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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
þ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______________ to _______________
Commission File Number 001-38823
HYLIION.jpg
HYLIION HOLDINGS CORP.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware83-2538002
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1202 BMC Drive, Suite 100
Cedar Park, Texas
78613
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (833) 495-4466
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common StockHYLNThe New York Stock Exchange
$0.0001 per share
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes ¨    No þ 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.  Yes ¨    No þ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes þ    No ¨ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes þ    No ¨ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ¨
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements
of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant
to §240.10D-1(b).  ¨ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes ¨    No þ 
The aggregate market value of the registrant's voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023, based upon the closing price of such stock on The New York Stock Exchange on such date of $1.67, was $245 million. This calculation excludes shares held by the registrant’s current directors and executive officers and stockholders that the registrant has concluded are affiliates of the registrant. 
As of February 6, 2024, 183,208,375 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, were outstanding.
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed no later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this Annual Report on Form 10-K relates, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
F-1

i

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements, other than statements of historical fact, contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, statements regarding our strategy, prospects, plans, objectives, future operations, future revenue and earnings, projected margins and expenses, markets for our services, potential acquisitions or strategic alliances, financial position, and liquidity and anticipated cash needs and availability. The words “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “projects,” “will,” “would,” variations of such words and similar expressions or the negatives thereof are intended to identify forward-looking statements. However, not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These forward-looking statements represent our management’s expectations as of the date of this filing and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance and achievements, or industry results, to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. We cannot guarantee the accuracy of the forward-looking statements, and you should be aware that results and events could differ materially and adversely from those contained in the forward-looking statements due to a number of risks and uncertainties including, but not limited to, those described in the section entitled “Risk Factors” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in other documents we file from time to time with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission” or the “SEC”) that disclose risks and uncertainties that may affect our business. Readers are urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in other documents we file from time to time with the Commission. Furthermore, such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except as required by law, we do not undertake, and expressly disclaim any duty, to publicly update or revise these statements, whether as a result of new information, new developments, or otherwise and even if experience or future changes make it clear that any projected results expressed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or future quarterly reports, press releases or company statements will not be realized. Unless specifically indicated otherwise, the forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K do not reflect the potential impact of any divestitures, mergers, acquisitions or other business combinations that have not been completed as of the date of this filing. In addition, the inclusion of any statement in this Annual Report on Form 10-K does not constitute an admission by us that the events or circumstances described in such statement are material. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. In addition, the industry in which we operate is subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors including those described in the section entitled “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Note Regarding Third-Party Information
Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market size, is based on information from various sources, on assumptions that we have made that are based on those data and other similar sources, and on our knowledge of the markets for our services. This information includes a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such information. In addition, projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we operate are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in the section entitled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in other documents we file from time to time with the Commission that disclose risks and uncertainties that may affect our business. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially and adversely from those expressed in the estimates made by third parties and by us.
Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this document to “Hyliion,” “our company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and similar names refer to Hyliion Holdings Corp. and, where appropriate, its subsidiary.
ii

Part I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Overview
Hyliion Holdings Corp. is a Delaware corporation headquartered in Cedar Park, Texas, with research and development facilities in Cincinnati, Ohio, and listed on the NYSE, that designs and develops power generators for stationary and mobile applications. References to the “Company,” “Hyliion,” “we,” or “us” in this report refer to Hyliion Holdings Corp. and its wholly owned subsidiary, unless expressly indicated or the context otherwise requires. The Company was incorporated on November 7, 2018.
Hyliion is committed to creating innovative solutions that enable clean, flexible and modular electricity production while contributing positively to the environment in the energy economy. In September 2022, we acquired assets including new hydrogen and fuel-agnostic-capable generator technology from General Electric Company’s GE Additive business (“KARNO generator”). The KARNO generator is a fuel-agnostic power generation solution, enabled by additive manufacturing, that leverages a linear heat engine to generate electricity with significant improvements in efficiency, emissions and cost compared to conventional generators. The Company’s primary focus is to provide distributed power generators that operate on various fuel sources to future-proof for an ever-changing energy economy. Hyliion is addressing the commercial space first with a locally deployable generator that can offer prime power, backup power, peak demand reduction, renewables matching and power generation from waste fuels such as landfill and flare gas. In the future, the Company plans to scale up its generator solution to address larger utility-scale power needs and to develop variants for household use and mobile applications such as vehicles and marine. Additionally, the generator technology is well-suited to provide combined heat and power (“CHP”) in various stationary applications.
Strategic Business Developments
During the third quarter of fiscal year 2023 and prior, Hyliion offered the Hyliion Hybrid system (“Hybrid”), an electrified powertrain system that augments existing Class 8 semi-trucks to improve vehicle performance or reduce fuel usage, depending on application. The Hybrid system could be installed on new vehicles prior to entering service, or retrofit onto existing in-service vehicles, allowing customers to use their preferred vehicle brands and maintain their existing fleet maintenance and operations strategies. The Company began selling the Hybrid system in late 2021, with deployments to fleets in the transportation and logistics sector in a variety of duty cycles, use cases, and geographical regions. The Company also continued development of its Hypertruck ERX powertrain platform (“Hypertruck ERX”), a complete electrified powertrain system leveraging an onboard compact natural-gas-fueled generator to supplement battery range to transform an OEM platform into a range extended electric vehicle.
Companies in the truck electrification space (including Hyliion) continue to face a number of challenges and headwinds as they develop and scale the production of new clean vehicles, and as customers deploy these vehicles in their fleets. For Hyliion, these challenges have included, a slower-than-anticipated market transition to electric truck fleets, escalating component and production costs, new and evolving California Air Resources Board (“CARB”) mandates for fleet adoption of electric trucks, the need to reduce the cost and weight of the Hypertruck ERX platform, continued work by OEMs to de-content components that Tier 1 suppliers are providing, and the expectation that the Company will need to raise additional capital to address and overcome these challenges.
In light of these challenges to the business and other considerations, the Company’s board of directors (the “Board”), with the support of its expert advisors, explored a range of strategic alternatives for its electrified powertrain systems business. At the conclusion of that strategic review in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2023, the Board determined that discontinuing operating the electrified powertrain systems business and focusing on the development and commercialization of the Company’s fuel-agnostic KARNO generator technology would be the most effective use of the Company’s capital and in the best interests of the Company’s shareholders.
Hyliion intends to retain the powertrain technology, enabling the Company to explore a future use or sale of the technology. Tangible assets include the first 30 Hypertruck ERX production trucks which Hyliion no longer plans to recognize revenue on, the Hypertruck Fuel Cell prototype truck that Hyliion successfully completed in the third quarter of fiscal 2023 in collaboration with Hyzon Motors, and other development trucks and equipment. We expect to sell certain of these tangible assets.
Market Opportunity
The U.S. electrical grid is facing a multitude of challenges as it strives to manage the escalating demand for electricity while adapting to evolving generating resources. The electrification of transportation, particularly the growing adoption of electric vehicles, is adding substantial load to the grid. Additionally, the integration of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind
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power introduces variability and necessitates grid modernization and storage solutions for stability. Hyliion believes that localized grid generation will become an increasing part of the solution to these challenges.
Hyliion also believes that the KARNO generator is suitable for a wide range of electrical power generating applications and can address many concerns with conventional generators that inhibit consumers from adopting onsite generating systems today, including cost versus grid power, reliability, maintenance needs, noise, inflexibility and emissions. Additionally, the KARNO generator is expected to be able to operate using a wide range of fuel sources including carbon-free fuels such as hydrogen and ammonia.
The planned initial KARNO generator variant is both power dense and easy to deploy. It is expected to consist of a single four-shaft 200kW generating unit along with essential balance-of-plant components, all arranged within a space-efficient, rectangular configuration occupying approximately three cubic meters. Later planned developments are expected to include a greater-than 2MW system with multiple KARNO generators inside the footprint of a 20 foot shipping container. Over time, we expect larger and smaller capacity versions of the KARNO generator will be offered with power levels varying based on the number of generator shafts included or the size of component parts. We expect the KARNO generator to initially compete effectively in the market for power applications between 200kW to 5MW and later extending to larger and smaller power configurations.
We are currently working with potential customers for initial generator deployments. The primary purpose of these deployments is to further test and validate KARNO generator product attributes including efficiency, emissions, maintenance requirements, durability, control systems and other parameters. We expect to receive compensation for these initial deployments as we believe the generator will provide tangible benefits to customers. We also expect that early deployments will demonstrate the effectiveness of the KARNO generator in a wide range of electrical generating applications. Target markets include:
Prime Power: Most consumers prefer the grid versus generating power locally due to the grid’s inherent advantages of simplicity, convenience, scalability and cost effectiveness. For critical applications such as hospitals, data centers and refrigerated warehouses, local generators are indispensable in case of a grid power failure. The KARNO generator introduces the opportunity for certain power consumers to rethink their primary and secondary power sources. Due to its unique attributes in comparison to conventional generators, including consistently high efficiency across power levels, minimal maintenance requirements, and reduced level of noise and emissions, the KARNO generator stands as a potentially more cost-effective base load power source for consumers, who could then utilize the electric grid as a backup source of power. This arrangement holds particular appeal for consumers facing high grid electrical costs and low fuel costs, such as for natural gas.
Vehicle Charging: The rapid growth of consumer electric vehicles is increasingly straining grid capacity and reliability, both domestically and internationally. The introduction of commercial EVs, such as buses, delivery vans and large trucks is expected to intensify this challenge in the future given their substantial power requirements during charging. Many commercial operators cite the lack of electrical capacity access as the primary obstacle to expanding their electric vehicle fleets. Here, we believe the KARNO generator offers a unique solution for vehicle charging. Its flexibility in fuel sources, including the ability to use hydrogen, along with its superior environmental performance and low emissions and noise levels offer advantages over internal combustion generators. A KARNO generator can also modulate power without efficiency loss by activating or deactivating individual generators and by regulating the heat input to each generator. Finally, KARNO’s high power density allows it to be deployed as a localized power source for vehicle charging without consuming parking space.
Waste Gas Power Generation: Natural gas sourced from waste sites like landfills, water treatment plants and dairy farms is a growing market as producers seek to capture sources of methane emissions that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere or flared. Also known as renewable natural gas (“RNG”), most sources are typically treated to remove impurities such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and moisture before the gas can be utilized or injected into natural gas pipelines. We believe the KARNO generator will compete effectively as a power generator using waste gas sources. Its modularity, coupled with its capability to oxidize a variety of fuel sources and mixtures with no or limited prior gas processing, positions it as an efficient and adaptable power generator for waste gas sources.
Flare Gas: Similarly, natural gas extracted from gas or oil wells frequently requires processing to remove natural gas liquids and impurities. At remote well sites, gas may be flared, or burned, due to insufficient pipeline capacity for transmission to consuming markets. The KARNO generator creates a new opportunity – to transform flare gas into valuable electricity, destined either for integration into the electric grid or for localized consumption. As with RNG, the KARNO generator is anticipated to use flare gas with limited need for pre-treatment at a gas processing facility.
Peak Shaving: “Peaking charges” also referred to as “demand charges” are fees imposed by utilities on customers based on their highest recorded electricity usage during a billing cycle, often measured over a short interval, such as 15 minutes. These charges serve to recuperate the expenses associated with maintaining grid capacity during periods of
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peak demand. For customers with substantial peak demand, such as large industrial facilities and data centers, peaking charges can significantly inflate their electric bills. Additionally, time-based electricity rates are now common to reduce demand on the grid during peak times. Peak rates can be two to three times higher than base rates, increasing electricity charges even further for consumers. In this context, distributed generation sources like the KARNO generator can play a pivotal role in mitigating the financial impact of peaking charges and rates by supplementing grid power during peak consumption periods.
Backup Power: The market for local backup power generators is well established but also poised for growth due to reduced reliability of the power grid, a greater share of intermittent renewable sources of electricity, the frequency and severity of extreme weather events and the need for continuous power supply in critical applications. Generator emissions are a growing concern in the backup power market due to increased focus on the health impacts of harmful compounds such as nitrogen oxides (“NOx”), carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (“VOCs”). To address these concerns, emissions control technologies are often incorporated for conventional generators and alternative sources of fuel like natural gas are replacing diesel, which is also a source of particulate matter (“PM”) emissions if exhaust gases are untreated. The backup power market is another opportunity for the KARNO generator which is particularly attractive for its low level of emissions and low noise level while in operation. The KARNO generator is expected to reduce CO and NOx emissions by over 95% compared to diesel generators, and potentially without the need for exhaust aftertreatment. We therefore believe that KARNO presents an opportunity to provide solutions for end users that desire a lower emissions profile and in the event emissions regulations are further tightened.
Following initial deployments, we expect to ramp up commercialization of the KARNO generator including expansion of production capacity and establishment of sales and distribution channels, potentially including market collaborations and extending our reach outside of the U.S. In the future we intend to develop KARNO generators of different sizes and configurations to capitalize on KARNO’s unique advantages and extend these advantages across a broader range of market opportunities.
Products and Services
KARNO Generator System
The KARNO generator emerged out of GE’s long-running research and development investments in aerospace engines and metal additive manufacturing across multiple industries and in areas such as generator thermal and performance design. We initially envisioned utilizing the KARNO generator as new range-extending power source for the Hypertruck powertrain system, given its ability to operate on a wide range of fuel sources, including natural gas and hydrogen. We believe that the unique capabilities of the KARNO generator will also make it competitive in the stationary power market, competing favorably against conventional electrical generating systems and opening up potential new markets to enhance grid power availability and reliability. The KARNO generator technology, including the technology that was acquired from GE and the technology developed by Hyliion subsequent to the acquisition, is protected by numerous patents and trademarks which we believe provide Hyliion extensive and lasting protection for its intellectual property.
KARNO Generator Development
Our ongoing efforts with the KARNO generator encompass activities such as its design, development and rigorous testing, along with the development of essential balance-of-plant systems including cooling and controls systems. Notably, we have reached a significant milestone by constructing the 125kW ALPHA generator which we are currently testing in our development facility. Simultaneously, we are in the final stages of designing a 200kW BETA generator, which is expected to serve as our design for initial commercial deployments. We have also showcased KARNO integrated as an on-board generator for our Hypertruck ERX powertrain system and with potential stationary power customers. Moreover, we successfully demonstrated the generator’s capability to feed power back to the electric grid from our Cincinnati, Ohio facility and confirmed through testing the capability of the generator’s oxidation system to be fueled using untreated natural gas from a Permian Basin well site.
As we progress toward our anticipated initial stationary generator deployments, scheduled for late 2024, pivotal development activities are underway, including enhancements to the linear generator system and its controls, rigorous validation of essential operating parameters, including efficiency, emissions and reliability, and build-out of balance-of-plant systems and controls. These initial generator deployments, coupled with our ongoing testing and development endeavors, will play a vital role in the validation of other critical design specifications, including the generator’s projected operating life, maintenance requirements and durability.
We expect to achieve efficiencies over time, leading to a reduction in the manufacturing and assembly costs associated with the KARNO generator. These efficiencies will predominantly stem from advancements in the speed and capacity of additive manufacturing machines offered by GE and other vendors. The pace of advancements in additive technology are expected to improve over time, with the output of machines we intend to acquire over the next three to four years projected to increase
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compared to machines available today. Additionally, we are actively pursuing design modifications that will enable specific components to be produced through conventional manufacturing processes. Moreover, for less critical components, we are exploring utilization of lower-cost and lightweight materials like aluminum. Lastly, we anticipate that economies of scale will play a pivotal role in reducing system component costs as manufacturing output scales up progressively.
The Science of the KARNO Generator
The KARNO generator is distinguished from conventional generating systems that rely on reciprocating internal combustion engines or gas turbines to drive a rotating shaft. In contrast, the KARNO generator harnesses the power of a heat engine to propel a linear generating system. This innovative generator derives its linear motion from temperature differences inside the engine. The generation of heat within the system occurs through flameless oxidation of fuels, like natural gas, hydrogen, or propane. This thermal energy causes helium gas enclosed within a sealed cylinder to expand, thereby propelling linear motion in a connected piston-shaft system which includes a sequence of permanent magnets situated on the shaft passing through electrical coils. Subsequently, the counter-motion generated by a piston at the opposite end of the shaft flows the helium gas to the cold side of a piston in an adjacent shaft, where excess heat is efficiently dissipated. This cyclical process continues, resulting in a continuous source of electrical power for so long as heat is supplied to the generator.
Linear generators present several advantages over conventional generators, with key benefits including reduced maintenance, attributable to their simplified design with few moving parts. Additionally, they can exhibit higher efficiency by circumventing the mechanical losses linked to rotating components such as bearings and gears while producing less noise and vibration. In the case of the KARNO generator, each shaft of the generator relies on a single moving part and utilizes a pressurized helium bearing system in place of oil-based lubricants.
The KARNO generator also stands out for its ability to achieve exceptional efficiency and power density by maximizing heat transfer between components and working fluids. Enabled by advances in additive manufacturing systems, parts are designed with a large number of intricate flow channels for the movement of heat, cooling water, helium and exhaust gases such that contact surface areas for heat transfer are maximized.
The KARNO generator is expected to surpass the efficiency of conventional reciprocating generating systems of a similar size when employing various fuel sources and even outperform fuel cells at high power levels when using hydrogen. Notably, its high efficiency remains consistent across a broad range of output power levels. In contrast, fuel cells reach peak efficiency at low power levels but experience diminishing efficiency as output increases towards full power. Internal combustion engines typically achieve peak efficiency within a limited operational output range and may suffer increased wear at low power levels. The KARNO generator offers a distinct advantage in power adjustment by modulating operating parameters and the rate of heat introduction, enabling seamless power adjustments without compromising the generator’s efficiency.
We anticipate that the KARNO generator will achieve an electrical generating efficiency of nearly 50%, calculated by considering the usable output power in relation to the energy from the fuel source. High efficiency is expected to remain consistent across a wide range of output power levels, spanning from tens of kilowatts to multiple megawatts. In contrast, internal combustion diesel generators typically operate within an efficiency range of 25% to 40% over a similar power spectrum, while the U.S. electrical power grid is estimated to operate at an efficiency between 33% and 40%. Notably, best-in-class grid-level gas turbine powerplants can obtain efficiencies ranging between 45% to 55%. However, these powerplants have a much larger minimum power level (typically 10MW+) and incur transmission and distribution losses between 5% and 10% which the KARNO generator can circumvent by being strategically located near the point of power consumption.
Conventional generators emit pollutants as a result of incomplete combustion of fuel-air mixtures, with the formation of nitrous-oxide compounds being particularly prominent. Unlike conventional generators, which often employ internal combustion engines operating at high temperatures with rapid and incomplete fuel combustion, the KARNO generator is designed for continuous fuel oxidation at lower temperatures than internal combustion engines and extended burn times. This is achieved partly through the recirculation of exhaust gases, which serves to prolong combustion duration and by pre-heating incoming air. As a result, the KARNO generator is anticipated to achieve low levels of emissions, with CO2 and NOx emissions expected to be reduced by over 95% compared to best-in-class diesel engines and targeting CARB 2027 standards without the need for aftertreatment.
One of the notable advantages of the KARNO generator, in comparison to traditional generating units, is the expected significant reduction in maintenance requirements and cost. Conventional generators typically incur periodic and usage-based maintenance expense that can range between 5% to 20% of their total operating cost throughout their lifespan, influenced by factors such as utilization and operating parameters. The KARNO generator’s primary advantage arises from having only a single moving linear actuator per shaft (4 shafts per 200kW generator), which glides linearly on low friction helium bearings. This innovative design significantly mitigates efficiency losses attributed to friction, enhances the system’s operational longevity and eliminates the need for oil-based lubricants commonly found in conventional generators. Furthermore, internal combustion engines require extensive overhauls after specific operating periods which are costly, require specialized expertise,
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and result in prolonged downtime. Conversely, the KARNO generator is projected to require less costly and simplified maintenance service than internal combustion engines, translating into both cost savings and reduced downtime.
The KARNO generator, functioning as a heat engine, derives advantages from its expected capability to operate across a diverse spectrum of over 20 available fuel sources and fuel mixtures. These include natural gas, propane, gasoline, jet fuel, and alternative fuels like bio-diesel, hydrogen and ammonia. Moreover, the generator will be able to seamlessly transition between these fuels or fuel blends, requiring no physical modifications to its flameless oxidation system. This versatility will enable a single generator to adapt to different use cases. For example, the generator may operate on natural gas for prime power generation when a pipeline connection is available and on waste gas near a landfill or dairy farm with some modifications. Furthermore, as hydrogen becomes more widely available, the KARNO generator will be able to seamlessly adapt to this cleaner fuel. As the energy landscape evolves, the KARNO generator’s fuel-agnostic nature positions it as a future-proof solution to a range of electricity generation needs.
Benefits of the KARNO Generator Versus Conventional Competitors
We believe the versatility and operating characteristics of the KARNO generator make it an ideal system for a variety of conventional and emerging electrical generating applications. Key attributes of the KARNO generator distinguish it from its conventional generator counterparts, which may open new market opportunities:
Generator Efficiency: The anticipated operating efficiency of the KARNO generator results in lower cost of electricity versus conventional generating systems and, in many markets, grid power.
Low Maintenance: With only a single moving part per shaft, the simplicity of the KARNO generator is expected to reduce both periodic maintenance expenses and expected overhaul costs.
Fuel Agnostic: While many traditional generators operate on a single fuel source or require system modification to achieve fuel flexibility, the KARNO generator is truly fuel-agnostic, and can switch between fuel choices during operation with some modifications.
Low Noise and Vibration: Unlike conventional generators, the KARNO generator operates without internal combustion, resulting in a significantly lower noise level of approximately 67 decibels at six feet, which is approximately equivalent to a typical conversation.
Higher Power Density: The unique architecture and features of the KARNO generator that are enabled by advances in additive manufacturing, enable the generator to achieve a high level of power density. For example, a 200kW generator occupies less than a cubic meter of volume, excluding the balance-of-plant.
Modularity: The power output of a KARNO generator can be modulated by changing the level of heat applied to the system. For larger power applications above 200kW, systems with six or more shafts can be utilized or, multiple KARNO generators can be assembled to operate as a single unit. For megawatt applications, individual generators can be turned on or off to adjust the total power output of the system.
Fast Startup Time: It is anticipated that the KARNO generator will be able to begin generating electricity from a cold start in approximately 30 to 60 seconds. Additionally, full power can be achieved in a matter of minutes. Conversely, some generating systems, such as solid oxide fuel cells, require a warm-up period of up to 30 minutes.
Production, Assembly, Installation, Suppliers and Distribution
Hyliion plans to begin deploying initial KARNO generator BETA units with customers in late 2024 after design and initial testing of the generator and balance-of-plant system components are complete. Key generator components will initially be sourced internally using additive manufacturing processes and technologies that were both developed by Hyliion and purchased from GE in 2022. Other components will be manufactured internally or purchased from suppliers based on proprietary Hyliion designs. Hyliion is developing a base of suppliers for other generator systems, including linear motor components, support systems and generator enclosure materials. Suppliers are assessed for quality based on rigorous standards and processes that were established for Hyliion’s former powertrain systems. Assembly, installation and maintenance of KARNO generator systems is expected to be performed by Hyliion for initial customer deployments.
Additive manufacturing is a key enabler of KARNO generator technology and performance characteristics and is considered a core competency of the Company and a source of competitive advantage versus other linear power generating systems. Rapid innovation is another core Hyliion capability extending beyond generator design to include print processes and materials, including high-speed parameter development to increase equipment availability, print yield, and design effectiveness. We are also investing engineering resources to enable the use of alternative metal materials in certain components to optimize performance while reducing print time and cost.
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Hyliion has purchased state-of-the-art laser sintering machines (3-D additive printers) from GE and has secured additional machine capacity which we expect to be delivered in 2024 and early 2025 to support early generator production and deliveries. Hyliion currently plans to print all key generator components in-house for early system deployments in order to optimize production parameters, component quality, printing innovation and system throughput.
The standalone generator set, or genset system, includes the KARNO generator along with an enclosure that houses key balance-of-plant elements such as the cooling system, generator controls, a battery system and high voltage electrical components. Prior to shipment, the entire stationary genset system will undergo rigorous testing to validate performance. Initial deployments of BETA units will further help validate genset system quality, performance and reliability before commercial ramp-up of production and sales. Hyliion technicians will be available to support installation and monitoring of system performance, aided by the ability to remotely monitor critical system parameters.
We have begun printing the first BETA units of the KARNO generator at our facility in Cincinnati, Ohio and expect to complete assembly and testing of deployments units in 2024 at that facility. We also plan to begin acquiring additive printing capacity for our Cedar Park, Texas facility later in 2024. Future print capacity additions as well as generator assembly functions are expected to begin shifting to Cedar Park beginning in 2025. As production volumes rise, we may consider outsourcing certain production and assembly functions including the printing, manufacturing and assembly of specific components or the entire generator to third parties.
In our initial deployment phase, we intend to collaborate closely with customers, identifying a broad range of use cases and improvement opportunities for the KARNO generator. Over time, we will consider options for integrating our products into existing sales and distribution channels and forging partnerships with established manufacturers, vendors, developers and distributors.
Research and Development
Our research and development activities primarily take place at our headquarters in Cedar Park, Texas and our facility in Cincinnati, Ohio. Our research and development is primarily focused on:
development of the KARNO generator including testing and validation;
integration of the KARNO generator technology into various applications;
accelerated lifetime testing processes to improve reliability, maintainability and system-level robustness;
development of battery systems that can be used as a starter power source for the KARNO generator or as a load buffer solution;
data analytics; and
alternative products for existing and in-development components and technology.
The majority of our current activities are focused on the research and development of our KARNO generator. We undertake significant testing and validation of our products and components to ensure that they will meet the demands of our customers.
Intellectual Property
Intellectual property is important to our business, and we seek protection for our strategic intellectual property. We rely upon a combination of patents, copyrights, trade secrets, know-how and trademarks, along with employee and third-party non-disclosure agreements and other contractual restrictions to establish and protect our intellectual property rights.
As of December 31, 2023, we had 56 issued U.S. patents, 64 pending U.S. patent applications, and 22 foreign patent applications. Of the foregoing patent and application totals, 40 pertain to our KARNO generator with the remainder, which primarily relate to powertrain technology, retained for potential future use or sale. We pursue the registration of our domain names, trademarks and service marks in the United States and in some locations abroad. In an effort to protect our brand, as of December 31, 2023, we had three registered and seven pending trademarks in the United States and 44 registered and four pending trademarks internationally.
We regularly review our development efforts to assess the existence and patentability of new intellectual property. To that end, we are prepared to file additional patent applications as we consider appropriate under the circumstances relating to the new technologies that we develop.
We cannot be sure that patents will be granted with respect to any of our pending patent applications or with respect to any patent applications we may own or license in the future, nor can we be sure that any of our existing patents or any patents we may own or license in the future will be useful in protecting our technology.
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Human Capital
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 85 full-time employees, excluding employees working on the wind-down of our powertrain operations whose positions are expected to be eliminated by the end of the first quarter of 2024. All full-time employees are located within the United States. In connection with the discontinuation of the electrified powertrain systems business, we reduced our workforce by approximately 175 people, or 67%, with some severance agreements that provide for continued services through various dates in 2024. Our people are integral to our business, and we are highly dependent on our ability to attract, engage, develop and retain key employees while hiring qualified management, technical, and vehicle engineering personnel. We welcome the diversity of all team members and encourage the integration of their unique skills, thoughts, experiences and identities. By fostering an inclusive culture, we enable every member of the workforce to leverage their unique talents and deliver high-performance standards to drive innovation and success. While we are currently still a small company in terms of headcount, we have plans to grow, and expect that our practices and programs with respect to human capital management will grow as we do.
Government Regulations
We operate in an industry that is subject to extensive environmental regulation, which has become more stringent over time. The laws and regulations to which we are subject govern, among others:
water use;
air emissions;
energy sources;
the storage, handling, treatment, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials;
the protection of the environment; and
natural resources.
We may be required to obtain and comply with the terms and conditions of multiple environmental permits, many of which are difficult and costly to obtain and could be subject to legal challenges. Compliance with such laws and regulations at an international, regional, national, provincial and local level is an important aspect of our ability to continue operations and grow the business. Environmental standards applicable to us are established by the laws and regulations of the countries in which we operate, and our product are sold, and standards adopted by regulatory agencies and the permits and licenses that we hold. Each of these sources is subject to periodic modifications and increasingly stringent requirements. Violations of these laws, regulations, or permits and licenses may result in substantial civil and criminal fines, penalties, orders to cease the violating operations, or to conduct or pay for corrective works. In some instances, violations may also result in the suspension or revocation of permits and licenses.
Specific standards, certifications, and rules for which we seek to be in compliance include the following:
Military Standard (“MIL-STD”) 1399 requirements over power quality;
MIL-STD-810, MIL-STD-901, and MIL-STD-167 requirements over shock and vibrations;
MIL-STD-810G requirements over environmental exposure;
UL Solutions (“UL”) 2200 and 1741 requirements over generator set and inverter safety, respectively;
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (“IEEE”) 1547 and 519 requirements over grid interconnection and harmonic control, respectively; and
South Coast Air Quality Management District (“SCAQMD”) in California Rule 1110.3, the first of its kind regulation focused on linear generators, “Emissions for Linear Generators.” This rule governs, among other things, the steady state emissions from technologies such as KARNO. We worked jointly with SCAQMD to establish the various criteria and as a result, believe that KARNO will comply with this regulation.
Competition
We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, intense competition from a number of companies. We face competition from many different sources, including utility-scale grid power and manufacturers of fixed and portable generator equipment. Key generator manufacturing competitors include Cummins, Bloom Energy, Generac, Kohler, Caterpillar, Mainspring and Jenbacher, several of which maintain the largest market shares in the sector. We believe the primary competitive factors in the stationary generator market include, but are not limited to:
total cost of ownership;
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emissions profile;
availability of fueling sources;
ease of integration into existing operations;
product performance and uptime; and
generator quality, reliability, safety and noise.
We believe that we compete favorably with our competitors on the basis of these factors; however, most of our current and potential competitors have greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing and other resources than us. Our competitors may be able to deploy greater resources to the design, development, manufacturing, distribution, promotion, sales, marketing and support of their generator products. Additionally, our competitors also have greater name recognition, longer operating histories, larger sales forces, broader customer and industry relationships and other tangible and intangible resources than us. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified research and development, sales, marketing and management personnel, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our products. Additional mergers and acquisitions may result in even more resources being concentrated in our competitors. We cannot provide assurances that our stationary generators will be broadly adopted or will provide benefits that overcome their capital costs.
Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we may become involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not currently a party to any material legal proceedings. Regardless of outcome, such proceedings or claims can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of resources and other factors and there can be no assurances that favorable outcomes will be obtained.
Information About Our Executive Officers
The following table and notes set forth information about our executive officers:
Name of IndividualAgePosition
Thomas Healy(1)
31Chief Executive Officer
Jon Panzer(2)
57Chief Financial Officer
Dennis Gallagher(3)
58Chief Operating Officer
Cheri Lantz(4)
48Chief Strategy Officer
Jose Oxholm(5)
57Chief Legal & Compliance Officer
1 Mr. Healy has served as our Chief Executive Officer since October 2020 and prior to this, served as Chief Executive Officer of Hyliion Inc., (“Legacy Hyliion”) since January 26, 2016. While leading the Company, Mr. Healy has been awarded numerous patents in the space of electrifying commercial vehicles. Mr. Healy founded Legacy Hyliion while studying to obtain a Master’s in mechanical engineering and had previously founded multiple start-ups during his undergraduate studies. He took a leave of absence during his Master’s program in 2015 to found Legacy Hyliion. Mr. Healy holds a B.S. in mechanical engineering with a double-major in engineering and public policy from Carnegie Mellon University.
2 Mr. Panzer has served as Chief Financial Officer since September 2022. Prior to joining Hyliion, Mr. Panzer spent 26 years at Union Pacific, one of the nation’s largest railroads. His most recent position at Union Pacific was Senior Vice President of Intermodal Operations and he also served as Senior Vice President of Technology and Strategic Planning, Vice President and Treasurer, Vice President, Financial Planning and Analysis, and Assistance Vice President, Marketing and Sales. As head of Union Pacific’s information technology organization, Mr. Panzer was responsible for managing application development, technology infrastructure and cybersecurity. Prior to joining Union Pacific, Mr. Panzer served in the United States Navy as a nuclear engineer. Mr. Panzer holds a B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Nebraska, Lincoln and an MBA from Carnegie Mellon.
3 Mr. Gallagher has served as Chief Operating Officer since August 2021. Mr. Gallagher has extensive background in strategic planning, growth initiatives, and process implementation in the commercial vehicle and automation industries. From October 2017 to August 2021, Mr. Gallagher worked at Jacobs Vehicle Systems, where he served as President of the industry-leading supplier to the heavy-duty commercial truck market. Prior to that, he served as Vice President and General Manager for EMEA & India of Kollmorgen, a Danaher company, from August 2014 to December 2017. Previously in his career, he has held executive roles within Danaher and Fortive where he successfully led a number of global business units. Gallagher graduated from the University of Lowell with a B.S. in electrical engineering.
4 Ms. Lantz has served as Chief Strategy Officer since 2022. Ms. Lantz is a seasoned strategy leader who has spent 25 years developing and leading operations and growth strategies for manufacturers in the mobility sector. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Lantz served as the Vice President of Strategy for the Transportations Solution Segment at TE Connectivity, an electronics
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manufacturer. Prior to that role, Ms. Lantz served as the Chief Strategy Officer and executive leader responsible for advanced and shared engineering and global test labs at Meritor, Inc., a leading manufacturer of axles and brakes to the commercial vehicle industry. Additionally, Ms. Lantz has advised companies on growth and operational topics as a strategist for Boston Consulting Group and Booz and Company. Ms. Lantz holds three degrees from the University of Michigan, an MBA from the Ross School of Business with a focus on corporate strategy and economics, a master’s in manufacturing engineering and a B.S. in chemical engineering.
5 Mr. Oxholm has served as Chief Legal & Compliance Officer since February 2024 and prior to this, served as Vice President, General Counsel, and Chief Compliance Officer since 2020. Mr. Oxholm has extensive experience with complex business transactions, litigation, and new market entries for companies in the automotive and transportation sectors. From January 2017 to February 2020, Mr. Oxholm served as Vice President, Deputy General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer for Meritor, Inc. Prior to that, Mr. Oxholm was Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary for LoJack Corporation from 2012 to 2016. He has a J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania and a bachelor’s degree from the University of Michigan.
Available Information
Additional information about Hyliion is available at www.hyliion.com. On the Investor Relations page of the website, the public may obtain free copies of our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable following the time that they are filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). References to our website do not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained in such website, and such information is not part of this Form 10-K.
1A. RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves risks. Before you make a decision to buy our securities, in addition to the risks and uncertainties discussed above under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” you should carefully consider the specific risks set forth herein. If any of these risks actually occur, it may materially harm our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations. As a result, the market price of our securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. Additionally, the risks and uncertainties described are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may become material and adversely affect our business.
Risks Related to our Business
We may experience significant delays in the design, production and launch of the KARNO generator which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
The KARNO generator is still in the development and testing phase, and commercial deliveries are not expected to begin until late 2024 or later, and may not occur at all. Initial deployments may not be recognized as revenue, or there may be a need to deploy units at a decreased price or for free to obtain initial customers. Some of our target customers may be expecting to receive government incentives for deployments and may not purchase our KARNO generators in the event those incentives are delayed or not received. Any delay in the financing, design, production and launch of the KARNO generator would materially damage our brand, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We are an early-stage company with a history of losses, and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.
The Company is undertaking a significant shift in its business strategy by winding down operations related to the electrified powertrain systems business and focusing on the development and commercialization of the Company's fuel-agnostic KARNO generator technology.
We have historically incurred net losses ($123.5 million and $153.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively). We believe that we will continue to incur significant operating and net losses each quarter until we are generating sufficient positive gross margins from sales of KARNO generator products. We do not expect to achieve this level of financial performance through 2024, and we may never achieve such performance.
Additionally, in connection with our new business strategy, we expect to adopt initiatives in an effort to improve operating efficiencies and lower our cost structure. There may be unanticipated difficulties in implementing one or more of these initiatives, and we may not ultimately realize the full benefits of, or be able to sustain the benefits anticipated by, these initiatives.
We will require significant capital to develop and grow our business, including developing, producing and servicing KARNO generators and our brand. We expect to incur significant expenses, which will impact our profitability and available capital,
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including costs for research and development efforts, component and service procurement, sales, general and administrative costs, and production, distribution and support.
Our ability to become profitable in the future will require us to complete the design, development and testing of our KARNO generator while achieving projected performance criteria. We must also successfully market our KARNO generator and related services to customers, sell our systems at prices needed to achieve positive gross margins, and control operating and production costs. We may need to sell our products at a loss or discounted prices in the short term in order to win initial customer orders and gain the confidence of potential customers. If we are unable to efficiently design, produce, market, sell, distribute and service our KARNO generator, our margins, profitability, and long-term prospects will be materially and adversely affected.
We have no experience manufacturing the KARNO generator on a large-scale basis and if we do not develop adequate manufacturing processes and capabilities to do so, or if we fail to identify qualified outsourced manufacturing partners, in a timely manner, we will be unable to achieve our growth and profitability objectives.
We have not yet manufactured the KARNO generator on a large scale but in order to produce the generator at affordable prices, we will have to manufacture at scale which may require future printer throughput increases, reduction of printer or material costs, and volume-driven cost reductions on other generator components. We do not know whether we will timely receive the printers we need to manufacture KARNO at scale or whether the printers we intend to use will be able to adequately accommodate capacity needs. We do not know whether our plans to scale the product will be implemented such that they will satisfy the requirements of our customers and the anticipated markets for the KARNO generator. If the Company is unable to develop these manufacturing capabilities internally, we may be unable to identify outsourced manufacturing partners who have the technical capability to produce KARNO generators or who can do so on commercially acceptable terms. Our failure to develop manufacturing processes and capabilities in a timely manner could prevent us from achieving our growth and profitability objectives.
Significant markets for our KARNO generator may develop more slowly than we anticipate or may never develop at all. This would significantly harm our revenues and may cause us to be unable to recover the losses we have incurred and expect to incur in the development of our products.
The distributed power generation industry is still an emerging market in an otherwise mature and heavily regulated energy utility industry, and we cannot be sure that potential customers will accept distributed generation broadly, or stationary power generators including our KARNO generators, specifically. Significant markets for distributed power generation may never develop or they may develop more slowly than we anticipate. Enterprises may be unwilling to adopt our KARNO generator technology over traditional or competing power sources like electricity from the grid, for any number of reasons, including the perception that our technology or our Company is unproven, lack of confidence in our business model, the unavailability of third-party service providers to operate and maintain KARNO generators, and lack of awareness of our product or their perception of regulatory or political headwinds.
Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts, whether obtained from third-party sources or developed internally, are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. In particular, estimates and forecasts relating to the size and expected growth of electricity demand in our target markets, our capacity to address this demand, the adoption of our KARNO generator technology, and our pricing may prove to be inaccurate. Any inaccuracies or errors in our estimates or third-party estimates of market opportunity may cause us to misallocate capital and other business resources, which could harm our business. The addressable market we estimate may not materialize for many years, if ever, and even if the markets in which we compete meet size estimates and growth forecasts, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
Any such delay or failure in the development of potential markets would significantly harm our revenues and we may be unable to recover the losses we have incurred and expect to continue to incur in the acquisition and development of KARNO generator technology. If this were to occur, we may never achieve profitability and our business could fail. Whether or not end-users will want to implement and use stationary power generators and other distributed generation technologies may be affected by many factors, some of which are beyond our control, including: the emergence of more competitive technologies and products; alternative technologies and products that could render our products obsolete; the future cost of fuels used by our products; the regulatory requirements of agencies with respect to energy products; government support by way of legislation, tax incentives, policies or otherwise, relating to our technology; the manufacturing and supply costs for components and systems for the KARNO generator; the perceptions of consumers regarding the safety of our products; the willingness of consumers to try new technologies; and the continued development and improvement of existing power technologies.
We may not be able to successfully engage target customers or convert early-stage products into meaningful orders in the future.
Our success, and our ability to increase revenue and operate profitably, depends in part on our ability to identify target customers and to convert early-stage products into meaningful orders in the future. If we are unable to meet our customers’ performance requirements or industry specifications, identify target customers or convert early-stage products into meaningful orders, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results would be materially adversely affected. Moreover, if
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we or our customers find that our KARNO generator does not perform as expected or if our orders for KARNO generators do not materialize in large numbers, we may cease to distribute our KARNO generators, or recall some or all of our product, and future distributions may be delayed or cease for some period of time or indefinitely.
Demand for our products will ultimately depend on end user customers, some of whom operate in highly cyclical industries, which may subject us to the performance of their industries and can result in uncertainty and significantly impact the demand for our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Demand for our products will ultimately depend on our end-user customers, some of whom operate in highly cyclical industries. Demand in these industries is impacted by numerous factors, including commodity prices, infrastructure spending, housing starts, real estate equity values, interest rates, consumer spending, fuel costs, energy demands, municipal spending and commercial construction, among others. Increases or decreases in these variables may significantly impact the demand for our products. If we are unable to accurately predict demand, we may be unable to meet our customers’ needs, resulting in the loss of potential sales, or we may produce excess products, resulting in increased inventories and overcapacity in our production facilities, increasing our unit production cost and decreasing our operating margins. Additionally, our end user customers may be required to obtain certifications for use of the KARNO generator on their premises or other intended locations and the delay or failure of these customers to obtain such certifications could have a material impact on our business and operating results.
If we fail to manage our growth effectively, including failing to attract qualified personnel, we may not be able to develop, produce, market and sell our distributed generation products successfully.
Any failure to manage our growth effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. We intend to expand our operations in future years. We intend to continue to hire additional personnel, including engineers, design and production personnel and service technicians for our KARNO generator design, development, distribution and service support. Competition for individuals with experience designing, producing and servicing distributed generators and their software is intense, and we may not be able to attract, integrate, train, motivate, or retain additional highly qualified personnel in the Austin, Texas and Cincinnati, Ohio areas where we are located. Due to the specific skills required and the strong job market nationally, we may experience increased compensation, recruiting and relocation expenses to achieve our hiring goals. The failure to attract, integrate, train, motivate and retain these additional employees could seriously harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We are dependent on our suppliers, some of which are single or limited-source suppliers, and the inability of these suppliers to deliver necessary components for our generator at prices, volumes, and performance specifications acceptable to us could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We rely on third-party suppliers, some of whom are single-source suppliers, for the provision and development of many of the key components and materials used in our KARNO generator system, such as linear electric machine component suppliers. Any failure of these suppliers or outsourcing partners to perform could require us to seek alternative suppliers or to expand our production capabilities, which could incur additional costs and have a negative impact on our cost or supply of components or finished goods. While we plan to obtain components from multiple sources whenever possible, some of the components used in our generator may be purchased by us from a single source. Our third-party suppliers may not be able to meet their product specifications and performance characteristics or our desired specifications and pricing, which would impact our ability to achieve our product specifications and performance characteristics. Additionally, our third-party suppliers may be unable to obtain required certifications for their products for which we plan to use or provide warranties that are necessary for our solutions. If we are unable to obtain components and materials used in our generator solution from our suppliers or if our suppliers decide to create or supply a competing product, our business could be adversely affected. While we believe that we may be able to establish alternate supply relationships and can obtain or engineer replacement components for our single source components, we may be unable to do so in the short term (or at all) at prices or quality levels that are favorable to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We are in the early stages of developing key commercial relationships with suppliers, and our ability to predict the outcome of those relationships is limited.
We are in the process of developing relationships to accelerate the development, production and sale of our solutions. However, all of our commercial relationships are in the early stages of development and we do not have the ability to predict with certainty the outcome of those relationships. Our suppliers may face delays or be unable to meet our business requirements and standards at the quantity, quality, timeliness and price levels needed for our business. Because we are still getting to know our suppliers, these relationships could result in controversies or even litigation, which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue our plans for strategic growth and ultimately our business results.
Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of our components could harm our business.
Once we begin commercial production of our KARNO generator, we may experience increases in the cost or a sustained interruption in the supply or shortage of our components. Any such increase or supply interruption could materially negatively impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. The prices for our components fluctuate depending on
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market conditions and global demand and could adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Risks Related to our Products
If our KARNO generators fail to perform as expected, our ability to develop, market and sell our products could be harmed.
Our KARNO generators may contain defects in design and production that may cause them not to perform as expected or they may require repair or not achieve the expected low maintenance characteristics. There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in our KARNO generators. Our products may not meet customers’ expectations or perform competitively with other distributed generators that may become available. Any product defects or any other failure of our KARNO generator and software to perform as expected could harm our reputation and result in adverse publicity, lost revenue, delivery delays, product recalls, negative publicity, product liability claims and significant warranty and other expenses and could have a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We have limited experience servicing our KARNO generators and our integrated software. If we are unable to address the service requirements of our customers, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.
We have limited experience in servicing our KARNO generators and expect to increase our servicing capabilities as we begin commercial production. Servicing distributed generators requires specialized skills, including high voltage training and servicing techniques. We may partner with one or more third party service providers to perform some or all of the servicing on our electrified powertrain solutions, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to enter into an acceptable arrangement with any such third-party provider. Our ability to provide effective customer support is largely dependent on our ability to attract, train and retain qualified personnel with experience in supporting customers on platforms such as ours. As we continue to grow, additional pressure may be placed on our customer support team, and we may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for maintenance services and technical support. If we are unable to successfully address the service requirements of our customers or establish a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality support, we may be subject to claims from our customers, including loss of revenue or damages, and our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results may be materially and adversely affected.
We may become subject to product liability claims, which could harm our financial condition and liquidity if we are not able to successfully defend or insure against such claims.
Product liability claims, even those without merit or those that do not involve our products, could harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. A successful product liability claim against us could require us to pay a substantial monetary award. In some jurisdictions, we may self-insure against the risk of product liability claims for vehicle exposure, meaning that any product liability claims will likely have to be paid from company funds, not by insurance. Product liability claims could have a material adverse effect on our brand, business and financial condition.
Risks Related to our Financial Results
Our financial results may vary significantly from period to period due to fluctuations in our operating costs and other factors.
Our quarterly and annual operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes it difficult for us to predict our future operating results. These fluctuations may occur due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:
the pace at which we continue to design, develop and produce new products and increase production capacity;
the number of customer orders in a given period;
changes in manufacturing costs;
the timing and cost of and level of investment in, research and development relating to our technologies and our current or future facilities;
relationships, partnerships, contracts and other agreements with suppliers and development partners;
our ability to achieve favorable pricing from suppliers for component purchases;
our ability to obtain required certifications for our KARNO generators;
developments involving our competitors; and
changes in governmental regulations or applicable law.
As a result of these factors, we believe that period-to-period comparisons of our financial results, especially in the short term, are not necessarily meaningful and that these comparisons cannot be relied upon as indicators of future performance. Moreover, our financial results may not meet expectations of equity research analysts, ratings agencies or investors, who may be overly
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focused on quarterly financial results or financial valuation models that do not match our expected growth plan. If any of this occurs, the trading price of our common stock could fall substantially, either suddenly or over time.
Risks Related to Our Industry and Competitive Landscape
We expect to face significant competition in the distributed generation market.
Our KARNO generators will compete with a broad range of companies and technologies, including traditional energy suppliers, such as public utilities, and other energy providers utilizing traditional co-generation systems, nuclear, hydro, coal or geothermal power, companies utilizing intermittent solar or wind power paired with storage, and other commercially available stationary power generation technologies, including fuel cells and diesel generators.
Many of our competitors, such as traditional utilities and other companies offering distributed generation products, have longer operating histories, customer incumbency advantages, access to and influence with local and state governments, and access to more capital resources than us. Significant developments in alternative technologies, such as energy storage, wind, solar or hydro power generation, or improvements in the efficiency or cost of traditional energy sources, including coal, oil, natural gas used in combustion, or nuclear power, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects in ways we cannot anticipate. We may also face new competitors who are not currently in the market, including companies with newer or better technologies or products, larger providers or traditional utilities or other existing competitors that may enter our market segments. If we fail to adapt to changing market conditions and to compete successfully with grid electricity or new competitors, our growth will be limited, which would adversely affect our business results.
Developments in alternative technology or improvements in distributed generation products may adversely affect the demand for our KARNO generators.
Significant developments in alternative technologies, such as battery cells, advanced diesel, improved natural gas engines, new power generation technology or alternate fuel sources or improvements in the fuel economy of the internal combustion engine, may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results in ways we do not currently anticipate. Existing and other battery cell technologies, fuels or sources of energy may emerge as customers’ preferred alternative to our electrified powertrain solutions. Any failure by us to develop new or enhanced technologies or processes, or to react to changes in existing technologies, could materially delay our development and introduction of new and enhanced alternative fuel and electric vehicles, which could result in the loss of competitiveness of our electrified powertrain solutions, decreased revenue and a loss of market share to competitors. Our research and development efforts may not be sufficient to adapt to changes in alternative fuel and electric vehicle technology.
Risks Related to Technology, Data and Privacy-Related Matters
We are subject to cybersecurity risks to operational systems, security systems, infrastructure, and customer data processed by us or third-party vendors or suppliers and any material failure, weakness, interruption, cyber event, incident or breach of security could prevent us from effectively operating our business.
We collect, store, transmit and otherwise process customer, employee and others’ data as part of our business operations, which may include personal data or confidential or proprietary information. We also work with partners and third-party service providers or vendors that collect, store and process such data on our behalf in connection with our business. There can be no assurance that any security measures that we or our third-party service providers or vendors have implemented will be effective against current or future security threats.
We are at risk for interruptions, outages and breaches of our operational systems, facility security systems, transmission control modules or other in-product technology; in each case owned by us or our third-party vendors or suppliers as well as the integrated software in our KARNO generators; or customer data that we process or our third-party vendors or suppliers process on our behalf. The techniques used by cyber attackers change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time. Although we maintain information technology measures designed to protect ourselves against intellectual property theft, data breaches and other cyber incidents, we cannot be sure that these systems upon which we rely, including those of our third-party vendors or suppliers, will be effectively implemented, maintained or expanded as planned. If these systems do not operate as we expect them to, we may be required to expend significant resources to make corrections or find alternative sources for performing these functions. Moreover, our proprietary information or intellectual property could be compromised or misappropriated. A significant cyber incident could impact production capability, harm our reputation, cause us to breach our contracts with other parties or subject us to regulatory actions or litigation, any of which could materially affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Any unauthorized control or manipulation of the information technology systems in our electrified powertrain solutions could result in loss of confidence in us and our electrified powertrain solutions and harm our business.
Our electrified powertrain solutions contain complex information technology systems and built-in data connectivity to accept and install periodic remote updates to improve or update functionality. We have designed, implemented and tested security measures intended to prevent unauthorized access to our information technology networks, our electrified powertrain solutions and related systems. Any unauthorized access to or control of our electrified powertrain solutions, or any loss of customer data,
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could result in legal claims or proceedings and remediation of such problems could result in significant, unplanned capital expenditures.
We may need to defend ourselves against patent, copyright or trademark infringement claims or trade secret misappropriation claims, which may be time-consuming and cause us to incur substantial costs.
Companies, organizations or individuals, including our competitors, may own or obtain patents, trademarks or other proprietary rights that would prevent or limit our ability to make, use, develop or sell our KARNO generator and other products, which could make it more difficult for us to operate our business. We may receive inquiries from patent, copyright or trademark owners inquiring whether we infringe upon their proprietary rights. We may also be the subject of allegations that we have misappropriated their trade secrets or other proprietary rights. Companies owning patents or other intellectual property rights relating to distributed generators may allege infringement or misappropriation of such rights. In response to a determination that we have infringed upon or misappropriated a third party’s intellectual property rights, we may be required to cease development, sales or use of our products that incorporate the asserted intellectual property, pay substantial damages, obtain a license from the owner of the asserted intellectual property right, which license may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, or redesign one or more aspects or systems of our products. A successful claim of infringement or misappropriation against us could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. Any litigation or claims, whether valid or invalid, could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources.
Our business may be adversely affected if we are unable to protect our intellectual property rights from unauthorized use by third parties.
Failure to adequately protect our intellectual property rights could result in our competitors offering similar products, potentially resulting in the loss of some of our competitive advantage and a decrease in our revenue, which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. Our success depends, at least in part, on our ability to protect our core technology and intellectual property. To accomplish this, we will rely on a combination of patents, trade secrets (including know-how), employee and third-party nondisclosure agreements, copyrights, trademarks, intellectual property licenses and other contractual rights to establish and protect our rights in our technology; however, the measures we take to protect our intellectual property from unauthorized use by others may not be effective.
Patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws vary throughout the world. Some foreign countries do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as do the laws of the U.S. Further, policing the unauthorized use of our intellectual property in foreign jurisdictions may be difficult. Therefore, our intellectual property rights may not be as strong or as easily enforced outside of the U.S.
Also, while we have registered trademarks in an effort to protect our investment in our brand and goodwill with customers, competitors may challenge the validity of those trademarks and other brand names in which we have invested. Such challenges can be expensive and may adversely affect our ability to maintain the goodwill gained in connection with a particular trademark.
Risks Related to Environmental and Regulatory Matters
We, our outsourcing partners and our suppliers are or may be subject to substantial regulation and unfavorable changes to, or failure by us, our outsourcing partners or our suppliers to comply with, these regulations could substantially harm our business and operating results.
We continue to evaluate requirements for licenses, approvals, certificates and governmental authorizations necessary to manufacture, sell, or service our KARNO generator in the jurisdictions in which we plan to operate and intend to take such actions necessary to comply. If we, our outsourcing partners or our suppliers are unable to obtain or comply with any of the licenses, approvals, certifications or other governmental authorizations necessary to carry out our operations in the jurisdictions in which we currently operate, or those jurisdictions in which we plan to operate in the future, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected. We expect to incur significant costs in complying with these regulations.
To the extent the laws change, our products may not comply with applicable international, federal, state or local laws, which would have an adverse effect on our business. Compliance with changing regulations could be burdensome, time consuming and expensive. To the extent compliance with new regulations is cost prohibitive, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results would be adversely affected.
We are subject to evolving laws, regulations, standards and contractual obligations related to data privacy and security, and our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our reputation, subject us to significant fines and liability or adversely affect our business.
Collection of our customers’, employees’, and others’ information in conducting our business may subject us to various legislative and regulatory burdens related to data privacy and security that could require notification of data breaches, restrict our use of such information and hinder our ability to acquire new customers or market to existing customers. The regulatory framework for data privacy and security is rapidly evolving, and we may not be able to monitor and react to all developments in a timely manner. For example, California requires connected devices to maintain minimum information security requirements.
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As legislation continues to develop, we will likely be required to expend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective measures and internal processes to comply with such legislation. In addition, non-compliance with these laws or a significant breach of our third-party service providers’ or vendors’ or our own network security and systems could have serious negative consequences for our business and future prospects, including possible fines, penalties and damages, reduced customer demand for our vehicles and harm to our reputation and brand.
We are subject to various environmental laws and regulations that could impose substantial costs upon us and cause delays in building our production facilities.
Our operations are and will be subject to international, federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations, including laws relating to the use, handling, storage, disposal of and human exposure to hazardous materials. Environmental and health and safety laws and regulations can be complex, and we have limited experience complying with them. Moreover, we expect that we will be affected by future amendments to such laws or other new environmental and health and safety laws and regulations which may require us to change our operations, potentially resulting in a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. These laws can give rise to liability for administrative oversight costs, cleanup costs, property damage, bodily injury, fines and penalties. Capital and operating expenses needed to comply with environmental laws and regulations can be significant, and violations may result in substantial fines and penalties, third-party damages, suspension of production or a cessation of our operations.
Contamination at properties we will own or operate, we formerly owned or operated or to which hazardous substances were sent by us, may result in liability for us under environmental laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which can impose liability for the full amount of remediation-related costs without regard to fault, for the investigation and cleanup of contaminated soil and ground water, for building contamination and impacts to human health and for damages to natural resources. The costs of complying with environmental laws and regulations and any claims concerning noncompliance, or liability with respect to contamination in the future, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or operating results. We may face unexpected delays in obtaining the required permits and approvals in connection with our planned production facilities that could require significant time and financial resources and delay our ability to operate these facilities, which would adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Risks Related to Capital and Tax Matters
We may need to raise additional funds and these funds may not be available to us when we need them. If we cannot raise additional funds when we need them, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be negatively affected.
The design, production, sale and servicing of our products is capital-intensive. On October 1, 2020, the Company raised net proceeds of $516.5 million. At December 31, 2020, all outstanding warrants were either exercised or redeemed, with gross proceeds of $140.8 million raised, of which $16.3 million was collected during the first quarter of 2021. At December 31, 2023, the Company had total equity of $306.3 million, inclusive of cash and cash equivalents of $12.9 million and total investments of $278.5 million. We may determine that additional funds are necessary earlier than anticipated. This capital may be necessary to fund our ongoing operations, purchase additive printing machines, continue research, development and design efforts, create new products and improve infrastructure. We may raise additional funds through the issuance of equity, equity related or debt securities or through obtaining credit from government or financial institutions. We cannot be certain that additional funds will be available to us on favorable terms when required, or at all. If we cannot raise additional funds when we need them, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected.
We may not be able to raise the capital we need to invest in additive manufacturing capacity, facilities and other equipment needed to manufacture and assemble KARNO generator systems. If we cannot raise the investment capital we need on favorable terms, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be negatively affected.
The production of key KARNO generator parts at the scale we need to grow our business requires significant investment in modern additive printer technology as well as production facilities and other equipment needed to support printing and assembly operations. We intend to finance most of these capital investments through leases or utilize other forms of debt financing. The lease market for additive printer technology is immature and may not support the level of lease capital we need to grow our business. We cannot be certain that we can obtain lease or debt financing on favorable terms when required, or at all. If we cannot obtain equipment and other asset financing when we need it, our business prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected.
Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes may be limited as a result of ownership changes.
We have incurred losses during our history and do not expect to become profitable in the near future, and may never achieve profitability. To the extent that we continue to generate taxable losses, unused losses will carry forward to offset future taxable
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income, if any, until such unused losses expire, if at all. As of December 31, 2023, we had U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $297.9 million.
Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”), as modified by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards generated in taxable periods beginning after December 31, 2017, may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such net operating loss carryforwards in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020, is limited to 80% of taxable income.
Under Section 382 of the Code, substantial changes in our ownership may result in an annual limitation on the amount of net operating loss carryforwards that could be utilized in the future to offset our taxable income. Generally, this limitation may arise in the event of a cumulative change in ownership of more than 50% within a three-year period. We have completed such analysis and determined that such an ownership change occurred in 2017. This will limit the usage of our 2017 and prior year net operating losses, and will cause $2.0 million of such losses to expire unused, regardless of future taxable income. We could experience another ownership change that might limit our use of net operating loss and tax credits in the future. There is also a risk that due to regulatory changes, such as suspensions on the use of net operating loss, or other unforeseen reasons, our existing net operating loss could expire or otherwise be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. Due to this, as well as our overall profitability estimate as noted above, we have recorded a full valuation allowance related to our net operating loss carryforwards and other deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future benefits of those assets.
We, or our potential customers, may not be able to obtain or agree on acceptable terms and conditions for all or a significant portion of the government grants, loans and other incentives which are applied for. As a result, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results may be adversely affected.
We anticipate that we and our potential customers will apply for federal and state grants, loans and tax incentives under government programs designed to stimulate the economy and support the production of alternative fuel and electric vehicles and related technologies. We anticipate that in the future there will be new opportunities for us and our potential customers to apply for grants, loans and other incentives from federal, state and foreign governments. Our, and our potential customers’ ability to obtain funds or incentives from government sources is subject to the availability of funds under applicable government programs and approval of applications to participate in such programs. The application process for these funds and other incentives will likely be highly competitive. We cannot assure you that we, or our potential customers, will be successful in obtaining any of these additional grants, loans and other incentives.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities
Concentration of ownership among our existing executive officers, directors and their respective affiliates may prevent new investors from influencing significant corporate decisions.
As of December 31, 2023, our executive officers, directors and their respective affiliates, as a group, beneficially owned approximately 19.6% of our outstanding common stock. As a result, these stockholders are able to exercise a significant level of control over all matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, amendment of our Certificate of Incorporation and approval of significant corporate transactions. This control could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control of us or changes in management and will make the approval of certain transactions difficult or impossible without the support of these stockholders.
We may issue additional shares of common stock or preferred stock, including under our equity incentive plans. Any such issuances would dilute the interest of our stockholders and likely present other risks.
We may issue a substantial number of additional shares of common or preferred stock, including under our equity incentive plans. Any such issuances of additional shares of common or preferred stock may cause significant dilution, subordinate the rights to holders of common stock to those of preferred stock, cause a change in control, and adversely affect prevailing market prices.
Our failure to maintain compliance with the NYSE’s continued listing requirements could result in the delisting of our common stock.
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”). In order to maintain this listing, we must satisfy minimum financial and other requirements. On November 2, 2023, we received notice (the “Delisting Notice”) from the NYSE that because the average per share closing price of our common stock (the “Common Stock”) over a 30 consecutive trading-day period ended November 1, 2023 was below $1.00 (the “Minimum Price Requirement”), we were not in compliance with Section 802.01C of the NYSE’s Listed Company Manual.
Pursuant to Section 802.01C, we have a period of six months following the receipt of the Delisting Notice to regain compliance with the Minimum Price Requirement. In accordance with the NYSE’s rules, we notified the NYSE within 10 business days of our intent to cure the deficiency, which may include effecting a reverse stock split, subject to approval by our Board and stockholders. We may regain compliance with the Minimum Price Requirement at any time during the cure period if, on the last trading day of any calendar month during the cure period, or on the last day of the cure period, our common stock has (i) a closing share price of at least $1.00, and (ii) an average closing share price of at least $1.00 over the 30 trading-day period
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ending on the last trading day of that month or on the last day of the cure period, as applicable. The Delisting Notice has no immediate impact on the listing of our common stock, which will continue to be listed and traded on the NYSE under the symbol “HYLN” during this period, subject to our compliance with the other continued listing requirements of the NYSE. Failure to satisfy the conditions of the cure period or to maintain other listing requirements could lead to delisting.
The perception among investors that we are at a heightened risk of delisting could negatively affect the market price and trading volume of our common stock. If our common stock is delisted from the NYSE, the delisting could: substantially decrease trading in our common stock; adversely affect the market liquidity of our common stock; adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future on acceptable terms, if at all; result in the potential loss of confidence by investors, suppliers, partners and employees and fewer business development opportunities; and result in limited news and analyst coverage. Additionally, the market price of our common stock may decline further, and stockholders may lose some or all of their investment.
General Risks
Future product recalls could materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Any product recall in the future, whether it involves us or a competitor’s product, may result in negative publicity, damage our brand and materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. In the future, we may voluntarily or involuntarily, initiate a recall if any of our products prove to be defective or noncompliant with applicable safety standards or other laws or regulations. Such recalls may involve significant expense and diversion of management attention and other resources, which could adversely affect our brand image, as well as our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
We are or may be subject to risks associated with strategic alliances or acquisitions and may not be able to identify adequate strategic relationship opportunities, or form strategic relationships, in the future.
We have entered into strategic alliances and may in the future enter into additional strategic alliances or joint ventures or minority equity investments, in each case with various third parties for the production of our electrified powertrain solutions as well as with other collaborators with capabilities on data and analytics, engineering, installation channels, refueling stations and hydrogen fuel cells. These alliances subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance by the third party and increased expenses in establishing new strategic alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. Strategic business relationships will be an important factor in the growth and success of our business. However, there are no assurances that we will be able to continue to identify or secure suitable business relationship opportunities in the future or our competitors may capitalize on such opportunities before we do. Moreover, identifying such opportunities could require substantial management time and resources, and negotiating and financing relationships involves significant costs and uncertainties. If we are unable to successfully source and execute on strategic relationship opportunities in the future, our overall growth could be impaired, and our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results could be materially adversely affected.
When appropriate opportunities arise, we may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. In addition to possible stockholder approval, we may need approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for the acquisitions and to comply with any applicable laws and regulations, which could result in increased delay and costs, and may disrupt our business strategy if we fail to do so. Furthermore, acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses into our own require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY
We understand the critical importance of cybersecurity and proactively manage vulnerabilities to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our information assets. While we have not experienced any material risks from cybersecurity incidents or threats to date, we recognize the evolving threat landscape and remain vigilant in our security posture.
Risk Management and Strategy
Our cybersecurity risk management program leverages the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) 800-37 framework as a foundation, customized to align with our entity size, risk profile, and industry best practices. We believe that
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leveraging the NIST framework as a foundation ensures a balanced approach for mitigating vulnerabilities while maintaining operational efficiency.
We maintain a comprehensive incident response plan with clearly defined roles and responsibilities. In the event of an incident, the plan outlines notification procedures, containment measures, eradication steps, and recovery processes. We also conduct annual reviews to ensure the plan's effectiveness. We are currently conducting our annual cybersecurity assessment with the help of third-party specialists, which is expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2024. This assessment covers entity-level controls, threat management, and reviews of critical third-party security measures. Materiality of individual cybersecurity incidents is determined by a comprehensive assessment framework considering, but not limited to, the following factors:
Impact on Business Operations: Potential disruptions to critical systems, services, or financial transactions.
Data Sensitivity: The nature and sensitivity of the data involved, with incidents concerning personally identifiable information or highly confidential data deemed more material.
Regulatory Compliance: Potential violations of cybersecurity laws, regulations, or industry standards.
Reputational Risk: Harm to the Company's reputation, customer trust, and brand value.
Legal Obligations: Legal requirements for reporting incidents and potential consequences of non-compliance.
Identification, Assessment, and Reporting of Cybersecurity Threats
We employ a multi-layered approach to identify, assess, and report potential cybersecurity threats:
Threat intelligence tracking: We actively monitor relevant-threat intelligence feeds and industry best practices to stay informed about emerging threats and vulnerabilities.
Managed Detection and Response (“MDR”) partnership: We have partnered with a reputable third-party MDR provider to enhance our threat detection and response capabilities. This service provides continuous monitoring, analysis, and proactive response to potential threats, ensuring timely identification and mitigation of cybersecurity incidents.
Metrics and Measurements: We capture telemetry from our IT infrastructure in order to measure the effectiveness of our security controls and identify areas for improvement.
Third-Party Service Providers
We take security seriously when choosing and working with third-party providers and have established processes to oversee and manage risks associated with third-party service providers. We require providers to share their security reports (System and Organization Controls (“SOC”) 1 and SOC 2) prior to initial engagement and ongoing on an annual basis. We believe that the review of such reports helps us minimize the risk of data breaches or other problems resulting due to our third-party relationships, especially with software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) providers.
Reporting
We have a communication process for incidents based on their severity as outlined in our incident response plan. When a major incident is detected, executive leadership is informed within 24 hours. The audit committee and Chief Financial Officer are notified, and a detailed report is submitted, within 24-48 hours. For moderate incidents, the notification timeframe is 72 hours, and the detailed report is submitted to the audit committee within five to seven days. If a cybersecurity incident is deemed material, it will be reported promptly under SEC guidance.
Management and Board of Director Oversight of Cybersecurity Threats
The Company's Chief Financial Officer and the audit committee of the Board has responsibility for the oversight of cybersecurity threats and incidents and reviews the Company’s programs and policies on an annual basis. The Company’s Chief Financial Officer has prior management experience in overseeing technology infrastructure and cybersecurity.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our headquarters are located in an approximately 152,000 square foot facility comprised of two buildings that we lease in Cedar Park, Texas, just north of Austin, Texas, where our administrative function is primarily located. Our lease of this facility expires in April 2027 and we have the option to extend the lease for two additional five-year terms. We also lease an approximately 30,000 square foot facility in Milford, Ohio near, Cincinnati, Ohio, where we design and develop the KARNO technology. Our lease of the Ohio facility expires in June 2028, with the option to extend the term for up to two consecutive terms of three years. We believe that our current facilities are in good working order and are capable of supporting our operations for the foreseeable future; however, we will continue to evaluate buying or leasing additional space as needed to accommodate our growth.
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ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time, the Company is subject to claims in legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of its business, including payroll-related and various employment-related matters. All litigation currently pending against the Company relates to matters that have arisen in the ordinary course of business and the Company believes that such matters will not have a material adverse effect on its consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Refer to Note 14 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further information on our legal proceedings.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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Part II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our common stock is currently listed on the NYSE under the symbol “HYLN.”
Holders
As of February 6, 2024, there were 74 holders of record of our Common Stock. A greater number of holders of our common stock are “street name” or beneficial holders, whose shares are held by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.
Dividend Policy
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock to date. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that the Board may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends may be limited by covenants of any existing and future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur. We do not anticipate declaring any cash dividends to holders of the common stock in the foreseeable future.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information regarding repurchases of our Common Stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2023:
Total Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per Share
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs(1)
Maximum Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans
or Programs(2)
October 1 - 31, 2023— $— — $20,000,000 
November 1 - 30, 2023— $— — $20,000,000 
December 1 - 31, 202337,062 $0.85 37,062 $19,968,338 
Total37,062 37,062 
1 Share repurchases are conducted under our share repurchase program announced in December 2023, which has no expiration date, authorizing the repurchase of up to $20 million in shares.
2 This column includes the total value of shares available for repurchase under the Company's share repurchase program. Shares under our share repurchase program may be repurchased in open market transactions, including pursuant to a trading plan adopted in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or through privately negotiated transactions. The timing, manner, price and amount of repurchases will be determined at our discretion and the share repurchase program may be suspended, terminated or modified at any time for any reason.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities
In connection with the acquisition of assets from General Electric Company, acting solely by and through its GE Additive business unit, on September 26, 2022, we issued an aggregate of 5,500,000 shares of our common stock (the “Share Consideration”) to General Electric Company as a portion of the consideration for the assets. Such shares were issued pursuant to an exemption from registration provided by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
ITEM 6. RESERVED
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Dollar amounts in this discussion are expressed in millions, except as otherwise noted. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect future plans, estimates, beliefs and expected performance. The forward-looking statements are dependent upon events, risks and uncertainties that may be outside of our control. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed elsewhere in this Form 10-K, particularly in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors. We do not undertake, and expressly disclaim, any obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, new developments or otherwise, except to the extent that such disclosure is required by applicable law.
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Key Factors Affecting Operating Results
We believe that our performance and future success depend on several factors that present significant opportunities for us but also pose risks and challenges, including but not limited to current economic uncertainties, supply chain disruptions, inflation and high interest rates as well as those discussed below and referenced in Item 1A “Risk Factors”.
Strategic Business Developments
On November 7, 2023, the board of directors (the “Board”) of the Company approved a strategic plan to wind down its powertrain business and preserve technology relating to the powertrain business, to better align its workforce with the Company’s future needs, and to reduce the Company’s operating costs (the “Plan”). As part of the Plan, the Company will continue to focus on commercialization of its KARNO generator technology. Following completion of the Plan, we no longer expect to recognize revenue on products not related to KARNO technology, including the Company’s Hypertruck ERX system (“Hypertruck ERX”) and Hyliion Hybrid system (“Hybrid”).
Successful Commercialization of KARNO Generator
Our focus in the fourth quarter of 2023 was on continuing development and testing of our fuel-agnostic KARNO stationary generator and deploying initial revenue-generating units with customers in 2024. We anticipate that a substantial portion of our capital resources and efforts in the near future will be focused these activities. The amount and timing of our future funding requirements, if any, will depend on many factors, including but not limited to the pace of completing initial KARNO generator design, testing and validation, the pace at which we introduce initial generator units to the market, our strategies for manufacturing KARNO generator components (whether in-house or through outsourcing to third parties), the range of product offerings we plan to bring to market and external market factors beyond our control.
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Key Components of Statements of Operations
Revenue
We historically generated revenues from sales of Hybrid systems for Class 8 semi-trucks and limited quantities of Class 8 semi-trucks outfitted with the Hybrid system. As a result of the discontinuation of the electrified powertrain systems business and the shift to focus exclusively on the development and commercialization of the Company’s fuel-agnostic KARNO generator technology, we do not anticipate generating future revenues until we begin commercialization of our KARNO generators.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue includes all direct costs such as labor and materials, overhead costs, warranty costs and any write-down of inventory to net realizable value.
Research and Development Expense
Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for the discovery and development of our KARNO stationary generator and electrified powertrain solutions, which include:
personnel-related expenses including salaries, benefits, travel and share-based compensation, for personnel performing research and development activities;
fees paid to third parties such as contractors for outsourced engineering services and to consultants;
expenses related to components for development and testing, materials, supplies and other third-party services;
depreciation for equipment used in research and development activities;
acquired in-process research and development from asset acquisition; and
allocation of general overhead costs.
We expect to continue to invest in research and development activities to achieve operational and commercial goals.
Selling, General and Administrative Expense
Selling, general and administrative expenses consist of personnel-related expenses for our corporate, executive, finance, sales, marketing and other administrative functions, expenses for outside professional services, including legal, audit and accounting services, as well as expenses for facilities, depreciation, amortization, travel, sales and marketing costs. Personnel-related expenses consist of salaries, benefits and share-based compensation. Factors that also affect selling, general and administrative expense include the total number of employees, costs incurred as a result of operating as a public company, including compliance with the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, legal, audit, insurance, investor relations activities and other administrative and professional services.
Exit and Termination Costs
Exit and termination costs consist of employee severance and retention payments, accelerated non-cash stock-based compensation expense, contract termination and other cancellation costs, and non-cash charges including accelerated depreciation and amortization. These costs are a result of the Plan approved on November 7, 2023 to wind down our powertrain business to better align its workforce with the Company’s future needs.
Other Income (Expense)
Other income currently consists primarily of interest income earned on our investments. As a result of our acquisition of the KARNO generator technology, we plan to assume a government contract with the United States Office of Naval Research that is not expected to have a material impact on our business. We plan to seek additional government contracts in the future and may reassess the classification of such contracts as revenue based on business strategy.
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Results of Operations
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022
The following table summarizes our results of operations on a consolidated basis for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 (in thousands, except share and per share data):
Year Ended December 31,
20232022$ Change% Change
Revenues
Product sales and other$672 $2,106 $(1,434)(68.1)%
Total revenues672 2,106 (1,434)(68.1)%
Cost of revenues
Product sales and other1,716 8,778 (7,062)(80.5)%
Total cost of revenues1,716 8,778 (7,062)(80.5)%
Gross loss(1,044)(6,672)5,628 (84.4)%
Operating expenses
Research and development82,240 110,370 (28,130)(25.5)%
Selling, general and administrative42,611 41,988 623 1.5 %
Exit and termination costs11,474 — 11,474 N/A
Total operating expenses136,325 152,358 (16,033)(10.5)%
Loss from operations(137,369)(159,030)21,661 (13.6)%
Interest income13,808 5,724 8,084 141.2 %
Gain (loss) on impairment and disposal of assets(19)20 N/A
Other income (expense), net50 (32)82 N/A
Net loss$(123,510)$(153,357)$29,847 (19.5)%
Net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.68)$(0.87)$0.19 (21.8)%
Weighted-average shares outstanding, basic and diluted181,411,069 175,400,486 6,010,583 3.4 %
Revenue
Sales associated with our Hybrid products decreased $1.4 million. As a result of our strategic review and decision to wind down our powertrain business, we do not anticipate further revenue until we begin commercialization of our KARNO generator.
Cost of Revenues
Cost of revenues associated with our Hybrid products decreased $7.1 million. The decrease in cost of revenues includes:
A decrease in inventory write-downs of $4.5 million attributable to inventory on hand that had a cost higher than its expected net realizable value as we purchased less inventory in the current year;
A decrease in costs associated with sales of Hybrid systems of $2.2 million; and
A decrease in warranty costs of $0.4 million for estimated costs to administer and maintain the warranty program for labor, transportation and parts, excluding any contribution from vendors as we sold fewer Hybrid systems in the current year.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses decreased $28.1 million due to:
A decrease of $28.8 million related to KARNO technology acquired in September 2022 from General Electric Company’s GE Additive business to develop and commercialize the fuel agnostic KARNO generator; and
A decrease of $13.4 million for the design and testing of our Hypertruck ERX system; offset by
An increase of $14.1 million for the design and testing of our KARNO stationary generator.
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Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased $0.6 million primarily due to:
An increase of $1.3 million in professional services and other one-time charges; and
An increase of $1.2 million in personnel and benefits, offset by costs related to the prior-year departure of our previous Chief Financial Officer; partially offset by
A decrease of $2.3 million for insurance costs.
Exit and Termination Costs
Exit and termination costs of $11.5 million were a result of the strategic plan and items discussed in Note 2 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
Other Income (Expense)
Total other income increased $8.2 million primarily due to an increase in interest income on investments.
Cash Flows
Net cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash provided by or used in operating activities, investing activities and financing activities is summarized as follows for the periods indicated and should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Cash from operating activities$(116,962)$(116,877)
Cash from investing activities18,308 (22,022)
Cash from financing activities(15)(78)
$(98,669)$(138,977)
Cash from Operating Activities
For the year ended December 31, 2023, cash flows used in operating activities were $117.0 million. Cash used primarily related to a net loss of $123.5 million, adjusted for $2.9 million change in working capital accounts and $9.5 million in certain non-cash expenses (including $6.2 million related to share-based compensation, $1.1 million related to inventory write-downs and $0.6 million related to depreciation, amortization and accretion charges).
For the year ended December 31, 2022, cash flows used in operating activities were $116.9 million. Cash used primarily related to a net loss of $153.4 million, adjusted for $8.7 million change in working capital accounts and $45.2 million in certain non-cash expenses (including $28.8 million related to acquired in-process research and development comprised of the non-cash component and the cash component attributable to investing activities, $7.0 million related to share-based compensation, $5.6 million related to inventory write-downs and $2.5 million related to depreciation, amortization and accretion charges).
Cash from Investing Activities
For the year ended December 31, 2023, cash flows provided by investing activities were $18.3 million. Cash used primarily related to the purchase of investments totaling $189.7 million and property and equipment of $7.4 million, offset by the sale or maturity of investments of $215.4 million.
For the year ended December 31, 2022, cash flows used in investing activities were $22.0 million. Cash used primarily related to the purchase of investments totaling $268.6 million, the cash component of acquired in-process research and development of $14.4 million and property and equipment of $2.9 million, partially offset by the sale or maturity of investments of $263.7 million.
Cash from Financing Activities
For the year ended December 31, 2023, cash flows used in financing activities were nil.
For the year ended December 31, 2022, cash flows used in financing activities were $0.1 million. Cash flows were primarily due to payment of taxes related to net share settlement of equity awards of $0.2 million.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
At December 31, 2023, our current assets were $181.7 million, consisting primarily of cash and cash equivalents of $12.9 million, short-term investments of $150.3 million, and prepaid expenses of $18.5 million. Our current liabilities were $15.1
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million primarily comprised of accounts payable, accrued expenses and operating lease liabilities. We also had $128.2 million of investments in longer-term liquid securities which we maintain to generate higher income on capital that we do not expect to spend in the next 12 months.
We believe the credit quality and liquidity of our investment portfolio at December 31, 2023 is strong and will provide sufficient liquidity to satisfy operating requirements, working capital purposes and strategic initiatives. The unrealized gains and losses of the portfolio may remain volatile as changes in the general interest rate environment and supply and demand fluctuations of the securities within our portfolio impact daily market valuations. To mitigate the risk associated with this market volatility, we deploy a relatively conservative investment strategy focused on capital preservation and liquidity whereby no investment security may have a final maturity of more than 36 months from the date of acquisition or a weighted average maturity exceeding 18 months. Eligible investments under the Company’s investment policy bearing a minimum credit rating of A1, A-1, F1 or higher for short-term investments and A2, A, or higher for longer-term investments include money market funds, commercial paper, certificates of deposit and municipal securities. Additionally, all of our debt securities are classified as held-to-maturity as we have the intent and ability to hold these investment securities to maturity, which minimizes any realized losses that we would recognize prior to maturity. However, even with this approach we may incur investment losses as a result of unusual or unpredictable market developments, and we may experience reduced investment earnings if the yields on investments deemed to be low risk remain low or decline further due to unpredictable market developments. In addition, these unusual and unpredictable market developments may also create liquidity challenges for certain of the assets in our investment portfolio.
Based on our past performance, we believe our current and long-term assets will be sufficient to continue and execute on our business strategy and meet our capital requirements for the next twelve months. We do not expect to need to raise additional equity capital for the foreseeable future. Our primary short-term cash needs are costs associated with KARNO generator development and the exit from our powertrain business. Longer term, our capital needs will be determined by our go-to-market strategy, which may include development of our own KARNO generator manufacturing capacity or outsourcing this work to third parties or business partners. In December 2023, we announced an authorized share repurchase program to repurchased up to $20 million of our outstanding common stock. We repurchased $33 thousand in common stock during the year ended December 31, 2023. Based on current projections of operating expenses, capital spending, working capital growth and share repurchases, we expect to have between $220 and $230 million in cash, short-term and long-term investments remaining on our balance sheet at the end of 2024.
We expect to continue to incur net losses in the short term, as we continue to execute on our strategic initiatives by completing the development and commercialization of the KARNO generator with anticipated initial customer deployments in late 2024. However, actual results could vary materially and negatively as a result of a number of factors including, but not limited to, those discussed in Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”
The amount and timing of our future funding requirements, if any, will depend on many factors, including the pace and results of our research and development efforts, the breadth of product offerings we plan to commercialize, the pace of sales, and our long-term plan manufacturing plan for the KARNO generator including plans for financing additive printer investments, as well as factors that are outside of our control.
During the periods presented, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated organizations or financial partnerships, such as structured finance or special purpose entities, which were established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements.
Contractual Obligations and Capital Resources
We manage our use of cash in the operation of our business to support the execution of our primary strategic goals including the design, development and sale of the KARNO generator. We primarily use cash for research and development activities, capital investments and general and administrative costs.
Our cash requirements beyond twelve months include:
Leases — Refer to Note 9 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further information of our obligations and the timing of expected payments.
Purchase Commitments — Purchase obligations include non-cancelable purchase commitments related to materials purchase agreements and volume commitments which are entered into from time to time. As of December 31, 2023, there were no such non-cancelable purchase commitments. Refer to Note 2 of the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further information of our exit obligations and the timing of expected payments.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates
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and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the balance sheet date, as well as the reported expenses incurred during the reporting period. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions believed to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates, and such differences could be material to our financial statements.
We believe that the accounting policies discussed below are critical to understanding our historical and future performance, as these policies relate to the more significant areas involving management’s judgments and estimates.
While our significant accounting policies are described in the notes to our financial statements (see Note 3 in the accompanying audited consolidated financial statements), we believe that the following accounting policies require a greater degree of judgment and complexity. Accordingly, these are the policies we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our financial condition and results of operations.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue was historically comprised of sales of Hybrid systems for Class 8 semi-trucks, Class 8 semi-trucks outfitted with Hybrid systems and specific other features and services that met the definition of a performance obligation, including internet connectivity and data processing. We provided installation services for the Hybrid system onto the customers’ vehicle. The Company’s products were marketed and sold to end-user fleet customers in North America. When our contracts with customers contained multiple performance obligations and where material, the contract transaction price was allocated on a relative standalone selling price basis to each performance obligation.
We recognized revenue on Hybrid system sales and Class 8 semi-trucks outfitted with Hybrid systems upon delivery to, and acceptance of the vehicle by, the customer, which is when control transfers. Contracts were reviewed for significant financing components and payments were typically received within 30 days of delivery. The sale of a Hybrid system to an end-use fleet customer consisted of a completed modification to the customer vehicle and the installation services involved significant integration of the Hybrid system with the customer’s vehicle. Installation services were not distinct within the context of the contract and together with the sale of the Hybrid system represented a single performance obligation. We did not offer any sales returns. Amounts billed to customers related to shipping and handling were classified as revenue, and we have elected to recognize the cost for freight and shipping when control has transferred to the customer as a cost of revenue. Our policy is to exclude taxes collected from customers from the transaction price of contracts.
When a Class 8 semi-truck outfitted with a Hybrid system was resold to a customer, judgment was required to determine if we were the principal or agent in the arrangement. We considered factors such as, but not limited to, which entity had the primary responsibility for fulfilling the promise to provide the specified good or service, which entity had inventory risk before the specified good or service had been transferred to a customer and which entity had discretion in establishing the price for the specified good or service. We have determined that we were the principal in transactions involving the resale of Class 8 semi-trucks outfitted with the Hybrid system.
We had limited sales history of our Hybrid systems and therefore were required to make certain estimates and assumptions with regard to the recognition of revenue including, among other things, the value of any future performance obligations.
Inventories
Inventory is comprised of raw materials, work in process and finished goods. Semi-truck inventory is valued using the specific identification cost method and all other inventory is valued using the moving-average cost method. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We review our inventory to determine whether its carrying value exceeds the net amount realizable we expect to receive upon the ultimate sale of the inventory. This requires us to determine the estimated selling price of inventory less the estimated cost to convert the inventory on-hand into a finished product and other costs, which we determined includes the cost of installation and validation, to align with the transfer of control to customers in our revenue policy. Inventory write-downs are first allocated to all other inventory with any residual allocated to semi-truck inventory.
Once inventory is written-down based on a lower of cost or net realizable value analysis, that amount establishes the new carrying value of inventory if written-down at year end, and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis. Interim impairments are reversed and reassessed at each reporting period.
During the fourth quarter of 2021, we changed from a research and development phase to a production phase for our Hybrid system product. Through December 31, 2023, we have not yet commercialized the KARNO generator. Costs incurred for components acquired prior to our determination of reaching a commercial stage are expensed as research and development
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costs, resulting in zero cost basis for those components. As a result, moving-average prices for inventory that is capitalized in future periods may be significantly affected by those zero cost items.
Warranties
We historically provided limited assurance-type warranties under our contracts and do not offer extended warranties. We plan to continue to service legacy warranties through their remaining term. The warranty period typically extends for the lesser of two years or 200,000 miles following transfer of control and solely relates to correction of product defects during the warranty period. We recognize the cost of the warranty upon transfer of control based on estimated and historical claims rates and fulfillment costs, which are variable. Should product failure rates and fulfillment costs differ from these estimates, material revisions to the estimated warranty liability would be required. Warranty expense is recorded as a component of cost of revenue.
Acquisitions and Disposals
Disposals
On November 7, 2023, the Board approved a strategic plan to wind down its powertrain business and preserve technology relating to the powertrain business, to better align its workforce with the Company’s future needs, and to reduce the Company’s operating costs (the “Plan”). We have made certain estimates of the cash expenditures and charges that the Company expects to incur in connection with the Plan which may differ materially from estimates.
Acquisitions
To determine whether acquisitions should be accounted for as a business combination or as an asset acquisition, we make certain judgments which include assessing whether the acquired set of activities and assets meet the definition of a business. If the acquired set of activities and assets meets the definition of a business, assets acquired and liabilities assumed are required to be recorded at their respective fair values as of the acquisition date with the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the acquired net assets recorded as goodwill. If the acquired set of activities and assets does not meet the definition of a business, the transaction is recorded as an acquisition of assets and, therefore, any acquired in-process research and development (“IPR&D”) that does not have an alternative future use is charged to expense at the acquisition date, and no goodwill is recorded.
The judgments made in determining estimated fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination or asset acquisition, as well as estimated asset lives, can materially affect our consolidated results of operations. All assets acquired in 2022 were valued using level 3 inputs with property and equipment valued using a cost approach and IPR&D valued using an income approach based on management’s projections. The fair values of assets, including acquired IPR&D, are determined using information available near the acquisition date based on estimates and assumptions that are deemed reasonable by management. Significant estimates and assumptions include, but are not limited to, probability of technical success, revenue growth, future revenues and expenses and discount rate.
Share-Based Compensation
We account for share-based payments that involve the issuance of shares of our common stock to employees and nonemployees and meet the criteria for share-based awards as share-based compensation expense based on the grant-date fair value of the award. The Company has elected to recognize the adjustment to share-based compensation expense in the period in which forfeitures occur. We recognize compensation expense for awards with only service conditions on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award.
If factors change, and we utilize different assumptions including the probability of achieving performance conditions, share-based compensation cost on future award grants may differ significantly from share-based compensation cost recognized on past award grants. If there are any modifications or cancellations of the underlying unvested securities, we may be required to accelerate any remaining unearned share-based compensation cost or incur incremental cost. Share-based compensation cost affects our research and development and selling, general and administrative expenses.
Income Taxes 
We recognize deferred taxes for temporary differences between the basis of assets and liabilities for financial statement and income tax purposes. At December 31, 2023, we had federal net operating loss carryforwards of $297.9 million and state net operating loss carryforwards of $12.5 million that expire in various years starting in 2036. The Company also has R&D credits of $4.7 million that begin to expire in 2037.
Deferred tax assets are regularly assessed to determine the likelihood they will be realized from future taxable income. A valuation allowance is established when we believe it is not more likely than not all or some of a deferred tax asset will be realized. In evaluating our ability to recover deferred tax assets within the jurisdiction in which they arise, we consider all available positive and negative evidence. Factors reviewed include the cumulative pre-tax book income for the past three years,
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scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, our history of earnings and reliable forecasting, projections of pre-tax book income over the foreseeable future, and the impact of any feasible and prudent tax planning strategies. Due to cumulative losses over recent years and based on all available positive and negative evidence, we have determined that it is not more likely than not that our net deferred tax assets will be realizable as of December 31, 2023. We intend to continue maintaining a full valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets until there is sufficient evidence to support the reversal of all or some portion of these allowances. A release of the valuation allowance would result in the recognition of certain deferred tax assets and a decrease to income tax expense or an income tax benefit for the period in which the release is recorded.
New and Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) or other standard setting bodies that are adopted by us as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, we believe that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on our financial position or results of operations under adoption.
See Recent Accounting Pronouncements issued, not yet adopted under Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to the 2023 consolidated financial statements for more information about recent accounting pronouncements, the timing of their adoption and our assessment, to the extent we have made one, of their potential impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are a smaller reporting company as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act. As a result, pursuant to Item 305(e) of Regulation S-K, we are not required to provide the information required by this Item.
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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
F-1

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM


Board of Directors and Stockholders
Hyliion Holdings Corp.

Opinion on the financial statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Hyliion Holdings Corp. a Delaware corporation and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Basis for opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical audit matter
Critical audit matters are matters arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. We determined there were no critical audit matters.

/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2020.

Dallas, Texas
February 13, 2024
F-2

HYLIION HOLDINGS CORP.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Dollar amounts in thousands, except share data)
December 31,
20232022
Assets
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$12,881 $119,468 
Accounts receivable, net40 1,136 
Inventory 74 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets18,483 9,795 
Short-term investments150,297 193,740 
Total current assets181,701 324,213 
Property and equipment, net9,987 5,606 
Operating lease right-of-use assets7,070 6,470 
Intangible assets, net 200 
Other assets1,439 1,686 
Long-term investments128,186 108,568 
Total assets$328,383 $446,743 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities
Accounts payable$4,224 $2,800 
Current portion of operating lease liabilities847 347 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities10,051 11,535 
Total current liabilities15,122 14,682 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion6,792 6,972 
Other liabilities203 1,515 
Total liabilities22,117 23,169 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 14)
Stockholders’ equity
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 250,000,000 shares authorized; 183,071,317 and 179,826,309 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
18 18 
Additional paid-in capital404,045 397,810 
Treasury stock, at cost; 37,062 and no shares as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
(33) 
(Accumulated deficit) retained earnings(97,764)25,746 
Total stockholders’ equity306,266 423,574 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$328,383 $446,743 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
F-3

HYLIION HOLDINGS CORP.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(Dollar amounts in thousands, except share and per share data)
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Revenues
Product sales and other$672 $2,106 
Total revenues672 2,106 
Cost of revenues
Product sales and other1,716 8,778 
Total cost of revenues1,716 8,778 
Gross loss(1,044)(6,672)
Operating expenses
Research and development82,240 110,370 
Selling, general and administrative42,611 41,988 
Exit and termination costs11,474  
Total operating expenses136,325 152,358 
Loss from operations(137,369)(159,030)
Interest income13,808 5,724 
Gain (loss) on impairment and disposal of assets1 (19)
Other income (expense), net50 (32)
Net loss$(123,510)$(153,357)
Net loss per share, basic and diluted$(0.68)$(0.87)
Weighted-average shares outstanding, basic and diluted181,411,069 175,400,486 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
F-4

HYLIION HOLDINGS CORP.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(Dollar amounts in thousands, except share data)
Common StockTreasury StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
(Accumulated Deficit) Retained EarningsTotal Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 2021173,468,979 $17  $ $374,795 $179,103 $553,915 
Issuance of common stock for acquisition5,500,000 1 — — 16,114 — 16,115 
Exercise of common stock options and vesting of restricted stock units, net857,330 — — — (78)— (78)
Share-based compensation— — — — 6,979 — 6,979 
Net loss— — — — — (153,357)(153,357)
Balance at December 31, 2022179,826,309 18   397,810 25,746 423,574 
Exercise of common stock options and vesting of restricted stock units, net3,245,008 — — — 18 — 18 
Share-based compensation— — — — 6,217 — 6,217 
Repurchase of treasury stock— — (37,062)(33)— — (33)
Net loss— — — — — (123,510)(123,510)
Balance at December 31, 2023183,071,317 $18 (37,062)$(33)$404,045 $(97,764)$306,266 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
F-5

HYLIION HOLDINGS CORP.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Dollar amounts in thousands)
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Cash flows from operating activities
Net loss$(123,510)$(153,357)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization3,511 1,227 
Amortization and accretion of investments, net(2,868)1,250 
Noncash lease expense1,496 1,244 
Inventory write-down1,139 5,641 
(Gain) loss on impairment and disposal of assets(1)19 
Share-based compensation6,217 6,979 
Provision for doubtful accounts 114 
Acquired in-process research and development (Note 2)
 28,752 
Change in operating assets and liabilities, net of effects of business acquisition:
Accounts receivable1,096 (1,180)
Inventory(1,065)(5,601)
Prepaid expenses and other assets463 (571)
Accounts payable1,356 (4,660)
Accrued expenses and other liabilities(3,020)4,571 
Operating lease liabilities(1,776)(1,305)
Net cash used in operating activities(116,962)(116,877)
Cash flows from investing activities
Purchase of property and equipment and other(7,401)(2,885)
Proceeds from sale of property and equipment2 152 
Purchase of in-process research and development (14,428)
Payments for security deposit, net(45) 
Purchase of investments(189,670)(268,584)
Proceeds from sale and maturity of investments215,422 263,723 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities18,308 (22,022)
Cash flows from financing activities
Proceeds from exercise of common stock options257 79 
Taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards(239)(157)
Repurchase of treasury stock(33) 
Net cash used in financing activities(15)(78)
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash(98,669)(138,977)
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of period120,133 259,110 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period$21,464 $120,133 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
F-6

HYLIION HOLDINGS CORP.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Dollar amounts in thousands, except as separately indicated)
Note 1. Description of Organization and Business Operations and Basis of Presentation
Overview
Hyliion Holdings Corp. is a Delaware corporation headquartered in Cedar Park, Texas, that designs and develops stationary power applications and electric powertrain systems. References to the “Company,” “Hyliion,” “we,” or “us” in this report refer to Hyliion Holdings Corp. and its wholly owned subsidiary, unless expressly indicated or the context otherwise requires.
The Company plans to develop and commercialize a fuel-agnostic generator (the “KARNO generator”) to be used in stationary power applications. The Company believes the KARNO generator is well positioned to address the rising strain on electrical infrastructure, notably from electric vehicles.
The Company announced a strategic review of alternatives for its electric powertrain business on October 10, 2023 citing lower than expected industry adoption of electric trucks, significant increases in component costs, changing regulatory requirements, and uncertainty about its ability to raise additional capital needed for ongoing investment in the business as reason for undertaking this strategic review. On November 7, 2023, the board of directors (the “Board”) determined that the Company would wind down operating the powertrain business. Hyliion intends to retain the technology of the powertrain business technology and will continue to explore potential sales or future use of both the technology and tangible assets from the powertrain business.
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Hyliion Holdings Corp. and its wholly owned subsidiary. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated upon consolidation. The consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Unites States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Any reference in these footnotes to the applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative GAAP as found in the Accounting Standards Codification and Accounting Standards Updates (“ASU”) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”). Certain prior period balances have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation in the consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes.
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and settlement of liabilities in the normal course of business. The Company is an early-stage growth company and has generated negative cash flows from operating activities since inception. At December 31, 2023, the Company had total equity of $306.3 million, inclusive of cash and cash equivalents of $12.9 million and total investments of $278.5 million. Based on this, the Company has sufficient funds to continue to execute its business strategy for the next twelve months from the issuance date of the financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Note 2. Acquisitions and Disposals
Disposals
On November 7, 2023, the Board of the Company approved a strategic plan to wind down its powertrain business and preserve technology relating to the powertrain business, to better align its workforce with the Company’s future needs, and to reduce the Company’s operating costs (the “Plan”). As part of the Plan, the Company will continue to focus on commercialization of its KARNO generator technology. Following completion of the Plan, we no longer expect to recognize revenue on products not related to KARNO technology, including the Company’s Hypertruck ERX system (“Hypertruck ERX”) and Hyliion Hybrid system (“Hybrid”). The Company continues to evaluate opportunities to monetize certain of the tangible assets relating to the Business, but no assurances can be provided that any such opportunities will be realized. The Company expects the wind-down to be primarily completed by the end of the Company’s first quarter of fiscal year 2024. We have not accounted for the impacts of the Plan as a discontinued operation through December 31, 2023, and substantial ongoing wind-down activities remain.
The Plan included a reduction of the Company’s workforce by approximately 175 people, or 67%, with some severance agreements that provide for continued services through various dates of the Company’s fiscal year 2024. The Plan is expected to result in total charges and expenses of approximately $20.4 million including: (i) $1.2 million in employee severance and retention payments, (ii) $0.7 million in accelerated non-cash stock-based compensation expense, (iii) $14.5 million in contract termination and other cancellation costs, excluding amounts recoverable from resale of tangible assets, and (iv) $4.0 million in non-cash charges, including accelerated depreciation and amortization. Charges and expenses related to the Plan of $11.5 million were incurred in the Company’s fourth quarter of fiscal year 2023 included in exit and termination costs in the consolidated statements of operations. The remaining $8.9 million in charges and expenses are expected to be incurred in the first quarter of fiscal 2024, excluding amounts recoverable from resale of tangible assets.
The change in total liabilities associated with the Plan, excluding warranty balances in Note 12, is summarized as follows (in millions). These balances are included within accrued expenses and other current liabilities, as presented in Note 11, with the remainder included within accounts payable.
December 31, 2022Charged to ExpenseCosts Paid or SettledDecember 31, 2023
Employee severance and retention$ $1.2 $(0.1)$1.1 
Contract terminations 8.2 (1.7)6.5 
$ $9.4 $(1.8)$7.6 
The above estimates of the cash expenditures and charges that the Company expects to incur in connection with the Plan, and the timing thereof, are subject to a number of assumptions and actual amounts may differ materially from estimates. In addition, the Company may incur other cash expenditures or charges not currently contemplated due to unanticipated events that may occur, including in connection with the implementation of the Plan or otherwise.
Acquisitions
In September 2022, we acquired certain assets (the “Acquired Asset”) of General Electric Company's GE Additive business (the “Acquisition”) including new hydrogen and fuel agnostic capable generator technology. The Acquisition did not meet the definition of a business combination and was accounted for as an asset acquisition. No goodwill was recognized and payments allocated to in-process research and development (“IPR&D”) were recorded in research and development expense as there was no alternative future use. Total consideration for the Acquisition was $32.3 million comprised of $15.0 million in cash, 5,500,000 shares of common stock valued at $16.1 million on the closing date and $1.2 million in direct transaction costs. $3.6 million was recorded as property and equipment with expected useful lives of primarily five years and $28.8 million was recorded as research and development expense. All assets were valued using level 3 inputs, with property and equipment valued using a market approach and IPR&D valued using an income approach based on Company management’s projections. The cash component of the consideration was recorded in the statement of cash flows and allocated between purchase of property and equipment and purchase of IPR&D under investing activities.
Note 3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the balance sheet date, as well as reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. The Company’s most significant estimates and judgments involve inventory, acquisitions, disposals, income taxes, valuation of share-based compensation, and probability-weighted future cash flows associated with long-lived asset impairment reviews. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions believed to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making
F-8

judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates, and such differences could be material to the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Segment Information
ASC 280, Segment Reporting, defines operating segments as components of an enterprise where discrete financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision-maker (“CODM”) in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company operates as a single operating segment. The Company’s CODM is the chief executive officer, who has ultimate responsibility for the operating performance of the Company and the allocation of resources. The CODM uses cash flows as the primary measure to manage the business and does not segment the business for internal reporting or decision making.
Concentration of Supplier Risk
The Company is dependent on certain suppliers, the majority of which are single source suppliers, and the inability of these suppliers to deliver necessary components of the Company’s products in a timely manner at prices, quality levels and volumes that are acceptable, or the Company’s inability to efficiently manage these components from these suppliers, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity date of 90 days or less at the time of purchase to be cash and cash equivalents only if in checking, savings or money market accounts. Cash and cash equivalents include cash held in banks and money market accounts and are carried at cost, which approximates fair value. The Company maintains cash in excess of federally insured limits at financial institutions which it believes are of high credit quality and has not incurred any losses related to these balances to date. The Company believes its credit risk, with respect to these financial institutions to be minimal.
Restricted Cash
The Company provided a supplier with a letter of credit for $7.9 million in the fourth quarter of 2023 to secure the performance of the Company’s obligations to purchase semi-trucks related to the Founders Program, backed by a restricted cash deposit to pay any draws on the letter of credit by the supplier.
The Company has provided its corporate headquarters lessor with a letter of credit for $0.7 million to secure the performance of the Company’s lease obligations, backed by a restricted cash deposit to pay any draws on the letter of credit by the lessor.
Total cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash as presented in the consolidated statements of cash flows is summarized as follows:
December 31, 2023December 31, 2022December 31, 2021
Cash and cash equivalents$12,881 $119,468 $258,445 
Restricted cash included in prepaid expenses and other current assets7,918   
Restricted cash included in other assets665 665 665 
$21,464 $120,133 $259,110 
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable are stated at a gross invoice amount, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The allowance for doubtful accounts is maintained at a level considered adequate to provide for potential account losses on the balance based on the Company’s evaluation of the anticipated impact of current economic conditions, changes in the character and size of the balance, past and expected future loss experience and other pertinent factors. At December 31, 2023 and 2022, accounts receivable included amounts receivable from customers of $0.0 million and $1.1 million, respectively. At December 31, 2023 and 2022, allowance for doubtful accounts on customer receivables were $0.0 million and $0.1 million, respectively.
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The portion of our net accounts receivable from significant customers is summarized as follows:
December 31,
20232022
Customer A %82 %
Customer C 12 
 %94 %
Investments
The Company’s investments consist of corporate bonds, U.S. treasury and agency securities, state and local municipal bonds and commercial paper, all of which are classified as held-to-maturity, with a maturity date of 36-months or less at the time of purchase. The Company determines the appropriate classification of investments at the time of purchase and re-evaluates such designation as of each balance sheet date. Investments are classified as held-to-maturity when the Company has the positive intent and ability to hold the securities to maturity. Held-to-maturity securities are stated at amortized cost, adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity. Such amortization, along with interest, is included in interest income. The Company uses the specific identification method to determine the cost basis of securities sold.
Investments are impaired when a decline in fair value is judged to be other-than-temporary. The Company evaluates investments for impairment by considering the length of time and extent to which market value has been less than cost or amortized cost, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer as well as specific events or circumstances that may influence the operations of the issuer and the Company’s intent to sell the security or the likelihood that it will be required to sell the security before recovery of the entire amortized cost. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is recorded to other income (expense) and a new cost basis in the investment is established.
Fair Value Measurements
ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements, clarifies that fair value is an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based upon assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. As a basis for considering such assumptions, ASC 820 establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
Level I: Quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets that the Company can access at the measurement date;
Level II: Significant other observable inputs other than level I prices such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data; and
Level III: Significant unobservable inputs that reflect the Company’s own assumptions about the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability.
An asset’s or liability’s fair value measurement level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Valuation techniques used need to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.
The Company believes its valuation methods are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, however the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments could result in a different fair value measurement at the reporting date.
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, accounts receivable, investments, accounts payable and accrued expenses. The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value because of the short-term nature of those instruments. The fair value of investments is based on quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active. As a result, investments are classified within Level II of the fair value hierarchy.
Inventories
Inventory is comprised of raw materials, work in process and finished goods and includes the cost of raw materials, freight, direct and indirect labor and allocations of other conversion costs and overhead. Semi-truck inventory is valued using the specific identification cost method and all other inventory is valued using the moving-average cost method. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We review our inventory to determine whether its carrying value exceeds the net amount realizable we expect to receive upon the ultimate sale of the inventory. This requires us to determine the estimated
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selling price of inventory less the estimated cost to convert the inventory on-hand into a finished product and other costs, which we determined includes the cost of installation and validation, to align with the transfer of control to customers in our revenue policy. Inventory write-downs are first allocated to all other inventory with any residual allocated to semi-truck inventory.
Once inventory is written-down based on a lower of cost or net realizable value analysis, that amount establishes the new carrying value of inventory if written-down at year end, and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis. Interim impairments are reversed and reassessed at each reporting period.
During the fourth quarter of 2021, we changed from a research and development phase to a production phase for our Hybrid system product. Through December 31, 2023, we have not yet commercialized the KARNO generator. Costs incurred for components acquired prior to our determination of reaching a commercial stage are expensed as research and development costs, resulting in zero cost basis for those components. As a result, moving-average prices for inventory that is capitalized in future periods may be significantly affected by those zero cost items.
Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets
Prepaid expenses and other current assets include prepaid insurance, rent and supplies, which are expected to be recognized, received or realized within the next 12 months.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment, net is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation, or if acquired in a business combination, at allocated fair value at the date of acquisition. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method, based upon the following estimated useful lives:
Production machinery and equipment
2 to 7 years
Vehicles
3 to 7 years
Leasehold improvements
shorter of lease term or 7 years
Demo fleet systems
2 to 3 years
Furniture and fixtures3 years
Computers and related equipment
3 to 7 years
Major renewals and improvements are capitalized, while replacements, maintenance and repairs, which do not improve or extend the lives of the respective assets, are expensed as incurred. When property and equipment is retired or otherwise disposed of, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any gain or loss on the disposition is recorded in the consolidated statement of operations as a component of other income (expense). All long-lived assets are located in the United States.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company reviews long-lived assets, including property and equipment and intangible assets with definite lives, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that an asset group’s carrying amount may not be recoverable. The Company conducts its long-lived asset impairment analysis in accordance with ASC 360-10, Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets, which requires the Company to group assets and liabilities at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities and evaluate the asset group against the sum of the undiscounted future cash flows. If the undiscounted cash flows do not indicate the carrying amount of the asset group is recoverable, an impairment charge is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds its fair value.
As a result of factors including the events surrounding the Plan discussed in Note 2, the Company performed a test of recoverability of its long-lived assets and determined that all long-lived assets were recoverable as of September 30, 2023. As of September 30, 2023, long-lived assets associated with the powertrain business had a recorded amount of $4.2 million and associated probability-weighted estimated future cash flows of $4.4 million. If the Company is unable to sell long-lived assets associated with the powertrain business at a sufficient price, it will record associated impairment charges in future periods. Estimated future cash flows for all other long-lived assets substantially exceeded recorded amounts.
Revenue
The Company follows five steps to recognize revenue from contracts with customers under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which are:
Step 1: Identify the contract(s) with a customer;
Step 2: Identify the performance obligations in the contract;
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Step 3: Determine the transaction price;
Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
Step 5: Recognize revenue when (or as) a performance obligation is satisfied.
Revenue was historically comprised of sales of Hybrid systems for Class 8 semi-trucks, Class 8 semi-trucks outfitted with Hybrid systems and specific other features and services that met the definition of a performance obligation, including internet connectivity and data processing. We provided installation services for the Hybrid system onto the customers’ vehicle. The Company’s products were marketed and sold to end-user fleet customers in North America. When our contracts with customers contained multiple performance obligations and where material, the contract transaction price was allocated on a relative standalone selling price basis to each performance obligation.
We recognized revenue on Hybrid system sales and Class 8 semi-trucks outfitted with Hybrid systems upon delivery to, and acceptance of the vehicle by, the customer, which is when control transfers. Contracts were reviewed for significant financing components and payments were typically received within 30 days of delivery. The sale of a Hybrid system to an end-use fleet customer consisted of a completed modification to the customer vehicle and the installation services involved significant integration of the Hybrid system with the customer’s vehicle. Installation services were not distinct within the context of the contract and together with the sale of the Hybrid system represented a single performance obligation. We did not offer any sales returns. Amounts billed to customers related to shipping and handling were classified as revenue, and we have elected to recognize the cost for freight and shipping when control has transferred to the customer as a cost of revenue. Our policy is to exclude taxes collected from customers from the transaction price of contracts.
When a Class 8 semi-truck outfitted with a Hybrid system was resold to a customer, judgment was required to determine if we were the principal or agent in the arrangement. We considered factors such as, but not limited to, which entity had the primary responsibility for fulfilling the promise to provide the specified good or service, which entity had inventory risk before the specified good or service has been transferred to a customer and which entity had discretion in establishing the price for the specified good or service. We have determined that we were the principal in transactions involving the resale of Class 8 semi-trucks outfitted with the Hybrid system.
The disaggregation of our revenue sources is summarized as follows and is attributable to the U.S.:
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Hybrid systems and other$416 $1,082 
Class 8 semi-truck prepared for Hybrid system upfit256 1,024 
Total product sales and other$672 $2,106 
The portion of our revenues from significant customers is summarized as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Customer A65 %60 %
Customer B 10 
Customer G25  
90 %70 %
Leases
We determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception of the contract. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, current portion of operating lease liabilities, and operating lease liabilities, net of current portion in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. We have lease agreements with lease and non-lease components, and have elected to utilize the practical expedient to account for lease and non-lease components together as a single combined lease component. Variable lease costs consist primarily of common area maintenance.
ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use underlying assets for the lease term, and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the leases. ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The discount rate used to calculate the present value for lease payments is the Company’s incremental borrowing rate, which is determined based on information available at lease commencement and is equal to the rate of interest that the Company would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term in an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. The Company uses the implicit rate when readily determinable.
F-12

The Company’s real estate leases may include one or more options to renew, with the renewal extending the lease term for an additional one to five years. The exercise of lease renewal option is at the Company’s sole discretion. In general, the Company does not consider renewal options to be reasonably likely to be exercised, therefore renewal options are generally not recognized as part of the ROU assets and lease liabilities. Lease costs for lease payments are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term, unless there is a transfer of title or purchase option reasonably certain to be exercised. The Company does not record operating leases with an initial term of twelve months or less (“short-term leases”) in the consolidated balance sheets. Interest expense is recognized using the effective interest rate method, and the ROU asset is amortized over the useful life of the underlying asset.
Warranties
We have historically provided limited assurance-type warranties under our contracts and do not offer extended warranties or maintenance contracts. The warranty period typically extends for the lesser of two years or 200,000 miles following transfer of control and solely relates to correction of product defects during the warranty period. We recognize the cost of the warranty upon transfer of control based on estimated and historical claims rates and fulfillment costs, which are variable. Should product failure rates and fulfillment costs differ from these estimates, material revisions to the estimated warranty liability would be required. Warranty expense is recorded as a component of cost of revenue.
Marketing, Promotional and Advertising Costs
Marketing, promotional and advertising costs are expensed as incurred and are included as an element of selling, general and administrative expense in the consolidated statement of operations. Marketing, promotional and advertising costs were $1.3 million and $1.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Research and Development Expense
Research and development costs did not meet the requirements to be recognized as an asset as the associated future benefits were at best uncertain and there was no alternative future use at the time the costs were incurred. Research and development costs include, but are not limited to, outsourced engineering services, allocated facilities costs, depreciation on equipment utilized in research and development activities, internal engineering and development expenses, materials, internally-developed software and employee related expenses (including salaries, benefits, travel, and share-based compensation) related to development of the Company’s products and services.
Share-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for share-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation, under which shared based payments that involve the issuance of common stock to employees and nonemployees and meet the criteria for equity-classified awards are recognized in the financial statements as share-based compensation expense based on the fair value on the date of grant. The Company issues restricted stock awards to employees and nonemployees, utilizing new shares. The Company has elected to recognize the adjustment to share-based compensation expense in the period in which forfeitures occur. We recognize compensation expense for awards with only service conditions on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for the entire award.
If factors change, and we utilize different assumptions including the probability of achieving performance conditions, share-based compensation cost on future award grants may differ significantly from share-based compensation cost recognized on past award grants. If there are any modifications or cancellations of the underlying unvested securities, we may be required to accelerate any remaining unearned share-based compensation cost or incur incremental cost. Share-based compensation cost affects our research and development and selling, general and administrative expenses.
Income Taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes, under which deferred tax liabilities and assets are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities and net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
Due to the Company’s history of losses since inception, the net deferred tax assets have been fully offset by a valuation allowance at December 31, 2023 and 2022. Uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return are accounted for using the more likely than not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, there were no uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken in the Company’s tax returns.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic loss per share (“EPS”) is computed by dividing net loss (the numerator) by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period (the denominator). Diluted EPS attributable to common shareholders is computed by adjusting net loss by the weighted average number of common shares and potential common shares outstanding (if dilutive) during each
F-13

period. Potential common shares include shares issuable upon exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock awards (see Note 8). The number of potential common shares outstanding are calculated using the treasury stock or if-converted method.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740), to enhance transparency and decision usefulness of income tax disclosures. The pronouncement is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024 and we expect a material impact to our disclosures as a result of adoption.
In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures, to improve the disclosures about a public entity’s reportable segments. The pronouncement is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023 and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024 and we expect a material impact to our disclosures as a result of adoption.
In November 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-10, Government Assistance (Topic 832): Disclosures by Business Entities about Government Assistance, to increase transparency of government assistance which requires annual disclosures about transactions with a government entity that are accounted for by applying a grant or contribution accounting model by analogy. The pronouncement is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. The Company adopted ASU 2021-10 for the year ended December 31, 2022 with no material impact and updated its related disclosures.
Note 4. Investments
The amortized cost, unrealized gains and losses, and fair value, and maturities of our held-to-maturity investments at December 31, 2023 and 2022 are summarized as follows:
Fair Value Measurements at December 31, 2023
Amortized CostGross Unrealized
Gains
Gross Unrealized
Losses
Fair Value
Commercial paper$35,218 $18 $(10)$35,226 
U.S. government agency bonds27,602 56 (186)27,472 
State and municipal bonds15,262 1 (48)15,215 
Corporate bonds and notes200,401 515 (255)200,661 
$278,483 $590 $(499)$278,574 
Fair Value Measurements at December 31, 2022
Amortized CostGross Unrealized
Gains
Gross Unrealized
Losses
Fair Value
Commercial paper$36,675 $2 $(161)$36,516 
U.S. government agency bonds12,441 6 (328)12,119 
State and municipal bonds40,104 28 (628)39,504 
Corporate bonds and notes213,088 76 (3,344)209,820 
$302,308 $112 $(4,461)$297,959 
December 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Amortized CostFair ValueAmortized CostFair Value
Due in one year or less$150,297 $149,934 $193,740 $191,094 
Due after one year through five years128,186 128,640 108,568 106,865 
$278,483 $278,574 $302,308 $297,959 
F-14

Note 5. Fair Value Measurements
The fair value measurements of our financial assets at December 31, 2023 and 2022 are summarized as follows:
Fair Value Measurements at December 31, 2023
Level ILevel IILevel IIITotal
Cash and cash equivalents$12,881 $ $ $12,881 
Restricted cash8,583   8,583 
Held-to-maturity investments:
Commercial paper 35,226  35,226 
U.S. government agency bonds 27,472  27,472 
State and municipal bonds 15,215  15,215 
Corporate bonds and notes 200,661  200,661 
$21,464 $278,574 $ $300,038 
Fair Value Measurements at December 31, 2022
Level ILevel IILevel IIITotal
Cash and cash equivalents$119,468 $ $ $119,468 
Restricted cash665   665 
Held-to-maturity investments:
Commercial paper 36,516  36,516 
U.S. government agency bonds 12,119  12,119 
State and municipal bonds 39,504  39,504 
Corporate bonds and notes 209,820  209,820 
$120,133 $297,959 $ $418,092 
Note 6. Inventory
The carrying value of our inventory at December 31, 2023 and 2022 is summarized as follows:
December 31,
20232022
Raw materials$ $ 
Work in process  
Finished goods 74 
$ $74 
We write-down inventory for any excess or obsolete inventories or when we believe that the net realizable value of inventories is less than the carrying value. During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we recorded write-downs of $1.1 million and $5.6 million, respectively, included primarily in cost of revenues.
Note 7. Capital Structure
Preferred Stock
The Company is authorized to issue 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock with a par value of $0.0001 per share. The Company’s Board is authorized to fix the voting rights, if any, designations, powers, preferences, the relative, participating, option or other special rights and any qualifications, limitations and restrictions thereof, applicable to the shares of each series. At December 31, 2023 and 2022, there were no shares of preferred stock issued and outstanding.
F-15

Common Stock
At December 31, 2023, the following shares of common stock were reserved for future issuance:
Stock options issued and outstanding522,971 
Authorized for future grant under 2020 Equity Incentive Plan6,988,626 
Authorized for future issuance under the Hyliion Holdings Corp. Employee Stock Purchase Plan1,800,000 
9,311,597 
Treasury Stock
In December 2023, we announced a share repurchase program which has no expiration date, authorizing the repurchase of up to $20.0 million in shares.
Note 8. Share-Based Compensation
2016 Equity Incentive Plan
The Hyliion Inc. 2016 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2016 Plan”), as amended in August 2017 and approved by the Board, permitted the granting of various awards including stock options (including both nonqualified options and incentive options), stock appreciation rights (“SARs”), stock awards, phantom stock units, performance awards and other share-based awards to employees, outside directors and consultants and advisors of the Company. Only stock options have been awarded to employees, consultants and advisors under the 2016 Plan. No further grants can be made under the 2016 Plan.
Employee and nonemployee stock options generally vest over four years, with a maximum term of ten years from the date of grant. These awards become available to the recipient upon the satisfaction of a vesting condition based on a period of service.
Activity in the 2016 Plan for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 is summarized as follows:
Number of OptionsWeighted Average
Exercise Price (in Dollars)
Weighted Average
Remaining
Contractual Term
Outstanding at December 31, 20213,157,889 $0.16 6.6 years
Exercised(563,617)0.17 
Forfeited(52,833)0.20 
Outstanding at December 31, 20222,541,439 0.15 3.7 years
Exercised(1,936,018)0.13 
Forfeited(82,450)0.22 
Outstanding at December 31, 2023522,971 $0.20 4.3 years
Exercisable at December 31, 2023473,239 $0.20 4.1 years
At December 31, 2023, the options outstanding and exercisable had an intrinsic value of $0.3 million and $0.3 million, respectively. There were no options with an exercise price greater than the market price on December 31, 2023 to exclude from the intrinsic value computation. The intrinsic value of options exercised during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 was $2.4 million and $2.4 million, respectively.
Share-based compensation expense under the 2016 Plan for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 was nil and $0.1 million, respectively. There was no unrecognized compensation expense related the 2016 Plan at December 31, 2023.
2020 Equity Incentive Plan
On October 1, 2020, the Company’s shareholders approved a new long-term incentive award plan (the “2020 Plan”) in connection with the Business Combination. The 2020 Plan is administered by the Board and the compensation committee. The selection of participants, allotment of shares, determination of price and other conditions are approved by the Board and the compensation committee at its sole discretion in order to attract and retain personnel instrumental to the success of the Company. Under the 2020 Plan, the Company may grant an aggregate of 12,200,000 shares of common stock in the form of nonstatutory stock options, incentive stock options, SARs, restricted stock awards, performance awards and other awards. No stock options have been granted under the 2020 Plan.
F-16

Employee and director RSUs for which a grant date has been established generally vest over three to four years from the date of grant. These awards become available to the recipient upon the satisfaction of a vesting condition based on a period of service, and performance conditions (for certain awards to employees).
Activity in the 2020 Plan for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 is summarized as follows:
Number of UnitsWeighted Average Grant Date Fair Value (in Dollars)
Unvested at December 31, 20211
1,556,794 $11.01 
Granted2
2,504,939 4.10 
Vested(470,426)11.07 
Forfeited3
(822,207)8.44 
Unvested at December 31, 20224
2,769,100 5.51 
Granted5
2,192,900 2.57 
Vested(1,350,172)5.28 
Forfeited6
(860,505)4.53 
Unvested at December 31, 20237
2,751,323 $3.59 
1 Excludes 1,910,914 shares underlying RSU awards with performance conditions, which have not been accounted for because no accounting grant date has been established.
2 Excludes 204,167 shares underlying RSU awards with performance conditions, which have not been accounted for because no accounting grant date has been established.
3 Excludes 130,000 shares underlying RSU awards with performance conditions, which have not been accounted for because no accounting grant date has been established.
4 Excludes 1,336,667 shares underlying RSU awards with performance conditions, which have not been accounted for because no accounting grant date has been established.
5 Excludes 25,000 shares underlying RSU awards with performance conditions, which have not been accounted for because no accounting grant date has been established.
6 Excludes 59,584 shares underlying RSU awards with performance conditions, which have not been accounted for because no accounting grant date has been established.
7 Excludes 633,750 shares underlying RSU awards with performance conditions, which have not been accounted for because no accounting grant date has been established.
Share-based compensation expense under the 2020 Plan for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 was $6.2 million and $6.9 million, respectively. The fair value of RSUs that vested during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 was $2.8 million and $1.7 million, respectively. There was $4.9 million of unrecognized compensation expense related to the 2020 Plan at December 31, 2023, which is expected to be recognized over the remaining vesting periods, subject to forfeitures, with a weighted-average period of 1.5 years.
As a result of execution of the Plan and failure to meet fiscal 2023 performance conditions for certain awards to employees, we expect 0.8 million RSU awards to be forfeited in the first quarter of fiscal 2024.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
The Company has an authorized employee stock purchase plan (the “ESPP”) that would enable employees to contribute up to 15% of their base compensation toward the purchase of the Company’s common stock at 85% of its market value on the first or last day of each offering period. The ESPP has not been implemented through December 31, 2023.
Note 9. Leases
The Company enters into operating leases for its corporate office, temporary offices, vehicles and equipment. In addition, the Company may enter into arrangements whereby portions of the leased premises are subleased to third parties and are classified as operating leases.
In May 2023, the Company executed a lease for its facility in Milford, Ohio, with a term through 2028 including the option to extend the term for up to two consecutive terms of three years, which was not reasonably certain to be exercised at the commencement date.
F-17

In December 2021, the Company amended the lease for its corporate office. This amendment increased the amount of space under the original lease, adjusted the monthly lease payments, and decreased the term of the lease through 2027. The Company accounted for this extension as a lease modification and recorded a decrease to the operating lease ROU asset and lease liability. The lease amendment includes the option to extend the term for up to two consecutive terms of five years, which was not reasonably certain to be exercised at the modification date.
The following table provides a summary of the components of lease income, costs and rent, which are included within research and development and selling, general and administrative expense:
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
Operating lease costs:
Operating lease cost$2,239 $1,921 
Short-term lease cost508 199 
Variable lease cost682 622 
Total operating lease costs$3,429 $2,742 
The following table provides the weighted-average lease terms and discount rates used for the Company’s operating leases:
December 31,
20232022
Weighted-average remaining lease term:
Operating leases3.6 years4.3 years
Weighted-average discount rate:
Operating leases8.7 %7.1 %
The following table provides a summary of operating lease liability maturities for the next five years and thereafter at December 31, 2023:
2024$1,497 
20252,900 
20262,989 
20271,426 
2028306 
Thereafter 
Total minimum lease payments9,118 
Less: imputed interest(1,479)
Total lease obligations$7,639 
Note 10. Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment, net at December 31, 2023 and 2022 is summarized as follows:
December 31,
20232022
Production machinery and equipment$10,376 $5,897 
Vehicles2,013 817 
Leasehold improvements2,236 1,002 
Office furniture and fixtures223 162 
Computers and related equipment1,963 1,367 
16,811 9,245 
Less: accumulated depreciation(6,824)(3,639)
Total property and equipment, net$9,987 $5,606 
F-18

Depreciation expense for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 totaled approximately $3.2 million and $1.1 million, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2023, $0.6 million, $1.7 million, and $0.9 million was included in selling, general and administrative expenses, research and development expenses and exit and termination costs, respectiv