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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2021
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________ to __________
Commission File Number: 001-39277
MP-20210630_G1.JPG
MP MATERIALS CORP.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 84-4465489
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
6720 Via Austi Parkway, Suite 450
Las Vegas, Nevada 89119
(702) 844-6111
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value of $0.0001 per share MP New York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
As of August 2, 2021, the number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding was 177,747,598.



MP MATERIALS CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
TABLE OF CONTENTS

i

References herein to the “Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us,” refer to MP Materials Corp. and its subsidiaries.
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended June 30, 2021 (this “Form 10-Q”), that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements under Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended and Section 21E of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements may be identified by the use of the words such as “estimate,” “plan,” “shall,” “may,” “project,” “forecast,” “intend,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “seek,” “target,” or similar expressions that predict or indicate future events or trends or that are not statements of historical matters. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding estimates and forecasts of other financial and performance metrics and projections of market opportunity. These statements are based on various assumptions, whether or not identified in this Form 10-Q or our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 (the “Form 10-K”), and on the current expectations of our management and are not predictions of actual performance. These forward-looking statements are provided for illustrative purposes only and are not intended to serve as, and must not be relied on by any investor as, a guarantee, an assurance, a prediction or a definitive statement of fact or probability. Actual events and circumstances are difficult or impossible to predict and will differ from assumptions. Many actual events and circumstances are beyond our control.
These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including:
unanticipated costs or delays associated with our Stage II optimization project;
uncertainties relating to our commercial arrangements with Shenghe Resources (Singapore) International Trading Pte. Ltd., an affiliate of Shenghe Resources Holding Co., Ltd., a global rare earth company listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange;
the ability to convert current commercial discussions with customers for the sale of rare earth oxide products into contracts;
potential changes in China’s political environment and policies;
fluctuations in demand for, and prices of, rare earth minerals and products;
uncertainties relating to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the Delta variant;
the intense competition within the rare earths mining and processing industry;
uncertainties regarding the growth of existing and emerging uses for rare earth products;
potential power shortages at the Mountain Pass facility;
increasing costs or limited access to raw materials that may adversely affect our profitability;
fluctuations in transportation costs or disruptions in transportation services;
inability to meet individual customer specifications;
diminished access to water;
uncertainty in our estimates of rare earth oxide reserves;
uncertainties regarding our ability to vertically integrate into further downstream processing and reach full revenue potential;
risks associated with work stoppages;
a shortage of skilled technicians and engineers;
loss of key personnel;
risks associated with the inherent dangers of mining activity;
risks associated with events outside of our control, such as natural disasters, wars or health epidemics or pandemics;
risks related to technology systems and security breaches;
risks associated with our intellectual property rights;
ability to compete with substitutions for rare earth minerals;
ability to maintain satisfactory labor relations;
risks relating to extensive and costly environmental regulatory requirements;
risks associated with the terms of our convertible notes and
ii

the other factors described elsewhere in this Form 10-Q, included under the headings “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” or as described in our Form 10-K or described in our Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2021 (the “First Quarter Form 10-Q”), or as described in the other documents and reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
If any of these risks materialize or our assumptions prove incorrect, actual results could differ materially from the results implied by these forward-looking statements.
These and other factors that could cause actual results to differ from those implied by the forward-looking statements in this Form 10-Q are more fully described within Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this Form 10-Q and “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors” in our Form 10-K and in our First Quarter Form 10-Q. Such risks are not exhaustive. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible to predict all such risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all such risk factors on our business or the extent to which any factor or combination of factors may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the foregoing cautionary statements. We undertake no obligations to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.
In addition, statements of belief and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us, as applicable, as of the date of this Form 10-Q, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

iii

PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
MP MATERIALS CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(UNAUDITED)
June 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Assets
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents $ 1,196,875  $ 519,652 
Accounts receivable (including related party), net of allowance for credit losses of $0 and $0, respectively
8,178  3,589 
Inventories 35,501  32,272 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets 5,558  5,534 
Total current assets 1,246,112  561,047 
Non-current assets
Restricted cash 9,118  9,100 
Property, plant and equipment, net 560,616  501,974 
Finance lease right-of-use assets 884  1,028 
Other non-current assets 1,226  1,139 
Total non-current assets 571,844  513,241 
Total assets $ 1,817,956  $ 1,074,288 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities $ 37,730  $ 16,159 
Current installments of long-term debt
—  2,403 
Current installments of long-term debt—related party
45,796  22,070 
Current portion of finance lease liabilities 256  266 
Other current liabilities 6,505  2,163 
Total current liabilities 90,287  43,061 
Non-current liabilities
Asset retirement obligations 26,488  25,570 
Environmental obligations 16,612  16,602 
Long-term debt, net of current portion 673,174  961 
Long-term debt—related party, net of current portion —  44,380 
Finance lease liabilities, net of current portion 639  736 
Deferred income taxes 95,578  87,473 
Other non-current liabilities 8,553  1,628 
Total non-current liabilities 821,044  177,350 
Total liabilities 911,331  220,411 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 12)
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock ($0.0001 par value, 50,000,000 shares authorized, none issued and outstanding in either period)
—  — 
Common stock ($0.0001 par value, 450,000,000 shares authorized, 177,748,487 and 170,719,979 shares issued and outstanding, as of June 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020, respectively)
18  17 
Additional paid-in capital 925,944  916,482 
Accumulated deficit (19,337) (62,622)
Total stockholders’ equity 906,625  853,877 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity $ 1,817,956  $ 1,074,288 
See accompanying notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
1

MP MATERIALS CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(UNAUDITED)
For the three months ended June 30, For the six months ended June 30,
(in thousands, except share and per share data) 2021 2020 2021 2020
Product sales (including related party) $ 73,118  $ 30,391  $ 133,089  $ 51,110 
Operating costs and expenses:
Cost of sales (including related party)(excluding depreciation, depletion and amortization)
17,955  16,865  35,891  29,532 
Write-down of inventories 1,809  —  1,809  — 
Royalty expense to SNR —  366  —  853 
General and administrative 13,631  5,843  27,214  8,927 
Depreciation, depletion and amortization 6,666  1,382  12,816  2,653 
Accretion of asset retirement and environmental obligations 592  564  1,185  1,128 
Settlement charge —  66,615  —  66,615 
Total operating costs and expenses 40,653  91,635  78,915  109,708 
Operating income (loss) 32,465  (61,244) 54,174  (58,598)
Other income, net 3,504  155  3,559  237 
Interest expense, net (2,639) (1,066) (3,793) (1,869)
Income (loss) before income taxes 33,330  (62,155) 53,940  (60,230)
Income tax expense (6,164) (336) (10,655) (336)
Net income (loss) $ 27,166  $ (62,491) $ 43,285  $ (60,566)
Net income (loss) per share:
Basic $ 0.16  $ (0.92) $ 0.25  $ (0.90)
Diluted $ 0.15  $ (0.92) $ 0.24  $ (0.90)
Weighted-average shares outstanding:
Basic 172,677,923  68,095,422  170,810,353  67,326,198 
Diluted 193,145,644  68,095,422  186,282,857  67,326,198 
See accompanying notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
2

MP MATERIALS CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
(UNAUDITED)
Three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020
Preferred Stock Common Stock Shenghe Warrant Additional Paid-in Capital Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’
Equity (Deficit)
(in thousands, except share data) Shares Amount Shares Amount
Balance as of April 1, 2021 —  $ —  170,745,864  $ 17  $ —  $ 921,643  $ (46,503) $ 875,157 
Redemption of Public Warrants —  —  7,080,005  —  (2) —  (1)
Stock-based compensation —  —  18,402  —  —  4,498  —  4,498 
Forfeiture of restricted stock —  —  (90,000) —  —  —  —  — 
Shares used to settle payroll tax withholding —  —  (5,784) —  —  (193) —  (193)
Net income —  —  —  —  —  —  27,166  27,166 
Other —  —  —  —  —  (2) —  (2)
Balance as of June 30, 2021 —  $ —  177,748,487  $ 18  $ —  $ 925,944  $ (19,337) $ 906,625 
Balance as of April 1, 2020 —  $ —  66,556,975  $ $ —  $ 22,768  $ (38,872) $ (16,097)
Issuance of Shenghe Warrant —  —  5,384,563  —  53,846  —  —  53,846 
Net loss —  —  —  —  —  —  (62,491) (62,491)
Balance as of June 30, 2020 —  $ —  71,941,538  $ $ 53,846  $ 22,768  $ (101,363) $ (24,742)
Six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020
Preferred Stock Common Stock Shenghe Warrant Additional Paid-in Capital Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’
Equity (Deficit)
(in thousands, except share data) Shares Amount Shares Amount
Balance as of January 1, 2021 —  $ —  170,719,979  $ 17  $ —  $ 916,482  $ (62,622) $ 853,877 
Redemption of Public Warrants —  —  7,080,005  —  (2) —  (1)
Stock-based compensation —  —  54,722  —  —  10,171  —  10,171 
Forfeiture of restricted stock —  —  (90,000) —  —  —  —  — 
Shares used to settle payroll tax withholding —  —  (16,219) —  —  (527) —  (527)
Net income —  —  —  —  —  —  43,285  43,285 
Other —  —  —  —  —  (180) —  (180)
Balance as of June 30, 2021 —  $ —  177,748,487  $ 18  $ —  $ 925,944  $ (19,337) $ 906,625 
Balance as of January 1, 2020 —  $ —  66,556,975  $ $ —  $ 22,768  $ (40,797) $ (18,022)
Issuance of Shenghe Warrant —  —  5,384,563  —  53,846  —  —  53,846 
Net loss —  —  —  —  —  —  (60,566) (60,566)
Balance as of June 30, 2020 —  $ —  71,941,538  $ $ 53,846  $ 22,768  $ (101,363) $ (24,742)
See accompanying notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
3

MP MATERIALS CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(UNAUDITED)
For the six months ended June 30,
(in thousands) 2021 2020
Operating activities:
Net income (loss) $ 43,285  $ (60,566)
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation, depletion and amortization 12,816  2,653 
Accretion of asset retirement and environmental obligations 1,185  1,128 
Gain on forgiveness of Paycheck Protection Loan (3,401) — 
Loss on sale or disposal of long-lived assets, net 37  — 
Stock-based compensation expense 10,171  — 
Accretion of debt discount and amortization of debt issuance costs 3,287  741 
Write-down of inventories 1,809  — 
Non-cash settlement charge —  66,615 
Revenue recognized in exchange for debt principal reduction (22,901) (679)
Deferred income taxes 8,105  — 
Decrease (increase) in operating assets:
Accounts receivable (including related party) (4,589) 187 
Inventories (5,038) (6,663)
Prepaid expenses, other current and non-current assets (2,973) (891)
Increase (decrease) in operating liabilities:
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities 4,236  (961)
Refund liability to related party —  (2,746)
Deferred revenue from related party —  1,934 
Other current and non-current liabilities 1,940  1,490 
Net cash provided by operating activities 47,969  2,242 
Investing activities:
Additions of property, plant and equipment (44,691) (4,828)
Proceeds from sale of property, plant and equipment 125  — 
Net cash used in investing activities (44,566) (4,828)
Financing activities:
Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt
690,000  3,364 
Proceeds from Second Additional Advance —  35,450 
Principal payments on debt obligations and finance leases (990) (86)
Payment of debt issuance costs (17,749) — 
Other (771) — 
Net cash provided by financing activities 670,490  38,728 
Net change in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash 673,893  36,142 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash beginning balance 532,440  29,572 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash ending balance $ 1,206,333  $ 65,714 
Reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash:
Cash and cash equivalents $ 1,196,875  $ 38,551 
Restricted cash, current 340  50 
Restricted cash, non-current 9,118  27,113 
Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash $ 1,206,333  $ 65,714 
See accompanying notes to the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
4

MP MATERIALS CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
NOTE 1—DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION
Description of Business: We own and operate the Mountain Pass Rare Earth Mine and Processing Facility (“Mountain Pass”), which is the only rare earth mining and processing site of scale in the Western Hemisphere. Our wholly-owned subsidiary, MP Mine Operations LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“MPMO”), acquired the Mountain Pass mine and processing facilities in July 2017. Our wholly-owned subsidiary, Secure Natural Resources LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“SNR”), holds the mineral rights to the Mountain Pass mine and surrounding areas as well as intellectual property rights related to the processing and development of rare earth minerals. The mine achieved commercial operations in July 2019 and we are currently working to restore the remainder of the facility for use in processing separated rare earth products. The Company is headquartered in Las Vegas, Nevada. References herein to the “Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us,” refer to MP Materials Corp. and its subsidiaries.
The Business Combination (as defined below) was consummated on November 17, 2020, pursuant to the terms of a merger agreement entered into on July 15, 2020 (the “Merger Agreement”). Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, MPMO and SNR were combined with Fortress Value Acquisition Corp., a special purpose acquisition company (“FVAC”) (the “Business Combination”), and became indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries of FVAC, which was in turn renamed MP Materials Corp. The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded, and the acquisition of SNR (the “SNR Mineral Rights Acquisition”) was treated as an asset acquisition. Furthermore, MPMO was deemed to be the accounting acquirer and FVAC the accounting acquiree, which, for financial reporting purposes, results in MPMO’s historical financial information becoming that of the Company.
In May 2017, the Company entered into a set of commercial arrangements with Shenghe Resources (Singapore) International Trading Pte. Ltd. (“Shenghe”), a majority owned subsidiary of Leshan Shenghe Rare Earth Co., Ltd. (“Leshan Shenghe”) whose ultimate parent is Shenghe Resources Holding Co., Ltd., a leading global rare earth company listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange, to fund the Company’s operations, identify operational efficiencies, and sell products to Shenghe and third parties. Shenghe has significant knowledge of the mining, processing, marketing and distribution of rare earth products, as well as access to customers in the Chinese market for these products. As part of these arrangements, Shenghe (and its controlled affiliates) became both the principal customer and a related party when Leshan Shenghe obtained a preferred interest in the Company, which was ultimately exchanged for shares of the Company’s common stock with a par value of $0.0001 per share (“Common Stock”) in connection with the Business Combination. See also Note 3, “Relationship and Agreements with Shenghe,” for additional information.
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available and evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company’s chief operating decision maker views the Company’s operations and manages the business as one reportable segment.
The cash flows and profitability of the Company’s operations are significantly affected by the market price of rare earth products. The prices of rare earth products are affected by numerous factors beyond the Company’s control. The products of the Company are sold globally, with a primary focus in the Asian market due to the refining capabilities of the region. Rare earth products are critical inputs in hundreds of existing and emerging clean-tech applications including electric vehicles and wind turbines as well as drones and defense applications.
Basis of Presentation: The unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and notes required by GAAP for complete consolidated financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included.
Results of operations and cash flows for the interim periods presented herein are not necessarily indicative of the results that would be achieved during a full year of operations or in future periods. These unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.
5

NOTE 2—SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation: The unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of MP Materials Corp. and its subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Concentration of Risk: As of June 30, 2021, Shenghe accounted for more than 90% of product sales. Shenghe, a related party of the Company, has entered into an arrangement to purchase substantially all of the Company’s production, and has previously purchased portions of the Company’s stockpile inventory. While as with any contract there is risk of nonperformance, we do not believe that it is reasonably possible that Shenghe would terminate the agreement as it would significantly delay Shenghe’s recovery of non-interest-bearing advance payments that are recognized by the Company as debt. As discussed in Note 8, “Debt Obligations,” based on current forecasts, the Company expects to repay the obligation within the next year. See Note 3, “Relationship and Agreements with Shenghe,” for additional information.
Furthermore, while revenue is generated in the United States, our principal customer is located in China and may transport and sell products in the Chinese market; therefore, the Company’s gross profit is affected by Shenghe’s ultimate realized prices in China. In addition, there is an ongoing economic conflict between China and the United States that has resulted in tariffs and trade barriers that may negatively affect the Company’s business and results of operations.
In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus (known as “COVID-19”) began to impact the population of China, where our principal customer is located. The outbreak of COVID-19 has grown both in the United States and globally, and related government and private sector responsive actions have adversely affected the global economy, including significant business and supply chain disruption as well as broad-based changes in supply and demand. In December 2019, a series of emergency quarantine measures taken by the Chinese government disrupted domestic business activities in China during the weeks after the initial outbreak of COVID-19. These disruptions have occurred periodically since the start of COVID-19 outbreak as measures intended to impede the spread of the virus have adapted. Since the initial COVID-19 outbreak, many countries, including the United States, have imposed restrictions on travel to and from China and elsewhere, as well as general movement restrictions, business closures and other measures imposed to slow the spread of COVID-19.
At the onset of the outbreak, we initially experienced shipping delays due to overseas port slowdowns and container shortages, but we did not experience a reduction in production or sales. However, beginning in the fourth quarter of 2020 and continuing through the second quarter of 2021, we again saw shipping delays and container shortages from congestion at port facilities, which has been exacerbated by COVID-19. Congestion at U.S. and international ports could affect the capacity at ports to receive deliveries of products or the loading of shipments onto vessels.
As the situation continues to develop, including as a result of new variants of COVID-19 (such as the Delta variant), it is impossible to predict the effect and ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s business and results of operations. While the quarantine, social distancing and other regulatory measures instituted or recommended in response to COVID-19 are expected to be temporary, the duration of the business disruptions, and related financial impact, cannot be estimated at this time.
Use of Estimates: The preparation of the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect (i) the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, (ii) the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, and (iii) the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Accordingly, actual results may differ from those estimates.
Debt Issuance Costs: Debt issuance costs that are incurred by the Company in connection with the issuance of debt are deferred and amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method over the contractual term of the underlying indebtedness. Debt issuance costs reduce the carrying amount of the associated debt.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements: As an “emerging growth company,” the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (“JOBS Act”) allows the Company to delay adoption of new or revised accounting pronouncements applicable to public companies until such pronouncements are made applicable to private companies. The Company has elected to use this extended transition period under the JOBS Act. The adoption dates discussed below reflect this election.
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurements of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments” (“ASU 2016-13”), which sets forth a “current expected credit loss” model which requires the Company to measure all expected credit losses for financial instruments held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable supportable forecasts. We elected to early adopt ASU 2016-13 during the first quarter of 2021 using a modified retrospective
6

approach, which did not have a material impact on our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, and did not result in a cumulative-effect adjustment.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, “Intangibles—Goodwill and Other—Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract” (“ASU 2018-15”), which aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. ASU 2018-15 requires capitalized costs to be amortized on a straight-line basis generally over the term of the arrangement, and the financial statement presentation for these capitalized costs would be the same as that of the fees related to the hosting arrangements. We elected to early adopt ASU 2018-15 during the first quarter of 2021 using a prospective approach, which did not have a material impact on our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, “Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity” (“ASU 2020-06”), which (i) simplifies the accounting for convertible debt instruments and convertible preferred stock by removing the existing guidance in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Subtopic 470-20, “Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options,” that requires entities to account for beneficial conversion features and cash conversion features in equity, separately from the host convertible debt or preferred stock; (ii) revises the scope exception from derivative accounting in ASC Subtopic 815-40, “Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity,” for freestanding financial instruments and embedded features that are both indexed to the issuer’s own stock and classified in stockholders’ equity, by removing certain criteria required for equity classification; and (iii) revises the guidance in ASC Topic 260, “Earnings Per Share,” to require entities to calculate diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) for convertible instruments by using the if-converted method. In addition, entities must presume share settlement for purposes of calculating diluted EPS when an instrument may be settled in cash or shares. We elected to early adopt ASU 2020-06 during the first quarter of 2021 using a prospective approach. See Note 8, “Debt Obligations,” for a discussion of our Convertible Notes (as defined in Note 8, “Debt Obligations”), which we issued on March 26, 2021.
A variety of proposed or otherwise potential accounting standards are currently being studied by standard-setting organizations and certain regulatory agencies. Because of the tentative and preliminary nature of such proposed standards, we have not yet determined the effect, if any, that the implementation of such proposed standards would have on our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
NOTE 3—RELATIONSHIP AND AGREEMENTS WITH SHENGHE
Original Commercial Agreements
In May 2017, prior to our acquisition of the Mountain Pass facility, we entered into a set of commercial arrangements with Shenghe, which principally consisted of a technical services agreement (the “TSA”), an offtake agreement (the “Original Offtake Agreement”), and a distribution and marketing agreement (the “DMA”).
The Original Offtake Agreement required Shenghe to advance us an initial $50.0 million (the “Initial Prepayment Amount”) to fund the restart of operations at the mine and the TSA required Shenghe to fund any additional operating and capital expenditures required to bring the Mountain Pass facility to full operability. Shenghe also agreed to provide additional funding in the amount of $30.0 million to the Company pursuant to a separate letter agreement dated June 20, 2017 (the “Letter Agreement”) (the “First Additional Advance”), in connection with our acquisition of the Mountain Pass facility. In addition to the repayment of the First Additional Advance in cash, pursuant to the Letter Agreement, the Initial Prepayment Amount increased by $30.0 million. We refer to the aggregate prepayments made by Shenghe pursuant to the Original Offtake Agreement and the Framework Agreement (as defined below), as adjusted for Gross Profit Recoupment (as defined below) amounts and any other qualifying repayments to Shenghe, inclusive of the $30.0 million increase to the Initial Prepayment Amount, as the “Prepaid Balance.”
As discussed below, the entrance into the Letter Agreement constituted a modification to the Original Offtake Agreement for accounting purposes (referred to as the “June 2017 Modification”), which ultimately resulted in the Shenghe Implied Discount (as defined below). Under the terms of these agreements, the amounts funded by Shenghe constitute prepayments for the rare earth products to be sold to Shenghe historically under the Original Offtake Agreement (and currently under the A&R Offtake Agreement, as defined below).
Under the Original Offtake Agreement, upon the mine achieving certain milestones and being deemed commercially operational (which was achieved on July 1, 2019), we sold to Shenghe, and Shenghe purchased on a firm “take or pay” basis, all of the rare earth products produced at the Mountain Pass facility. Shenghe marketed and sold these products to customers, and retained the gross profits earned on subsequent sales. The gross profits were credited against the Prepaid Balance, and
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provided the means by which we repaid, and Shenghe recovered, such amounts (the “Gross Profit Recoupment”). Under the Original Offtake Agreement, we were obliged to sell all Mountain Pass facility rare earth products to Shenghe until Shenghe had fully recouped all of its prepayments (i.e., the Prepaid Balance is reduced to zero), at which point the Original Offtake Agreement would terminate automatically.
As originally entered, the DMA was to become effective upon termination of the Original Offtake Agreement. The DMA provided for a distribution and marketing arrangement between the Company and Shenghe, subject to certain exceptions. We retained the right to distribute our products directly to certain categories of customers. As compensation for Shenghe’s distribution and marketing services, the DMA entitled Shenghe to a portion of the net profits from the sale of rare earth products produced at the Mountain Pass facility.
Framework Agreement and Restructured Commercial Arrangements
In May 2020, the Company entered into a framework agreement and amendment (the “Framework Agreement”) with Shenghe and Leshan Shenghe that significantly restructured the commercial arrangements and provided for, among other things, a revised funding amount and schedule to settle Shenghe’s prepayment obligations to the Company, as well as either the amendment or termination of the various agreements between the parties, as discussed below.
Pursuant to the Framework Agreement, we entered into an amended and restated offtake agreement with Shenghe on May 19, 2020 (the “A&R Offtake Agreement”), which, upon effectiveness, superseded and replaced the Original Offtake Agreement, and we issued to Shenghe a warrant on June 2, 2020 (the “Shenghe Warrant”). Pursuant to the Framework Agreement, Shenghe funded the remaining portion of the Initial Prepayment Amount and agreed to fund an additional $35.5 million advance to us (the “Second Additional Advance” and together with the Initial Prepayment Amount, inclusive of the $30.0 million increase pursuant to the Letter Agreement, the “Offtake Advances”), which amounts were fully funded on June 5, 2020. The Shenghe Warrant was ultimately exchanged for shares of our Common Stock in connection with the Business Combination.
Upon the funding of the remaining obligations on June 5, 2020, among other things, (i) the TSA and the DMA were terminated (as described below) and (ii) the A&R Offtake Agreement and the Shenghe Warrant became effective (such events are collectively referred to as the “June 2020 Modification”). Thus, at the present time, Leshan Shenghe’s and Shenghe’s involvement with the Company and the Mountain Pass facility consists of only the A&R Offtake Agreement.
The A&R Offtake Agreement maintains the key take-or-pay, amounts owed on actual and deemed advances from Shenghe, and other terms of the Original Offtake Agreement, with the following material changes: (i) modifies the definition of “offtake products” in order to remove from the scope of that definition lanthanum, cerium and other rare earth products that do not meet the specifications agreed to under the A&R Offtake Agreement; (ii) as to the offtake products subject to the A&R Offtake Agreement, provides that if we sell such offtake products to a third party, then, until the Prepaid Balance has been reduced to zero, we will pay an agreed percentage of our revenue from such sale to Shenghe, to be credited against the amounts owed on Offtake Advances; (iii) replaces the Shenghe Sales Discount (as defined in Note 4, “Revenue Recognition”) under the Original Offtake Agreement with a fixed monthly sales charge; (iv) provides that the purchase price to be paid by Shenghe for our rare earth products (a portion of which reduces the Prepaid Balance rather than being paid in cash) will be based on market prices (net of taxes, tariffs and certain other agreed charges) less applicable discounts, instead of our cash cost of production; (v) obliges us to pay Shenghe, on an annual basis, an amount equal to our annual net income, less any amounts recouped through the Gross Profit Recoupment mechanism over the course of the year, until the Prepaid Balance has been reduced to zero; (vi) obliges us to pay Shenghe the net after-tax profits from certain sales of assets until the Prepaid Balance has been reduced to zero (this obligation was previously contained in the TSA); and (vii) provides for certain changes to the payment, invoicing and delivery terms and procedures for products.
The purchase price and other terms applicable to a quantity of offtake products are set forth in monthly purchase agreements between the Company and Shenghe. As with the Original Offtake Agreement, the A&R Offtake Agreement will terminate when Shenghe has fully recouped all of its prepayment funding. Following that termination, the Company will have no contractual arrangements with Shenghe for the distribution, marketing or sale of rare earth products.
Accounting for the June 2017 Modification
As discussed above, pursuant to the Letter Agreement, Shenghe agreed to provide additional funding via a short-term, non-interest-bearing note in the amount of $30.0 million to the Company (defined above as the “First Additional Advance”), which required repayment within one year. Furthermore, under the terms of the Letter Agreement, Shenghe became entitled to an additional $30.0 million recovery through an increase to the Prepaid Balance. Therefore, under the terms of the Letter Agreement, Shenghe would ultimately receive repayment of the short-term debt instrument from the Company, and also be
8

entitled to realize an additional $30.0 million as a part of the contractual Gross Profit Recoupment from ultimate sales to its customers.
The Company concluded that the $30.0 million proceeds received from Shenghe should be allocated between (i) the non-interest-bearing debt instrument and (ii) the existing revenue arrangement (under the terms of the Original Offtake Agreement) on a relative fair value basis. As a result of such analysis, the Company determined that the debt instrument had a relative fair value of $26.5 million and the modification to the revenue arrangement had a relative fair value of $3.5 million. The First Additional Advance was repaid in full by the Company in 2018.
Based on the relationship between (i) the deemed proceeds the Company would ultimately receive from the Initial Prepayment Amount (adjusted for (a) the fair value of the preferred interest provided to Shenghe at the time of entering into the aforementioned commercial arrangements of $2.3 million and (b) the fair value allocated to the modification of the revenue arrangement of $3.5 million) and (ii) the contractual amount owed to Shenghe (i.e., the Prepaid Balance, which included the Initial Prepayment Amount and the additional $30.0 million adjustment to the Prepaid Balance in connection with the Letter Agreement) at the time, the June 2017 Modification resulted in an implied discount on the Company’s sales prices to Shenghe under the Original Offtake Agreement, for accounting purposes (the “Shenghe Implied Discount”).
The Shenghe Implied Discount is applicable to Shenghe’s gross profit on the sales of rare earth products to its own customers (for sales made between July 2019 and early June 2020). That gross profit is a contractually determined amount based on Shenghe’s realized sales price (net of taxes, tariffs, and certain other adjustments, such as demurrage) compared to the agreed-upon cash cost Shenghe would pay to the Company. The Shenghe Implied Discount amounted to 36% of that contractually determined gross profit amount. See also Note 4, “Revenue Recognition.”
Accounting for the June 2020 Modification
As noted above, in June 2020, the Company renegotiated various aspects of its relationship with Shenghe and entered into the Framework Agreement to significantly restructure the aforementioned set of arrangements. Prior to the June 2020 Modification, for accounting purposes, the Original Offtake Agreement constituted a deferred revenue arrangement; however, as a result of the June 2020 Modification, the A&R Offtake Agreement constituted a debt obligation as well as provided for the issuance of the Shenghe Warrant. For further discussion of the deferred revenue arrangement, see Note 4, “Revenue Recognition,” and for further discussion of the debt obligation, see Note 8, “Debt Obligations.”
The DMA provided Shenghe with the right of first refusal to be the Company’s distribution and marketing agent for product sales after the expiration of the Original Offtake Agreement and until April 2047 in exchange for the Net Profit-Based Commission. Under the Original Offtake Agreement, Shenghe would also have been responsible for funding additional advance payments toward the next stage of the mine and facility’s development (referred to below as the “Stage II optimization project”). The agency relationship was not to commence until any such additional amount was also recovered under the Original Offtake Agreement. Although it had not yet commenced, the DMA was enforceable, and could only be terminated upon the mutual agreement of the parties involved.
At its inception in May 2017, the DMA was determined to be at-market, as it provided an expected commission to Shenghe for its services, and was consistent with the Company’s expectations for a regular sales commission based on its revenue and cost expectations at the time. As part of renegotiating the commercial arrangements in connection with the June 2020 Modification, the Company determined that the existing arrangement within the DMA now provided Shenghe with a favorable, off-market return for the future distribution and marketing services, due in part to (i) favorable changes in expected profitability, driven partially by changes in tariffs, as well as cost performance in Stage I, (ii) favorable estimates of the capital cost of the Stage II optimization project, and (iii) favorable changes in expected production, based on higher than forecast contained rare earth oxides production in Stage I.
Taken together, the Company concluded that the above factors would likely result in materially lower per-unit costs (including depreciation) and higher profitability versus its original estimates. Therefore, these changes in circumstances meant that the Net Profit-Based Commission would no longer be commensurate with the value of the service; and therefore, created an off-market feature. These same factors would also result in the Company fulfilling its obligations under the Original Offtake Agreement more quickly, which would in turn result in a longer period of payments under the now-unfavorable terms of the DMA.
In addition, as noted above, Shenghe would still have had to provide the additional advances required to complete the Stage II optimization project, which would have created a near-term cash commitment for Shenghe. While these costs were expected to be approximately $200 million, Shenghe would have remained exposed to the potential that actual costs exceed these
9

estimates and remained committed to fund them. Further, these upfront payments were to be non-interest bearing, exposing Shenghe to economic cost from the time value of money.
Therefore, as part of the renegotiations, the Company and Shenghe agreed to terminate the DMA. As a result of the June 2020 Modification, specifically the termination of the DMA, the Company recorded a non-cash settlement charge of $66.6 million during the three months ended June 30, 2020.
Ultimately, the renegotiations resulted in the following exchange, which is also referenced in Note 18, “Supplemental Cash Flow Information,” as a transaction with significant non-cash components:
(in thousands) As of June 2020 Modification
Deemed proceeds for fair value of debt issuance(1)
$ 85,695 
Deemed proceeds for fair value of warrant issuance 53,846 
Total deemed proceeds 139,541 
Derecognition of the existing deferred revenue balance(2)
(37,476)
Deemed payment to terminate the unfavorable DMA(3)
(66,615)
Total deemed payments (104,091)
Net cash received $ 35,450 
(3)This non-cash charge is included within the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, as “Settlement charge.”
NOTE 4—REVENUE RECOGNITION
Sales to Shenghe Under the Original Offtake Agreement: Beginning in July 2019 and through early June 2020, the Company and Shenghe periodically agreed on a cash sales price for each metric ton of rare earth concentrate delivered by the Company, which was recognized as revenue upon each sale. This sales price was intended to approximate the Company’s cash cost of production. Sales during this period were made under the Original Offtake Agreement and were impacted by the Shenghe Implied Discount, which is discussed in Note 3, “Relationship and Agreements with Shenghe.”
The Shenghe Implied Discount amounted to 36% of the difference between Shenghe’s realized price on its sales of rare earth products to its own customers (net of taxes, tariffs, and certain other adjustments, such as demurrage) and the agreed-upon cash cost for those products (i.e., its gross profit). In addition to the revenue we recognized from the cash sales prices, we also realized an amount of deferred revenue applicable to these sales equal to 64% of Shenghe’s gross profit. The full gross profit amount realized by Shenghe on such sales reduced the Prepaid Balance (and consequently, our contractual obligations to Shenghe).
In addition, sales to Shenghe under the Original Offtake Agreement between July 2019 and early June 2020 typically provided Shenghe with a discount generally in the amount of between 3% and 6% of the initial cash price of our rare earth products sold in consideration of Shenghe’s sales efforts to resell our rare earth products (the “Shenghe Sales Discount”). The Shenghe Sales Discount was considered a reduction in the transaction price and thus was not recognized as revenue. Additionally, the Shenghe Sales Discount was not applied to reduce the Prepaid Balance; however, it was considered as part of Shenghe’s cost of acquiring our product in the calculation of Shenghe’s gross profit.
Sales to Shenghe Under the A&R Offtake Agreement: Beginning after the June 2020 Modification, the cash purchase price (and other terms applicable to the quantity of products sold) are set forth in monthly purchase agreements with Shenghe. Furthermore, the June 2020 Modification provided that the cash purchase price to be paid by Shenghe for our rare earth products will be based on market prices (net of taxes, tariffs and certain other agreed charges) less applicable discounts, instead of our cash cost of production, as was the case with sales made under the Original Offtake Agreement. A portion of the sales price to Shenghe is in the form of debt repayment, with the remainder paid in cash. See Note 8, “Debt Obligations,” for further information.
As a result of the June 2020 Modification, revenue recognized under the A&R Offtake Agreement after the June 2020 Modification does not include the Shenghe Implied Discount. In addition, rather than adjusting the sales price for the Shenghe
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Sales Discount, as was the case with sales made under the Original Offtake Agreement, revenue under the A&R Offtake Agreement is reduced by a fixed monthly sales charge (accounted for as a discount).
Deferred Revenue: As mentioned in Note 3, “Relationship and Agreements with Shenghe,” the Original Offtake Agreement was accounted for as a deferred revenue arrangement, and the June 2020 Modification effectively replaced this deferred revenue arrangement with a debt obligation (see Note 8, “Debt Obligations”). Significant activity for the deferred revenue balance (including current portion) was as follows:
For the six months ended June 30,
(in thousands) 2021 2020
Opening balance(1)
$ —  $ 35,543 
Prepayments received(2)
—  11,050 
Revenue recognized(3)
—  (9,117)
Effect of June 2020 Modification(4)
—  (37,476)
Ending balance $ —  $ — 
(1)Of the amount for the six months ended June 30, 2020, $6.6 million was classified as current based on when such amount was expected to be realized.
(2)Amount for the six months ended June 30, 2020, relates to the contractual commitment for Shenghe to provide funds to the Company (the Initial Prepayment Amount). After the amount pertaining to the six months ended June 30, 2020, was funded, no further amount was required to be funded by Shenghe under the Initial Prepayment Amount.
(3)As discussed above, for sales made to Shenghe during the period from July 2019 through early June 2020, as a result of the Shenghe Implied Discount, we recognized an amount of deferred revenue applicable to such sales equal to 64% of the gross profit realized by Shenghe on sales of this product to its own customers. As discussed below, the amount for the six months ended June 30, 2020, included a tariff rebate of $1.4 million received in May 2020.
(4)As discussed in Note 3, “Relationship and Agreements with Shenghe,” the balance of deferred revenue was derecognized in connection with the June 2020 Modification.
Tariff-Related Rebates: In May 2020, the government of the People’s Republic of China suspended certain tariffs that had been charged to consignees of our product on product imports retroactive to March 2020, which affected the sales price the Company realized. In addition, Shenghe began negotiating for certain tariff rebates from sales prior to March 2020, which affected Shenghe’s realized prices, and thus the contractual Prepaid Balance. These, in turn, affected the Company’s realized prices on prior sales and, as a result, the deferred revenue and the Shenghe Implied Discount on our prior sales. The Company realized $1.4 million of revenue related to these tariff rebates received in May 2020, which included amounts related to prior periods. While additional tariff rebates were possible, the Company did not have insight into Shenghe’s negotiations or their probability of success, and such negotiations were outside of the Company’s control. Thus, the Company fully constrained estimates of any future tariff rebates that may have been realized at that time.
In January 2021, the Company received additional information from Shenghe regarding its successful negotiation of additional tariff rebates. Consequently, the Company revised its estimates of variable consideration and recognized $2.0 million of revenue. Since this rebate was recognized after the June 2020 Modification, this amount was treated as a reduction to the principal balance of the debt obligation, partially offset by a proportionate reduction in the related debt discount, as discussed in Note 8, “Debt Obligations.”
NOTE 5—RESTRICTED CASH
The Company’s restricted cash balances were as follows:
June 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
(in thousands)
Restricted cash, current $ 340  $ 3,688 
Restricted cash, non-current 9,118  9,100 
Total restricted cash $ 9,458  $ 12,788 
The current restricted cash, which is included in “Prepaid expenses and other current assets” within the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets, principally relates to cash held in various trusts. The non-current restricted cash is cash collateral posted for closure and post-closure surety bonding for the Mountain Pass site and a trust established with the California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery, which is the state of California’s recycling and waste management program, for a closed onsite landfill.
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NOTE 6—INVENTORIES
The Company’s inventories consisted of the following:
June 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
(in thousands)
Materials and supplies(1)
$ 7,907  $ 5,124 
In-process(2)
25,093  24,524 
Finished goods(3)
2,501  2,624 
Total inventory $ 35,501  $ 32,272 
(1)Comprised of raw materials, spare parts, reagent chemicals, and packaging materials used in the production of rare earth products
(2)Primarily comprised of mined ore stockpiles and bastnaesite ore in various stages of the production process that are drawn down based on the demands of our mine production plan
(3)Primarily comprised of packaged bastnaesite ore that is ready for sale
During the second quarter of 2021, the Company recognized a non-cash write-down of a portion of its legacy low-grade stockpile inventory after determining that it contained a significant amount of alluvial material that did not meet the Company’s requirement for mill feed and, as a result, was deemed unusable. The write-down is included in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, as “Write-down of inventories.”
NOTE 7—PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
The Company’s property, plant and equipment primarily relates to the Mountain Pass facility and open-pit mine. In addition to the mine, the facility includes a crusher and mill/flotation plant, mineral recovery and separation plants, tailings processing and storage facilities, on-site evaporation ponds, a combined heat and power plant, water treatment facilities, a Chlor-Alkali plant, as well as laboratory facilities to support research and development activities, offices, warehouses and support infrastructure. Property, plant and equipment consisted of the following:
June 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
(in thousands)
Machinery and equipment $ 39,091  $ 22,911 
Buildings and building improvements 4,373  2,953 
Land and land improvements 8,387  6,534 
Assets under construction 98,583  46,814 
Mineral rights 437,804  437,654 
Property, plant and equipment 588,238  516,866 
Less: Accumulated depreciation and depletion (27,622) (14,892)
Property, plant and equipment, net $ 560,616  $ 501,974 
The Company capitalized expenditures of $62.1 million and $4.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, mostly related to vehicles, machinery, equipment, and assets under construction, to support our Stage II optimization project and other capital projects at Mountain Pass. Interest capitalized was $0.2 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021. No interest was capitalized for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020.
In February 2021, the Company acquired equipment, including trucks and loaders, in the aggregate amount of $9.4 million, which was purchased through seller-financed equipment notes. See also Note 8, “Debt Obligations,” and Note 18, “Supplemental Cash Flow Information.”
Depreciation expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, was $1.9 million and $3.4 million, respectively, as compared to $1.2 million and $2.4 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively. Depletion expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, was $4.7 million and $9.2 million, respectively, as compared to less than $0.1 million and $0.1 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively. There were no impairments recognized for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.
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NOTE 8—DEBT OBLIGATIONS
The Company’s current and non-current portions of long-term debt were as follows:
June 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
(in thousands)
Long-term debt
Convertible Notes due 2026 $ 690,000  $ — 
Paycheck Protection Loan —  3,364 
Less: Unamortized debt issuance costs (16,826) — 
Net carrying amount 673,174  3,364 
Less: Current installments of long-term debt —  (2,403)
Long-term debt, net of current portion $ 673,174  $ 961 
Long-term debt to related party
Offtake Advances $ 48,658  $ 71,843 
Less: Unamortized debt discount (2,862) (5,393)
Net carrying amount 45,796  66,450 
Less: Current installments of long-term debt to related party (45,796) (22,070)
Long-term debt to related party, net of current portion $ —  $ 44,380 
Convertible Notes
On March 26, 2021, the Company issued $690.0 million aggregate principal amount of 0.25% unsecured green convertible senior notes that mature, unless earlier converted, redeemed or repurchased, on April 1, 2026 (the “Convertible Notes”), at a price of par. Interest on the Convertible Notes is payable on April 1st and October 1st of each year, beginning on October 1, 2021. The Company received net proceeds of $672.3 million from the issuance of the Convertible Notes.
The Convertible Notes are convertible into shares of the Company’s Common Stock at an initial conversion price of $44.28 per share, or 22.5861 shares, per $1,000 principal amount of notes, subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of certain corporate events. However, in no event will the conversion exceed 28.5714 shares of Common Stock per $1,000 principal amount of notes. As of June 30, 2021, based on the initial conversion price, the maximum number of shares that could be issued to satisfy the conversion feature of the Convertible Notes was 19,714,266 and the amount by which the Convertible Notes’ if-converted value exceeded its principal amount was $36.7 million.
Prior to January 1, 2026, at their election, holders of the Convertible Notes may convert their outstanding notes under the following circumstances: (i) during any calendar quarter commencing with the third quarter of 2021 if the last reported sale price of the Company’s Common Stock for at least 20 trading days (whether or not consecutive) during the period of 30 consecutive trading days ending on, and including, the last trading day of the immediately preceding calendar quarter is greater than or equal to 130% of the conversion price on each applicable trading day; (ii) during the five business day period after any five consecutive trading day period (the “measurement period”) in which the trading price (as defined below) per $1,000 principal amount of Convertible Notes for each trading day of the measurement period was less than 98% of the product of the last reported sale price of the Company’s Common Stock and the conversion rate on each such trading day; (iii) if we call any or all of the Convertible Notes for redemption, at any time prior to the close of business on the scheduled trading day immediately preceding the redemption date; or (iv) upon the occurrence of specified corporate events set forth in the indenture governing the Convertible Notes. On or after January 1, 2026, and prior to the maturity date of the Convertible Notes, holders may convert their outstanding notes at any time, regardless of the foregoing circumstances.
The Convertible Notes may, at the Company’s election, be settled in cash, shares of Common Stock of the Company, or a combination thereof. The Company has the option to redeem the Convertible Notes, in whole or in part, beginning on April 5, 2024.
If we undergo a fundamental change (as defined in the indenture governing the Convertible Notes), holders may require us to repurchase for cash all or any portion of their outstanding notes at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date. In addition, following certain corporate events that occur prior to the maturity date of the Convertible Notes or if we deliver a notice of
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redemption, we will, in certain circumstances, increase the conversion rate for holders who elect to convert their outstanding notes in connection with such corporate event or notice of redemption, as the case may be.
Paycheck Protection Loan
In April 2020, the Company obtained a loan of $3.4 million pursuant to the Paycheck Protection Program (the “PPP”) under Division A, Title I of the CARES Act, which was enacted in March 2020 (the “Paycheck Protection Loan” or the “Loan”). The Paycheck Protection Loan, which was in the form of a note dated April 15, 2020, issued by CIBC Bank USA, was to mature on April 14, 2022, and bore interest at a rate of 1% per annum. Under the terms of the PPP, loans may be forgiven if the funds are used for qualifying expenses as described in the CARES Act, which include payroll costs, costs used to continue group health care benefits, rent and utilities. In June 2021, the Company received notification from the Small Business Administration that the Paycheck Protection Loan and related accrued interest was forgiven. Consequently, during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company recorded a gain on forgiveness of the Loan in the amount of $3.4 million, which is included in “Other income, net” within our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Offtake Advances
In connection with the June 2020 Modification, which is discussed in Note 3, “Relationship and Agreements with Shenghe,” Shenghe agreed to fund an additional $35.5 million advance to the Company (previously defined as the “Second Additional Advance”) and the Company issued the Shenghe Warrant. For accounting purposes, the June 2020 Modification effectively replaced the deferred revenue arrangement relating to the Original Offtake Agreement with a debt obligation relating to the A&R Offtake Agreement and the issuance of the Shenghe Warrant.
Under the A&R Offtake Agreement, a portion of the sales prices of products sold to Shenghe is paid in the form of debt reduction, rather than cash. In addition, the Company must pay the following amounts to Shenghe in cash to reduce the debt obligation until repaid in full: (i) an agreed-upon percentage of sales of products to parties other than Shenghe under the A&R Offtake Agreement; (ii) 100% of net profits from asset sales; and (iii) 100% of net income determined under GAAP, less the tax-effected amount of total non-cash recoupment from sales of products to Shenghe. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, $11.7 million and $20.9 million, respectively, of the sales prices of products sold to Shenghe was paid in the form of debt reduction (see Note 18, “Supplemental Cash Flow Information”), as compared to $0.7 million for both the three and six months ended June 30, 2020. During the three and six ended June 30, 2021, the Company made a payment to Shenghe of $0.1 million based on sales to other parties. No amounts were required to be paid based on asset sales.
After consideration of the Second Additional Advance, the outstanding balance on the Offtake Advances, as of the date of the June 2020 Modification, was $94.0 million. Since the debt obligation was recorded at fair value, the result was a debt discount of $8.3 million. The A&R Offtake Agreement does not have a stated rate (and is non-interest-bearing), and repayment is contingent on a number of factors, including market prices realized by Shenghe, the Company’s sales to other parties, asset sales, and the Company’s annual net income. The imputed interest rate is a function of this discount taken together with our expectations about the timing of the anticipated reductions of the principal balance. Based on current forecasts, the Company expects to repay the obligation within the next year. As of June 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020, $48.7 million and $25.7 million of the principal amount, respectively, was classified as current based on the Company’s expectations of the timing of repayment.
The actual amounts repaid may differ in timing and amount from the Company’s estimates and is updated each reporting period to determine the imputed interest rate, which will likely differ from the current estimated rate. The Company has determined that it will recognize adjustments from these estimates following a prospective method. Under the prospective method, the Company will update its estimate of the effective interest rate in future periods based on revised estimates of the timing of remaining principal reductions at that time. The updated rate will be the discount rate that equates the present value of those revised estimates of remaining reductions with the carrying amount of the debt, and it will be used to recognize interest expense for the remaining periods. Under the prospective method, the effective interest rate is not constant, and changes are recognized prospectively as an adjustment to the effective yield. The effective rate applicable from the June 5, 2020, inception to June 30, 2021, was between 4.41% and 10.37%. Based on the revised estimates of the timing of the remaining principal reductions as of June 30, 2021, the Company updated its estimate of the effective interest rate to 11.50% to be applied prospectively to future periods.
As discussed in Note 4, “Revenue Recognition,” in January 2021, the Company was informed of a $2.2 million tariff rebate Shenghe received, which increased the gross profit earned by Shenghe on certain prior period sales. As a result, for the six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company recorded a reduction in the principal amount of the debt obligation of $2.2 million and the corresponding debt discount of $0.2 million.
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Equipment Notes
The Company has entered into several financing agreements for the purchase of equipment, including trucks, tractors, loaders, graders, and various other machinery, including agreements entered into in February 2021 (as further discussed below). The Company’s equipment notes, which are secured by the purchased equipment, have terms of between 4 to 5 years and interest rates of between 0.0% and 6.5% per annum.
In February 2021, we entered into financing agreements for the purchase of equipment, including trucks and loaders, in the aggregate amount of $9.7 million, including an amount for the associated extended warranties. These equipment notes have terms of 5 years and interest rates of 4.5% per annum with monthly payments commencing in April 2021.
The current and non-current portions of the equipment notes, which are included within the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets in “Other current liabilities” and “Other non-current liabilities,” respectively, were as follows:
June 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
(in thousands)
Equipment notes
Current $ 2,600  $ 835 
Non-current 8,368  1,267 
$ 10,968  $ 2,102 
Interest expense, net
Interest expense, net, was as follows:
For the three months ended June 30, For the six months ended June 30,
(in thousands) 2021 2020 2021 2020
Interest expense $ 2,795  $ 1,066  $ 3,960  $ 1,869 
Capitalized interest (156) —  (167) — 
Interest expense, net $ 2,639  $ 1,066  $ 3,793  $ 1,869 
Interest expense related to the Convertible Notes was as follows:
For the three months ended June 30, For the six months ended June 30,
(in thousands) 2021 2020 2021 2020
Coupon interest $ 431  $ —  $ 455  $ — 
Amortization of debt issuance costs 875  —  923  — 
Convertible Notes interest expense $ 1,306  $ —  $ 1,378  $ — 
The debt issuance costs are being amortized to interest expense over the term of the Convertible Notes at an effective interest rate of 0.51%. The remaining term of the Convertible Notes was 4.8 years as of June 30, 2021.
As of June 30, 2021, none of the agreements or indentures governing our indebtedness contain financial covenants.

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NOTE 9—LEASE OBLIGATIONS
The Company has operating and finance leases for certain office space, vehicles and equipment used in its operations, none of which are with related parties. Supplemental disclosure for the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets related to the Company’s operating and finance leases is as follows:
Location on Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets June 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
(in thousands)
Operating Leases:
Right-of-use assets Other non-current assets $ 501  $ 1,090 
Operating lease liability, current Other current liabilities $ 338  $ 761 
Operating lease liability, non-current Other non-current liabilities 185  357 
Total operating lease liabilities $ 523  $ 1,118 
Finance Leases:
Right-of-use assets Finance lease right-of-use assets $ 884  $ 1,028 
Finance lease liability, current Current portion of finance lease liabilities $ 256  $ 266 
Finance lease liability, non-current Finance lease liabilities, net of current portion 639  736 
Total finance lease liabilities $ 895  $ 1,002 
NOTE 10—ASSET RETIREMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL OBLIGATIONS
Asset Retirement Obligations
Management estimated asset retirement obligations based on the requirements to reclaim its mine asset and related Mountain Pass facility. Minor reclamation activities related to discrete portions of our operations are ongoing. As of June 30, 2021, management estimates a significant portion of the cash outflows for the major reclamation and the retirement of the Mountain Pass facility will be incurred beginning in 2043.
In March 2020, the Company commenced the process of requesting a re-zoning approval of certain of its properties such that certain of the Company’s processing facilities would be zoned for industrial end uses as opposed to the prior “resource conservation” designation. In June 2021, San Bernardino County approved the re-zoning request, which may obviate the Company’s current requirement to demolish and reclaim the impacted areas. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the re-zoning has on its reclamation plan, which must still be approved by San Bernardino County and the State of California, and its related effect on the Company’s asset retirement obligation. Upon final submission of the reclamation plan and approval, the Company will update the estimated cash flows underlying its asset retirement obligation, as the Company’s existing reclamation obligations will not be legally reduced until such approval is obtained.
As of June 30, 2021, the credit-adjusted risk-free rate ranged between 6.6% and 8.2% depending on the timing of expected settlement and when the layer or increment was recognized. There were no significant increments or decrements for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.
The balance as of June 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020, included current portions of $0.1 million. The total estimated future undiscounted cash flows required to satisfy the asset retirement obligations were $142.3 million as of both June 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020.
The Company is required to provide the applicable government agencies with financial assurances relating to the closure and reclamation obligations. As of June 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020, the Company had financial assurance requirements of $38.8 million and $38.4 million, respectively, which were satisfied with surety bonds placed with the California state and regional agencies that are partially secured by restricted cash.
Environmental Obligations
The Company assumed certain environmental remediation liabilities related to the monitoring of groundwater contamination. The Company engaged an environmental consultant to develop a remediation plan and remediation cost
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projections based upon that plan. Utilizing the remediation plan developed by the environmental consultant, management developed an estimate of future cash payments for the remediation plan.
As of June 30, 2021, management estimated the cash outflows related to these environmental activities will be incurred annually over the next 27 years. The Company’s environmental remediation liabilities are measured at the expected value of future cash outflows discounted to their present value using a discount rate of 2.93%. There were no significant changes in the estimated remaining remediation costs for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.
The total estimated aggregate undiscounted cost of $27.9 million and $28.2 million as of June 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020, respectively, was principally related to water monitoring and treatment activities required by state and local agencies. Based on management’s best estimate of the cost and timing and the assumption that payments are considered to be fixed and reliably determinable, the Company has discounted the liability. The balance as of June 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020, included current portions of $0.5 million.
NOTE 11—INCOME TAXES
The Company calculates the provision for income taxes during interim reporting periods by applying an estimate of the annual effective tax rate to its year-to-date pretax book income or loss. The tax effects of discrete items, including but not limited to, excess tax benefits associated with stock-based compensation, valuation allowance adjustments based on new evidence and enactment of tax laws, are reported in the interim period in which they occur. The effective tax rate (income taxes as a percentage of income or loss before income taxes) including discrete items was 18.5% and 19.8% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to (0.5)% and (0.6)% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, principally due to a full valuation allowance as of June 30, 2020. Our effective income tax rate can vary from period to period depending on, among other factors, percentage depletion, executive compensation deduction limitations, other permanent book/tax items, and changes to our valuation allowance, if any. Certain of these and other factors, including our history and projections of pretax earnings, are considered in assessing our ability to realize our net deferred tax assets.
NOTE 12—COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
In the ordinary course of business, the Company becomes party to lawsuits, administrative proceedings, and government investigations, including environmental, regulatory, and other matters. The Company’s management does not believe that any such matters, individually or in the aggregate, will have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
In January 2019, a former employee filed a complaint with the California Labor & Workforce Development Agency alleging numerous violations of California labor law, and subsequently filed a representative action against the Company. The Company disputes the plaintiff’s allegations and has retained counsel to represent it in the litigation. The Company is unable to estimate a range of loss, if any, at this time. If an unfavorable outcome were to occur in the case, it is possible that the impact could be material in respect of the Company’s results of operations in the period in which any such outcome becomes probable and reasonably estimable.
NOTE 13—STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Common Stock and Preferred Stock
On November 17, 2020, in connection with the consummation of the Business Combination, FVAC amended and restated its first amended and restated certificate of incorporation (the “Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation”). Pursuant to the terms of the Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the Company increased the number of authorized shares of all classes of capital stock from 221,000,000 shares to 500,000,000, consisting of (i) 450,000,000 shares of common stock (previously defined as “Common Stock”) and (ii) 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, each with a par value of $0.0001 per share.
Public Warrants
Warrants to purchase 11,499,968 shares of the Company’s Common Stock at $11.50 per share were issued in connection with FVAC’s initial public offering (“IPO”) (the “Public Warrants”) pursuant to the Warrant Agreement, dated April 29, 2020 (the “Warrant Agreement”), by and between the Company and Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company (“CST”), as warrant agent. These warrants qualified as equity instruments as they were indexed to the Company’s stock and settlement in shares was within the Company’s control. Accordingly, the Public Warrants were included in “Additional paid-in capital” within the Company’s unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2020.
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On May 4, 2021, at the direction of the Company, CST, in its capacity as warrant agent, delivered a notice of redemption to each of the registered holders of the outstanding Public Warrants for a redemption price of $0.01 per warrant (the “Redemption Price”), that remained outstanding following 5:00 p.m. New York City time on June 7, 2021 (the “Redemption Date”).
In accordance with the Warrant Agreement, the Company’s Board of Directors elected to require that, upon delivery of the notice of redemption, all Public Warrants were to be exercised only on a “cashless basis.” Accordingly, holders could not exercise Public Warrants and receive Common Stock in exchange for payment in cash of the $11.50 per warrant exercise price. Instead, a holder exercising a Public Warrant was deemed to pay the $11.50 per warrant exercise price by the surrender of 0.3808 of a share of Common Stock that such holder would have been entitled to receive upon a cash exercise of a Public Warrant. Accordingly, by virtue of the cashless exercise of the Public Warrants, exercising warrant holders received 0.6192 of a share of Common Stock for each Public Warrant surrendered for exercise. All Public Warrants that remained unexercised at 5:00 p.m. New York City time on the Redemption Date were delisted, voided and no longer exercisable, and the holders had no rights with respect to those Public Warrants, except to receive the Redemption Price.
During the three months ended June 30, 2021, the Company issued 7,080,005 shares of its Common Stock as a result of the cashless exercise of 11,434,455 Public Warrants. The Company redeemed the remaining 65,513 Public Warrants outstanding at the Redemption Date for a nominal amount.
NOTE 14—STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION
2020 Incentive Plan: In November 2020, the Company’s stockholders approved the MP Materials Corp. 2020 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2020 Incentive Plan”), which permits the Company to issue stock options (incentive and/or non-qualified); stock appreciation rights; restricted stock, restricted stock units, and other stock awards; and performance awards. As of June 30, 2021, there were 7,291,682 shares available for future grants under the 2020 Incentive Plan.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense: During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company recognized $4.5 million and $10.2 million, respectively, of stock-based compensation expense, which is principally included in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations within “General and administrative.” There was no stock-based compensation expense recognized for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020.
NOTE 15—FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” (“ASC 820”), establishes a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described below:
Level 1 Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities;
Level 2 Quoted prices in markets that are not active, quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices or inputs that are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability and model-based valuation techniques (e.g., the Black-Scholes model) for which all significant inputs are observable in active markets.
Level 3 Prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (supported by little or no market activity).
The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement requires judgment and may affect the valuation of assets and liabilities and their placement within the fair value hierarchy. The following methods and assumptions are used to estimate the fair value of each class of financial instruments for which it is practicable to estimate. The fair value of the Company’s accounts receivable, accounts payable, short-term debt and accrued liabilities approximates the carrying amounts because of the immediate or short-term maturity of these financial instruments.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
The Company’s cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash are classified within Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy. The carrying amounts reported in the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets approximate the fair value of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash due to the short-term nature of these assets.
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Convertible Notes
The fair value of the Company’s Convertible Notes is estimated based on quoted prices in active markets and is classified as a Level 1 measurement.
Offtake Advances
The Company’s Offtake Advances balance is classified within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy because there are unobservable inputs that follow an imputed interest rate model to calculate the amortization of the embedded debt discount, which is recognized as non-cash interest expense, by estimating the timing of anticipated payments and reductions of the debt principal balance. This model-based valuation technique, for which there are unobservable inputs, was used to estimate the fair value of the liability balance classified within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy as of June 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020.
Equipment Notes
The Company’s equipment notes are classified within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy because there are inputs that are directly observable for substantially the full term of the liability. Model-based valuation techniques for which all significant inputs are observable in active markets were used to calculate the fair values of liabilities classified within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy as of June 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020.
As required by ASC 820, assets and liabilities are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The carrying amounts and estimated fair values by input level of the Company’s financial instruments were as follows:
June 30, 2021
(in thousands)
Carrying
Amount
Fair Value Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Financial assets:
Cash and cash equivalents $ 1,196,875  $ 1,196,875  $ 1,196,875  $ —  $ — 
Restricted cash $ 9,458  $ 9,458  $ 9,458  $ —  $ — 
Financial liabilities:
Convertible Notes $ 673,174  $ 733,224  $ 733,224  $ —  $ — 
Offtake Advances $ 45,796  $ 47,780  $ —  $ —  $ 47,780 
Equipment notes $ 10,968  $ 11,109  $ —  $ 11,109  $ — 
December 31, 2020
(in thousands)
Carrying
Amount
Fair Value
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Financial assets:
Cash and cash equivalents $ 519,652  $ 519,652  $ 519,652  $ —  $ — 
Restricted cash $ 12,788  $ 12,788  $ 12,788  $ —  $ — 
Financial liabilities:
Offtake Advances $ 66,450  $ 68,151  $ —  $ —  $ 68,151 
Equipment notes $ 2,102  $ 2,077  $ —  $ 2,077  $ — 

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NOTE 16—EARNINGS (LOSS) PER SHARE
Basic EPS is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding plus the effect of dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method or the if-converted method, as applicable.
The following table reconciles the weighted-average common shares outstanding used in the calculation of basic EPS to the weighted-average common shares outstanding used in the calculation of diluted EPS:
For the three months ended June 30, For the six months ended June 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020
Weighted-average shares outstanding, basic 172,677,923 68,095,422 170,810,353 67,326,198
Assumed conversion of Public Warrants 3,440,138 5,681,248
Assumed conversion of Convertible Notes 15,584,409 8,351,866
Assumed conversion of restricted stock 1,183,720 1,179,927
Assumed conversion of restricted stock units 259,454 259,463
Weighted-average shares outstanding, diluted 193,145,644 68,095,422 186,282,857 67,326,198
The following table presents the calculation of basic and diluted EPS for the Company’s Common Stock:
For the three months ended June 30, For the six months ended June 30,
(in thousands, except share and per share data) 2021 2020 2021 2020
Calculation of basic EPS:
Net income (loss) $ 27,166  $ (62,491) $ 43,285  $ (60,566)
Weighted-average shares outstanding, basic 172,677,923  68,095,422  170,810,353  67,326,198 
Basic EPS $ 0.16  $ (0.92) $ 0.25  $ (0.90)
Calculation of diluted EPS:
Net income (loss) $ 27,166  $ (62,491) $ 43,285  $ (60,566)
Interest expense, net of tax(1):
Convertible Notes 1,064  —  1,106  — 
Diluted income (loss) $ 28,230  $ (62,491) $ 44,391  $ (60,566)
Weighted-average shares outstanding, diluted 193,145,644  68,095,422  186,282,857  67,326,198 
Diluted EPS $ 0.15  $ (0.92) $ 0.24  $ (0.90)
(1)The three and six months ended June 30, 2021, were tax-effected at a rate of 18.5% and 19.8%, respectively. As discussed in Note 8, “Debt Obligations,” the Convertible Notes were issued in March 2021; therefore, no adjustment is required for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020.
NOTE 17—RELATED-PARTY TRANSACTIONS
Product Sales and Cost of Sales: The Company and Shenghe enter into separate product sales agreements in which Shenghe purchases all newly-produced material at specified prices. Product sales from these agreements were $72.2 million and $131.9 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, as compared to $30.2 million and $50.8 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively, and are discussed in more detail in Note 4, “Revenue Recognition,” including amounts recognized as deferred revenue.
Cost of sales, which includes shipping and freight, related to these agreements with Shenghe was $17.9 million and $35.7 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, as compared to $16.8 million and $29.3 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively.
Purchases: The Company purchases reagent products (produced by an unrelated third party manufacturer) used in the flotation process from Shenghe. Total purchases were $1.4 million and $2.1 million for the three and six months ended June 30,
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2021, respectively, as compared to $1.3 million and $1.6 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively.
Royalty Agreement: In April 2017, MPMO entered into a 30-year mineral lease and license agreement with SNR (the “Royalty Agreement”) under which MPMO paid royalties to SNR in the amount of 2.5% of the gross proceeds from the sale of rare earth products made from ores extracted from the Mountain Pass mine, subject to a minimum non-refundable royalty of $0.5 million per year.
At the time of entering into the Royalty Agreement, MPMO and SNR had shareholders common to both entities; however, they were not partners in business nor did they hold any other joint interest. In connection with the Business Combination, MPMO and SNR are both wholly-owned subsidiaries of the Company. Consequently, the intercompany transactions between MPMO and SNR after the date of the SNR Mineral Rights Acquisition and the Business Combination eliminate in consolidation, including the effects of the Royalty Agreement.
Excluding payments of these minimums (which were treated as a reduction to the obligation), royalty expense was $0.4 million and $0.9 million, and the Company paid out $1.4 million and $1.9 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively.
Accounts Receivable: As of June 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020, $8.2 million and $3.5 million of the accounts receivable, as stated on the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets, were receivable from a related party due to the Company’s sales agreements with Shenghe.
Indebtedness: The Company’s related-party debt is described in Note 8, “Debt Obligations.”
NOTE 18—SUPPLEMENTAL CASH FLOW INFORMATION
In addition to the non-cash components of the June 2020 Modification, as discussed in Note 3, “Relationship and Agreements with Shenghe,” other supplemental cash flow information and non-cash investing and financing activities were as follows:
For the six months ended June 30,
(in thousands) 2021 2020
Supplemental cash flow information:
Cash paid for interest $ 134  $ 403 
Cash payment related to income taxes, net $ $ — 
Supplemental non-cash investing and financing activities:
Property, plant and equipment acquired with seller-financed equipment notes $ 9,407  $ 639 
Property, plant and equipment purchased but not yet paid $ 17,372  $ — 
Finance right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for finance lease liabilities $ 36  $ — 
Revenue recognized in exchange for debt principal reduction(1)
$ 22,901  $ 679 
Paycheck Protection Loan forgiveness(2)
$ 3,401  $ — 
(1)Of the amount for the six months ended June 30, 2021, $20.9 million pertained to product sales to Shenghe, as discussed in Note 8, “Debt Obligations and $2.0 million pertained to the tariff rebate, as discussed in Note 4, “Revenue Recognition.”
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ITEM 2.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and capital resources should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by, the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (“Form 10-Q”), and the Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations contained in the Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) for the year ended December 31, 2020. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. The actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including, but not limited to, those set forth under “Part II. Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Form 10-Q and “Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in our Form 10-K. In addition, see “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” References herein to the “Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us,” refer to MP Materials Corp. and its subsidiaries.
Overview
We own and operate the Mountain Pass Rare Earth Mine and Processing Facility (“Mountain Pass”), an iconic American industrial asset, which is the only rare earth mining and processing site of scale in the Western Hemisphere and currently produces approximately 15% of global rare earth content.
Rare earth elements (“REE”) are fundamental building blocks of the modern economy, impacting trillions of dollars in global gross domestic product through the enablement of end products across industries including transportation, clean energy, robotics, national defense and consumer electronics, among others. Neodymium (“Nd”) and praseodymium (“Pr”) are rare earth elements which in combination form neodymium-praseodymium (“NdPr”), which represents the Company’s primary revenue opportunity. NdPr is most often utilized in NdPr magnets, which are also commonly referred to as “neo,” “NdFeB,” “NIB,” or permanent magnets and are made predominantly from an alloy of NdPr, iron and boron. NdPr magnets are the most widely used type of rare earth magnets and are critical for many advanced technologies that are experiencing strong secular growth, including electric vehicles (“EV”), drones, defense systems, medical equipment, wind turbines, robotics and many others. The rapid growth of these and other advanced motion technologies is expected to drive substantial demand growth for NdPr.
We produce our materials at Mountain Pass, one of the world’s richest rare earth deposits, co-located with integrated state-of-the-art processing and separation facilities. We believe Mountain Pass is the only such integrated facility in the Western Hemisphere and one of the few separation facilities outside of Asia. We acquired the Mountain Pass assets in 2017, restarted operations from cold-idle status and embarked on a deliberate, two-stage plan to optimize the facility and position the Company for growth and profitability. We commenced mining, comminution, beneficiation, and tailings management operations, which we designated Stage I of our multi-stage optimization plan, between December 2017 and February 2018. We currently produce a rare earth concentrate that we sell to Shenghe Resources (Singapore) International Trading Pte. Ltd. (“Shenghe”), an affiliate of Shenghe Resources Holding Co., Ltd., a leading global rare earth company that is publicly listed in China, which, in turn, sells that product to end customers in China. These customers separate the constituent REE contained in our concentrate and sell the separated products to various end users. We believe our concentrate represented approximately 15% of the rare earth content consumed in the global market in 2020. Upon completion of our Stage II optimization project, we anticipate separating rare earth oxides (“REO”) at our Mountain Pass site and selling our products directly to end users, at which time we would no longer sell our concentrate.
As technological innovation drives anticipated global growth in demand for REO, we also believe global economic trends, geopolitical realities and sustainability mandates are combining to further support an opportunity for us to create shareholder value. We believe businesses are increasingly prioritizing diversification and security of their global supply chains so as to reduce reliance on a single producer or region for critical supplies. This trend also has national security implications, as illustrated by a recent U.S. Presidential executive order requiring the U.S. government to review supply chains for critical minerals and other identified strategic materials, including rare earth elements, in an effort to ensure that the U.S. is not reliant on other countries, such as China. According to the CRU Group, China accounted for approximately 79% of global REO production in 2020. We believe an even higher percentage of the NdPr magnet supply chain is based in China. Finally, public and private interests are increasingly demanding sustainability throughout production value chains to limit negative environmental and societal impacts from business activity, including pollution and acceleration of climate change. As the only scaled source in North America for critical rare earths, with a processing facility designed to operate with best-in-class sustainability and a competitive cost structure, we believe we are well-positioned to thrive in a transforming global economy.
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Recent Developments and Comparability of Results
Business Combination and Reverse Recapitalization
The Business Combination (as defined below) was consummated on November 17, 2020, pursuant to the terms of a merger agreement entered into on July 15, 2020 (the “Merger Agreement”). Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, MP Mine Operations LLC (“MPMO”) and Secure Natural Resources LLC (“SNR”), the company that holds the mineral rights to the Mountain Pass mine and surrounding areas as well as intellectual property rights related to the processing and development of rare earth minerals, were combined with Fortress Value Acquisition Corp. (“FVAC”), a special purpose acquisition company (the “Business Combination”), and became indirect wholly-owned subsidiaries of FVAC, which was in turn renamed MP Materials Corp. The Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded, and the acquisition of SNR (the “SNR Mineral Rights Acquisition”) was treated as an asset acquisition. Furthermore, MPMO was deemed to be the accounting acquirer and FVAC the accounting acquiree, which, for financial reporting purposes, results in MPMO’s historical financial information becoming that of the Company.
Our Relationship and Agreements with Shenghe
Original Commercial Agreements
In May 2017, prior to our acquisition of the Mountain Pass facility, we entered into a set of commercial arrangements with Shenghe, which principally consisted of a technical services agreement (the “TSA”), an offtake agreement (the “Original Offtake Agreement”), and a distribution and marketing agreement (the “DMA”). Shenghe and its affiliates primarily engage in the mining, separation, processing and distribution of rare earth products. We also issued to Leshan Shenghe Rare Earth Co., Ltd. (“Leshan Shenghe”), the majority stockholder of Shenghe, a preferred interest in the Company, which was ultimately exchanged for shares of our common stock in connection with the Business Combination.
The Original Offtake Agreement required Shenghe to advance us an initial $50.0 million (the “Initial Prepayment Amount”) to fund the restart of operations at the mine and the TSA required Shenghe to fund any additional operating and capital expenditures required to bring the Mountain Pass facility to full operability. Shenghe also agreed to provide additional funding in the amount of $30.0 million to the Company pursuant to a separate letter agreement dated June 20, 2017 (the “Letter Agreement”) (the “First Additional Advance”), in connection with our acquisition of the Mountain Pass facility. In addition to the repayment of the First Additional Advance in cash, pursuant to the Letter Agreement, the Initial Prepayment Amount was increased by $30.0 million. We refer to the aggregate prepayments made by Shenghe pursuant to the Original Offtake Agreement and the Framework Agreement (as defined below), as adjusted for Gross Profit Recoupment (as defined below) amounts and any other qualifying repayments to Shenghe, inclusive of the $30.0 million increase to the Initial Prepayment Amount, as the “Prepaid Balance.”
The entrance into the Letter Agreement constituted a modification to the Original Offtake Agreement for accounting purposes (referred to as the “June 2017 Modification”), which ultimately resulted in the Shenghe Implied Discount (as defined below). Under the terms of these agreements, the amounts funded by Shenghe constitute prepayments for the rare earth products to be sold to Shenghe historically under the Original Offtake Agreement (and currently under the A&R Offtake Agreement, as defined below).
Under the Original Offtake Agreement, upon the mine achieving certain milestones and being deemed commercially operational (which was achieved on July 1, 2019), we sold to Shenghe, and Shenghe purchased on a firm “take or pay” basis, all of the rare earth products produced at the Mountain Pass facility. Shenghe marketed and sold these products to customers, and retained the gross profits earned on subsequent sales. The gross profits were credited against the Prepaid Balance, and provided the means by which we repaid, and Shenghe recovered, such amounts (the “Gross Profit Recoupment”). Under the Original Offtake Agreement, we were obliged to sell all Mountain Pass facility rare earth products to Shenghe until Shenghe had fully recouped all of its prepayments (i.e., the Prepaid Balance is reduced to zero), at which point the Original Offtake Agreement would terminate automatically.
As originally entered, the DMA was to become effective upon termination of the Original Offtake Agreement. The DMA provided for a distribution and marketing arrangement between the Company and Shenghe, subject to certain agreed exceptions. We retained the right to distribute our products directly to certain categories of customers. As compensation for Shenghe’s distribution and marketing services, the DMA entitled Shenghe to a portion of the net profits from the sale of rare earth products produced at the Mountain Pass facility. See below for further discussion of the DMA termination and associated accounting treatment.
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Framework Agreement and Restructured Commercial Agreements
In May 2020, the Company entered into a framework agreement and amendment (the “Framework Agreement”) with Shenghe and Leshan Shenghe that significantly restructured the commercial arrangements and provided for, among other things, a revised funding amount and schedule to settle Shenghe’s prepayment obligations to the Company, as well as either the amendment or termination of the various agreements between the parties, as discussed below.
Pursuant to the Framework Agreement, we entered into an amended and restated offtake agreement with Shenghe on May 19, 2020 (the “A&R Offtake Agreement”), which, upon effectiveness, superseded and replaced the Original Offtake Agreement, and we issued to Shenghe a warrant on June 2, 2020 (the “Shenghe Warrant”). Pursuant to the Framework Agreement, Shenghe funded the remaining portion of the Initial Prepayment Amount and agreed to fund an additional $35.5 million advance to us (the “Second Additional Advance” and together with the Initial Prepayment Amount, inclusive of the $30.0 million increase pursuant to the Letter Agreement, the “Offtake Advances”), which amounts were fully funded on June 5, 2020. The Shenghe Warrant was ultimately exchanged for shares of our common stock in connection with the Business Combination.
Upon the funding of the remaining obligations on June 5, 2020, among other things, (i) the TSA and the DMA were terminated (as described below) and (ii) the A&R Offtake Agreement and the Shenghe Warrant became effective (such events are collectively referred to as the “June 2020 Modification”). Thus, at the present time, Leshan Shenghe’s and Shenghe’s involvement with the Company and the Mountain Pass facility consists of only the A&R Offtake Agreement.
The A&R Offtake Agreement maintains the key take-or-pay, amounts owed on actual and deemed advances from Shenghe, and other terms of the Original Offtake Agreement, with the following material changes: (i) modifies the definition of “offtake products” in order to remove from the scope of that definition lanthanum, cerium and other rare earth products that do not meet the specifications agreed to under the A&R Offtake Agreement; (ii) as to the offtake products subject to the A&R Offtake Agreement, provides that if we sell such offtake products to a third party, then, until the Prepaid Balance has been reduced to zero, we will pay an agreed percentage of our revenue from such sale to Shenghe, to be credited against the amounts owed on Offtake Advances; (iii) replaces the Shenghe Sales Discount (as discussed and defined below) under the Original Offtake Agreement with a fixed monthly sales charge; (iv) provides that the purchase price to be paid by Shenghe for our rare earth products (a portion of which reduces the Prepaid Balance rather than being paid in cash) will be based on market prices (net of taxes, tariffs and certain other agreed charges) less applicable discounts, instead of our cash cost of production; (v) obliges us to pay Shenghe, on an annual basis, an amount equal to our annual net income, less any amounts recouped through the Gross Profit Recoupment mechanism over the course of the year, until the Prepaid Balance has been reduced to zero; (vi) obliges us to pay Shenghe the net after-tax profits from certain sales of assets until the Prepaid Balance has been reduced to zero (this obligation was previously contained in the TSA); and (vii) provides for certain changes to the payment, invoicing and delivery terms and procedures for products.
The purchase price and other terms applicable to a quantity of offtake products are set forth in monthly purchase agreements between the Company and Shenghe. As with the Original Offtake Agreement, the A&R Offtake Agreement will terminate when Shenghe has fully recouped all of its prepayment funding. Following that termination, the Company will have no contractual arrangements with Shenghe for the distribution, marketing or sale of rare earth products.
Accounting Implications of the June 2017 Modification
As discussed above, pursuant to the Letter Agreement, Shenghe agreed to provide additional funding via a short-term non-interest-bearing note in the amount of $30.0 million to the Company (defined above as the “First Additional Advance”), which required repayment within one year. Furthermore, under the terms of the Letter Agreement, Shenghe became entitled to an additional $30.0 million recovery through an increase to the Prepaid Balance. Therefore, under the terms of the Letter Agreement, Shenghe would ultimately receive repayment of the short-term debt instrument from the Company, and also be entitled to realize an additional $30.0 million as a part of the contractual Gross Profit Recoupment from ultimate sales to its customers.
As discussed in more detail within Note 3, “Relationship and Agreements with Shenghe,” in the notes to the unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, based on the relationship between (i) the deemed proceeds the Company would ultimately receive from the Initial Prepayment Amount (adjusted for (a) the fair value of the preferred interest provided to Shenghe at the time of entering into the aforementioned commercial arrangements and (b) the fair value allocated to the modification to the revenue arrangement) and (ii) the contractual amount owed to Shenghe (i.e., the Prepaid Balance, which included the Initial Prepayment Amount and the additional $30.0 million adjustment to the Prepaid Balance in connection with the Letter Agreement) at the time, the June 2017 Modification resulted in an implied discount of 36% on the Company’s sales
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prices to Shenghe under the Original Offtake Agreement, for accounting purposes (the “Shenghe Implied Discount”). The Shenghe Implied Discount applied only to sales made to Shenghe between July 2019 and early June 2020.
Beginning in July 2019 and through early June 2020, the Company periodically agreed on a cash sales price, which was intended to approximate the Company’s cash cost of production, with Shenghe for each metric ton (“MT”) of rare earth concentrate delivered by the Company. Such sales during this period were made under the Original Offtake Agreement and also reflected the Shenghe Sales Discount. The Company recognized the cash sales prices as revenue upon each sale. In addition, since the Shenghe Implied Discount applied to sales made to Shenghe during the period from July 2019 through early June 2020, we also recognized an amount of deferred revenue applicable to these sales equal to 64% of the gross profit realized by Shenghe of this product to its own customers.
For example, for a hypothetical shipment of REO to Shenghe on which it realized gross profit of $1.00 (the difference between the sales price to its customers and its cash cost paid to us), we would recognize $0.64 as non-cash revenue through a reduction in the deferred revenue balance, and the remaining $0.36 would not be recorded as revenue. The full gross profit amount realized by Shenghe on such sales reduced the Prepaid Balance (and consequently, our contractual obligations to Shenghe). Shenghe’s gross profit is influenced by market conditions as well as import duties, which were imposed on our products by the General Administration of Customs of the People’s Republic of China during this period. See also “Key Performance Indicators” section.
In addition, sales to Shenghe under the Original Offtake Agreement between July 2019 and early June 2020 typically provided Shenghe with a discount generally in the amount of between 3% and 6% of the initial cash price of our rare earth products sold in consideration of Shenghe’s sales efforts to resell our rare earth products (the “Shenghe Sales Discount”). The Shenghe Sales Discount was considered a reduction in the transaction price; thus, was not recognized as revenue. Additionally, the Shenghe Sales Discount was not applied to reduce the Prepaid Balance; however, it was considered as part of Shenghe’s cost of acquiring our product in the calculation of Shenghe’s gross profit.
Accounting Implications of the June 2020 Modification
As noted above, in May 2020, the Company renegotiated various aspects of its relationship with Shenghe and entered into the Framework Agreement to significantly restructure the aforementioned set of arrangements. Prior to the June 2020 Modification, for accounting purposes, the Original Offtake Agreement constituted a deferred revenue arrangement; however, as a result of the June 2020 Modification, the A&R Offtake Agreement constituted a debt obligation as well as provided for the issuance of the Shenghe Warrant. In addition, as a result of the renegotiations, the accounting treatment specific to the Shenghe Implied Discount was no longer required.
In accounting for the June 2020 Modification, on June 5, 2020, we:
Derecognized the existing deferred revenue balance of $37.5 million;
Recognized, at fair value, a non-interest-bearing debt instrument with a principal balance of $94.0 million and a debt discount of $8.3 million (implied debt discount of 4.4%), resulting in a carrying amount of $85.7 million;
Recorded the $35.5 million proceeds received from the Second Additional Advance;
Recognized the issuance of the Shenghe Warrant at its fair value of $53.8 million; and
Recorded a $66.6 million non-cash settlement charge (reflecting a deemed payment to terminate the DMA).
As noted above, the June 2020 Modification provided that the purchase price to be paid by Shenghe for our rare earth products will be based on market prices (net of taxes, tariffs and certain other agreed charges) less applicable discounts, instead of our cash cost of production, as was the case with sales made under the Original Offtake Agreement. A portion of the purchase price is in the form of debt repayment, with the remainder paid in cash. The elimination of the Shenghe Sales Discount and replacement with the aforementioned fixed monthly sales charge is not expected to have a material impact on our results of operations (both are treated as a reduction to the transaction price).
As a result of the June 2020 Modification, the amount of revenue we recorded for periods that included any portion of the period from July 1, 2019, until June 5, 2020, is not comparable, in the aggregate or on a per unit basis, to the amount of revenue recorded in other periods that commenced after June 5, 2020. Furthermore, assuming static market prices, we would expect to record more revenue per REO MT sold subsequent to June 5, 2020. See also “Key Performance Indicators” section.
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Tariff-Related Rebates
Starting in May 2020, the government of the People’s Republic of China granted retroactive tariff relief to certain importers of rare earth minerals including Shenghe and its affiliates and other consignees of our products, relating to periods prior to the formal lifting of the tariffs. As a result, Shenghe’s actual realized prices for the REO sold prior to May 2020 were higher than originally reported to us and resulted in tariff rebates to end customers, which contractually were due to Shenghe. On account of these rebates in the second and third quarters of 2020 and the first quarter of 2021, we received from Shenghe certain credits against our contractual commitments to them.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus (known as “COVID-19”) began to impact the population of China, where our principal customer is located. The outbreak of COVID-19 has grown both in the United States and globally, and related government and private sector responsive actions have adversely affected the global economy. In December 2019, a series of emergency quarantine measures taken by the Chinese government disrupted domestic business activities in China during the weeks after the initial outbreak of COVID-19. These disruptions have occurred periodically since the start of COVID-19 outbreak as measures intended to impede the spread of the virus have adapted. Since the initial COVID-19 outbreak, many countries, including the United States, have imposed restrictions on travel to and from China and elsewhere, as well as general movement restrictions, business closures and other measures imposed to slow the spread of COVID-19.
At the onset of the outbreak, we initially experienced shipping delays due to overseas port slowdowns and container shortages, but we did not experience a reduction in production or sales. However, beginning in the fourth quarter of 2020, and continuing through the second quarter of 2021, we again saw shipping delays and container shortages from congestion at port facilities, which has been exacerbated by COVID-19. Congestion at U.S. and international ports could affect the capacity at ports to receive deliveries of products or the loading of shipments onto vessels.
As the situation continues to develop, it is impossible to predict the effect and ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company’s business and results of operations. While the quarantine, social distancing and other regulatory measures instituted or recommended in response to COVID-19 are expected to be temporary, the duration of the business disruptions, and related financial impact, cannot be estimated at this time.
Key Performance Indicators
We use the following key performance indicators to evaluate the performance of our business. Our calculations of these performance indicators may differ from similarly-titled measures presented by other companies in our industry or in other industries. The following table presents our key performance indicators:
For the three months ended June 30, Change For the six months ended June 30, Change
(in whole units or dollars, except percentages) 2021 2020 $ % 2021 2020 $ %
REO production volume (MTs) 10,305  9,287  1,018  11  % 20,154  18,969  1,185  %
REO sales volume (MTs) 9,877  10,297  (420) (4) % 19,670  18,618  1,052  %
Realized price per REO MT $ 7,343  $ 3,093  $ 4,250  137  % $ 6,620  $ 2,848  $ 3,772  132  %
Production cost per REO MT $ 1,538  $ 1,412  $ 126  % $ 1,507  $ 1,362  $ 145  11  %
REO Production Volume
We measure our REO-equivalent production volume for a given period in metric tons, our principal unit of sale. This measure refers to the REO content contained in the rare earth concentrate we produce. Our REO production volume is a key indicator of our mining and processing capacity and efficiency.
The rare earth concentrate we currently produce is a processed, concentrated form of our mined rare earth-bearing ores. While our unit of production and sale is a MT of embedded REO, the actual weight of our rare earth concentrate is significantly greater, as the concentrate also contains non-REO minerals and water. We target REO content of greater than 60% per dry MT of concentrate (referred to as “REO grade”). The elemental distribution of REO in our concentrate is relatively consistent over time and production lot. We consider this the natural distribution, as it reflects the distribution of elements contained, on average, in our ore. Upon the completion of our Stage II optimization project, we expect to refine our rare earth concentrate to
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produce separated rare earths, including separated NdPr oxide. See also “Key Factors Affecting Our Performance” section below.
REO Sales Volume
Our REO sales volume for a given period is calculated in MTs. A unit, or MT, is considered sold once we recognize revenue on its sale. Our REO sales volume is a key measure of our ability to convert our production into revenue.
Realized Price per REO MT
We calculate the realized price per REO MT for a given period as the quotient of: (i) our Total Value Realized (see below) for a given period and (ii) our REO sales volume for the same period. We define Total Value Realized, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, as our product sales adjusted for (x) the revenue impact of tariff-related rebates from Shenghe on account of prior sales, (y) in connection with our sales of REO to Shenghe between July 1, 2019, and June 5, 2020, the Shenghe Implied Discount, and (z) sales of legacy stockpiles and other revenues. The Shenghe Implied Discount is equal to the difference between (i) Shenghe’s average realized price, net of taxes, tariffs and certain other agreed-upon charges (such as one-time demurrage charges) on our products once sold to their ultimate customers and (ii) the amount of revenue we recognized on the sales of those products to Shenghe for sales between July 1, 2019, and June 5, 2020, which includes the non-cash portion discussed above.
Under the terms of the Original Offtake Agreement, for the period between July 1, 2019, and June 5, 2020, Shenghe purchased our rare earth products at an agreed-upon price per MT, which was intended to approximate our cash cost of production, and in turn resold it at market prices to its customers. Our treatment of the non-cash consideration is the result of the June 2017 Modification, which impacted the relationship between the amount of prepayments we had received from Shenghe and the amount we owed contractually. The $30.0 million increase to the Prepaid Balance pursuant to the Letter Agreement (as discussed above), effectively provided Shenghe with an enhanced margin. Upon entrance into the A&R Offtake Agreement, we began to recognize revenue at the full value of our product. See also “Recent Developments and Comparability of Results” section above.
Realized price per REO MT is an important measure of the market price of our product. Accordingly, we calculate realized price per REO MT to reflect a consistent basis between periods by eliminating the impact of recognizing revenue at a discount during the period between July 1, 2019, and June 5, 2020, and the revenue impact of tariff-related rebates. See the “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” section below for a reconciliation of our Total Value Realized, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, to our product sales, which is determined in accordance with GAAP, as well as the calculation of realized price per REO MT.
Production Cost per REO MT
We calculate the production cost per REO MT for a given period as the quotient of: (i) our Production Costs (see below) for a given period and (ii) our REO sales volume for the same period. We define Production Costs, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, as our cost of sales (excluding depletion, depreciation and amortization) less costs attributable to sales of legacy stockpiles, stock-based compensation expense included in cost of sales (as opposed to general and administrative), and shipping and freight costs, for a given period.
Production cost per REO MT is a key indicator of our production efficiency. As a significant portion of our cash costs of Stage I production are fixed, our production cost per REO MT is influenced by mineral recovery, REO grade, plant feed rate and production uptime. See the “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” section below for a reconciliation of our Production Costs, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, to our cost of sales (excluding depletion, depreciation and amortization), which is determined in accordance with GAAP, as well as the calculation of production cost per REO MT.
Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
We believe we are uniquely positioned to capitalize on the key trends of electrification and supply chain security, particularly as domestic EV production grows. Our success depends to a significant extent on our ability to take advantage of the following opportunities and meet the challenges associated with them.
Demand for REE
The key demand driver for REE is their use in a diverse array of growing end markets, including: clean-energy and transportation technologies (e.g., traction motors in EVs and generators in wind power turbines); high-technology applications (e.g., miniaturization of smart phones and other mobile devices, fiber optics, lasers, robotics, medical devices, etc.); critical
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defense applications (e.g., guidance and control systems, global positioning systems, radar and sonar, drones, etc.); and essential industrial infrastructure (e.g., advanced catalyst applications in oil refining and pollution-control systems in traditional internal-combustion automobiles, etc.). We believe these drivers will fuel the continued growth of the rare earth market, particularly the market for NdPr.
We believe we benefit from several demand tailwinds for REE, and particularly for NdPr. These include the trend toward geographic supply chain diversification, particularly in relation to China, which accounted for approximately 79% of global REE production in 2020, the U.S. government strategy to restore domestic supply of key minerals, and increasing acceptance of environmental, social and governance mandates, which impact global capital allocation throughout production value chains to limit negative environmental and societal impacts. However, changes in technology may also drive down the use of REE, including NdPr, in the components in which they are now used, or lead to a decline in reliance on such components altogether. We also operate in a competitive industry, and many of our key competitors are based in China, where production costs are typically lower than in the United States.
Our Mineral Reserves
Our ore body has proven over more than 60 years of operations to be one of the world’s largest and highest-grade rare earth resources. As of July 1, 2020, SRK Consulting (U.S.), Inc., an independent consulting firm that we have retained to assess our reserves, estimates total proven and probable reserves of 1.5 million short tons of REO contained in 21.1 million short tons of ore at Mountain Pass, with an average ore grade of 7.06%. These estimates use an estimated economical cut-off of 3.83% total REO. Based on these estimated reserves and our expected annual production rate of REO upon completion of our Stage II optimization project, our expected mine life is approximately 24 years. We expect to be able to significantly grow our expected mine life through exploratory drilling programs and incorporation of the profitability uplift of our Stage II optimization project over time.
Mining activities in the United States are heavily regulated, particularly in California. Regulatory changes may make it more challenging for us to access our reserves. In addition, new mineral deposits may be discovered elsewhere, which could make our operations less competitive.
Maximizing Production Efficiency
In 2020, REO production was approximately 3.2x greater than the highest ever production in a twelve-month period by the former operator using the same capital equipment. We achieved these results through an optimized reagent scheme, lower process temperatures, better management of the tailings facility, and a commitment to operational excellence, driving approximately 95% uptime. We also believe that our Stage I optimization initiatives enabled us to achieve world-class production cost levels for rare earth concentrate. All of these achievements enabled us to become operating cash flow positive, despite significant Chinese trade tariffs on ore and concentrates in place over the optimization period. These trade tariffs were recently suspended, further enhancing the earnings power of our Stage I operations.
We believe that the success of our business will reflect our ability to manage our costs. Our Stage II optimization plan (discussed below) is designed to enable us to manage our cost structure for separating REE through a revised facility process flow. The reintroduction of the oxidizing roasting step will allow us to capitalize on the inherent advantages of the bastnaesite ore at Mountain Pass, which is uniquely suitable to low-cost refining by selectively eliminating the need to carry lower-value cerium through the separations process. The recommissioning of our natural gas-powered combined heat and power (“CHP”) facility will reduce energy, heating and steam costs as well as minimize or eliminate our reliance on the regional electric power grid. Further, our location offers significant transportation advantages that create meaningful cost efficiencies in securing incoming supplies and shipping of our final products.
We currently operate a single site in a single location, and any stoppage in activity, including for reasons outside of our control, could adversely impact our production, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, several of our current and potential competitors are government supported and may have access to substantially greater capital, which may allow them to make similar or greater efficiency improvements or undercut market prices for our product.
Development of Our REE Refining Capabilities and Other Opportunities
Our Stage II optimization process is focused on advancing from concentrate production to the separation of individual REE. Engineering, procurement, construction and other recommissioning activities are underway and involve upgrades and enhancements to the existing facility process flow to reliably produce separated REE at a lower cost and with an expected smaller environmental footprint per volume of REO produced than the prior operator of the Mountain Pass facility. As part of our Stage II optimization project, we plan to reintroduce a roasting circuit, reorient the plant process flow, increase product
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finishing capacity, improve wastewater management and make other improvements to materials handling and storage, in addition to recommissioning our currently-idled CHP plant to produce electricity. Our process redesign for the Stage II optimization project is complete and we believe that our Stage II optimization project investments will enable us to increase the recovery of NdPr from our concentrate, increase NdPr production, and lower the cost of production, in each case, as compared to the prior owner’s operations. Upon the completion of Stage II, we expect to be a low-cost producer of separated NdPr oxide, which represents a majority of the value contained in our ore.
Following the completion of our Stage II optimization project, we believe we will then be in a position to consider opportunities to integrate further downstream into the business of upgrading NdPr into metal alloys and magnets, ultimately expanding our presence as a global source for rare earth magnetics. We also believe integration into magnet production would provide some protection from commodity pricing volatility, while enhancing our business profile and profitability as the producer of a critical industrial output in addition to a producer of resources. Geopolitical developments are creating an increased urgency to bring critical rare earth mining and refining production capability to the United States and to restore the full U.S. magnetics supply chain.
The completion of our Stage II optimization project and any development of Stage III is expected to be capital intensive. During the first quarter of 2021, we revised the scope of our Stage II optimization project to include process design innovations that reduce reagent consumption by greater than 10% while increasing the planned recovery of separated REO and improving potential product mix. We continue to expect to be able to reach targeted production rates and profitability in 2023 without the need to recommission our chlor-alkali facility, which we previously estimated would cost approximately $30 million. We believe this significantly reduces the operational risks in achieving our targeted profitability. We continue to expect to invest a total of approximately $220 million on our Stage II optimization project, principally in 2021 and 2022. Our estimated costs or estimated time to completion may increase, potentially significantly, due to factors outside of our control. While we believe we have sufficient cash resources to fund our Stage II optimization and operating working capital in the near term, we cannot assure this. Any delays in our ongoing optimization plans or substantial cost increases related to their execution could significantly impact our ability to maximize our revenue opportunities and adversely impact our business and cash flows.
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Results of Operations
Comparison of the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 and 2020
The following table summarizes our results of operations:
For the three months ended June 30, Change For the six months ended June 30, Change
(in thousands, except percentages) 2021 2020 $ % 2021 2020 $ %
Product sales:
Product sales—Shenghe
$ 72,136  $ 30,273  $ 41,863  138  % $ 131,875  $ 50,834  $ 81,041  159  %
Product sales—third parties
982  118  864  732  % 1,214  276  938  340  %
Total product sales 73,118  30,391  42,727  141  % 133,089  51,110  81,979  160  %
Operating costs and expenses:
Cost of sales(1)
17,955  16,865  1,090  % 35,891  29,532  6,359  22  %
Write-down of inventories 1,809  —  1,809  n.m. 1,809  —  1,809  n.m.
Royalty expense to SNR —  366  (366) (100) % —  853  (853) (100) %
General and administrative 13,631  5,843  7,788  133  % 27,214  8,927  18,287  205  %
Depreciation, depletion and amortization 6,666  1,382  5,284  382  % 12,816  2,653  10,163  383  %
Accretion of asset retirement and environmental obligations 592  564  28  % 1,185  1,128  57  %
Settlement charge —  66,615  (66,615) (100) % —  66,615  (66,615) (100) %
Total operating costs and expenses 40,653  91,635  (50,982) (56) % 78,915  109,708  (30,793) (28) %
Operating income (loss) 32,465  (61,244) 93,709  n.m. 54,174  (58,598) 112,772  n.m.
Other income, net 3,504  155  3,349  2161  % 3,559  237  3,322  1402  %
Interest expense, net (2,639) (1,066) (1,573) 148  % (3,793) (1,869) (1,924) 103  %
Income (loss) before income taxes 33,330  (62,155) 95,485  n.m. 53,940  (60,230) 114,170  n.m.
Income tax expense (6,164) (336) (5,828) 1735  % (10,655) (336) (10,319) 3071  %
Net income (loss) $ 27,166  $ (62,491) $ 89,657  n.m. $ 43,285  $ (60,566) $ 103,851  n.m.
Adjusted Net Income $ 33,440  $ 4,898  $ 28,542  583  % $ 56,646  $ 7,485  $ 49,161  657  %
Adjusted EBITDA $ 46,447  $ 7,856  $ 38,591  491  % $ 79,447  $ 13,036  $ 66,411  509  %
n.m. - Not meaningful.
(1)Excludes depreciation, depletion and amortization.
Product sales, which consists primarily of our sales of REO concentrate to Shenghe, increased year over year by $42.7 million, or 141%, to $73.1 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021. The increase was driven primarily by higher realized price per REO MT, which increased by 137% year over year for the three months ended June 30, 2021, reflecting higher demand for rare earth products. REO sales volume decreased by 420 MTs, or 4%, to 9,877 MTs for the three months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to the prior year period. REO sales volume varies period-to-period based on the timing of shipments, but sales volumes generally track our production volumes over time given our take-or-pay arrangement with Shenghe. The increase in REO production volume for the three months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to the prior year period, reflects continued improvement in the efficiency of our processing operations despite slightly fewer production days. Product sales for the three months ended June 30, 2020, were negatively impacted by the Shenghe Implied Discount, in which $3.0 million of the value of products sold to Shenghe during the three months ended June 30, 2020, was not recognized as product sales. As mentioned above, starting June 5, 2020, the accounting treatment specific to the Shenghe Implied Discount was no longer required. See the “Quarterly Performance Trend” section below for further discussion on realized price per REO MT.
Product sales increased year over year by $82.0 million, or 160%, to $133.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021. The increase was driven by higher REO sales volume, which increased by 1,052 MTs, or 6%, to 19,670 MTs for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to the prior year period, and a higher realized price per REO MT, which increased by 132% year over year for the six months ended June 30, 2021, reflecting higher demand for rare earth products. The increase in REO production volume for the six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to the prior year period, reflects an improvement
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in the efficiency of our processing operations despite slightly fewer production days. Product sales for the six months ended June 30, 2020, were negatively impacted by the Shenghe Implied Discount, in which $3.6 million of the value of products sold to Shenghe during the six months ended June 30, 2020, was not recognized as product sales.

Cost of sales (excluding depreciation, depletion and amortization) consists of production- and processing-related labor costs (including wages and salaries, benefits, and bonuses), mining and processing supplies (such as reagents), parts and labor for the maintenance of our mining fleet and processing facilities, other facilities-related costs (such as property taxes and utilities), packaging materials, and shipping and freight costs.
Cost of sales increased year over year by $1.1 million, or 6%, to $18.0 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021, due to an increase in production cost per REO MT, offset slightly by a decrease in REO sales volume. The increase in production cost per REO MT from $1,412 for the three months ended June 30, 2020, to $1,538 for the three months ended June 30, 2021, reflects higher payroll costs primarily due to an increase in our employee headcount as we further invest in our Stage II optimization project. In addition, production efficiencies achieved during the three months ended June 30, 2021, were largely offset by higher material and supplies costs as well as COVID-19-impacted freight-in costs.
Cost of sales increased year over year by $6.4 million, or 22%, to $35.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021. The increase was driven by higher sales volume. The increase in production cost per REO MT from $1,362 for the six months ended June 30, 2020, to $1,507 for the six months ended June 30, 2021, reflects higher material and supplies costs, partially driven by a temporary reagent trial and COVID-19-impacted freight-in costs, as well as higher payroll costs primarily due to an increase in our employee headcount as we further invest in our Stage II optimization project. These cost increases offset production efficiencies.
Notwithstanding an increase in employee headcount as we progress toward completion of our Stage II optimization project, we believe our production cost per REO MT has stabilized in the short-term, with operating efficiencies largely offsetting raw material and logistics pressures. We anticipate additional efficiency opportunities as we increase REO production volumes in our milling and flotation circuit over time.
Write-down of inventories for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, includes a non-cash write-down of a portion of our legacy low-grade stockpile inventory during the second quarter of 2021 after determining that the inventory contained a significant amount of alluvial material that did not meet the Company’s requirement for mill feed and, as a result, was deemed unusable.
Royalty expense to SNR for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, related to our prior obligation to pay SNR for the right to extract rare earth ores contained in our mine and was based on 2.5% of product sales, subject to certain minimums. Following the Business Combination, we do not incur royalty expenses on a consolidated basis. See Note 17, “Related-Party Transactions,” to our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of accounting, finance, executive, and administrative personnel costs, including stock-based compensation expense related to these personnel; professional services (including legal, regulatory, audit and others); certain engineering expenses; insurance, license and permit costs; facilities rent and other costs; office supplies; general facilities expenses; certain environmental, health, and safety expenses; gain or loss on sale or disposal of long-lived assets; and growth and development costs.
General and administrative expenses increased year over year by $7.8 million, or 133%, to $13.6 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021, reflecting $3.9 million in stock-based compensation expense primarily from grants of restricted stock and restricted stock units (“Stock Awards”) made during the fourth quarter of 2020 related to the Business Combination. Prior to the fourth quarter of 2020, we had not granted any Stock Awards nor recorded any stock-based compensation expense. Excluding this item, the increase was $3.9 million, or 67%, mainly due to increases in personnel costs, insurance costs, and legal fees, which were incurred to support our operations as a public company as well as our growth and development initiatives.
General and administrative expenses increased year over year by $18.3 million, or 205%, to $27.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, reflecting $8.3 million in stock-based compensation expense primarily from grants of Stock Awards made during the fourth quarter of 2020 related to the Business Combination. Excluding this item, the increase was $10.0 million, or 112%, mainly due to increases in personnel, professional service, and insurance costs as well as legal fees, which were incurred to support our operations as a public company as well as our growth and development initiatives.
Depreciation, depletion and amortization consist of depreciation of property, plant and equipment related to our mining equipment and processing facilities, depletion of our mineral resources, and amortization of capitalized computer software
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(prior to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update No. 2018-15). Depreciation, depletion and amortization increased year over year by $5.3 million, or 382%, to $6.7 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021, and by $10.2 million, or 383%, to $12.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, reflecting the impact of additional equipment purchases, assets placed into service, and depletion of the mineral rights resulting from the SNR Mineral Rights Acquisition in November 2020.
Accretion of asset retirement and environmental obligations is based on the requirement to reclaim and remediate the land surrounding our mine and processing facilities upon the expiration of the mineral lease and on the estimated future cash flow requirement to monitor groundwater contamination, respectively. Accretion of asset retirement and environmental obligation remained relatively flat year over year.
Settlement charge of $66.6 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, which was non-cash, was recorded in connection with the termination of the DMA. See also “Recent Developments and Comparability of Results” section above.
Other income, net, consists primarily of gains or losses on extinguishment of debt and interest income. Other income, net, increased year over year for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, as a result of a non-cash gain recognized during the second quarter of 2021 as a result of the Small Business Administration’s approval to forgive the Paycheck Protection Loan, which had a principal amount of $3.4 million. For more information, see the “Liquidity and Capital Resources” section below.
Interest expense, net consists of the amortization of the debt issuance costs on our Convertible Notes (as defined in the “Liquidity and Capital Resources” section below); the amortization of the discount on our debt obligation to Shenghe; interest expense associated with promissory notes with certain investment funds managed by and/or affiliated with JHL Capital Group and QVT Financial, which were repaid in full upon the consummation of the Business Combination; and the expense associated with the 0.25% per annum interest rate on our Convertible Notes, offset by interest capitalized.
Interest expense, net increased year over year by $1.6 million, or 148%, to $2.6 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021, reflecting interest expense from our Convertible Notes and the amortization of the discount on our debt obligations to Shenghe, which was higher than the interest expense incurred on the promissory notes in the prior year. During the three months ended June 30, 2021, we capitalized interest of $0.2 million. No interest was capitalized for the three months ended June 30, 2020.
Interest expense, net increased year over year by $1.9 million, or 103%, to $3.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, reflecting interest expense from our Convertible Notes and the amortization of the discount on our debt obligations to Shenghe, which was higher than the interest expense incurred on the promissory notes in the prior year. During the six months ended June 30, 2021, we capitalized interest of $0.2 million. No interest was capitalized for the six months ended June 30, 2020.
Income tax expense consists of an estimate of U.S. federal and state income taxes and income taxes in the jurisdictions in which we conduct business, adjusted for federal, state and local allowable income tax benefits, the effect of permanent differences and any valuation allowance against deferred tax assets. The effective tax rate (income taxes as a percentage of income or loss before income taxes) including discrete items was 18.5% and 19.8% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, as compared to (0.5)% and (0.6)% for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, principally due to a full valuation allowance as of June 30, 2020.
Quarterly Performance Trend
While our business is not seasonal in nature, we sometimes experience a timing lag between production and sales, which may result in volatility in our results of operations between periods. In addition, the efficiency improvements we made in the processing of our rare earth materials resulted in significantly higher production of REO starting in the third quarter of 2019.
The following table presents our REO production and sales volumes, as well as our realized price per REO MT, for the quarterly periods indicated:
FY2021 FY2020 FY2019
(in whole units or dollars) Q2 Q1 Q4 Q3 Q2 Q1 Q4 Q3 Q2
REO production volume (MTs) 10,305  9,849  9,337  10,197  9,287  9,682  8,673  9,417  5,490 
REO sales volume (MTs) 9,877  9,793  10,320  9,429  10,297  8,321  8,561  9,852  4,533 
Realized price per REO MT(1)
$ 7,343  $ 5,891  $ 4,070  $ 3,393  $ 3,093  $ 2,544  $ 2,389  $ 2,967  $ 3,081 
(1)Our realized price per REO MT for the quarterly periods prior to the second quarter of 2020 were adversely impacted by the imposition of Chinese import duties in 2018 (and subsequent increase in May 2019). The import duties were lifted in May 2020.
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Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We present Total Value Realized, Production Costs, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income and Free Cash Flow, which are non-GAAP financial measures that we use to supplement our results presented in accordance with GAAP. These measures are similar to measures reported by other companies in our industry and are regularly used by securities analysts and investors to measure companies’ financial performance. Total Value Realized, Production Costs, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted Net Income and Free Cash Flow are not intended to be a substitute for any GAAP financial measure and, as calculated, may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of performance or liquidity of other companies within our industry or in other industries.
Total Value Realized
Total Value Realized, which we use to calculate our key performance indicator, realized price per REO MT, is a non-GAAP financial measure. As mentioned above, realized price per REO MT is an important measure of the market price of our product. The following table presents a reconciliation of our Total Value Realized, to our product sales, which is determined in accordance with GAAP, as well as the calculation of realized price per REO MT:
For the three months ended June 30, For the six months ended June 30,
(in thousands, unless otherwise stated) 2021 2020 2021 2020
Product sales $ 73,118  $ 30,391  $ 133,089  $ 51,110 
Adjusted for:
Shenghe Implied Discount(1)
—  3,023  —  3,630 
Other(2)
(596) (1,563) (2,878) (1,721)
Total Value Realized $ 72,522  $ 31,851  $ 130,211  $ 53,019 
Total Value Realized $ 72,522  $ 31,851  $ 130,211  $ 53,019 
Divided by:
REO sales volume (in MTs) 9,877  10,297  19,670  18,618 
Realized price per REO MT (in dollars)(3)
$ 7,343  $ 3,093  $ 6,620  $ 2,848 
(1)Represents the difference between the contractual amount realized by Shenghe and the amount of deferred revenue we recognized.
(2)The amounts for the six months ended June 30, 2021, and the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, pertain primarily to tariff rebates due to the retroactive effect of lifting the Chinese tariffs in May 2020. The amount for the three months ended June 30, 2021, pertains to revenue recognized under our government contracts.
(3)May not recompute as presented due to rounding.
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Production Costs
Production Costs, which we use to calculate our key performance indicator, production cost per REO MT, is a non-GAAP financial measure. As mentioned above, production cost per REO MT is a key indicator of our production efficiency. The following table presents a reconciliation of our Production Costs to our cost of sales (excluding depreciation, depletion and amortization), which is determined in accordance with GAAP, as well as the calculation of production cost per REO MT:
For the three months ended June 30, For the six months ended June 30,
(in thousands, unless otherwise stated) 2021 2020 2021 2020
Cost of sales (excluding depreciation, depletion and amortization)
$ 17,955  $ 16,865  $ 35,891  $ 29,532 
Adjusted for:
Costs attributable to sales of stockpiles (6) (112) (79) (262)
Stock-based compensation expense(1)
(578) —  (1,896) — 
Shipping and freight (2,183) (2,210) (4,281) (3,912)
Production Costs $ 15,188  $ 14,543  $ 29,635  $ 25,358 
Production Costs $ 15,188  $ 14,543  $ 29,635  $ 25,358 
Divided by:
REO sales volume (in MTs) 9,877  10,297  19,670  18,618 
Production cost per REO MT (in dollars)(2)
$ 1,538  $ 1,412  $ 1,507  $ 1,362 
(1)Pertains only to the amount of stock-based compensation expense included in cost of sales (as opposed to general and administrative).
(2)May not recompute as presented due to rounding.
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Adjusted EBITDA
We calculate Adjusted EBITDA as our GAAP net income or loss before interest expense, net; income tax expense or benefit; and depreciation, depletion and amortization; further adjusted to eliminate the impact of stock-based compensation expense; transaction-related and other non-recurring costs; non-cash accretion of asset retirement and environmental obligations; gain or loss on sale or disposal of long-lived assets; write-downs of inventories; royalty expense to SNR; tariff rebates; and other income, net. We present Adjusted EBITDA because it is used by management to evaluate our underlying operating and financial performance and trends.
Adjusted EBITDA excludes certain expenses that are required in accordance with GAAP because they are non-recurring, non-cash or are not related to our underlying business performance. This non-GAAP financial measure is intended to supplement our GAAP results and should not be used as a substitute for financial measures presented in accordance with GAAP.
Our Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect our results of operations on a comparable basis between periods due to the accounting treatment of the modifications of our agreements with Shenghe (see the “Recent Developments and Comparability of Results” section above). Accordingly, our Adjusted EBITDA trend for the periods presented may not be indicative of future trends. If the Shenghe Implied Discount applicable to sales made under the Original Offtake Agreement had been included in our deferred revenue, our Adjusted EBITDA for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, would have been higher by $3.0 million and $3.6 million, respectively.
The following table presents a reconciliation of our Adjusted EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, to our net income (loss), which is determined in accordance with GAAP:
For the three months ended June 30, For the six months ended June 30,
(in thousands) 2021 2020 2021 2020
Net income (loss) $ 27,166  $ (62,491) $ 43,285  $ (60,566)
Adjusted for:
Depreciation, depletion and amortization 6,666  1,382  12,816  2,653 
Interest expense, net 2,639  1,066  3,793  1,869 
Income tax expense 6,164  336  10,655  336 
Stock-based compensation expense(1)
4,498  —  10,171  — 
Transaction-related and other non-recurring costs(2)
247  1,619  1,305  1,831 
Accretion of asset retirement and environmental obligations 592  564  1,185  1,128 
Loss on sale or disposal of long-lived assets, net(3)
170  —  37  — 
Write-down of inventories(4)
1,809  —  1,809  — 
Royalty expense to SNR
—  366  —  853 
Settlement charge(5)
—  66,615  —  66,615 
Tariff rebate(6)
—  (1,446) (2,050) (1,446)
Other income, net(7)
(3,504) (155) (3,559) (237)
Adjusted EBITDA $ 46,447  $ 7,856  $ 79,447  $ 13,036 
(1)Principally included in “General and administrative” within our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. Approximately $3.7 million and $7.8 million of the amounts for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, pertained to a one-time grant of stock awards to employees and executives upon the consummation of the Business Combination.
(2)Amounts for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, relate to advisory, consulting, accounting and legal expenses principally in connection with the secondary equity offering, which was completed contemporaneously with the Convertible Notes offering in March 2021, and the redemption of the Company’s Public Warrants in May and June 2021. The Company did not receive any proceeds from the secondary equity offering. Amounts for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, include mainly advisory, consulting, accounting and legal expenses in connection with the Business Combination.
(3)Included in “General and administrative” within our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
(4)Represents a non-cash write-down of a portion of our legacy low-grade stockpile inventory during the second quarter of 2021 after determining that the inventory contained a significant amount of alluvial material that did not meet the Company’s requirement for mill feed.
(5)As discussed in the “Recent Developments and Comparability of Results” section above, in connection with terminating the DMA, we recognized a one-time, non-cash settlement charge.
(6)Represents non-cash revenue recognized in connection with tariff rebates received relating to product sales from prior periods.
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(7)Principally represents a non-cash gain recognized as a result of the Small Business Administration’s approval to forgive the Paycheck Protection Loan.
Adjusted Net Income
We calculate Adjusted Net Income as our GAAP net income or loss excluding the impact of depletion; stock-based compensation expense; transaction-related and other non-recurring costs; gain or loss on sale or disposal of long-lived assets; write-downs of inventories; royalty expense to SNR; tariff rebates; and other income or loss, net; adjusted to give effect to the income tax impact of such adjustments. To calculate the income tax impact of such adjustments on a year-to-date basis, we utilize an effective tax rate equal to our income tax expense excluding material discrete costs and benefits, with any impacts of changes in effective tax rate being recognized in the current period. We present Adjusted Net Income because it is used by management to evaluate our underlying operating and financial performance and trends.
Adjusted Net Income excludes certain expenses that are required in accordance with GAAP because they are non-recurring, non-cash, or not related to our underlying business performance. As a result of the SNR Mineral Rights Acquisition, the mineral rights for the rare earth ores contained in our mine were recorded at fair value as of the date of the Business Combination, resulting in a significant step-up of the carrying amount of the asset which will cause depletion to be meaningfully higher in future periods. This non-GAAP financial measure is intended to supplement our GAAP results and should not be used as a substitute for financial measures presented in accordance with GAAP.
Our Adjusted Net Income does not reflect our results of operations on a comparable basis between periods primarily due to the accounting treatment of the modifications of our agreements with Shenghe (see the “Recent Developments and Comparability of Results” section above). Accordingly, our Adjusted Net Income trend for the periods presented may not be indicative of future trends.
The following table presents a reconciliation of our Adjusted Net Income, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, to our net income (loss), which is determined in accordance with GAAP:
For the three months ended June 30, For the six months ended June 30,
(in thousands) 2021 2020 2021 2020
Net income (loss) $ 27,166  $ (62,491) $ 43,285  $ (60,566)
Adjusted for:
Depletion(1)
4,686  28  9,217  57 
Stock-based compensation expense