousand to one of our manufacturers for the purchase of equipment. In addition to that, the Company decided to move advances paid to some suppliers worth approximately $586 thousand to claims and advances, considering recovering might take more than 12 months

 

 

NOTE 9LEASES

 

The Company has short-term leases primarily consisting of spaces with the remaining lease term being less than or equal to 12 months. The total short- term lease expense and cash paid for Fiscal 2022 and 2021 are approximately $178 thousand and $233 thousand, respectively. The Company also has four operating leases as of March 31, 2022.

 

America: In November 2019, the Company entered into a lease agreement with a lease term of less than 12 months. This lease was amended in March 2020, with a new lease term from March 1, 2020, to November 30, 2025. The annual lease expense is approximately $123 thousand. The lease contract does not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants. The remaining lease term for the operating lease is 3.7 years with a discount rate of 7%. The lease does not provide a readily determinable implicit rate. Therefore, the Company discounts lease payments based on an estimate of its incremental borrowing rate.

 

Asia: The Company renewed three lease agreements for terms between three to four years expiring between 2023 and 2024. The total annual lease expense is approximately $27 thousand. The lease contracts do not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants. The remaining lease term for the operating leases is between 2.00-2.75 years with a discount rate of 7%. The lease does not provide a readily determinable implicit rate. Therefore, the Company discounts lease payments based on an estimate of its incremental borrowing rate.

 

   

(in thousands)

Year Ended

March 31, 2022

($)