Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)

Registration Statement No. 333-248895

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus Dated September 24, 2020)

 

 

Guardion Health Sciences, Inc.

$10,000,000

Common Stock

 

We have entered into an equity distribution agreement (the “Sales Agreement”) with Maxim Group LLC (“Maxim” or the “Distribution Agent”), dated January 8, 2021, relating to the sale of shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $10,000,000 from time to time through the Distribution Agent, acting as agent under this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus.

 

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be made by any method permitted that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). If we and Maxim agree on any method of distribution other than sales of shares of our common stock into the Nasdaq Capital Market or another existing trading market in the United States at market prices, we will file a further prospectus supplement providing all information about such offering as required by Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act. The Distribution Agent is not required to sell any specific amount, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

The Distribution Agent will be entitled to a commission equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. In connection with the sale of shares of common stock on our behalf, the Distribution Agent will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the Distribution Agent will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Distribution Agent with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “GHSI.” On January 7, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $0.70 per share.

 

As of the date of this prospectus supplement, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates, or public float, is approximately $60,767,412, based on approximately 91,602,312 shares of outstanding common stock, of which approximately 86,810,589 shares are held by non-affiliates, and a price of $0.70 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 7, 2021. We have sold $0 of securities (which does not include the $10,000,000 of securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement) as calculated pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 during the prior 12 calendar month period that ends on and includes the date of this prospectus supplement. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell securities in public primary offerings on Form S-3 with a value exceeding more than one-third of our public float in any 12 calendar month period so long as our public float remains below $75.0 million.

 

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement and the risks and uncertainties described in the documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission that are incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference for certain risks and uncertainties relating to an investment in our common stock.

 

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor any state securities commission, nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

Maxim Group LLC

 

This prospectus supplement is dated January 8, 2021.

 

     
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Prospectus Supplement

 

Page
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT S-1
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS S-2
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY S-3
RISK FACTORS S-7
USE OF PROCEEDS S-9
DILUTION S-10
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION S-11
LEGAL MATTERS S-12
EXPERTS S-12
WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION S-12
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE S-13

 

Prospectus

 

 

Page

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS 1
SUMMARY 2
RISK FACTORS 5
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 5
USE OF PROCEEDS 6
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK 7
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 9
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 16
DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS 18
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS 19
LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES 20
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 24
LEGAL MATTERS 27
EXPERTS 27
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 27
INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE 27

 

We have not, and the Distribution Agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus we prepare or authorize, and neither we nor the Distribution Agent takes any responsibility for any other information that others may give you. This prospectus supplement is not an offer to sell, nor is it a solicitation of an offer to buy, the securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front cover of those documents, or that the information contained in any document incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

S- i  
 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate to the offering of our common stock. Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, you should carefully read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the information and documents incorporated herein by reference and the additional information under the heading “Where You Can Find Additional Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-248895) that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, and that was declared effective by the SEC on September 24, 2020. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, offer common stock, preferred stock, , debt securities, warrants, rights and units, of which this offering is a part.

 

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds, updates and changes information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference. The second part is the accompanying prospectus, which provides more general information about our common stock and other securities that do not pertain to this offering of common stock. If information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with the accompanying prospectus, you should rely on this prospectus supplement. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

 

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and the Distribution Agent has not, authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and the Distribution Agent is not, making an offer to sell or soliciting an offer to buy our securities in any jurisdiction in which an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.”

 

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

 

References in this prospectus supplement to “Guardion,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “our Company,” or “the Company” mean Guardion Health Sciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless we state otherwise or the context indicates otherwise.

 

S- 1

 

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the documents that we incorporate by reference, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Any statements in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and are forward-looking statements. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “believe,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan” and “would.” For example, statements concerning financial condition, possible or assumed future results of operations, growth opportunities, industry ranking, plans and objectives of management, markets for our common stock and future management and organizational structure are all forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of performance. They involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions that may cause actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement.

 

Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the risk factors discussed throughout this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. Some of the risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from estimates or projections contained in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:

 

  The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the global economy, including the possibility of a global recession, and more specifically the impact to our business, suppliers, consumers, customers, and employees;
     
  Our ability to raise sufficient capital to meet our long and short-term liquidity requirements;
     
  Our ability to integrate a new management team;
     
  Our ability to comply with the continued listing requirements of the Nasdaq Capital Market;
     
  Our ability to successfully pursue our business plan and execute our strategy;
     
  Our ability to continue as a going concern; and
     
  The effect of economic and political conditions in the United States or other nations that could impact our ability to sell our products and services or gain customers.

 

The foregoing list sets forth some, but not all, of the factors that could affect our ability to achieve results described in any forward-looking statements. You should read this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents that we reference herein and therein and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement is accurate as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus or such prospectus supplement only. Because the risk factors referred to on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement, page 5 of the accompanying prospectus and incorporated herein by reference, could cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Further, any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which factors will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of the information presented in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, and particularly our forward-looking statements, by these cautionary statements.

 

S- 2

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights selected information about us, this offering and selected information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, and in the documents we incorporate by reference therein. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus supplement, and the accompanying prospectus, carefully, including the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement, the “Risk Factors” section of our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, the “Risk Factors” section of our most recent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and our financial statements and the related notes and the other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.

 

Overview

 

We are a specialty health sciences company that develops clinically supported nutrition, medical foods and medical devices, with a focus in the ocular health marketplace. We utilize clinical studies and evidenced-based protocols to market the efficacy of our products. The completion and publication of these studies are instrumental in successful product launches and on-going market support.

 

Medical Foods:

 

  Lumega-Z (“LMZ”): The Company formulates and distributes LMZ, which is designed to replenish and restore the macular protective pigment. A depleted macular protective pigment is a modifiable risk factor for retina-based diseases such as adult dry macular degeneration (“AMD”), glaucoma and computer vision syndrome (“CVS”). The Company believes this risk may be modified by taking LMZ to maintain a healthy macular protective pigment. Additionally, early research has shown a depleted macular protective pigment to be a biomarker for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. During 2020, two studies related to LMZ were published in the highly regarded scientific journal, Nutrients. Both studies demonstrated the superiority of LMZ versus the industry leading nutraceutical for AMD, Preservision.
     
  GlaucoCetinTM : In November 2018, the Company launched its second medical food product, GlaucoCetin (“GC”). The Company believes GC is the first vision-specific medical food designed to support and protect the mitochondrial function of optic nerve cells and improve blood flow in the ophthalmic artery in patients with glaucoma. The parent compound of GC, called “GlaucoHealth,” was designed by Robert Ritch, M.D., one of the Company’s Medical Advisory Board members, and was shown in a double-blind placebo-controlled “proof of concept” study to reverse mitochondrial dysfunction in the optic nerve cells of glaucoma patients.

 

Medical Devices:

 

  MapcatSF®: MapcatSF: The Company licensed a proprietary technology, embodied in the Company’s medical device, the MapcatSF, that accurately measures the macular pigment optical density (“MPOD”). On November 8, 2016, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) issued patent number 9,486,136 for the MapcatSF invention. Using the MapcatSF to measure the MPOD allows one to monitor the increase in the density of the macular protective pigment after taking Lumega-Z. The MapcatSF device is a Class I medical device under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) classification scheme for medical devices, which the Company has determined does not require pre-market approval. The Company’s focus is to deploy the MapcatSF in clinics accompanied by trained technicians to conduct the MPOD measurements and collaborate with the physicians treating their patients. The Company maintains ownership and possession of the MapcatSF when used in this fashion but sells the device to physicians upon request.

 

S- 3

 

 

  VectorVision and CSV-1000: In September 2017, the Company, through its wholly owned subsidiary VectorVision Ocular Health, Inc., acquired substantially all of the assets and certain liabilities of VectorVision, Inc., a company that specializes in the standardization of contrast sensitivity, glare sensitivity, low contrast acuity, and early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (“ETDRS”) visual acuity testing. VectorVision’s standardization system is designed to provide the practitioner or researcher with the ability to delineate very small changes in visual capability, either as compared to the population or from visit to visit. VectorVision develops, manufactures and sells equipment and supplies for standardized vision testing for use by eye doctors in clinical trials, for real-world vision evaluation, and industrial vision testing. The Company believes the acquisition of VectorVision, through which it added the CSV-1000 to its product portfolio, further establishes its position at the forefront of early detection, intervention and monitoring of a range of eye diseases. Although the CSV-1000 will continue to be sold, the Company plans to put a greater focus on sales and marketing efforts of the new CSV-2000.
     
  CSV-2000: In September 2019, the Company announced that it completed development of its new proprietary, digital CSV-2000 standardized contrast sensitivity testing device. The Company believes that the CSV-2000 is the only computer-generated vision testing instrument available that will provide the optical marketplace with the Company’s proprietary, industry-standard contrast sensitivity test, along with a full suite of standard vision testing protocols. The proprietary standardization methodology incorporated into the CSV-2000 includes a patented technology known as AcQviz, embodied in its own device, that automatically and constantly measures and adjusts screen luminance to a fixed standard light level for vision testing. At the same time that the Company acquired VectorVision, it also purchased an exclusive license for the AcQviz patent. The Company began selling the new CSV-2000 and AcQviz devices at the end of the first quarter of 2020.

 

Nutraceuticals:

 

  NutriGuard Acquisition: In September 2019, the Company, through its wholly owned subsidiary NutriGuard Formulations, Inc., acquired NutriGuard Research, Inc. The Company intends to build a portfolio of nutraceutical products under the NutriGuard brand by developing new formulations and marketing its products to patients directly through direct to consumer (“DTC”) channels and through recommendations by their physicians.
     
  ImmuneSF: The first new nutraceutical product developed under the Nutriguard brand, is designed to support effective immune function. The Company is now marketing ImmuneSF.
     
  In addition to NutriGuard’s ImmuneSF product, a Malaysian company contracted with NutriGuard to develop a proprietary formula to meet the demands of the Malaysian company’s customers for an immune-supportive product. Each unit of the product consists of two (2) bottles packaged together, one named Astramune-H and one named Astramune-V. The formula is designed to provide both immuno-supportive and anti-inflammatory benefits to its users. One component of the product, Astramune-V, has been approved by the Malaysian regulatory authorities, and the approval of the second component, Astramune-V, is still pending.

 

S- 4

 

 

Recent Developments

 

Appointment of New CEO

 

Effective as of January 6, 2021, the Board of Directors appointed Bret Scholtes as President and Chief Executive Officer and as a director of the Company.

 

Prior to his appointment, Mr. Scholtes, age 51, served as the President and Chief Executive Officer of Omega Protein Corporation (“Omega”) since 2012 and as a director of Omega since 2013. Prior to his selection as Chief Executive Officer of Omega, Mr. Scholtes served as the Omega’s Senior Vice President-Corporate Development from April 2010 to December 2010 and as Omega’s Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from January 2011 to December 2011. From 2006 to April 2010, Mr. Scholtes served as a Vice President at GE Energy Financial Services, a global energy investment firm. Prior to that, Mr. Scholtes held positions with two publicly traded energy companies. Mr. Scholtes also has five years of public accounting experience. Mr. Scholtes holds an MBA degree in Finance from New York University and a degree in Accounting from the University of Missouri – Columbia.

 

Nasdaq Listing

 

On September 20, 2019, we received a written notice (the “Notice”) from the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) that we were not in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) ( the “Rule”) as the minimum bid price of our common stock had been below $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive business days. The notice provided an initial compliance period of 180 calendar days, or until March 18, 2020, to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. On March 19, 2020, we received a written notification from Nasdaq that we had been granted an additional 180 calendar days, or until September 14, 2020, to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. On April 21, 2020, Nasdaq informed us that given the extraordinary market conditions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Nasdaq determined to toll the compliance periods for the minimum bid price and market value of publicly held shares requirements (collectively, the “Price-based Requirements”) through June 30, 2020. We had previously been granted until September 14, 2020, to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. Accordingly, since we had 152 calendar days remaining in our minimum bid price compliance period as of April 16, 2020, we had, upon reinstatement of the Price-based Requirements, 152 calendar days from July 1, 2020, or until November 30, 2020, to regain compliance.

 

On December 1, 2020, we received a determination letter (the “Letter”) from Nasdaq stating that we had not regained compliance with the minimum bid price requirement of $1.00 per share for continued listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the Rule. In response to the Letter, we requested a hearing before the Nasdaq Hearings Panel (the “Panel”) to appeal the Letter during the time period provided for appeal. While the appeal process is pending, the suspension of trading of our common stock is stayed, a Form 25-NSE will not be filed, and our common stock will continue to trade on the Nasdaq Capital Market until the hearing (currently scheduled for January 21, 2021) concludes and the Panel issues a written decision. There can be no assurance that the Panel will render a favorable decision or that we will be able regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement or maintain compliance with any of the other Nasdaq continued listing requirements.

 

Reverse Stock Split Authorization

 

On October 29, 2020, our shareholders approved an extension of the previously granted discretionary authority of the board of directors to amend our certificate of incorporation to effectuate a reverse stock split, at a specific ratio within a range of no split to a maximum of a one-for-thirty (1-for-30) split, with the exact ratio to be determined by our board of directors in its sole discretion. The former authorization, which expired on December 5, 2020, was extended through October 29, 2021. We believe that this approval demonstrates our shareholders’ support of our business strategy and our board of directors’ desire to be given additional time to regain compliance with the Nasdaq continued listing standards, if needed.

 

Corporate Information

 

Our mailing address is 15150 Avenue of Science, Suite 200, San Diego, California 92128. Our telephone number is (858) 605-9055 and our website address is www.guardionhealth.com. The information on our website is not part of, and should not be construed as being incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

S- 5

 

 

THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $10,000,000.

   
Common stock to be outstanding after this offering (1)

Up to 105,888,026 shares, after giving effect to the assumed sale of 14,285,714 of shares of our common stock at a price of $0.70 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 7, 2021. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the price at which shares may be sold from time to time during this offering.

   
Manner of offering

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time on the Nasdaq Capital Market or other market for our common stock in the United States through our agent, Maxim Group LLC. See the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” on page S-11 of this prospectus supplement.

   
Use of proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes. We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-9 of this prospectus supplement for additional information.

   
Nasdaq Capital Market symbol

“GHSI”

   
Risk factors See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock, including the risk factors discussed in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, most recent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and our other filings with the SEC.

 

(1) Based on 91,602,312 shares of common stock outstanding as of January 7, 2021 and excludes:

 

  4,835,190 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding options at a weighted average exercise price of $1.50 per share;
     
  5,611,287 shares of our common stock reserved for potential future issuance pursuant to our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan; and
     
  12,252,988 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants at a weighted average exercise price of $0.41 per share.

 

S- 6

 

 

RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Prior to making a decision about investing in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risk factors described below and the risk factors discussed in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, most recent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and our other filings with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or that we currently view as immaterial, may also impair our business. If any of the risks or uncertainties described in our SEC filings or this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any additional risks and uncertainties actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment.

 

Risks Related to this Offering

 

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from this offering, you may not agree with how we use the proceeds, and the proceeds may not be invested successfully.

 

Our management will have broad discretion as to the use of the net proceeds from any offering by us and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of this offering. Accordingly, you will be relying on the judgment of our management with regard to the use of these net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately. It is possible that the proceeds will be invested in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for us.

 

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value per share of the common stock you purchase in the offering.

 

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 14,285,714 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $0.70 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 7, 2021 for aggregate gross proceeds of $10,000,000, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you will experience immediate dilution of $0.50 per share, representing the difference between our pro forma net tangible book value per share, as adjusted, as of September 30, 2020 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options or warrants could result in further dilution of your investment. See the section below entitled “Dilution” for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.

 

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

 

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by any investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by any investors in this offering.

 

S- 7

 

 

Sales of a substantial number of our shares of common stock in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could cause our stock price to fall.

 

We may issue and sell additional shares of commons stock in the public markets, including during this offering. As a result, a substantial number of our shares of common stock may be sold in the public market. Sales of a substantial number of our shares of common stock in the public markets, including during this offering, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.

 

Because we do not currently intend to declare cash dividends on our shares of common stock in the foreseeable future, stockholders must rely on appreciation of the value of our common stock for any return on their investment.

 

We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock and do not plan to pay any cash dividends in the near future. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the operation, development and growth of our business. Furthermore, any future debt agreements may also preclude us from paying or place restrictions on our ability to pay dividends. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain with respect to your investment for the foreseeable future.

 

The exercise of our outstanding options and warrants will dilute stockholders and could decrease our stock price.

 

The exercise of our outstanding options and warrants may adversely affect our stock price due to sales of a large number of shares or the perception that such sales could occur. These factors also could make it more difficult to raise funds through future offerings of our securities, and could adversely impact the terms under which we could obtain additional equity capital. Exercise of outstanding options and warrants or any future issuance of additional shares of common stock or other equity securities, including but not limited to options, warrants, restricted stock units or other derivative securities convertible into our common stock, may result in significant dilution to our stockholders and may decrease our stock price.

 

The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at-the-market” offerings, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

 

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

 

The actual number of shares we will issue under the Sales Agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

 

Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a sales notice to the Distribution Agent at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreement. The number of shares that are sold by the Distribution Agent after delivering a sales notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common stock during the sales period and limits we set with Maxim. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will be ultimately issued.

 

S- 8

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate gross sales proceeds of up to $10,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes. The precise amount and timing of the application of such proceeds will depend upon our funding requirements and the availability and cost of other capital. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses for the net proceeds to us from this offering. Accordingly, we will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby. Pending any specific application, we may initially invest funds in short-term marketable securities.

 

S- 9

 

 

DILUTION

 

If you invest in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering.

 

We calculate net tangible book value per share by dividing the net tangible book value, which is tangible assets less total liabilities, by the number of outstanding shares of our common stock. Dilution represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares in this offering and the as-adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after giving effect to this offering. Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2020 was approximately $10,638,027, or $0.12 per share.

 

Pro forma net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets as adjusted to take into account the net cash proceeds of approximately $1,094,000 from the issuance of 3,200,000 shares of our common stock upon the exercise of previously issued warrants, all subsequent to September 30, 2020. After giving effect to these transactions, our pro forma net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020 would have been approximately $0.13 per share.

 

After giving effect to the sale of our common stock pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in the aggregate amount of $10,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $0.70 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 7, 2021, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma net tangible book value, as adjusted, as of September 30, 2020 would have been approximately $21,297,427, or $0.20 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in the pro forma net tangible book value of $0.07 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in pro forma net tangible book value of $0.50 per share to new investors.

 

The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

Assumed public offering price per share         $ 0.70  
Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020   $ 0.13          
Increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors purchasing our common stock in this offering   $ 0.07          
Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering           $ 0.20  
Dilution per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering           $ 0.50  

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 14,285,714 shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus at a price of $0.70 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 7, 2021, for aggregate gross proceeds of $10,000,000. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $0.25 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $0.70 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $10,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in a pro forma net tangible book value per share, as adjusted, after the offering of $0.21 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $0.74 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $0.25 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $0.70 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $10,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in a pro forma net tangible book value per share, as adjusted, after the offering of $0.19 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $0.26 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us.

 

The above discussion and table are based on 88,327,312 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020 and excludes the following, all as of September 30, 2020:

 

  3,919,167 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding options at a weighted average exercise price of $1.69 per share;
     
  443,333 shares of our common stock reserved for potential future issuance pursuant to our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan; and
     
  15,452,988 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding warrants at a weighted average exercise price of $0.39 per share.

 

To the extent that options or warrants are exercised or preferred stock is converted into common stock, there may be further dilution to new investors.

 

S- 10

 

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We have entered into an equity distribution agreement (the “Sales Agreement”) with Maxim as the Distribution Agent, dated January 8, 2021, under which we may issue and sell shares of our common stock from time to time through the Distribution Agent, subject to certain limitations, pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement may be made in sales deemed to be “at-the-market offerings” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act. If we and Maxim agree on any method of distribution other than sales of shares of our common stock into the Nasdaq Capital Market or another existing trading market in the United States at market prices, we will file a further prospectus supplement providing all information about such offering as required by Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act. We may instruct the Distribution Agent not to sell our common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or the Distribution Agent may suspend the offering of our common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.

 

Each time we wish to issue and sell common stock under the Sales Agreement, we will notify the Distribution Agent of the number of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales are anticipated to be made, any minimum price below which sales may not be made and other sales parameters as we deem appropriate. Once we have so instructed the Distribution Agent, unless the Distribution Agent declines to accept the terms of the notice, the Distribution Agent has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of the Distribution Agent under the Sales Agreement to sell our common stock are subject to a number of conditions that we must satisfy.

 

We will pay the Distribution Agent commissions for its services in acting as agent in the sale of our common stock. The Distribution Agent will be entitled to a commission equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to closing this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. In addition, we have agreed to reimburse the Distribution Agent for fees and disbursements related to its legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation payable to the Distribution Agent under the terms of the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $135,000.

 

Settlement for sales of our common stock will occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on such earlier day as is then industry practice for regular-way trading, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and the Distribution Agent in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

 

In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, the Distribution Agent will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of the Distribution Agent will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Distribution Agent against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

The offering pursuant to the Sales Agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (i) the issuance and sale of all shares of our common stock subject to the Sales Agreement, or (ii) the termination of the Sales Agreement as permitted therein.

 

We have granted Maxim a right of first refusal for a period of twelve (12) months from the date of the last sale of shares of common stock pursuant to the terms of the Sales Agreement, to act as book running manager, lead underwriter and/or lead placement agent for any and all future public or private equity, equity-linked or debt (excluding commercial bank debt) offerings during such twelve (12) month period provided that gross proceeds are received by us pursuant to the Sales Agreement of more than $5,000,000.

 

S- 11

 

 

This summary of the material provisions of the Sales Agreement does not purport to be a complete statement of its terms and conditions. A copy of the Sales Agreement is filed with the SEC as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K filed on January 8, 2021. See “Where You Can Find Additional Information” below.

 

The Distribution Agent and its respective affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, the Distribution Agent will not engage in any market making or stabilizing activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Maxim has acted as the underwriter for the public offerings of our securities consummated in October 2019 and August 2019, pursuant to which Maxim received commissions of $670,320 and $467,200, respectively.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton LLP, Los Angeles, California, has passed upon the validity of the common stock offered hereby. Gracin & Marlow LLP, New York, New York, is counsel for the Distribution Agent in connection with this offering.

 

EXPERTS

 

Weinberg & Company, P.A., independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for the years then ended, as set forth in their report thereon, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Weinberg & Company, P.A.’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may read and copy these reports, proxy statements and other information at the SEC’s public reference facilities at 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. You can request copies of these documents by writing to the SEC and paying a fee for the copying cost. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for more information about the operation of the public reference facilities. SEC filings are also available at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

 

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus form part of a registration statement on Form S-3 filed by us with the SEC under the Securities Act. As permitted by the SEC, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not contain all the information in the registration statement filed with the SEC. For a more complete understanding of this offering, you should refer to the complete registration statement, including the exhibits thereto, on Form S-3 that may be obtained as described above. Statements contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus about the contents of any contract or other document are not necessarily complete. If we have filed any contract or other document as an exhibit to the registration statement or any other document incorporated by reference in the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement forms a part, you should read the exhibit for a more complete understanding of the document or matter involved. Each statement regarding a contract or other document is qualified in its entirety by reference to the actual document.

 

We also maintain a web site at www.guardionhealth.com, through which you can access our SEC filings. The information set forth on our web site is not part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.

 

S- 12

 

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

 

We have filed a registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC under the Securities Act. This prospectus is part of the registration statement but the registration statement includes and incorporates by reference additional information and exhibits. The SEC permits us to “incorporate by reference” the information contained in documents we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents rather than by including them in this prospectus. Information that is incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus and you should read it with the same care that you read this prospectus. Information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information that is either contained, or incorporated by reference, in this prospectus, and will be considered to be a part of this prospectus from the date those documents are filed. We have filed with the SEC, and incorporate by reference in this prospectus:

 

1. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2020;
   
2. Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 14, 2020; June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on August 12, 2020; and September 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on November 12, 2020;
   
3. Our Current Reports on Form 8-K (other than Current Reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) filed on March 6, 2020; March 20, 2020; April 1, 2020; April 21, 2020; June 16, 2020; July 23, 2020; September 4, 2020; October 7, 2020; November 2, 2020; December 2, 2020; December 29, 2020; and January 8, 2021;
   
4. Our definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on September 8, 2020; and
   
5. The description of our common stock contained in the registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on April 4, 2019, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating that description.

 

We also incorporate by reference all additional documents that we file with the SEC under the terms of Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are made after the date of the initial registration statement but prior to effectiveness of the registration statement and after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of the offering of the securities covered by this prospectus. We are not, however, incorporating, in each case, any documents or information that we are deemed to furnish and not file in accordance with SEC rules.

 

You may request, and we will provide you with, a copy of these filings, at no cost, by calling us at (858) 605-9055 or by writing to us at the following address:

 

Guardion Health Sciences, Inc.

15150 Avenue of Science, Suite 200

San Diego, California 92128

Attn: Chief Executive Officer

 

S- 13

 

  

 

Guardion Health Sciences, Inc.

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Rights

Units

 

We may offer and sell, from time to time in one or more offerings, any combination of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, or any combination of the foregoing, either individually or as units comprised of one or more of the other securities, having an aggregate initial offering price not exceeding $75,000,000.

 

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell a particular class or series of securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. You should read carefully this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference herein or therein before you invest in any of our securities.

 

The specific terms of any securities to be offered, and the specific manner in which they may be offered, will be described in one or more supplements to this prospectus. This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of any of these securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement. Before investing, you should carefully read this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement.

 

Our common stock is presently listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “GHSI.” On September 17, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $0.2275 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the prospectus supplement. Prospective purchasers of our securities are urged to obtain current information as to the market prices of our securities, where applicable

 

These securities may be sold directly by us, through dealers or agents designated from time to time, to or through underwriters, dealers, or through a combination of these methods on a continuous or delayed basis. See “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. We may also describe the plan of distribution for any particular offering of our securities in a prospectus supplement. If any agents, underwriters or dealers are involved in the sale of any securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, we will disclose their names and the nature of our arrangements with them in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from any such sale will also be included in a prospectus supplement.

 

The aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $37,743,778 million which was calculated based on 85,470,512 shares of outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates as of September 18, 2020, and a price per share of $0.4416, the closing price of our common stock on August 10, 2020. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell securities pursuant to this registration statement with a value more than one-third of the aggregate market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates in any 12-month period, so long as the aggregate market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $75.0 million. In the event that subsequent to the effective date of this registration statement, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates equals or exceeds $75.0 million, then the one-third limitation on sales shall not apply to additional sales made pursuant to this registration statement. We have not sold any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 during the 12 calendar months prior to, and including, the date of this registration statement.

 

Investing in our securities involves various risks. See “Risk Factors” contained herein for more information on these risks. Additional risks will be described in the related prospectus supplements under the heading “Risk Factors.” You should review that section of the related prospectus supplements for a discussion of matters that investors in our securities should consider.

 

Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities, or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is September 24, 2020.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Page

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS 1
SUMMARY 2
RISK FACTORS 5
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS 5
USE OF PROCEEDS 6
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK 7
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES 9
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS 16
DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS 18
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS 19
LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES 20
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 24
LEGAL MATTERS 27
EXPERTS 27
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 27
INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE 27

 

i

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration statement, we may sell from time to time in one or more offerings of common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or as units comprised of a combination of one or more of the other securities in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $75,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell any type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering.

 

This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits. We may add, update or change in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, will include all material information relating to the applicable offering. You should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the additional information described under “Where You Can Find More Information,” before buying any of the securities being offered.

 

We have not authorized any dealer, agent or other person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. You must not rely upon any information or representation not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or an accompanying prospectus supplement, or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. This prospectus, the accompanying prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, if any, do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus, the accompanying prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, if any, constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference (as our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date), even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered or securities are sold on a later date.

 

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be, nor is it, a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made and subject to such conditions, limitations and restrictions contained in such agreements. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of our securities, unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement. To the extent there are inconsistencies between any prospectus supplement, this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference, the document with the most recent date will control.

 

As permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC, the registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part, includes additional information not contained in this prospectus. You may read the registration statement and the other reports we file with the SEC at the SEC’s web site or at the SEC’s offices described below under the heading “Where You Can Find Additional Information.”

 

Company References

 

In this prospectus “the Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Guardion Health Sciences, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires.

 

  1  

 

 

SUMMARY

 

Overview

 

The Company is a specialty health sciences company (1) that has developed medical foods and medical devices in the ocular health space and (2) that has developed and is developing nutraceuticals that the Company believes will provide supportive health benefits to consumers.

 

The Securities We May Offer

 

We may offer shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and warrants or rights to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in units, from time to time under this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement and related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering. If we issue any debt securities at a discount from their original stated principal amount, then, for purposes of calculating the total dollar amount of all securities issued under this prospectus, we will treat the initial offering price of the debt securities as the total original principal amount of the debt securities. Each time we offer securities under this prospectus, we will provide offerees with a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

 

  designation or classification;
     
  aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;
     
  maturity, if applicable;
     
  original issue discount, if any;
     
  rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;
     
  redemption, conversion, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;
     
  conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange;
     
  ranking;
     
  restrictive covenants, if any;
     
  voting or other rights, if any; and
     
  important United States federal income tax considerations.

 

A prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update, or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

 

We may sell the securities to or through underwriters, dealers or agents or directly to purchasers. We, as well as any agents acting on our behalf, reserve the sole right to accept and to reject in whole or in part any proposed purchase of securities. Each prospectus supplement will set forth the names of any underwriters, dealers or agents involved in the sale of securities described in that prospectus supplement and any applicable fee, commission or discount arrangements with them, details regarding any over-allotment option granted to them, and net proceeds to us. The following is a summary of the securities we may offer with this prospectus.

 

  2  

 

 

Common Stock

 

We currently have authorized 250,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share. As of September 18, 2020, 88,327,312 shares of common stock were issued and outstanding. We may offer shares of our common stock either alone or underlying other registered securities convertible into or exercisable for our common stock. Holders of our common stock are entitled to such dividends as our board of directors (the “Board of Directors” or “Board”) may declare from time to time out of legally available funds, subject to the preferential rights of the holders of any shares of our preferred stock that are outstanding or that we may issue in the future. Currently, we do not pay any dividends on our common stock. Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote per share. In this prospectus, we provide a general description of, among other things, the rights and restrictions that apply to holders of our common stock.

 

Preferred Stock

 

We currently have authorized 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001. There are currently no shares of preferred stock outstanding. Any authorized and undesignated shares of preferred stock may be issued from time to time in one or more additional series pursuant to a resolution or resolutions providing for such issue duly adopted by our Board of Directors (authority to do so being hereby expressly vested in the Board of Directors). The Board of Directors is further authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by law, to fix by resolution or resolutions the designations, powers, preferences and rights, and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, of any wholly unissued series of preferred stock, including without limitation authority to fix by resolution or resolutions the dividend rights, dividend rate, conversion rights, voting rights, rights and terms of redemption (including sinking fund provisions), redemption price or prices, and liquidation preferences of any such series, and the number of shares constituting any such series and the designation thereof, or any of the foregoing.

 

The rights, preferences, privileges, and restrictions granted to or imposed upon any series of preferred stock that we offer and sell under this prospectus and applicable prospectus supplements will be set forth in a certificate of designation relating to the series. We will incorporate by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering before the issuance of shares of that series of preferred stock. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

 

Debt Securities

 

We may offer general debt obligations, which may be secured or unsecured, senior or subordinated, and convertible into shares of our common stock. In this prospectus, we refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities together as the “debt securities.” We may issue debt securities under a note purchase agreement or under an indenture to be entered between us and a trustee and forms of the senior and subordinated indentures are included as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The indentures do not limit the amount of securities that may be issued under it and provides that debt securities may be issued in one or more series. The senior debt securities will have the same rank as all of our other indebtedness that is not subordinated. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to our senior debt on terms set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, the subordinated debt securities will be effectively subordinated to creditors and preferred stockholders of our subsidiaries. Our Board of Directors will determine the terms of each series of debt securities being offered. This prospectus contains only general terms and provisions of the debt securities. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the particular terms of the debt securities offered thereby. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete note agreements and/or indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. Forms of indentures have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of debt securities being offered will be incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part from reports we file with the SEC.

 

  3  

 

 

Warrants

 

We may offer warrants for the purchase of shares of our common stock or preferred stock or of debt securities. We may issue the warrants by themselves or together with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants may be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and the investors or a warrant agent. Our Board of Directors will determine the terms of the warrants. This prospectus contains only general terms and provisions of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the particular terms of the warrants being offered thereby. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of warrants being offered, as well as the complete warrant agreements that contain the terms of the warrants. Specific warrant agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part from reports we file with the SEC.

 

Rights

 

We may issue rights to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or the other securities described in this prospectus. We may offer rights separately or together with one or more additional rights, debt securities, preferred stock, common stock or warrants, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of the series of certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the rights so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the rights, rights agreement or rights certificates described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described below, then the terms described below will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. Specific rights agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part from reports we file with the SEC.

 

Units

 

We may offer units consisting of our common stock or preferred stock, debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of these securities in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units. This prospectus contains only a summary of certain general features of the units. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the particular features of the units being offered thereby. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part from reports we file with the SEC.

 

Corporate Information

 

Guardion Health Sciences, Inc. was formed under the name P4L Health Sciences, LLC in December 2009 in California as a limited liability company. The Company changed its name to Guardion Health Sciences, LLC in December 2009. In June 2015, the Company converted into a Delaware “C” corporation. Our fiscal year end is December 31. Our principal executive offices are located at 15150 Avenue of Science, Suite 200, San Diego, California 92128. Our telephone number is 858-605-9055. Our website address is www. guardionhealth.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this registration statement or the accompanying prospectus.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. This prospectus contains, and the prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities will contain, a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in our securities. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2020, and any updates described in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, all of which are incorporated herein by reference, and may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future and any prospectus supplement related to a particular offering. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations. The occurrence of any of these known or unknown risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the documents that we incorporate by reference, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Any statements in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and are forward-looking statements. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “believe,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” and “would.” For example, statements concerning financial condition, possible or assumed future results of operations, growth opportunities, industry ranking, plans and objectives of management, markets for our common stock and future management and organizational structure are all forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of performance. They involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions that may cause actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement.

 

Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the risk factors discussed throughout this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. You should read this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents that we reference herein and therein and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement is accurate as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus or such prospectus supplement only. Because the risk factors referred to on page 5 of this prospectus and incorporated herein by reference could cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Further, any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which factors will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of the information presented in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, and particularly our forward-looking statements, by these cautionary statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Except as described in any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, including the development and commercialization of our products, research and development, general and administrative expenses, business, license or technology acquisitions, and working capital and capital expenditures. We may also use the net proceeds to repay any debts and/or invest in or acquire complementary businesses, products, or technologies, although we have no current commitments or agreements with respect to any such investments or acquisitions as of the date of this prospectus. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for the foregoing purposes. As a result, our management will have broad discretion in the allocation of the net proceeds and investors will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the proceeds of any sale of the securities. Pending use of the net proceeds, we intend to invest the proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

 

Each time we offer securities under this prospectus, we will describe the intended use of the net proceeds from that offering in the applicable prospectus supplement. The actual amount of net proceeds we spend on a particular use will depend on many factors, including, our future capital expenditures, the amount of cash required by our operations, and our future revenue growth, if any. Therefore, we will retain broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

General

 

The following description of our capital stock, together with any additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, summarizes the material terms and provisions of our common stock and the preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future common stock or preferred stock that we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any class or series of these securities in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. For the complete terms of our common stock and preferred stock, please refer to our Certificate of Incorporation, as amended (the “Certificate of Incorporation”) and our second amended and restated bylaws (the “Bylaws”) that are incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or may be incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of these securities may also be affected by Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”). The summary below and that contained in any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus are qualified in their entirety by reference to our Certificate of Incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws.

 

As of the date of this prospectus, our authorized capital stock consisted of 250,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share. Our Board may establish the rights and preferences of the preferred stock from time to time. As of September 18, 2020, there were 88,327,312 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding and no shares of preferred stock issued and outstanding.

 

Common Stock

 

We are authorized to issue up to a total of 250,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders. Holders of our common stock have no cumulative voting rights. All shares of common stock offered hereby will, when issued, be fully paid and nonassessable, including shares of common stock issued upon the exercise of common stock warrants or subscription rights, if any.

 

Further, holders of our common stock have no preemptive or conversion rights or other subscription rights. Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding- up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share in all assets remaining after payment of all liabilities and the liquidation preferences of any of our outstanding shares of preferred stock. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any outstanding shares of preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our Board of Directors out of our assets which are legally available. Such dividends, if any, are payable in cash, in property or in shares of capital stock.

 

The holders of a majority of the shares of our capital stock, represented in person or by proxy, are necessary to constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting. If a quorum is present, an action by stockholders entitled to vote on a matter is approved if the number of votes cast in favor of the action exceeds the number of votes cast in opposition to the action, with the exception of the election of directors, which requires a plurality of the votes cast.

 

Preferred Stock

 

Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional, or special rights as well as the qualifications, limitations, or restrictions of the preferred stock, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of the common stock. Our board of directors, without stockholder approval, can issue convertible preferred stock with voting, conversion, or other rights that could adversely affect the voting power and other rights of the holders of common stock. Preferred stock could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change of control or make removal of management more difficult. Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock may have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock, and may adversely affect the voting and other rights of the holders of common stock. At present, we have no plans to issue any shares of preferred stock following this offering.

 

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Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of Delaware State Law

 

We are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. In general, Section 203 prohibits a public Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless:

 

  the transaction was approved by the board of directors prior to the time that the stockholder became an interested stockholder;
     
  upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding shares owned by directors who are also officers of the corporation and shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or
     
  at or subsequent to the time the stockholder became an interested stockholder, the business combination was approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

 

In general, Section 203 defines a “business combination” to include mergers, asset sales and other transactions resulting in financial benefit to a stockholder and an “interested stockholder” as a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years did own, 15% or more of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock. These provisions may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing changes in control of our company.

 

Our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws include a number of provisions that could deter hostile takeovers or delay or prevent changes in control of our board of directors or management team, including the following:

 

Board of Directors Vacancies. Our bylaws authorize only our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, including newly created seats. In addition, the number of directors constituting our board of directors will be permitted to be set only by a resolution adopted by a majority vote of our entire board of directors. These provisions would prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of our board of directors and then gaining control of our board of directors by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees. This will make it more difficult to change the composition of our board of directors and will promote continuity of management.

 

Ability of Stockholders to Call Special Meetings. Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws provide that stockholders can only call a special meeting if stockholders holding over 50% of all issued and outstanding shares of the Corporation entitled to vote at a meeting do so.

 

Advance Notice Requirements. Our Bylaws establish advance notice procedures with regard to stockholder proposals relating to the nomination of candidates for election as directors or new business to be brought before meetings of stockholders. These procedures provide that notice of such stockholder proposals must be timely given in writing to the Secretary of the Company prior to the meeting at which the action is to be taken. The notice must contain certain information specified in our Bylaws.

 

Exclusive Forum Provision. In accordance with an exclusive forum provision set forth in the Bylaws, unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for certain state law based actions including certain derivative actions or proceedings brought on behalf of the Company; an action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty owed by an officer, a director, employee or to the shareholders of the Company; any claim arising under Delaware corporate law; and any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

 

No Cumulative Voting. The Delaware General Corporation Law provides that stockholders are not entitled to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our certificate of incorporation does not provide for cumulative voting.

 

Issuance of Undesignated Preferred Stock. Our board of directors will have the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by our board of directors. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock would enable our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other means.

 

Listing

 

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the trading symbol “GHSI.”

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The Transfer Agent and Registrar for our common stock is VStock Transfer, LLC.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements or free writing prospectuses, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. We may issue debt securities, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. The terms of any debt securities we offer under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below. However, no prospectus supplement shall fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness. As of the date of this prospectus, we have no outstanding registered debt securities. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the “indentures,” we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

 

We will issue any senior debt securities under the senior indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the senior indenture. We will issue any subordinated debt securities under the subordinated indenture and any supplemental indentures that we will enter into with the trustee named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

 

The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”). We use the term “trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.

 

The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture and any supplemental indentures applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indentures that contains the terms of the debt securities. Except as we may otherwise indicate, the terms of the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are identical.

 

General

 

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our Board of Directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in an officers’ certificate or by a supplemental indenture. Debt securities may be issued in separate series without limitation as to aggregate principal amount. We may specify a maximum aggregate principal amount for the debt securities of any series. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

  the title;
     
  the principal amount being offered, and if a series, the total amount authorized and the total amount outstanding;
     
  any limit on the amount that may be issued;
     
  whether or not we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, and, if so, the terms and who the depositary will be;
     
  the maturity date;
     
  whether and under what circumstances, if any, we will pay additional amounts on any debt securities held by a person who is not a United States person for tax purposes, and whether we can redeem the debt securities if we have to pay such additional amounts;

 

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  the annual interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;
     
  whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;
     
  the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;
     
  the place where payments will be made;
     
  restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;
     
  our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;
     
  the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;
     
  provisions for a sinking fund purchase or other analogous fund, if any, including the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant thereto or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option, to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;
     
  whether the indenture will restrict our ability or the ability of our subsidiaries, if any, to:

 

  incur additional indebtedness;
     
  issue additional securities;
     
  create liens;
     
  pay dividends or make distributions in respect of our capital stock or the capital stock of our subsidiaries;
     
  redeem capital stock;
     
  place restrictions on our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends, make distributions or transfer assets;
     
  make investments or other restricted payments;
     
  sell or otherwise dispose of assets;
     
  enter into sale-leaseback transactions;
     
  engage in transactions with stockholders or affiliates;
     
  issue or sell stock of our subsidiaries; or
     
  effect a consolidation or merger;

 

  whether the indenture will require us to maintain any interest coverage, fixed charge, cash flow-based, asset-based or other financial ratios;
     
  a discussion of certain material or special United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the debt securities;
     
  information describing any book-entry features;
     
  the applicability of the provisions in the indenture on discharge;

 

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  whether the debt securities are to be offered at a price such that they will be deemed to be offered at an “original issue discount” as defined in paragraph (a) of Section 1273 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended;
     
  the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;
     
  the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars; and
     
  any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, including any additional events of default or covenants provided with respect to the debt securities, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms under which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock, our preferred stock or other securities (including securities of a third party). We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock, our preferred stock or other securities (including securities of a third party) that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indentures will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate. If the debt securities are convertible into or exchangeable for our other securities or securities of other entities, the person with whom we consolidate or merge or to whom we sell all of our property must make provisions for the conversion of the debt securities into securities that the holders of the debt securities would have received if they had converted the debt securities before the consolidation, merger or sale.

 

Events of Default under the Indenture

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

  if we fail to pay interest when due and payable and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended;
     
  if we fail to pay the principal, premium or sinking fund payment, if any, when due and payable at maturity, upon redemption or repurchase or otherwise, and the time for payment has not been extended;
     
  if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant contained in the debt securities or the indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive notice from the trustee or we and the trustee receive notice from the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and
     
  if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

We will describe in each applicable prospectus supplement any additional events of default relating to the relevant series of debt securities.

 

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default arises due to the occurrence of certain specified bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization events, the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

 

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The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity or security satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

  the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and
     
  subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

The indentures will provide that if an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will be required in the exercise of its powers to use the degree of care that a prudent person would use in the conduct of its own affairs. The trustee, however, may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the indenture, or that the trustee determines is unduly prejudicial to the rights of any other holder of the relevant series of debt securities, or that would involve the trustee in personal liability. Prior to taking any action under the indentures, the trustee will be entitled to indemnification against all costs, expenses and liabilities that would be incurred by taking or not taking such action.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

  the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;
     
  the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made a written request and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the trustee or security satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense or to be incurred in compliance with instituting the proceeding as trustee; and
     
  the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities, or other defaults that may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indentures.

 

The indentures will provide that if a default occurs and is continuing and is actually known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee must mail to each holder notice of the default within the earlier of 90 days after it occurs and 30 days after it is known by a responsible officer of the trustee or written notice of it is received by the trustee, unless such default has been cured or waived. Except in the case of a default in the payment of principal or premium of, or interest on, any debt security or certain other defaults specified in an indenture, the trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the Board of Directors, the executive committee or a trust committee of directors, or responsible officers of the trustee, in good faith determine that withholding notice is in the best interests of holders of the relevant series of debt securities.

 

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Modification of Indenture; Waiver

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture for any series of debt securities that we may issue, we and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to the following specific matters:

 

  to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture;
     
  to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities—Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”
     
  to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;
     
  to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;
     
  to provide for the issuance of, and establish the form and terms and conditions of, the debt securities of any series as provided under “Description of Debt Securities—General,” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;
     
  to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee;
     
  to provide for uncertificated debt securities and to make all appropriate changes for such purpose;
     
  to add such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred to us in the indenture; or
     
  to change anything that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect.

 

In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, subject to the terms of the indenture for any series of debt securities that we may issue or otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may only make the following changes with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

  extending the stated maturity of the series of debt securities;
     
  reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption or repurchase of any debt securities; or
     
  reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

 

Discharge

 

Each indenture provides that, subject to the terms of the indenture and any limitation otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we may elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

  register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;
     
  replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;
     
  maintain paying agencies;

 

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  hold monies for payment in trust;
     
  recover excess money held by the trustee;
     
  compensate and indemnify the trustee; and
     
  appoint any successor trustee.

 

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we will deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures will provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series. See “Legal Ownership of Securities” below for a further description of the terms relating to any book-entry securities.

 

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

  issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or
     
  register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

Information Concerning the Trustee

 

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture and is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur. However, upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

 

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Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest payment.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

Governing Law

 

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

Ranking Debt Securities

 

The subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of subordinated debt securities that we may issue. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

 

The senior debt securities will be unsecured and will rank equally in right of payment to all our other senior unsecured debt. The senior indenture does not limit the amount of senior debt securities that we may issue. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements and free writing prospectuses, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or together with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement, and may be attached to or separate from those securities. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

 

We may issue the warrants under a warrant agreement that we will enter into with a warrant agent to be selected by us. If selected, the warrant agent will act solely as an agent of ours in connection with the warrants and will not act as an agent for the holders or beneficial owners of the warrants. If applicable, we will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a Current Report on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant agreement, including a form of warrant certificate, that describes the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering before the issuance of the related series of warrants. The following summaries of material provisions of the warrants and the warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to a particular series of warrants. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus related to the particular series of warrants that we sell under this prospectus, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

 

General

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms relating to a series of warrants, including:

 

  the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;
     
  the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;
     
  if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;
     
  if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;
     
  in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;
     
  in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;
     
  the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;
     
  the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;
     
  any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;
     
  the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;
     
  the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

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  United States federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;
     
  the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and
     
  any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.
     
  Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:
     
  in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or
     
  in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.

 

Exercise of Warrants

 

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

 

Holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to us or the warrant agent as applicable.

 

Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.

 

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

 

If selected, each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

 

General

 

We may issue rights to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or the other securities described in this prospectus. We may offer rights separately or together with one or more additional rights, debt securities, preferred stock, common stock or warrants, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of the series of certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the rights so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the rights, rights agreement or rights certificates described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described below, then the terms described below will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. We encourage you to read the applicable rights agreement and rights certificate for additional information before you decide whether to purchase any of our rights. We will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the rights being issued:

 

  the date of determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;
     
  the aggregate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;
     
  the exercise price;
     
  the aggregate number of rights issued;
     
  whether the rights are transferrable and the date, if any, on and after which the rights may be separately transferred;
     
  the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence, and the date on which the right to exercise the rights will expire;
     
  the method by which holders of rights will be entitled to exercise;
     
  the conditions to the completion of the offering, if any;
     
  the withdrawal, termination and cancellation rights, if any;
     
  whether there are any backstop or standby purchaser or purchasers and the terms of their commitment, if any;
     
  whether stockholders are entitled to oversubscription rights, if any;
     
  any applicable material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and
     
  any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights, as applicable.

 

Each right will entitle the holder of rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities at the exercise price provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities, as applicable, purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Rights Agent

 

The rights agent for any rights we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements and free writing prospectuses, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus.

 

While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any units that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any units offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

 

We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a Current Report on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement that describes the terms of the series of units we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of the related series of units. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the units are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the unit agreement and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of units. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of units that we sell under this prospectus, as well as the complete unit agreement and any supplemental agreements that contain the terms of the units.

 

General

 

We may issue units comprised of one or more debt securities, shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock and warrants in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units, including:

 

  the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;
     
  any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below; and
     
  any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units.

 

The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Capital Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities” and “Description of Warrants” will apply to each unit and to any common stock, preferred stock, debt security or warrant included in each unit, respectively.

 

Unit Agent

 

The name and address of the unit agent, if any, for any units we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Issuance in Series

 

We may issue units in such amounts and in numerous distinct series as we determine.

 

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units

 

Each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.

 

We, the unit agents and any of their agents may treat the registered holder of any unit certificate as an absolute owner of the units evidenced by that certificate for any purpose and as the person entitled to exercise the rights attaching to the units so requested, despite any notice to the contrary. See “Legal Ownership of Securities.”

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

 

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

 

Book-Entry Holders

 

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

 

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

 

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

 

Street Name Holders

 

We may terminate a global security or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

 

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not legal holders, of those securities.

 

Legal Holders

 

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of an indenture, or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the legal holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

 

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Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

 

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

  how it handles securities payments and notices;
     
  whether it imposes fees or charges;
     
  how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;
     
  whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a legal holder, if that is permitted in the future;
     
  how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and
     
  if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

 

Global Securities

 

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

 

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, The Depository Trust Company, New York, NY, known as DTC, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

 

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “—Special Situations When A Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

 

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

Special Considerations For Global Securities

 

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

 

If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

  an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;
     
  an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

 

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  an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;
     
  an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;
     
  the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security. We and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security. We and the trustee also do not supervise the depositary in any way;
     
  the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and
     
  financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities. There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries

 

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Special Situations When A Global Security Will Be Terminated

 

In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

 

A global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

  if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;
     
  if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or
     
  if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we, nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities being offered hereby in one or more of the following ways from time to time:

 

through agents to the public or to investors;

 

to underwriters for resale to the public or to investors;

 

negotiated transactions;

 

block trades;

 

directly to investors; or

 

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

 

As set forth in more detail below, the securities may be distributed from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

at negotiated prices.

 

We will set forth in a prospectus supplement the terms of that particular offering of securities, including:

 

the name or names of any agents or underwriters;

 

the purchase price of the securities being offered and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

any initial public offering price;

 

any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

any securities exchanges or markets on which such securities may be listed.

 

Only underwriters named in an applicable prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by that prospectus supplement.

 

If underwriters are used in an offering, we will execute an underwriting agreement with such underwriters and will specify the name of each underwriter and the terms of the transaction (including any underwriting discounts and other terms constituting compensation of the underwriters and any dealers) in a prospectus supplement. The securities may be offered to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or directly by one or more investment banking firms or others, as designated. If an underwriting syndicate is used, the managing underwriter(s) will be specified on the cover of the prospectus supplement. If underwriters are used in the sale, the offered securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own accounts and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time. Unless otherwise set forth in the prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the offered securities will be subject to conditions precedent and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the offered securities if any are purchased.

 

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We may grant to the underwriters options to purchase additional securities to cover over-allotments, if any, at the public offering price, with additional underwriting commissions or discounts, as may be set forth in a related prospectus supplement. The terms of any over-allotment option will be set forth in the prospectus supplement for those securities.

 

If we use a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, we will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. The names of the dealers and the terms of the transaction will be specified in a prospectus supplement.

 

We may sell the securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, any agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

 

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

In connection with the sale of the securities, underwriters, dealers or agents may receive compensation from us or from purchasers of the common stock for whom they act as agents in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agents. Underwriters, dealers and agents that participate in the distribution of the securities, and any institutional investors or others that purchase common stock directly and then resell the securities, may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts or commissions received by them from us and any profit on the resale of the common stock by them may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act.

 

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against particular civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to such liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

 

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties (including the writing of options), or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with such a transaction, the third parties may, pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement. If so, the third party may use securities borrowed from us or others to settle such sales and may use securities received from us to close out any related short positions. We may also loan or pledge securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to third parties, who may sell the loaned securities or, in an event of default in the case of a pledge, sell the pledged securities pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement or in a post-effective amendment.

 

To facilitate an offering of a series of securities, persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain, or otherwise affect the market price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involves the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than have been sold to them by us. In those circumstances, such persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by purchasing in the open market or by exercising the over-allotment option granted to those persons. In addition, those persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to underwriters or dealers participating in any such offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. Such transactions, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time. We make no representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above, if implemented, may have on the price of our securities.

 

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Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, each class or series of securities will be a new issue with no established trading market, other than our common stock, which is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market. We may elect to list any other class or series of securities on any exchange or market, but we are not obligated to do so. It is possible that one or more underwriters may make a market in a class or series of securities, but the underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot give any assurance as to the liquidity of the trading market for any of the securities.

 

In order to comply with the securities laws of some U.S. states or territories, if applicable, the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus will be sold in those states only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers. In addition, in some states securities may not be sold unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from the registration or qualification requirement is available and complied with.

 

Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of these activities at any time.

 

Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on The Nasdaq Capital Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on The Nasdaq Capital Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security. If all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the issuance of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton LLP, Los Angeles, California. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

EXPERTS

 

Weinberg & Company, P.A., independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for the years then ended, as set forth in their report thereon, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Weinberg & Company, P.A.’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus constitutes a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 filed under the Securities Act. As permitted by the SEC’s rules, this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, which form a part of the registration statement, do not contain all the information that is included in the registration statement. You will find additional information about us in the registration statement. Any statements made in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement concerning legal documents are not necessarily complete and you should read the documents that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement or otherwise filed with the SEC for a more complete understanding of the document or matter.

 

You may read and copy the registration statement, as well as our reports, proxy statements, and other information, at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for more information about the operation of the Public Reference Room. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The SEC’s Internet site can be found at http://www.sec.gov. You can also obtain copies of materials we file with the SEC from our website found at www.guardionhealth.com. Information on our website does not constitute a part of, nor is it incorporated in any way, into this prospectus and should not be relied upon in connection with making an investment decision.

 

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with them. Incorporation by reference allows us to disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We filed a registration statement on Form S-1 under the Securities Act with the SEC with respect to the securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus. This prospectus omits certain information contained in the registration statement, as permitted by the SEC. You should refer to the registration statement, including the exhibits, for further information about us and the securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus. Statements in this prospectus regarding the provisions of certain documents filed with, or incorporated by reference in, the registration statement are not necessarily complete and each statement is qualified in all respects by that reference. Copies of all or any part of the registration statement, including the documents incorporated by reference or the exhibits, may be obtained upon payment of the prescribed rates at the offices of the SEC listed above in “Where You Can Find More Information”. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and all documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, except as to any portion of any future report or document that is not deemed filed under such provisions:

 

1. The Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019;

 

2. The Company’s Quarterly Reports for the quarters ended March 31, 2020 and June 30, 2020;

 

3. The Company’s Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on April 1, 2020, April 21, 2020, June 16, 2020, July 23, 2020, and September 4, 2020; and

 

4. The description of the Company’s common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A12B filed with the SEC on April 4, 2019.

 

We also incorporate by reference all documents (other than Current Reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are subsequently filed by us with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of the offering of the securities made by this prospectus (including documents filed after the date of the initial Registration Statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to the effectiveness of the Registration Statement). These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.

 

Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement.

 

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address: Vincent J. Roth, the Company’s General Counsel, at Guardion Health Sciences, Inc., 15150 Avenue of Science, Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92128; Tel: 858-605-9055. We maintain a website at https://guardionhealth.com/sec-filings/. You may access our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and other reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act with the SEC free of charge at our website as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference in, and is not part of, this prospectus.

 

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