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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended July 31, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
                 For the transition period from                  to                 
Commission File Number: 001-38056
YEXT, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
yext-20220731_g1.jpg
Delaware
20-8059722
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
61 Ninth Avenue
New York, NY 10011
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(212) 994-3900
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
YEXT
New York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller



reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
 ☐
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.     
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act).    Yes    No  
As of August 24, 2022, the registrant had 123,435,932 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share outstanding.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
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9




SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains, and our officers and representatives may from time to time make, forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), which statements involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, our business strategy and plans, and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “potentially,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “intend,” “could,” “would,” “expect” and similar expressions that convey uncertainty of future events or outcomes are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q include, but are not limited to, statements regarding:
our future revenue, cost of revenue, operating expenses and cash flows;
anticipated trends, growth rates and challenges in our business and in the markets in which we operate;
the effect of the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic and its variants, including the effect of governmental restrictions and regulations as well as precautionary measures undertaken by businesses, on our business, operations, and financial results and the business and operations of our customers and potential customers;
our beliefs, objectives and strategies for future operations, including plans to invest in international expansion, research and development, and our sales and marketing teams, and the impact of such investments on our operations;
changes in management and anticipated effects thereof;
our ability to increase sales of our products;
maintaining and expanding our end-customer base and our relationships with our Knowledge Network; and
sufficiency of cash to meet cash needs for at least the next 12 months.
We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in Part II, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for us to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and trends discussed in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee that the future results, performance, or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. We undertake no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements, whether written or oral, except as required by law.
In this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the words “we,” “us,” “our” and “Yext” refer to Yext, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries, unless the context requires otherwise.

4


PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
YEXT, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)
July 31, 2022 January 31, 2022
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents
$ 187,906  $ 261,210 
Accounts receivable, net of allowances of $2,065 and $2,042, respectively
53,422  101,607 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
18,107  13,538 
Costs to obtain revenue contracts, current
30,865  33,998 
Total current assets
290,300  410,353 
Property and equipment, net
69,190  74,604 
Operating lease right-of-use assets
90,867  97,124 
Costs to obtain revenue contracts, non-current
21,382  27,286 
Goodwill
4,310  4,572 
Intangible assets, net
205  217 
Other long term assets
4,070  6,179 
Total assets
$ 480,324  $ 620,335 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities
$ 47,335  $ 48,432 
Unearned revenue, current
165,889  223,427 
Operating lease liabilities, current
18,100  18,845 
Total current liabilities
231,324  290,704 
Operating lease liabilities, non-current
106,703  113,776 
Other long term liabilities
3,351  3,985 
Total liabilities
341,378  408,465 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 13)
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share; 50,000,000 shares authorized at July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022; zero shares issued and outstanding at July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022
—  — 
Common stock, $0.001 par value per share; 500,000,000 shares authorized at July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022; 140,562,586 and 137,662,320 shares issued at July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022, respectively; 123,833,157 and 131,156,986 shares outstanding at July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022, respectively
140  137 
Additional paid-in capital
871,700  834,429 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(5,608) (187)
Accumulated deficit
(656,434) (610,604)
Treasury stock, at cost
(70,852) (11,905)
Total stockholders’ equity
138,946  211,870 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$ 480,324  $ 620,335 
See the accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
5


YEXT, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)

Three months ended July 31, Six months ended July 31,
2022 2021 2022 2021
Revenue
$ 100,869  $ 98,124  $ 199,671  $ 190,116 
Cost of revenue
27,082  26,615  51,810  48,469 
Gross profit
73,787  71,509  147,861  141,647 
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing
54,105  58,578  114,884  113,744 
Research and development
18,819  18,500  36,121  32,357 
General and administrative
20,384  20,843  41,879  39,190 
Total operating expenses
93,308  97,921  192,884  185,291 
Loss from operations
(19,521) (26,412) (45,023) (43,644)
Interest income
185  210  10 
Interest expense
(129) (158) (272) (290)
Other expense, net
138  (741) 267  (827)
Loss from operations before income taxes
(19,327) (27,307) (44,818) (44,751)
(Provision for) benefit from income taxes
(664) (285) (1,012) (472)
Net loss
$ (19,991) $ (27,592) $ (45,830) $ (45,223)
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted
$ (0.16) $ (0.22) $ (0.36) $ (0.36)
Weighted-average number of shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted
124,234,226  126,906,937  127,631,877  126,152,602 
Other comprehensive (loss) income:
Foreign currency translation adjustment
$ (2,007) $ (8) $ (5,421) $ 347 
Total comprehensive loss
$ (21,998) $ (27,600) $ (51,251) $ (44,876)
See the accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.



6


YEXT, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
Accumulated
Additional Other Total
Common Stock Paid-In Comprehensive Accumulated Treasury Stockholders’
Shares Amount Capital (Loss) Income Deficit Stock Equity
Balance, January 31, 2021
123,989  $ 130  $ 733,933  $ 2,422  $ (517,345) $ (11,905) $ 207,235 
Exercise of stock options 2,220  19,195  —  —  —  19,197 
Vested restricted stock units converted to common shares 4,402  (4) —  —  —  — 
Issuance of restricted stock 15  —  —  —  —  —  — 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan 531  6,484  —  —  —  6,485 
Stock-based compensation —  —  74,821  —  —  —  74,821 
Other comprehensive loss —  —  —  (2,609) —  —  (2,609)
Net loss —  —  —  —  (93,259) —  (93,259)
Balance, January 31, 2022
131,157  137  834,429  (187) (610,604) (11,905) 211,870 
Exercise of stock options 197  —  493  —  —  —  493 
Vested restricted stock units converted to common shares 2,246  (2) —  —  —  — 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan 457  2,353  —  —  —  2,354 
Stock-based compensation —  —  34,427  —  —  —  34,427 
Repurchase of common stock (10,224) —  —  —  —  (58,947) (58,947)
Other comprehensive loss —  —  —  (5,421) —  —  (5,421)
Net loss —  —  —  —  (45,830) —  (45,830)
Balance, July 31, 2022
123,833  $ 140  $ 871,700  $ (5,608) $ (656,434) $ (70,852) $ 138,946 
See the accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

7


YEXT, INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
Six months ended July 31,
2022 2021
Operating activities:
Net loss
$ (45,830) $ (45,223)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization expense
8,702  7,933 
Bad debt expense
491  909 
Stock-based compensation expense
34,168  35,000 
Amortization of operating lease right-of-use assets
4,547  4,619 
Other, net 975  371 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable
45,808  37,618 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
(4,716) 1,681 
Costs to obtain revenue contracts
7,583  (8,442)
Other long term assets
956  15 
Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities
242  (711)
Unearned revenue
(54,154) (26,337)
Operating lease liabilities
(5,991) (5,634)
Other long term liabilities
(86) 650 
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities
(7,305) 2,449 
Investing activities:
Capital expenditures
(3,875) (10,555)
Net cash used in investing activities
(3,875) (10,555)
Financing activities:
Proceeds from exercise of stock options
525  14,439 
Repurchase of common stock (58,722) — 
Payments of deferred financing costs
(283) (263)
Proceeds, net from employee stock purchase plan withholdings
1,912  3,409 
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
(56,568) 17,585 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
(5,556) 600 
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents
(73,304) 10,079 
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
261,210  230,411 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
$ 187,906  $ 240,490 
See the accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
8


YEXT, INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

1. Organization and Description of Business
Description of Business
Yext, Inc. ("Yext" or the "Company") organizes a business's facts so it can provide official answers to consumer questions starting with the business's own website and then extending across search engines and voice assistants. The Yext platform lets businesses structure the facts about their brands in a database called the Knowledge Graph. The platform is built to leverage the structured data stored in the Knowledge Graph to deliver a modern search experience on a business's or organization's own website, as well as across approximately 200 service and application providers, which the Company refers to as its Knowledge Network and includes Amazon Alexa, Apple Maps, Bing, Cortana, Facebook, Google, Google Assistant, Google Maps, Siri and Yelp. The Yext platform powers all of the Company's key features, including Listings, Pages, and Answers, along with its other features and capabilities.
Fiscal Year
The Company's fiscal year ends on January 31st. References to fiscal 2023, for example, are to the fiscal year ending January 31, 2023.
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP") and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") regarding interim financial reporting. Certain information and note disclosures normally included in the financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Therefore, these condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes included in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on March 18, 2022 (the "Form 10-K"). The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of January 31, 2022, included herein, was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date, but does not include all disclosures including certain notes required by GAAP on an annual reporting basis.
In the opinion of management, the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all normal recurring adjustments necessary to present fairly the financial position, results of operations, comprehensive loss and cash flows for the interim periods. The results for the three and six months ended July 31, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for any subsequent quarter, the fiscal year ending January 31, 2023, or any other period.
There have been no material changes to the Company's significant accounting policies as described in the Form 10-K.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of those financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expense during the reporting period. These estimates include, but are not limited to, the standalone selling prices of performance obligations, the incremental borrowing rate associated with lease liabilities, the useful life of capitalized costs to obtain revenue contracts, income taxes, and the valuation and assumptions underlying stock-based compensation. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other market-specific and relevant assumptions that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences could be material to the financial position and results of operations.
Segment Information
The Company is the provider of the Yext platform and operates as one operating segment. An operating segment is defined as a component of an enterprise for which separate financial information is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision makers ("CODM"). The Company defines its CODM as its executive officers, and their role is to make decisions about allocating resources and assessing performance. The Company's business operates as one operating segment as all of the Company's offerings operate on the Yext platform and are deployed in an identical way, with its CODM evaluating the Company's financial information, resources and performance of these resources on a consolidated basis. Since the Company operates as one operating segment, all required financial segment information can be found in the condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Concentration of Credit Risk
Certain financial instruments that could be exposed to a concentration of credit risk include cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. The Company deposits its cash with financial institutions, and such deposits, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits of cash and cash equivalents to date. Collateral is not required for accounts receivable. At July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022, no single customer accounted for more than 10% of the Company's accounts receivable. No single customer accounted for more than 10% of the Company's revenue for the three and six months ended July 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers. The standard requires an acquirer in a business combination to recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, as if the acquirer had originated the contracts, provided such contracts had been appropriately accounted for under ASC 606 by the acquiree, rather than recognizing them at their estimated fair value on the acquisition date as required under the existing guidance. The standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2022 on a prospective basis, with early adoption permitted. This standard is effective for the Company in fiscal year 2024. We do not expect the adoption of this standard to have a significant impact on its consolidated financial statements.
3. Revenue
Performance Obligations
The Company has identified that it has two distinct performance obligations: subscription and associated support to the Yext platform and professional services. The Company's revenue is predominantly related to its subscription and associated support to the Yext platform. Professional services revenue accounted for approximately 9% and 8% of the Company's total revenue for the six months ended July 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Geographic Region
The Company disaggregates its revenue from contracts with customers by geographic region, as it believes this best depicts how the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of its revenues and cash flows are affected by economic factors. Revenue by geographic region is determined based on the region of the Company's contracting entity, which may be different than the region of its customers. The following table presents the Company's revenue by geographic region:
Three months ended July 31, Six months ended July 31,
(in thousands) 2022 2021 2022 2021
North America $ 81,082  $ 77,639  $ 159,791  $ 150,699 
International 19,787  20,485  39,880  39,417 
Total revenue $ 100,869  $ 98,124  $ 199,671  $ 190,116 
North America revenue is attributable to the United States. International revenue is predominantly attributable to European countries, but also includes Japan.
The Company's revenue attributable to the United States represented 80% of total revenue, revenue attributable to England, which serves as the Company's main contracting entity for Europe, represented 18% of total revenue, and no other individual country represented more than 10% of total revenue for the six months ended July 31, 2022.
The Company's revenue attributable to the United States represented 79% of total revenue, revenue attributable to England, which serves as the Company's main contracting entity for Europe, represented 19% of total revenue, and no other individual country represented more than 10% of total revenue for the six months ended July 31, 2021.
Contract Liabilities
A contract liability is an obligation to transfer goods or services for which consideration has been received or is due to a customer. The Company's contract liabilities consist primarily of unearned revenue and, to a lesser extent, customer deposits.
As of July 31, 2022, unearned revenue, current was $165.9 million, while unearned revenue, non-current, which is included within other long term liabilities on the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheet, was $0.1 million. Revenue recognized of $149.1 million during the six months ended July 31, 2022 was included in unearned revenue at the beginning of the period.
Customer deposits represent payments received in advance in instances where a revenue contract is cancelable in nature, and therefore the Company does not have an unconditional obligation to transfer control to a customer. As of July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022, customer deposits of $1.2 million and $0.2 million were included in accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities on the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheet, respectively.
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Remaining Performance Obligations
The transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations represents amounts under non-cancelable contracts expected to be recognized as revenue in future periods, and may be influenced by several factors, including seasonality, the timing of renewals, and contract terms. As of July 31, 2022, the Company had $326.6 million of remaining performance obligations, of which $310.3 million is expected to be recognized as revenue over the next twenty-four months, with the remaining balance expected to be recognized thereafter. As of January 31, 2022, the Company had $404.9 million of remaining performance obligations.
4. Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair value is the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Subsequent changes in fair value of these financial assets and liabilities are recognized in earnings or other comprehensive (loss) income when they occur. When determining the fair value measurements for assets and liabilities which are required to be recorded at fair value, the Company considers the principal or most advantageous market in which the Company would transact and the market-based risk measurement or assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the assets or liabilities, such as inherent risk, transfer restrictions, and credit risk.
The Company applies the following fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value into three levels and bases the categorization within the hierarchy upon the lowest level of input that is available and significant to the fair value measurement:
Level 1 inputs are based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. 
Level 2 inputs are based on observable inputs other than Level 1 prices such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets); or model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs are observable or can be derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities. 
Level 3 inputs are based on unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of fair value of assets or liabilities, and typically reflect management's estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.
As of July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022, the Company had money market funds included in cash and cash equivalents of $113.3 million and $138.5 million, respectively. These assets were valued using quoted market prices and were classified as Level 1 accordingly.
5. Goodwill
As of July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022, the Company had goodwill of $4.3 million and $4.6 million, respectively. The changes to goodwill during these periods related to foreign currency.
Goodwill is not amortized but is subject to periodic testing for impairment at the reporting unit level, which is at or one level below the operating segment level. The Company operates as one operating segment, which represents its one reporting unit. The test for impairment is conducted annually each November 1st, or more frequently if events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount.
The Company determined that no events occurred or circumstances changed that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the Company's reporting unit below its carrying amount during the six months ended July 31, 2022 and 2021. However, if certain events occur or circumstances change, it may be necessary to record impairment charges in the future.
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6. Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment are recorded at cost and depreciated or amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Property and equipment, net consisted of the following:
(in thousands) July 31, 2022 January 31, 2022
Computer software $ 20,025  $ 18,814 
Office equipment 20,222  18,854 
Furniture and fixtures 7,929  8,163 
Leasehold improvements 61,835  62,784 
Construction in progress 2,536  936 
Software in progress 971  1,342 
Total property and equipment, gross 113,518  110,893 
Less: accumulated depreciation (44,328) (36,289)
Total property and equipment, net $ 69,190  $ 74,604 
As of July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022, the Company's property and equipment, net attributable to the United States was 88% and 90%, respectively. No other individual country represented more than 10% of the total property and equipment, net as of those periods. Depreciation expense was $4.3 million and $8.7 million for the three and six months ended July 31, 2022, respectively and $4.0 million and $7.6 million for the three and six months ended July 31, 2021, respectively.
7. Accounts Payable, Accrued Expenses and Other Current Liabilities
        Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities consisted of the following:
(in thousands) July 31, 2022 January 31, 2022
Accounts payable $ 7,466  $ 9,218 
Accrued employee compensation 16,367  17,589 
Accrued Knowledge Network application provider fees 3,078  2,885 
Accrued professional services and associated costs 2,353  2,663 
Accrued employee stock purchase plan withholdings liability 1,956  2,397 
Other current liabilities 16,115  13,680 
Total accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities $ 47,335  $ 48,432 
The Company had capital expenditures of $0.9 million as of both July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022, which were included in accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities.
8. Stock-Based Compensation
2008 Equity Incentive Plan
        The Company's 2008 Equity Incentive Plan (the "2008 Plan"), as amended on March 10, 2016, allowed for the issuance of up to 25,912,531 shares of common stock. Awards granted under the 2008 Plan may be incentive stock options ("ISOs"), nonqualified stock options ("NQSOs"), restricted stock and restricted stock units. The 2008 Plan is administered by the Company's Board of Directors, which determines the terms of the options granted, the exercise price, the number of shares subject to option and the option vesting period. No ISO or NQSO is exercisable after 10 years from the date of grant, and option awards will typically vest over a four-year period.
        The 2008 Plan was terminated in connection with the adoption of the Company's 2016 Equity Incentive Plan (the "2016 Plan") in December 2016, and since the 2008 Plan termination the Company has not granted and will not grant any additional awards under the 2008 Plan. However, the 2008 Plan will continue to govern the terms and conditions of the outstanding awards previously granted thereunder.
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2016 Equity Incentive Plan
        In December 2016, the Company's Board of Directors adopted, and its stockholders approved, the 2016 Plan. The number of shares reserved for issuance under the 2016 Plan will increase on the first day of each fiscal year during the term of the 2016 Plan by the lesser of: (i) 10,000,000 shares, (ii) 4% of the outstanding shares of common stock as of the last day of the immediately preceding fiscal year; or (iii) such other amount as the Company's Board of Directors may determine. On February 1, 2022, the number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the 2016 Plan was automatically increased according to its terms by 5,246,279 shares. In addition, the shares reserved for issuance under the 2016 Plan also include shares returned to the 2008 Plan as the result of expiration or termination of options or other awards. As of July 31, 2022, the number of shares available for future award under the 2016 Plan is 4,035,756.
Stock Options
       The following table summarizes the activity related to the Company's stock options:
Outstanding Stock Options Weighted-Average Exercise Price Weighted-Average Remaining Contractual Life (in years) Aggregate Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
Balance, January 31, 2022
6,620,701  $ 7.28  4.32 $ 11,723 
Granted —  $ — 
Exercised (197,241) $ 2.54 
Forfeited or canceled (1,676,615) $ 10.25 
Balance, July 31, 2022
4,746,845  $ 6.43  3.60 $ 1,059 
Vested and expected to vest 4,746,845  $ 6.43  3.60 $ 1,059 
Exercisable at July 31, 2022
4,746,845  $ 6.43  3.60 $ 1,059 
The aggregate intrinsic value of options vested and expected to vest and exercisable is calculated based on the difference between the exercise price and the fair value of the Company’s common stock as of July 31, 2022. The fair value of the common stock is the Company’s closing stock price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
The aggregate intrinsic value of exercised options was $0.7 million and $9.7 million for the six months ended July 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, and is calculated based on the difference between the exercise price and the fair value of the Company’s common stock as of the exercise date.
Restricted Stock and Restricted Stock Units
        The following table summarizes the activity related to the Company's restricted stock and restricted stock units:
Outstanding Weighted-Average Grant Date Fair Value
Balance as of January 31, 2022
10,184,214  $ 14.38 
Granted 6,601,355  $ 6.43 
Vested and converted to shares (2,266,302) $ 14.80 
Forfeited or canceled (2,288,431) $ 13.88 
Balance as of July 31, 2022
12,230,836  $ 9.75 
The estimated weighted-average grant date fair value of restricted stock and restricted stock units granted was $6.43 and $13.51 per share for the six months ended July 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The fair value of the common stock is the Company’s closing stock price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
In March 2017, the Company's Board of Directors adopted, and its stockholders approved, the 2017 Employee Stock Purchase Plan ("ESPP"), which became effective on the date it was adopted. The number of shares of the Company's common stock that will be available for sale to employees under the ESPP increases annually on the first day of each fiscal year in an amount equal to the lesser of: (i) 2,500,000 shares; (ii) 1% of the outstanding shares of the Company's common stock as of the last day of the immediately preceding fiscal year; or (iii) such other amount as the administrator may determine. On February 1, 2022, the number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the ESPP was automatically increased according to its terms by 1,311,569 shares. As of July 31, 2022, a total of 4,397,670 shares of the Company's common stock are available for sale to employees under the ESPP.
In connection with the offering period which ended on March 15, 2022, 457,595 shares of common stock were purchased under the ESPP at a purchase price of $5.14 per share for total proceeds of $2.4 million.
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A new offering period began on March 15, 2022 and will end on September 15, 2022. As of July 31, 2022, 341,970 shares are estimated to be purchased at the end of the offering period and $2.0 million has been withheld on behalf of employees for these future purchases under the ESPP and is included in accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities.
The Black-Scholes option pricing model assumptions estimated at the commencement of the new offering period and used to calculate the fair value of shares to be purchased during an ESPP offering period included expected lives of 0.5 years, expected volatility of 48.87% and 59.24%, and risk-free rates of 0.86% and 0.06%, for the six months ended July 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The expected life assumptions were based on each offering period's respective purchase date. The Company estimated the expected volatility assumption based on the historical volatility of its stock price. The risk-free rate assumptions were based on the U.S. treasury yield curve in effect at commencement of the offering period. The dividend yield assumption was zero as the Company has not historically paid any dividends and does not expect to declare or pay any dividends in the foreseeable future.
During the three and six months ended July 31, 2022, the Company recorded stock-based compensation expense associated with the ESPP of $0.3 million and $0.7 million, respectively and $0.5 million and $1.1 million for the three and six months ended July 31, 2021, respectively. As of July 31, 2022, total unrecognized compensation cost related to ESPP was $0.1 million, net of estimated forfeitures, which will be amortized over a weighted-average remaining period of 0.13 years.
A new offering period commences on the first trading day on or after March 15th and September 15th each year, or on such other date as the administrator will determine, and will end on the first trading day, approximately six months later, on or after September 15th and March 15th, respectively. Participants may purchase the Company’s common stock through payroll deductions, up to a maximum of 15% of their eligible compensation. Unless changed by the administrator, the purchase price for each share of common stock purchased under the ESPP will be 85% of the lower of the fair market value per share on the first trading day of the applicable offering period or the fair market value per share on the last trading day of the applicable offering period.
Performance-based Restricted Stock Units
In March 2022, the Company made a grant to an executive in the form of 2,000,000 performance-based restricted stock units. This grant was outside of the Company’s 2016 Equity Incentive Plan. These performance-based restricted stock units are subject to the achievement of certain stock price targets. The Company uses a Monte Carlo simulation model to determine the fair value of this award and recognizes expense using the accelerated attribution method over the requisite service period.
Stock-Based Compensation Expense
        Stock-based compensation represents the cost related to stock-based awards granted in lieu of monetary payment. The Company measures stock-based compensation associated with stock-based awards issued to employees at the grant date, based on the estimated fair value of the award, and recognizes expense, net of estimated forfeitures, over the vesting period of the applicable award generally using the straight-line method.
The Company's stock-based compensation expense for the periods presented was as follows:
Three months ended July 31, Six months ended July 31,
(in thousands) 2022 2021 2022 2021
Cost of revenue $ 1,341  $ 2,312  $ 2,723  $ 3,757 
Sales and marketing 6,149  7,377  12,525  12,878 
Research and development 4,202  5,828  8,722  9,816 
General and administrative 4,390  4,885  10,198  8,549 
Total stock-based compensation expense $ 16,082  $ 20,402  $ 34,168  $ 35,000 
During the three and six months ended July 31, 2022, the Company capitalized $0.2 million and $0.3 million, respectively of stock-based compensation related to software development, and $0.3 million and $1.0 million for the three and six months ended July 31, 2021, respectively.

As of July 31, 2022, there was approximately $119.0 million of total unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested stock-based awards, which are expected to be recognized over an estimated remaining weighted-average vesting period of approximately 2.74 years.





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9. Equity
The following table summarizes the changes in stockholders' equity during the six months ended July 31, 2022:
Accumulated
Additional Other Total
Common Stock Paid-In Comprehensive Accumulated Treasury Stockholders’
(in thousands) Shares Amount Capital (Loss) Deficit Stock Equity
Balance, January 31, 2022
131,157  $ 137  $ 834,429  $ (187) $ (610,604) $ (11,905) $ 211,870 
Exercise of stock options 123  —  302  —  —  —  302 
Vested restricted stock units converted to common shares 1,165  (1) —  —  —  — 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan 457  2,353  —  —  —  2,354 
Stock-based compensation —  —  18,201  —  —  —  18,201 
Repurchase of common stock (4,838) —  —  —  —  (30,554) (30,554)
Other comprehensive loss —  —  —  (3,414) —  —  (3,414)
Net loss —  —  —  —  (25,839) —  (25,839)
Balance, April 30, 2022
128,064  $ 139  $ 855,284  $ (3,601) $ (636,443) $ (42,459) $ 172,920 
Exercise of stock options 74  —  191  —  —  —  191 
Vested restricted stock units converted to common shares 1,081  (1) —  —  —  — 
Stock-based compensation —  —  16,226  —  —  —  16,226 
Repurchase of common stock (5,386) —  —  —  —  (28,393) (28,393)
Other comprehensive loss —  —  —  (2,007) —  —  (2,007)
Net loss —  —  —  —  (19,991) —  (19,991)
Balance, July 31, 2022
123,833  $ 140  $ 871,700  $ (5,608) $ (656,434) $ (70,852) $ 138,946 
The following table summarizes the changes in stockholders' equity during the six months ended July 31, 2021:
Accumulated
Additional Other Total
Common Stock Paid-In Comprehensive Accumulated Treasury Stockholders’
(in thousands) Shares Amount Capital Income Deficit Stock Equity
Balance, January 31, 2021
123,989  $ 130  $ 733,933  $ 2,422  $ (517,345) $ (11,905) $ 207,235 
Exercise of stock options 1,069  12,110  —  —  —  12,111 
Vested restricted stock units converted to common shares 871  (1) —  —  —  — 
Issuance of restricted stock —  —  —  —  —  — 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan 282  —  3,817  —  —  —  3,817 
Stock-based compensation —  —  15,288  —  —  —  15,288 
Other comprehensive income —  —  —  355  —  —  355 
Net loss —  —  —  —  (17,631) —  (17,631)
Balance, April 30, 2021
126,215  132  765,147  2,777  (534,976) (11,905) 221,175 
Exercise of stock options 402  2,273  —  —  —  $ 2,274 
Vested restricted stock units converted to common shares 1,172  (1) —  —  —  $ — 
Issuance of restricted stock 11  —  —  —  —  —  $ — 
Stock-based compensation —  —  20,730  —  —  —  $ 20,730 
Other comprehensive loss —  —  —  (8) —  —  $ (8)
Net loss —  —  —  —  (27,592) —  $ (27,592)
Balance, July 31, 2021
127,800  $ 134  $ 788,149  $ 2,769  $ (562,568) $ (11,905) $ 216,579 




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Preferred Stock
Effective April 2017, the Company’s Board of Directors is authorized to issue up to 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value, in one or more series without stockholder approval. The Company's Board of Directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock. The issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of restricting dividends on the Company’s common stock, diluting the voting power of its common stock, impairing the liquidation rights of its common stock, or delaying or preventing changes in control or management of the Company. As of July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022, no shares of preferred stock were issued or outstanding.
Common Stock
        As of July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022, the Company had authorized 500,000,000 shares of voting $0.001 par value common stock. Each holder of the Company's common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters to be voted upon by the stockholders and there are no cumulative rights. Subject to any preferential rights of any outstanding preferred stock, holders of the Company's common stock are entitled to receive ratably the dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by the Company's Board of Directors out of legally available funds. If there is a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, holders of the Company's common stock would be entitled to share in the Company's assets remaining after the payment of liabilities and any preferential rights of any outstanding preferred stock.
        Holders of the Company's common stock have no preemptive or conversion rights or other subscription rights, and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. All outstanding shares of the Company's common stock will be fully paid and non-assessable. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of the Company's common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock which the Company may designate and issue in the future.
Treasury Stock
 As of July 31, 2022, the Company had 16,729,429 shares of treasury stock carried at its cost basis of $70.9 million. As of January 31, 2022, the Company had 6,505,334 shares of treasury stock carried at its cost basis of $11.9 million.
Share Repurchase Program
In March 2022, the Company's Board of Directors authorized a $100.0 million share repurchase program of the Company’s common stock. As of July 31, 2022, a total of 10,224,095 shares have been purchased at an average price of $5.77 per share for a total cost of $58.9 million since the commencement of the share repurchase program. As of July 31, 2022, there was approximately $41.1 million that remained available to be purchased under this share repurchase program.
As part of the share repurchase program, shares may be purchased in open market transactions or pursuant to any trading plan that may be adopted in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). The timing, manner, price and amount of any repurchases will be determined at the Company’s discretion, and the share repurchase program may be suspended, terminated or modified at any time for any reason. The repurchase program does not obligate the Company to acquire any specific number of shares, and all open market repurchases will be made in accordance with Exchange Act Rule 10b-18, which sets certain restrictions on the method, timing, price and volume of open market stock repurchases.
10. Debt
On March 11, 2020, the Company entered into a credit agreement with Silicon Valley Bank (the “Credit Agreement”). No significant debt issuance costs were incurred in association with the Credit Agreement. In January 2021, the Company amended the Credit Agreement which modified the conditions pursuant to which subsidiaries are required to become guarantors.
The Credit Agreement provides for a senior secured revolving loan facility of up to $50.0 million that matures three years after the effective date, with the right subject to certain conditions to add an incremental revolving loan facility of up to $50.0 million in the aggregate. The three-year revolving loan facility provides for borrowings up to the amount of the facility with sub-limits of up to (i) $30.0 million to be available for the issuance of letters of credit and (ii) $10.0 million to be available for swingline loans.
Under the Credit Agreement, loans bear interest, at the Company's option, at an annual rate based on LIBOR or a base rate. Loans based on LIBOR shall bear interest at a rate between LIBOR plus 2.50% and LIBOR plus 3.00%, depending on the Company's average daily usage of the revolving loan facility. Loans based on the base rate shall bear interest at a rate between the base rate minus 0.50% and the base rate plus 0.00%, depending on the Company's average daily usage of the revolving loan facility.
The obligations under the Credit Agreement are secured by a lien on substantially all of the tangible and intangible property of the Company and by a pledge of all of the equity interests of the Company's material direct and indirect domestic subsidiaries and 66% of each class of capital stock of any material first-tier foreign subsidiaries, subject to limited exceptions.
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The Credit Agreement contains customary affirmative and negative covenants and restrictions, as well as financial covenants that require the Company to maintain the year-over-year growth rate of its ordinary course recurring revenue for a trailing four fiscal quarter period above specified rates when certain liquidity thresholds are not met and to maintain a consolidated quick ratio of at least 1.50 to 1.00 tested on a monthly basis.
        As of July 31, 2022, the Company was in compliance with all debt covenants. As of such date, the $50.0 million revolving loan facility had $35.9 million available and $14.1 million in letters of credit allocated as security in connection with office space.
11. Income Taxes
The Company calculates its year-to-date (provision for) benefit from income taxes by applying the estimated annual effective tax rate ("AETR") to year-to-date income or loss from operations before income taxes and adjusts for discrete tax items recorded in the period. During the three and six months ended July 31, 2022, the Company recorded a (provision for) benefit from income taxes of $(0.7) million and $(1.0) million, respectively. During the three and six months ended July 31, 2021, the Company recorded a (provision for) benefit from income taxes of $(0.3) million and $(0.5) million, respectively.
The Company's effective tax rate generally differs from the U.S. federal statutory tax rate primarily due to a full valuation allowance related to the Company's net deferred tax assets in the U.S. and in certain foreign jurisdictions, partially offset by the foreign tax rate differential on non-U.S. income. The Company regularly evaluates the realizability of its deferred tax assets and establishes a valuation allowance on a jurisdictional basis if it is more likely than not that some or all the deferred tax assets will not be realized. In making such a determination, the Company considers all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, loss carryback and tax-planning strategies. Generally, more weight is given to objectively verifiable evidence, such as the cumulative loss in recent years, as a significant piece of negative evidence to overcome. To the extent sufficient positive evidence becomes available, a portion of the valuation allowance against certain net deferred tax assets could be released in the future and would result in a non-cash income tax benefit in the period of release.
12. Leases
The Company's operating lease arrangements are principally for office space. As of July 31, 2022, the Company had $18.1 million of operating lease liabilities, current, $106.7 million of operating lease liabilities, non-current, $90.9 million of operating lease right-of-use assets, and no financing leases, on its condensed consolidated balance sheet. The operating lease arrangements included in the measurement of lease liabilities do not include short-term leases, and had a weighted-average remaining lease term of 8.3 years and a weighted-average discount rate of 5.9%, as of July 31, 2022. During the six months ended July 31, 2022, the Company paid $9.8 million for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities and did not enter into any new lease arrangements.
During the six months ended July 31, 2022 and 2021 the Company recognized $13.6 million and $13.3 million, of lease expense, respectively, which consisted of the following:
Six months ended July 31,
(in thousands) 2022 2021
Operating lease expense $ 8,315  $ 8,502 
Short-term lease expense 424  379 
Variable lease expense 4,873  4,408 
Total lease expense $ 13,612  $ 13,289 
Operating lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the arrangement beginning on the lease commencement date for lease arrangements that have an initial term greater than twelve months and therefore are recorded on the balance sheet. Short-term lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term for lease arrangements that have an initial term of 12 months or less and therefore are not recorded on the balance sheet. Variable lease expense is recognized as incurred and includes real estate taxes and utilities, among other office space related expenses.
17



13. Commitments and Contingencies
Contractual Obligations
The Company is obligated to make payments under certain non-cancelable contractual obligations in the normal course of business. The Company's contractual obligations primarily relate to its operating lease arrangements for office space. Its other contractual obligations include contracts with its Knowledge Network application providers, which generally have a term of one year, although some have a term of several years, and its software vendors, among others. These obligations represent minimum contractual payments, or the Company's best estimate for variable elements based on historical payments. The Company's contractual obligations have various expiry dates between fiscal years 2023 and 2035.
        As of July 31, 2022, the Company's contractual obligations are as follows (in thousands):
Fiscal year ending January 31: Operating Leases Other
2023 (remainder of fiscal year)
$ 9,485  $ 22,234 
2024 18,694  17,308 
2025 18,229  9,473 
2026 19,092  1,834 
2027 19,187  1,537 
2028 and thereafter 74,962  390 
Total $ 159,649  $ 52,776 
Legal Proceedings
Menzione v. Yext, Inc., et al., No. 1:22-cv-05127 (S.D.N.Y.)
On June 17, 2022, a putative class action lawsuit was filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York by a purported purchaser of Company securities. The complaint names the Company, its former Chief Executive Officer (Howard Lerman), and its former Chief Financial Officer (Steven Cakebread) as defendants. The complaint alleges that the defendants purportedly made false and/or misleading statements and failed to disclose material adverse facts about the Company’s business, operations, and prospects, including information regarding the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company. The purported class includes all persons and entities that purchased or acquired our securities between March 4, 2021 and March 8, 2022. The complaint seeks monetary damages for alleged securities law violations. Motions for appointment as lead plaintiff and lead counsel were filed on August 16, 2022. On September 6, 2022, the court appointed the Operating Engineers Construction Industry and Miscellaneous Pension Fund to be lead plaintiff for the purported class, and Robbins Gellar Rudman & Dowd LLP to be lead counsel for the purported class. Yext believes it has meritorious defenses to the claims and intends to defend itself vigorously.
In addition to the litigation described above, the Company is and may be involved in various legal proceedings arising in the normal course of business. Although the results of litigation and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, currently, in the opinion of the Company, the likelihood of any material adverse impact on the Company's results of operations, cash flows or the Company's financial position for any such litigation or claims is deemed to be remote. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on the Company because of defense costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.
Warranties and Indemnifications
The Yext platform is in some cases warranted to perform in a manner consistent with general industry standards that are reasonably applicable and materially in accordance with the Company's product specifications.
The Company's arrangements generally include certain provisions for indemnifying customers against liabilities if its products or services infringe a third-party's intellectual property rights and/or if the Company breaches its contractual agreements with a customer or in instances of negligence, fraud or willful misconduct by the Company. To date, the Company has not incurred any material costs as a result of such obligations and has not accrued any liabilities related to such obligations in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.
The Company has also agreed to indemnify certain of its directors and executive officers for costs associated with any fees, expenses, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by any of these persons in any action or proceeding to which any of those persons is, or is threatened to be, made a party by reason of the person's service as a director or officer, including any action by the Company, arising out of that person's services as the Company's director or officer or that person's services provided to any other company or enterprise at the Company's request. The Company maintains director and officer insurance coverage that would generally enable the Company to recover a portion of future amounts paid. The Company may also be subject to indemnification obligations by law with respect to the actions of its employees under certain circumstances and in certain jurisdictions.
18


14. Net Loss Per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders
The following table sets forth the computation of the basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders:
Three months ended July 31, Six months ended July 31,
(in thousands, except share and per share data) 2022 2021 2022 2021
Numerator:
     Net loss attributable to common stockholders $ (19,991) $ (27,592) $ (45,830) $ (45,223)
Denominator:
     Weighted-average common shares outstanding 124,234,226 126,906,937 127,631,877 126,152,602
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted $ (0.16) $ (0.22) $ (0.36) $ (0.36)
        Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Unvested restricted stock and restricted stock units are excluded from the denominator of basic net loss per share. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares plus common equivalent shares for the period, including any dilutive effect from such shares.
        Since the Company was in a net loss position for all periods presented, net loss per share attributable to common stockholders was the same on a basic and diluted basis, as the inclusion of all potential common equivalent shares outstanding would have been anti-dilutive. Anti-dilutive common equivalent shares were as follows:
As of July 31,
2022 2021
Options to purchase common stock 4,746,845  7,393,066 
Restricted stock and restricted stock units 12,230,836  11,241,985 
Shares estimated to be purchased under ESPP 341,970  207,120 
Performance-based restricted stock units 2,000,000  — 
Total anti-dilutive common equivalent shares 19,319,651  18,842,171 

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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on March 18, 2022. As discussed in the section titled "Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements," the following discussion and analysis contains forward looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, as well as assumptions that, if they never materialize or prove incorrect, could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the section titled "Risk Factors" under Part II, Item 1A in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Overview
Yext organizes a business's facts so it can provide official answers to consumer questions starting with the business's own website and then extending across search engines and voice assistants. Our platform lets businesses structure the facts about their brands in a database called the Knowledge Graph. Our platform is built to leverage the structured data stored in the Knowledge Graph to deliver a modern search experience on a business's or organization's own website, as well as across approximately 200 service and application providers, which we refer to as our Knowledge Network and includes Amazon Alexa, Apple Maps, Bing, Cortana, Facebook, Google, Google Assistant, Google Maps, Siri and Yelp. Our platform powers all of our key features, including Listings, Pages, and Answers, along with its other features and capabilities.
We sell our platform throughout the world to customers of all sizes, including our enterprise, mid-size, and third-party reseller customers. In transactions with resellers, we are only party to the transaction with the reseller and are not a party to the reseller's transaction with its customer.
Revenue is a function of the number of customers, the number of licenses with each customer, the package to which each customer subscribes, the price of the package and renewal rates. We offer subscriptions in a discrete range of packages, with pricing based on specified feature sets and the number of licenses managed by the customer as well as on a capacity-basis.
Fiscal Year
Our fiscal year ends on January 31st. References to fiscal 2023, for example, are to the fiscal year ending January 31, 2023.
COVID-19 Update
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly disrupted business operations for us and our customers, as well as suppliers, and other parties with whom we do business. Such disruptions are expected to continue for an indefinite period of time.
We have adopted several measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and continue to monitor regional developments to inform our operational decisions. Our offices have been open on a voluntary basis in accordance with guidance provided by government agencies, although currently the majority of our employees are still working remotely. While we continue to hold virtual events, we have also resumed in-person marketing events. The uncertain duration of these measures have had and may continue to have negative effects on our sales efforts and revenue growth rates. We continue to be committed to our business, the strength of our platform, our ability to continue to execute on our strategy, and our efforts to support our customers.
We may continue to see some existing and potential customers, in particular customers in industries and geographies that have been highly impacted by the pandemic, may reduce, suspend or delay technology spending, request to renegotiate contracts to obtain concessions such as, extended billing and payment terms; shorten the duration of contracts; or elect not to renew their subscriptions which could materially adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations in future periods. The ultimate extent of the impact of the pandemic will depend on future developments, which continue to be highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the severity and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its variants, vaccination rates and efficacy and the actions taken to contain and address the impact of the pandemic, among others. However, because we generally recognize revenue from our customer contracts ratably over the term of the contract, changes in our contracting activity in the near term may not be fully reflected in our results of operations and overall financial performance until future periods. See Part II Item 1A “Risk Factors” for further discussion of the possible impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business.
20


Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
We derive our revenue primarily from subscription and associated support to our Yext platform. Our contracts are typically one year in length, but may be up to three years or longer in length. Revenue is a function of the number of customers, the number of licenses or capacity purchased by each customer, the package to which each customer subscribes, the price of the package and renewal rates. Revenue is generally recognized ratably over the contract term beginning on the commencement date of each contract, which is the date our platform is made available to customers. At the beginning of each subscription term we invoice our customers, typically in annual installments, but also monthly, quarterly, and semi-annually. Amounts that have been invoiced for non-cancelable contracts are recorded in accounts receivable and unearned revenue. Unearned revenue is subsequently recognized as revenue when transfer of control to a customer has occurred.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue consists primarily of employee-related costs, including personnel-related costs, which mainly consist of salaries and wages, and stock-based compensation expense. Cost of revenue also includes fees associated with our Knowledge Network application provider arrangements, the nature of which may be unpaid, fixed, or variable, and are unpaid with many of our larger providers, as well as the costs associated with our data centers. In addition, cost of revenue includes depreciation expense, including with respect to certain capitalized software development costs incurred in connection with additional functionality to our platform. Cost of revenue also includes lease expenses associated with our office spaces, which are allocated based on employee headcount. In addition, cost of revenue includes software expense, which relates to licenses, professional services, and other costs associated with software for use in the operations of our business, which is also allocated based on employee headcount.
Operating Expenses
Sales and marketing expenses. Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of employee-related costs which are comprised of personnel-related costs and stock-based compensation expense. Personnel-related costs mainly consist of salaries and wages and costs of obtaining revenue contracts. Sales and marketing expenses also include lease expenses associated with our office spaces, as well as software expense, each of which are allocated based on employee headcount. In addition, sales and marketing expenses include costs related to advertising and conferences and brand awareness events.
Research and development expenses. Research and development expenses consist primarily of employee-related costs which are comprised of personnel-related costs and stock-based compensation expense. Personnel-related costs mainly consist of salaries and wages. Capitalized software development costs related to additional functionality to our platform are excluded from research and development expenses as they are capitalized as a component of property and equipment, net and depreciated to cost of revenue over the term of their useful life. Research and development expenses also include lease expenses associated with our office spaces, as well as software expense, each of which are allocated based on employee headcount.
General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of employee-related costs which are comprised of personnel-related costs and stock-based compensation expense for our finance and accounting, human resources, information technology and legal support departments. Personnel-related costs mainly consist of salaries and wages. General and administrative expenses also include lease expenses associated with our office spaces, as well as software expense, each of which are allocated based on employee headcount, and other professional related costs.
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Results of Operations
The following table sets forth selected condensed consolidated statement of operations data for each of the periods indicated:
Three months ended July 31, Six months ended July 31,
(in thousands) 2022 2021 2022 2021
Revenue
$ 100,869  $ 98,124  $ 199,671  $ 190,116 
Cost of revenue(1)
27,082  26,615  51,810  48,469 
 Gross profit
73,787  71,509  147,861  141,647 
Operating expenses:
 Sales and marketing(1)
54,105  58,578  114,884  113,744 
 Research and development(1)
18,819  18,500  36,121  32,357 
 General and administrative(1)
20,384  20,843  41,879  39,190 
 Total operating expenses
93,308  97,921  192,884  185,291 
Loss from operations (19,521) (26,412) (45,023) (43,644)
Interest income 185  210  10 
Interest expense (129) (158) (272) (290)
Other expense, net 138  (741) 267  (827)
Loss from operations before income taxes
(19,327) (27,307) (44,818) (44,751)
(Provision for) benefit from income taxes (664) (285) (1,012) (472)
Net loss
$ (19,991) $ (27,592) $ (45,830) $ (45,223)
(1)Amounts include stock-based compensation expense as follows:
Three months ended July 31, Six months ended July 31,
(in thousands) 2022 2021 2022 2021
Cost of revenue $ 1,341  $ 2,312  $ 2,723  $ 3,757 
Sales and marketing 6,149  7,377  12,525  12,878 
Research and development 4,202  5,828  8,722  9,816 
General and administrative 4,390  4,885  10,198  8,549 
Total stock-based compensation expense $ 16,082  $ 20,402  $ 34,168  $ 35,000 
Decreases in stock-based compensation expense are largely due to decreases in the fair value of awards granted.
The following table sets forth selected condensed consolidated statements of operations data for each of the periods indicated as a percentage of total revenue:
Three months ended July 31, Six months ended July 31,
2022 2021 2022 2021
Revenue 100  % 100  % 100  % 100  %
Cost of revenue 27  27  26  25 
 Gross profit 73.2  72.9  74.1  74.5 
Operating expenses:
 Sales and marketing 54  60  58  60 
 Research and development 18  19  18  17 
 General and administrative 20  21  21  21 
 Total operating expenses 92  100  97  98 
Loss from operations (19) (27) (23) (23)
Interest income —  —  —  — 
Interest expense —  —  — 
Other expense, net —  (1) —  (1)
Loss from operations before income taxes (19) (28) (22) (24)
(Provision for) benefit from income taxes (1) —  (1) — 
Net loss (20) % (28) % (23) % (24) %
Note: Numbers rounded for presentation purposes and may not sum.

22


Three Months Ended July 31, 2022 Compared to Three Months Ended July 31, 2021
Revenue and Cost of Revenue
Three months ended July 31, Variance
(in thousands) 2022 2021 Dollars Percent
 Revenue
$ 100,869  $ 98,124  $ 2,745  %
 Cost of revenue
27,082  26,615  $ 467  %
 Gross profit
$ 73,787  $ 71,509  $ 2,278  %
 Gross margin
73.2  % 72.9  %
Total revenue was $100.9 million for the three months ended July 31, 2022, compared to $98.1 million for the three months ended July 31, 2021, an increase of $2.7 million or 3%, primarily driven by new customer subscriptions to our platform, as well as expanded subscriptions for existing customers. Revenue for the three months ended July 31, 2022 included a negative impact from foreign currency exchange rates of approximately $2.8 million, using a constant currency basis. We calculate constant currency by translating our current period results for entities reporting in currencies other than U.S. Dollars (“USD”) into USD at the average monthly exchange rates in effect during the comparative period, as opposed to the average monthly exchange rates in effect during the current period.
For the three months ended July 31, 2022 and 2021, revenue recognized from subscriptions and associated support to our platform was 91% and revenue recognized from professional services was 9%, compared to 92% and 8%, respectively.
Cost of revenue was $27.1 million for the three months ended July 31, 2022, relatively consistent compared to $26.6 million for the three months ended July 31, 2021. The increase of $0.5 million or 2% was primarily driven by a $0.9 million increase in personnel-related costs, reflecting higher headcount. This was generally offset by a $1.0 million decrease in stock-based compensation expense, largely due to decreases in the fair value of awards granted.
Gross margin was 73.2% for the three months ended July 31, 2022, compared to 72.9% for the three months ended July 31, 2021 as reflected in the discussion above.
Operating Expenses
Three months ended July 31, Variance
(in thousands) 2022 2021 Dollars Percent
 Sales and marketing $ 54,105  $ 58,578  $ (4,473) (8) %
 Research and development $ 18,819  $ 18,500  $ 319  %
 General and administrative $ 20,384  $ 20,843  $ (459) (2) %
Sales and marketing expense was $54.1 million for the three months ended July 31, 2022, compared to $58.6 million for the three months ended July 31, 2021, a decrease of $4.5 million or 8%. The decrease was primarily driven by employee-related costs, as personnel-related costs decreased $2.1 million, reflecting lower headcount, and stock-based compensation expense which decreased $1.2 million, largely due to decreases in the fair value of awards granted. In addition, advertising costs decreased $2.0 million due to certain brand media campaigns in the prior period. These decreases were partially offset by a $1.5 million increase in conferences and events and a $0.7 million increase in employee travel.
Research and development expense was $18.8 million for the three months ended July 31, 2022, relatively consistent compared to $18.5 million for the three months ended July 31, 2021, as increases of $1.2 million in personnel-related costs were generally offset by a $1.6 million decrease in stock-based compensation expense, largely due to decreases in the fair value of awards granted.
General and administrative expense was $20.4 million for the three months ended July 31, 2022, relatively consistent compared to $20.8 million for the three months ended July 31, 2021. The decrease of $0.5 million or 2%, reflected a $1.1 million decrease in professional related costs and a $0.5 million decrease in stock-based compensation expense, largely due to decreases in the fair value of awards granted. These decreases were partially offset by a $0.4 million increase in personnel-related costs, reflecting higher headcount, as well as a $0.4 million increase in bad debt expense.
23


Six Months Ended July 31, 2022 Compared to Six Months Ended July 31, 2021
Revenue and Cost of Revenue
Six months ended July 31, Variance
(in thousands) 2022 2021 Dollars Percent
 Revenue
$ 199,671  $ 190,116  $ 9,555  %
 Cost of revenue
51,810  48,469  $ 3,341  %
 Gross profit
$ 147,861  $ 141,647  $ 6,214  %
 Gross margin
74.1  % 74.5  %
Total revenue was $199.7 million for the six months ended July 31, 2022, compared to $190.1 million for the six months ended July 31, 2021, an increase of $9.6 million or 5%, primarily driven by new customer subscriptions to our platform, as well as expanded subscriptions for existing customers. Revenue for the six months ended July 31, 2022 included a negative impact from foreign currency exchange rates of approximately $4.2 million, using a constant currency basis. We calculate constant currency by translating our current period results for entities reporting in currencies other than USD into USD at the average monthly exchange rates in effect during the comparative period, as opposed to the average monthly exchange rates in effect during the current period.
For the six months ended July 31, 2022 and 2021, revenue recognized from subscriptions and associated support to our platform was 91% and revenue recognized from professional services was 9%, compared to 92% and 8%, respectively.
Cost of revenue was $51.8 million for the six months ended July 31, 2022, compared to $48.5 million for the six months ended July 31, 2021, an increase of $3.3 million or 7%. The increase was primarily driven by a $2.9 million increase in personnel-related costs, reflecting higher headcount, as well as a $1.0 million increase in depreciation expense and a $1.0 million increase in costs associated with our data centers. These increases were partially offset by a $1.0 million decrease in stock-based compensation expense, largely due to decreases in the fair value of awards granted, as well as a $0.8 million decrease in Knowledge Network application provider fees due to favorable contract renewal terms with certain providers in the prior year.
Gross margin was 74.1% for the six months ended July 31, 2022, compared to 74.5% for the six months ended July 31, 2021 as reflected in the discussion above.
Operating Expenses
Six months ended July 31, Variance
(in thousands) 2022 2021 Dollars Percent
 Sales and marketing $ 114,884  $ 113,744  $ 1,140  %
 Research and development $ 36,121  $ 32,357  $ 3,764  12  %
 General and administrative $ 41,879  $ 39,190  $ 2,689  %
Sales and marketing expense was $114.9 million for the six months ended July 31, 2022, compared to $113.7 million for the six months ended July 31, 2021, an increase of $1.1 million or 1%. The increase was primarily driven by a $3.4 million increase in conferences and events and a $2.3 million increase in employee travel. These increases were partially offset by a $2.9 million decrease in advertising costs associated with certain brand media campaigns in the prior period, as well as a $1.3 million decrease in costs to obtain revenue contracts and a $0.7 million decrease in salaries and wages, reflecting lower headcount.
Research and development expense was $36.1 million for the six months ended July 31, 2022, compared to $32.4 million for the six months ended July 31, 2021, an increase of $3.8 million or 12%. The increase was primarily driven by a $3.6 million increase in personnel-related costs.
General and administrative expense was $41.9 million for the six months ended July 31, 2022, compared to $39.2 million for the six months ended July 31, 2021, an increase of $2.7 million or 7%. The increase was primarily due to employee-related costs, including a $1.9 million increase in personnel-related costs, reflecting higher headcount, as well as a $1.6 million increase in stock-based compensation expense primarily due to performance based restricted stock units granted in the current period. These increases were partially offset by a $1.3 million decrease in professional related costs.
Net Loss
Net loss was $20.0 million and $45.8 million for the three and six months ended July 31, 2022, respectively and $27.6 million and $45.2 million for the three and six months ended July 31, 2021, respectively.
Non-GAAP Net Loss
In addition to our financial results determined in accordance with GAAP, we believe that non-GAAP net loss is useful in evaluating our operating performance and our business.
24


Non-GAAP net loss is a financial measure that is not calculated in accordance with GAAP. We define non-GAAP net loss as our GAAP net loss as adjusted to exclude the effects of stock-based compensation expense. We believe non-GAAP net loss provides investors and other users of our financial information consistency and comparability with our past financial performance and facilitates period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations. We also believe non-GAAP net loss is useful in evaluating our operating performance compared to that of other companies in our industry, as it eliminates the effects of stock-based compensation, which may vary for reasons unrelated to overall operating performance.
We use non-GAAP net loss in conjunction with traditional GAAP net loss as part of our overall assessment of our performance, including the preparation of our annual operating budget and quarterly forecasts, and to evaluate the effectiveness of our business strategies. Our definition may differ from the definitions used by other companies and therefore comparability may be limited. In addition, other companies may not publish this or similar metrics. Thus, our non-GAAP net loss should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for, nor superior to or in isolation from, measures prepared in accordance with GAAP.
Non-GAAP net loss may be limited in its usefulness because it does not present the full economic effect of our use of stock-based compensation expense. We compensate for these limitations by providing a reconciliation of non-GAAP net loss to the most closely related GAAP financial measure. We encourage investors and others to review our financial information in its entirety, not to rely on any single financial measure and to view non-GAAP net loss in conjunction with GAAP net loss.
The following table provides a reconciliation of GAAP net loss to non-GAAP net loss:
Three months ended July 31, Six months ended July 31,
(in thousands) 2022 2021 2022 2021
Net loss $ (19,991) $ (27,592) $ (45,830) $ (45,223)
Plus: Stock-based compensation expense 16,082  20,402  34,168  35,000 
Non-GAAP net loss $ (3,909) $ (7,190) $ (11,662) $ (10,223)
Constant Currency
We provide revenue, including year-over-year growth rates, adjusted to remove the impact of foreign currency rate fluctuations, which we refer to as constant currency. We believe providing revenue on a constant currency basis helps our investors to better understand our underlying performance, given the current macroeconomic environment. We calculate constant currency by using the current period results for entities reporting in currencies other than USD, which are then converted into USD at the average monthly exchange rates in effect during the comparative period, as opposed to the average monthly exchange rates in effect during the current period. Our definition may differ from the definitions used by other companies and therefore comparability may be limited. In addition, other companies may not publish these or similar metrics. Thus, our revenue on a constant currency basis should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for, nor superior to or in isolation from, measures prepared in accordance with GAAP. We provide a reconciliation of revenue on a constant currency basis to the most closely related GAAP financial measure. We encourage investors and others to review our financial information in its entirety and to view revenue on a constant currency basis in conjunction with revenue on a GAAP basis.
The following table provides a reconciliation of revenue on a GAAP basis to revenue on a constant currency basis:
Three months ended July 31,
(in thousands) 2022 2021 Growth Rates
Revenue (GAAP) $ 100,869  $ 98,124  %
Effects of foreign currency rate fluctuations 2,782 
Revenue on a constant currency basis (Non-GAAP) $ 103,651  %
Six months ended July 31,
(in thousands) 2022 2021 Growth Rates
Revenue (GAAP) $ 199,671  $ 190,116  %
Effects of foreign currency rate fluctuations 4,168 
Revenue on a constant currency basis (Non-GAAP) $ 203,839  %
25


Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of July 31, 2022, our principal sources of liquidity were cash and cash equivalents of $187.9 million. We believe our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet our projected operating requirements for at least the next 12 months. Our cash flows, including net cash used in or provided by operating activities, may vary significantly from quarter to quarter, due to the timing of billings, cash collections and lease payments, significant marketing events and related expenses, and the potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, among other factors.
Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including those set forth under "Risk Factors". We may in the future enter into arrangements to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, services, technologies, and intellectual property rights. In addition, we may be required to seek additional equity or debt financing. In the event that additional financing is required from outside sources, we may not be able to raise it on terms acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital when desired, our business, operating results and financial condition would be adversely affected.
Credit Arrangements
On March 11, 2020, we entered into a credit agreement with Silicon Valley Bank (the “Credit Agreement”). No significant debt issuance costs were incurred in association with the Credit Agreement. In January 2021, we amended the Credit Agreement which modified the conditions pursuant to which subsidiaries are required to become guarantors.
The Credit Agreement provides for a senior secured revolving loan facility of up to $50.0 million that matures three years after the effective date, with the right subject to certain conditions to add an incremental revolving loan facility of up to $50.0 million in the aggregate. The three-year revolving loan facility provides for borrowings up to the amount of the facility with sub-limits of up to (i) $30.0 million to be available for the issuance of letters of credit and (ii) $10.0 million to be available for swingline loans.
Under the Credit Agreement, loans bear interest, at our option, at an annual rate based on LIBOR or a base rate. Loans based on LIBOR shall bear interest at a rate between LIBOR plus 2.50% and LIBOR plus 3.00%, depending on our average daily usage of the revolving loan facility. Loans based on the base rate shall bear interest at a rate between the base rate minus 0.50% and the base rate plus 0.00%, depending on our average daily usage of the revolving loan facility. See Part II Item 1A “Risk Factors - Our credit facility contains restrictive covenants that may limit our operating flexibility" for discussion of LIBOR being phased out.
The obligations under the Credit Agreement are secured by a lien on substantially all of our tangible and intangible property and by a pledge of all of our equity interests of material direct and indirect domestic subsidiaries and 66% of each class of capital stock of any material first-tier foreign subsidiaries, subject to limited exceptions.
The Credit Agreement contains customary affirmative and negative covenants and restrictions, as well as financial covenants that require us to maintain the year-over-year growth rate of its ordinary course recurring revenue for a trailing four fiscal quarter period above specified rates when certain liquidity thresholds are not met and to maintain a consolidated quick ratio of at least 1.50 to 1.00 tested on a monthly basis.
        As of July 31, 2022, we were in compliance with all debt covenants. As of such date, the $50.0 million revolving loan facility had $35.9 million available and $14.1 million in letters of credit allocated as security in connection with office space.
Share Repurchase Program
In March 2022, our Board of Directors authorized a $100.0 million share repurchase program of our common stock. As of July 31, 2022, a total of 10,224,095 shares have been purchased at an average price of $5.77 per share for a total cost of $58.9 million since the commencement of the share repurchase program. As of July 31, 2022, there was approximately $41.1 million that remained available to be purchased under this share repurchase program.
Cash Flows
The following table summarizes our cash flows:
Six months ended July 31,
(in thousands) 2022 2021
 Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities
$ (7,305) $ 2,449 
 Net cash used in investing activities
$ (3,875) $ (10,555)
 Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
$ (56,568) $ 17,585 
Operating Activities
Net cash used in operating activities of $7.3 million for the six months ended July 31, 2022 was primarily due to the net loss of $45.8 million, as well as changes in unearned revenue of $54.2 million, changes in operating lease liabilities of $6.0 million and prepaid expenses and other current assets of $4.7 million. This was partially offset by positive adjustments in reconciling our net loss to net cash used in operating activities related to changes in accounts receivable of $45.8 million, mainly due to timing of billing and cash collections during the period, as well as changes in costs to obtain revenue contracts of $7.6 million. In addition, there were
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positive non-cash adjustments related to stock-based compensation expense of $34.2 million, depreciation and amortization expense of $8.7 million, and amortization of operating lease right-of-use assets of $4.5 million.
Net cash provided by operating activities of $2.4 million for the six months ended July 31, 2021 was primarily due to positive adjustments in reconciling our net loss of $45.2 million to net cash provided by operating activities, including changes in accounts receivable of $37.6 million, mainly due to timing of billing and cash collections during the period, stock-based compensation expense of $35.0 million, depreciation and amortization expense of $7.9 million, and amortization of operating lease right-of-use assets of $4.6 million. These increases were partially offset by changes in unearned revenue of $26.3 million and costs to obtain revenue contracts of $8.4 million.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities of $3.9 million for the six months ended July 31, 2022 reflected capital expenditures.
Net cash used in investing activities of $10.6 million for the six months ended July 31, 2021, reflected capital expenditures associated with our new office spaces, primarily our new corporate headquarters in New York, NY.
Financing Activities
Net cash used in financing activities of $56.6 million for the six months ended July 31, 2022 was primarily related to $58.7 million in cash outflows associated with repurchases of common stock as part of our share repurchase program. This was partially offset by net proceeds from employee stock purchase plan withholdings of $1.9 million and proceeds from exercise of stock options of $0.5 million.
Net cash provided by financing activities of $17.6 million for the six months ended July 31, 2021 was primarily related to proceeds from exercise of stock options of $14.4 million and net proceeds from employee stock purchase plan withholdings of $3.4 million.
Contractual Obligations
We are obligated to make payments under certain non-cancelable contractual obligations in the normal course of business. Our contractual obligations primarily relate to our operating lease arrangements for office space. Our other contractual obligations include contracts with our Knowledge Network application providers, which generally have a term of one year, although some have a term of several years, as well as contracts with our software vendors, among others. These obligations represent minimum contractual payments, or our best estimate for variable elements based on historical payments. Our contractual obligations have various expiry dates between fiscal years 2023 and 2035.
        As of July 31, 2022, future minimum payments under these contractual obligations are as follows (in thousands):
Fiscal year ending January 31: Operating Leases Other
2023 (remainder of fiscal year) $ 9,485  $ 22,234 
2024 18,694  17,308 
2025 18,229  9,473 
2026 19,092  1,834 
2027 19,187  1,537 
2028 and thereafter 74,962  390 
Total $ 159,649  $ 52,776 
See Note 13, "Commitments and Contingencies", to our condensed consolidated financial statements for further discussion on contractual obligations.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our management's discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based on our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP"). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported revenue generated and expenses incurred during the reporting periods. Our estimates are based on our historical experience and various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about items that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
There have been no material changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates as compared to those disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies- Recent Accounting Pronouncements", to the condensed consolidated financial statements for our discussion about adopted and pending recent accounting pronouncements.
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Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Market risk represents the risk of loss that may affect our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. We are exposed to market risks related to foreign currency exchange rates, inflation and interest rates.
Foreign Currency Risk
Assets and liabilities of non-U.S. subsidiaries that operate in a local currency environment, where the local currency is the functional currency, are translated from foreign currencies into U.S. dollars using month-end rates of exchange for assets and liabilities, and average rates for the period derived from month-end spot rates for revenue, costs and expenses. We record translation gains and losses in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income as a component of stockholders' equity. We reflect net foreign exchange transaction gains and losses resulting from the conversion of the transaction currency to functional currency as a component of foreign currency exchange losses in other expense, net. Based on the size of our international operations and the amount of our expenses denominated in foreign currencies, we would not expect a 10% change in the value of the U.S. dollar from rates on July 31, 2022 to have a material effect on our financial position or results of operations. These exposures may change over time as business practices evolve and economic conditions change, including market impacts associated with COVID-19, as well as recent foreign currency impacts due to the macroeconomic environment.
Inflation Risk
We do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations, other than its impact on the general economy which includes labor costs. Nonetheless, if our costs, in particular personnel-related costs, continue to become subject to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset such higher costs through price increases. Our inability or failure to do so could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Interest Rate Risk
As of July 31, 2022, we had cash and cash equivalents of $187.9 million. The primary objective of our investments is the preservation of capital to fulfill liquidity needs. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes.
We do not believe our cash equivalents have significant risk of default or illiquidity. While we believe our cash equivalents do not contain excessive risk, we cannot assure you that in the future our investments will not be subject to adverse changes in market value. In addition, we maintain significant amounts of cash and cash equivalents at one or more financial institutions that are in excess of federally insured limits and are exposed to counterparty risk. We have not been exposed to, nor do we anticipate being exposed to, material risks due to changes in interest rates. A hypothetical 10% change in interest rates during any of the periods presented would not have had a material impact on our financial statements.
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Item 4. Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act").
Disclosure controls and procedures are controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our reports filed or submitted under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Securities and Exchange Commission’s rules and forms. Disclosure controls and procedures include controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our company’s reports filed under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of July 31, 2022.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rules 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act that occurred during the six months ended July 31, 2022 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Limitations on the Effectiveness of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, does not expect that our disclosure controls and procedures or internal control over financial reporting will prevent all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and implemented, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Further, the design of a control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues within a company are detected. The inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty and that breakdowns can occur because of simple errors or mistakes. Controls can also be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people, or by management override of the controls. Because of the inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and may not be detected. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.


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PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1.    Legal Proceedings
Menzione v. Yext, Inc., et al., No. 1:22-cv-05127 (S.D.N.Y.)
On June 17, 2022, a putative class action lawsuit was filed in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York by a purported purchaser of Company securities. The complaint names the Company, its former Chief Executive Officer (Howard Lerman), and its former Chief Financial Officer (Steven Cakebread) as defendants. The complaint alleges that the defendants purportedly made false and/or misleading statements and failed to disclose material adverse facts about the Company’s business, operations, and prospects, including information regarding the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Company. The purported class includes all persons and entities that purchased or acquired our securities between March 4, 2021 and March 8, 2022. The complaint seeks monetary damages for alleged securities law violations. Motions for appointment as lead plaintiff and lead counsel were filed on August 16, 2022. On September 6, 2022, the court appointed the Operating Engineers Construction Industry and Miscellaneous Pension Fund to be lead plaintiff for the purported class, and Robbins Gellar Rudman & Dowd LLP to be lead counsel for the purported class. Yext believes it has meritorious defenses to the claims and intends to defend itself vigorously.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes, before making a decision to invest in our common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that affect our business. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects could be materially harmed. In that event, the price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.
Risk Factor Summary
This risk factor summary contains a high-level summary of risks associated with our business, but does not address all of the risks that we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized below, and other risks that we face, may be found immediately following this summary.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Our revenue growth rate has slowed in recent periods.
We have a history of losses and may not achieve profitability in the future.
Adverse economic conditions including inflation or reduced technology spending may adversely impact our business.
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have had and are expected to continue to have an adverse effect on our business, operations and financial results as well as the business and operations of our customers and potential customers.
Because we recognize revenue from subscriptions for our platform over the term of the subscription, downturns or upturns in new business may not be immediately reflected in our operating results.
We have a limited operating history and our business has evolved, which makes it difficult to predict our future operating results.
We have experienced significant changes to our organization and structure and may not be able to effectively manage such changes.
Failure to adequately manage our sales force will impede our growth.
We have expanded and intend to continue to expand our international operations, which exposes us to significant risks.
Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with existing and prospective Knowledge Network application providers.
Changes in our pricing models could adversely affect our operating results.
Our success depends on a fragmented internet environment for finding information, particularly information about businesses.
Our platform faces competition in the marketplace. If we are unable to compete effectively, our operating results could be adversely affected.
Business and professional service providers may not widely adopt our platform to manage their information or as an important part of their marketing strategy, which would limit our ability to grow our business.
If customers do not renew their subscriptions for our platform or if they reduce their subscriptions at the time of renewal, our revenue will decline and our business will suffer.
If we are unable to attract new customers, our revenue growth could be slower than we expect and our business may be harmed.
If we fail to integrate our platform with a variety of third-party technologies, our platform may become less marketable and less competitive or obsolete and our operating results would be harmed.
If we are unable to successfully develop and market new features, make enhancements to our existing features, or expand our offerings into new markets, our business, results of operations and competitive position may suffer.
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If we fail to adapt and respond effectively to rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards and changing customer needs or requirements, our platform may become less competitive.
If customers do not expand their use of our platform beyond their current subscriptions and licenses, our ability to grow our business and operating results may be adversely affected.
Because our platform is sold to enterprises that often have complex operating environments, we may encounter long and unpredictable sales cycles, which could adversely affect our operating results in any given period.
A portion of our revenue is dependent on a few customers.
A significant portion of our revenue is dependent on third-party reseller customers, the efforts of which we do not control.
We may require additional capital to support our business, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.
Risks Related to Information Technology, Intellectual Property, and Data Security
A security breach, network attack or information security incident could delay or interrupt service to our customers, result in the unauthorized access to, or use, modification or publishing of customer content or other information, harm our reputation or subject us to significant liability.
Assertions by third parties of infringement or other violations by us of their intellectual property rights could result in significant costs and harm our business and operating results.
We could incur substantial costs in protecting or defending our intellectual property rights, and any failure to protect our intellectual property could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our platform utilizes open source software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more of these open source licenses could negatively affect our business.
We employ third-party licensed software for use in or with our platform, and the inability to maintain these licenses or errors in the software we license could result in increased costs, or reduced service levels, which could adversely affect our business.
The reliability of our network and support infrastructure will be critical to our success. Sustained failures or outages could lead to significant costs and service disruptions, which could negatively affect our business, financial results and reputation.
Real or perceived errors, failures or bugs in our software, or in the software or systems of our third-party application providers and partners, could materially and adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects.
Risks Related to Laws, Regulation and Taxation
We are subject to governmental regulation and other legal obligations, including those related to privacy, data protection and information security, and our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business. Compliance with such laws could also impair our efforts to maintain and expand our customer base, and thereby decrease our revenue.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock and Our Status as a Public Company
Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business.
The market price of our common stock has been and may continue to be volatile and may decline. Market volatility may affect the value of an investment in our common stock and could subject us to litigation.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Our revenue growth rate has slowed in recent periods.
We experienced revenue growth rates of 31% from the fiscal year ended January 31, 2019 to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020, 19% from the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020 to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, 10% from the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022, and 5% from the six months ended July 31, 2021 to the six months ended July 31, 2022. We expect our growth in the coming year to be slower. Our historical revenue growth rates are not indicative of future growth, and we may not achieve similar revenue growth rates in future periods. You should not rely on our revenue for any prior quarterly or annual periods as an indication of our future revenue or revenue growth. Our operating results may vary as a result of a number of factors, including our ability to execute on our business strategy, our ability to compete effectively for customers and business partners, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, and other factors that are outside of our control. If we are unable to maintain consistent revenue or revenue growth, our stock price could be volatile, and it could be difficult to achieve or maintain profitability.
We have a history of losses and may not achieve profitability in the future.
We generated a net loss of $20.0 million for the quarter ended July 31, 2022 and $93.3 million, $94.7 million, and $121.5 million for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. As of July 31, 2022, we had an accumulated deficit of $656.4 million, reflecting our losses recognized historically on a GAAP basis. We will need to generate and sustain increased revenue levels and reduced expenses in future periods to become profitable, and, even if we do, we may not be able to maintain or increase our level of profitability. As a result, we may continue to experience operating losses for the indefinite future. Further, while we are reducing operating expenses in the near term, we expect our operating expenses may increase in the coming years as we hire additional personnel, expand our distribution channels, develop our technology and new features, face increased compliance costs
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associated with our growth and entry into new markets and geographies and adopt new systems to scale and automate our operations. If our revenue does not increase to offset these and other potential increases in operating expenses, we may not be profitable in future periods. If we are unable to achieve and sustain profitability, the market price of our common stock may significantly decrease.
Adverse economic conditions or reduced technology spending may adversely impact our business.
Our business depends on the overall demand for technology and on the economic performance of our current and prospective customers. In general, worldwide economic conditions may remain unstable, including inflation, and these conditions would make it difficult for our customers, prospective customers and us to forecast and plan future business activities accurately, and they could cause our customers or prospective customers to reevaluate their decision to purchase our features. Weak global economic conditions, changes in consumer behavior or a reduction in technology spending even if economic conditions stabilize, could adversely impact our business and results of operations in a number of ways, including longer sales cycles, lower demand or prices for our platform, fewer subscriptions and lower or no growth. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting governmental restrictions and regulations have created additional uncertainty in the global economy and a sharp increase in unemployment. The prolonged uncertainty and weak economic conditions relating to the COVID-19 pandemic have led certain of our customers and potential customers to decrease the rate of their information technology spending, has adversely affected their ability or willingness to purchase our platform and has caused them to delay purchasing decisions or reduce the value or duration of their subscriptions, all of which has adversely affected our operating results. Further, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine may lead to disruption, instability, deterioration and volatility in global markets and industries that could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, the economies of countries in Europe have been experiencing weakness associated with high sovereign debt levels, weakness in the banking sector and uncertainty over the future of the European Union, including uncertainty regarding Brexit. We have operations, as well as current and potential new customers, throughout Europe. The European Union's economy also suffered a sharp downturn due to the COVID-19 pandemic and Russia's invasion of Ukraine, and economic conditions in Europe and other key markets for our platform remain weak. As a result, we have experienced negative impacts on our sales activities in Europe. If such conditions deteriorate further, customers may delay or reduce their information technology spending. In addition, the legal, regulatory and economic impacts of the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union in January 2020 are not fully known at this time. While the United Kingdom and the European Union have signed an EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement, there are still many uncertainties and regulations applicable during the transition period will likely be amended and may diverge from European Union regulations. The outcome of these events may, among other things, increase the costs and complexity of our operations in Europe including our ability to hire and retain employees.
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have had and are expected to continue to have an adverse effect on our business, operations and financial results as well as the business and operations of our customers and potential customers.
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly disrupted business operations for us and our customers as well as suppliers, and other parties with whom we do business. Such disruptions may continue for an indefinite period of time. We have adopted several measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and continue to monitor regional developments to inform our operational decisions. Our offices have been open on a voluntary basis in accordance with guidance provided by government agencies, although currently the majority of our employees are still working remotely. While we continue to hold virtual events, we have also resumed in-person marketing events. We continue to monitor regional developments relating to the COVID-19 pandemic to inform operational decisions, but these efforts may not be successful and may require additional costs. The uncertain duration of these measures have had and may continue to have negative effects on our sales efforts and revenue growth rates. In addition, our management team has, and will likely continue, to spend time, attention and resources monitoring the COVID-19 pandemic and seeking to manage its effects on our business and workforce.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had and we believe will continue to have a negative impact on our sales activities including our ability to attract, retain and sell additional products and features to our customers and on our customers’ perception of the need for our products. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic some existing and potential customers, in particular customers in industries that have been highly impacted by the pandemic, and geographies with restrictions on business, have and we expect other customers may reduce, suspend or delay technology spending, request to renegotiate contracts to obtain concessions such as extended billing and payment terms, shorten the duration of contracts or elect not to renew their subscriptions. If additional customers or potential customers take similar actions, our operating results and financial condition may be materially adversely impacted. Because our platform is offered as a subscription-based service and we generally recognize revenue from our customer contracts ratably over the term of the contract, changes in our contracting activity in the near term may not be fully reflected in our results of operations and overall financial performance until future periods.
The COVID-19 pandemic including its variants and measures taken to control its spread may adversely affect other aspects of our business as described in this “Risk Factors” section. As a result of the scale of the pandemic and measures taken to control its spread, our financial and operating results have been adversely affected and may differ materially from our historical results, and such adverse results may continue or worsen.
Further, even though some governments have begun to relax COVID-19 related restrictions, any recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic and related economic impact may be slowed or reversed by a variety of factors, such as, the spread of new variants of the
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COVID-19 virus. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has subsided, we may continue to experience adverse impacts to our business as a result of its global economic impact. Further, many of the factors discussed in this “Risk Factors” section are, and we anticipate will continue to be further, heightened or exacerbated by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Because we recognize revenue from subscriptions for our platform over the term of the subscription, downturns or upturns in new business may not be immediately reflected in our operating results.
We generally recognize revenue from customers ratably over the terms of their agreements, which are typically one year in length but may be up to three years or longer in length. As a result, most of the revenue we report in each quarter is the result of subscription agreements entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed subscriptions in any one quarter may not be reflected in our revenue results for that quarter. Any such decline, however, will negatively affect our revenue in future quarters. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in sales and market acceptance of our products or a decline in our retention rate, including as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, may not be fully apparent or reflected in our results of operations until future periods. Our subscription model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenue through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new customers must be recognized over the applicable subscription term.
Our business has evolved, which makes it difficult to predict our future operating results.
As a result of changes to our platform and our sales model, our ability to forecast our future operating results is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to plan for and model our future growth. The dynamic nature of our business and our industry may make it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects, and as a result our historical performance should not be considered indicative of our future performance. We have encountered and will encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, such as the risks and uncertainties described herein. In addition, the duration and extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and industry are uncertain and introduce additional uncertainty to our forecasts of future operating results. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties are incorrect or change due to changes in our industry, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations and our business could suffer.
We have experienced significant changes to our organization and structure and may not be able to effectively manage those changes.
Our headcount and operations have grown substantially in recent years. We increased the number of our full-time employees from over 450 as of January 31, 2016 to over 1,400 as of January 31, 2022 and have hired several members of our senior management team in recent years. We may reduce our headcount in the near term as we adjust our strategies to reflect the recent changes in our business. In addition, we have experienced significant leadership changes in recent quarters. In March 2022, our Chief Executive Officer, Howard Lerman, and our Chief Financial Officer, Steven Cakebread resigned, and our Chairman, Michael Walrath, and our Chief Accounting Officer, Darryl Bond, succeeded them as Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, respectively. Additionally, in June 2022, our President and Chief Revenue Officer, David Rudnitsky, resigned, and the Company commenced a search for a permanent replacement. While we believe these will be of long term value to our stockholders, the resulting changes and related disruption has and will continue to have near-term effects on our business, growth and profitability.
We believe that our corporate culture has been a critical component of our success. We have invested substantial time and resources in building our team and nurturing our culture. As we change our business, we may find it difficult to maintain our corporate culture. Any failure to manage organizational changes in a manner that preserves the key aspects of our culture could hurt our chance for future success, including our ability to recruit and retain personnel and effectively focus on and pursue our corporate objectives. Furthermore, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, our corporate culture may be difficult to maintain as the majority of our employees are working remotely.
In addition, we will need to continue to improve our information technology infrastructure and our operational, financial and management systems and procedures. We have implemented many of these systems and procedures only recently, and they may not work as we expect or at all. If we continue to grow, additional headcount and capital investments will increase our costs, which will make it more difficult for us to address any future revenue shortfalls by reducing expenses in the short term. However, to the extent we cannot scale our information technology infrastructure, we will continue to rely on manual processes that are costly, inefficient and subject to error.
Finally, our organizational structure has become more complex. We have added personnel and may need to continue to scale and adapt our operational, financial and management controls, as well as our reporting systems and procedures. Changes to our systems and infrastructure may require us to commit additional financial, operational and management resources before our revenue increases and without any assurances that our revenue will increase. If we fail to successfully manage our growth, we likely will be unable to successfully execute our business strategy, which could have a negative impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.
Failure to adequately manage our sales force will impede our growth.
Our revenue growth is substantially reliant on our sales force. Much of our sales process is relationship-driven, which requires a significant sales force. We have historically had difficulty recruiting and retaining a sufficient number of sales personnel, and this
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difficulty has heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic. If we are unable to adequately expand and scale our sales force, we will not be able to reach our market potential and execute our business plan. In addition, we may change the size of our sales force to reflect strategic realignment in how we go to market, which may result in a net decrease in sales personnel in the near term before growing headcount again.
Identifying and recruiting qualified sales personnel and training them on our products requires significant time, expense and attention. Our financial results will suffer if our efforts to expand, scale and train our sales force do not generate a corresponding increase in revenue. We have hired a significant number of sales personnel in recent years. If new sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic or if we are unable to retain and develop talented sales personnel, we may not be able to realize the expected benefits of this investment or increase our revenue.
We have expanded and intend to continue to expand our international operations, which exposes us to significant risks.
In 2014, we opened our first office outside the United States, and we intend to continue to expand our operations abroad. Our international expansion has created and will create significant challenges for our management, administrative, operational and financial infrastructure. Operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention and will subject us to regulatory, economic and political risks in addition to those we already face in the United States. Because of our limited experience with international operations and developing and managing sales in international markets, our international expansion efforts may not be successful.
Some of the specific risks we will face in conducting business internationally that could adversely affect our business include:
the difficulty of recruiting and managing international operations and the increased operations, travel, infrastructure and legal compliance costs associated with numerous international locations;
our ability to effectively price our multi-tiered subscriptions in competitive international markets;
our ability to identify and manage sales partners;
new and different sources of competition in each country or region;
potentially greater difficulty collecting accounts receivable and longer payment cycles;
the need to adapt and localize our products for specific countries, including differences in the location attributes and formats used in each country and differences in languages, for example in the case of our search product, which relies on natural language processing;
the need to develop integrations with new third-party applications used by international customers;
the need to offer customer support in various languages;
difficulties in understanding and complying with local laws, regulations and customs in foreign jurisdictions;
compliance with U.S. laws and regulations for foreign operations, including, without limitation, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act, import and export control laws, tariffs, trade barriers, economic sanctions and other regulatory or contractual limitations on our ability to sell in certain foreign markets, and the risks and costs of non-compliance;
compliance with international laws and regulations, including without limitation, those governing privacy, data security and data transfer, such as the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which may impair our ability to grow our business or offer our service in some locations, may subject us to liability for non-compliance or may require us to change our business practices;
expanded demands on, and distraction of, senior management;
difficulties with differing technical and environmental standards, data privacy and telecommunications regulations and certification requirements outside the United States;
varying levels of internet technology adoption and infrastructure;
tariffs and other non-tariff barriers, such as quotas and local content rules;
more limited protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
adverse tax consequences;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which could increase the price of our products outside of the United States, increase the expenses of our international operations, or have a negative impact on our revenue and expose us to foreign currency exchange rate risk;
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currency control regulations, which might restrict or prohibit our conversion of other currencies into U.S. dollars;
restrictions on the transfer of funds;
deterioration of political relations between the United States and other countries;
natural disasters, pandemics including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, acts of terrorism and other events beyond our control; and
political or social unrest or economic instability in a specific country or region in which we operate, which could have an adverse impact on our operations in that location.
In particular, in February 2022, Russia launched a large-scale military attack on Ukraine. The invasion significantly amplified already existing geopolitical tensions among Russia, Ukraine, Europe, NATO and the West, including the United States. It is not possible to predict the full extent of the broader consequences of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, which could include sanctions, embargoes, regional instability, geopolitical shifts and adverse effects on macroeconomic conditions, currency exchange rates and financial markets. Our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected by any negative impact on the global economy and capital markets resulting from such conflict.
Also, our network service provider fees outside of the United States are generally higher than domestic rates, and our gross margin may be affected and may fluctuate as we expand our operations and customer base worldwide.
Our failure to manage any of these risks successfully could harm our international operations, and adversely affect our overall business, operating results and financial condition.
Some of our customers and Knowledge Network application providers also have international operations and are subject to the risks described above. Even if we are able to successfully manage the risks of international operations, our business may be adversely affected if these customers and application providers are not able to successfully manage these risks.
Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with existing and prospective Knowledge Network application providers.
We have established strategic relationships with approximately 200 third-party service and application providers that comprise our Knowledge Network, including Amazon Alexa, Apple Maps, Bing, Cortana, Facebook, Google, Google Assistant, Google Maps, Siri, Yelp and many others. These application providers provide us with direct access to update content on their websites and applications. This direct access enables our customers to control their business listings on the Knowledge Network application providers' websites and applications and to push real-time or nearly real-time updates to those business listings. In order to maintain relationships with application providers, we may need to modify our products or strategies in a way that may be adverse to our business and financial results. Furthermore, if we were to lose access to these applications, either in whole or in part, our Knowledge Network would not be as efficient, accurate or competitive. Our customers may also place a significant value on particular application providers such as Google such that the termination or impairment of our relationship with one or a limited number of application providers could lead to a loss of a significant number of customers.
In order to grow our business, we anticipate that we will need to continue to maintain and potentially expand these relationships. We may be unsuccessful in renegotiating our agreements with these third-party application providers or third-party application providers may insist on fees to access their applications. Additionally, our contracts with these third-party application providers may be canceled after a notice period or may not be renewed, and we could lose access to these resources without having sufficient time to replace them. We believe we will also need to establish new relationships with third-party application providers, including third-party application providers in new geographic markets that we enter, and third-party application providers that may emerge in the future as leading sources of information about businesses for end consumers. Identifying potential third-party application providers, and negotiating and documenting relationships with them, requires significant time and resources. Our competitors may be more effective than we are in providing incentives to application providers to favor their products or services or to prevent or reduce subscriptions to our products. In addition, the acquisition of a competitor by one of our third-party application providers could result in the termination of our relationship with that third-party application provider, which, in turn, could lead to decreased customer subscriptions. If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our relationships with third-party application providers, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenue could be impaired and our operating results could suffer.
Changes to our pricing models could adversely affect our operating results.
Any changes we make to our pricing models could adversely affect our operating results. For example, we recently began offering capacity-based pricing for our Pages and Answers products. There is no assurance that this new pricing and distribution model will be successful thus adversely affecting our financial results. Furthermore, as the markets for our features grow, as new competitors introduce new products or services that compete with ours or reduce their prices, or as we enter into new international markets, we may be unable to attract new customers or retain existing customers at the same price. Moreover, large customers, which have historically been the focus of our sales efforts, may demand greater price discounts.
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As we expand internationally, we also must determine the appropriate price to enable us to compete effectively internationally. In addition, if the mix of features we sell changes, then we may need to, or choose to, revise our pricing. As a result, in the future we may be required to reduce our prices or offer shorter contract durations, which could adversely affect our revenue, gross margin, profitability, financial condition and cash flow.
Our success depends on a fragmented internet environment for finding information, particularly information about businesses.
We believe that our platform offers value to our customers in part because of the difficulty for a customer to update information about their business across many websites and apps, many of which are owned or controlled by different entities and receive information from a variety of sources. Industry consolidation or technological advancements could result in a small number of websites or applications emerging as the predominant sources of information about businesses, thereby creating a less fragmented internet environment for purposes of end consumer searches about businesses. Additionally, we may enter new geographies with less fragmented internet environments. If most end consumers relied on a few websites or applications for this information, or if reliably accurate information across the most used websites and applications were generated from a single source, the need to synchronize information about a business and for our platform could decline significantly. In particular, if larger providers of internet services were able to consolidate or control key websites and apps from which end consumers seek information about businesses, including regarding physical locations, other entities and attributes, our platform may become less necessary or attractive to our customers, and our revenue would suffer accordingly.
Our platform faces competition in the marketplace. If we are unable to compete effectively, our operating results could be adversely affected.
The market for our features is competitive, rapidly evolving and fragmented, and is subject to changing technology and shifting customer needs. Many companies develop and market products and services that compete to varying extents with our features, and we expect competition in our market to intensify.
As we develop our platform, we will introduce products and features that compete in new markets and as a result we will face new competitors. For example, in October 2019 we launched Answers, our search product, and as a result we face competition from established companies in enterprise search. We believe that our ability to compete depends upon many factors both within and beyond our control, including product capabilities, such as speed, scale, and relevance, with which to power search experiences; ease of deployment and ease of use; adoption of our products by many types of users such as developers, IT professionals, and organizational leaders; and low total cost of ownership. Our competitors in enterprise search may have greater experience in these areas as well as greater name recognition, more established relationships with current and potential customers and larger customer bases. As a result, potential customers may be unwilling to use or switch to our product.
We also face many other competitors with a variety of product offerings. These companies have developed, or are developing, products that currently, or in the future are likely to, compete with some or all of our features. A number of potential new competitors, such as application providers, that enter our markets through acquisitions or otherwise, may decide to create or acquire products that compete with our platform or we may develop products that compete with their existing platforms. Moreover, industry consolidation may increase competition. Some of these current and potential competitors may have longer operating histories, greater name recognition, more established relationships with current and potential customers, larger customer bases or significantly greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we do. As a result, our competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements. We could lose customers if our competitors introduce new competitive products, add new features to existing competitive products, acquire competitive products, reduce prices, form strategic alliances with other companies or are acquired by third parties with greater available resources. If our competitors' products, services or technologies become more accepted than our features, if they are successful in bringing their products or services to market earlier than we bring our features to market, or if their products or services are more technologically capable than our features, then our revenue growth could be adversely affected. Certain of our existing and new competitors have or may develop technologies and services that compete with specific products or features in our platform seeking to be best-in-class. To the extent our customers or potential customers choose to work with several of these vendors rather than implement our platform, our revenue growth could be adversely affected. In addition, some of our competitors offer their products and services at a lower price. If we are unable to achieve our target pricing levels, our margins and operating results could be negatively affected.
Business and professional service providers may not widely adopt our platform to manage their information or as an important part of their marketing strategy, which would limit our ability to grow our business.
Our ability to grow our business and increase revenue depends on our success in educating businesses and professional service providers about the potential benefits of our cloud-based platform. Cloud applications for organizing and managing information about a business, particularly for their locations, entities and attributes, have not previously been widely adopted. Concerns about cost, security, reliability and other issues may cause businesses and professional service providers not to adopt our platform. Moreover, businesses and professional service providers who have already invested substantial resources in other marketing strategies and data management systems or methods may be reluctant to adopt a new approach like ours to supplement or replace existing systems or methods. If businesses and professional service providers do not widely adopt software such as ours, our ability to grow our business will be limited.
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If customers do not renew their subscriptions for our platform or if they reduce their subscriptions at the time of renewal, our revenue will decline and our business will suffer.
Our customers have no obligation to renew their subscriptions for our platform after the expiration of their subscription periods. In the normal course of business, some customers have elected not to renew their subscriptions with us. Our customers may seek to renew their subscriptions for fewer features, at renegotiated rates, or for shorter contract lengths, all of which could reduce the amount of the subscription. Our renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including limited customer resources, changes in our pricing and subscription models, customer satisfaction with our platform, the acquisition of our customers by other companies and deteriorating general economic conditions. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic certain customers reduced their subscriptions, elected not to renew their subscriptions, reduced length of contracts, requested extended billing and payment terms or sought more favorable rates, and certain of these trends contributed to a general decline in our trailing twelve month dollar-based net retention rate. If our customers do not renew their subscriptions for our platform or decrease the amounts they spend with us, our revenue will decline and our business will suffer. If our renewal rates fall significantly below the expectations of the public market, equity research analysts or investors, the price of our common stock could also be harmed.
If we are unable to attract new customers, our revenue growth could be slower than we expect and our business may be harmed.
To increase our revenue, we must add new customers. If competitors introduce lower cost or differentiated products or services that are perceived to compete with our features, our ability to sell our features based on factors such as pricing, technology and functionality could be impaired. As a result, we may be unable to attract new customers at rates or on terms that would be favorable or comparable to prior periods, which could negatively affect the growth of our revenue. We have also allocated marketing resources to virtual events, virtual lead generation, and tools to help our sales personnel connect virtually with customers and potential customers. These new marketing efforts may not be successful and may not attract as many new customers as our historical customer and industry events, which could harm our future revenue and revenue growth.
If we fail to integrate our platform with a variety of third-party technologies, our platform may become less marketable and less competitive or obsolete and our operating results would be harmed.
Our platform must integrate with a variety of third-party technologies, and we need to continuously modify and enhance our platform to adapt to changes in cloud-enabled hardware, software, networking, mobile, browser and database technologies. Any failure of our platform to operate effectively with future technologies could reduce the demand for our platform, resulting in customer dissatisfaction and harm to our business. If we are unable to respond to these changes in a cost-effective and timely manner, our platform may become less marketable and less competitive or obsolete and our operating results may be negatively affected. In addition, an increasing number of customers are utilizing mobile devices to access the internet and conduct business. If we cannot continue to effectively make our platform available on these mobile devices and offer the information, services and functionality required by enterprises that widely use mobile devices, we may experience difficulty attracting and retaining customers, which could negatively affect our revenue.
If we are unable to successfully develop and market new features, make enhancements to our existing features, or expand our offerings into new markets, our business, results of operations and competitive position may suffer.
The software industry is subject to rapid technological change and evolving standards and practices, as well as changing customer needs, requirements and preferences. Our ability to attract new customers and increase revenue from existing customers depends, in part, on our ability to enhance and improve our existing features, increase adoption and usage of our platform and introduce new products and features, including Yext Answers. We expend significant resources on research and development to enhance our platform and to incorporate additional features, improve functionality or add other enhancements in order to meet our customers' rapidly evolving demands. The success of any enhancements or new features depends on several factors, including timely completion, adequate quality testing, actual performance quality, market-accepted pricing levels and overall market acceptance. We may not be successful in these efforts, which could result in significant expenditures that could impact our revenue or distract management's attention from current offerings.
Increased emphasis on the sale and development of new features could distract us from other parts of the business and the development and sale of our core platform, negatively affecting our overall sales. We have invested and expect to continue to invest in new businesses, products, features, services, and technologies. Such endeavors may involve significant risks and uncertainties, including insufficient revenue from such investments to offset any new liabilities assumed and expenses associated with these new investments, inadequate return of capital on our investments, distraction of management from current operations, failure to adequately develop and enhance existing products and unidentified issues not discovered in our due diligence of such strategies and offerings that could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of such investments and incur unanticipated liabilities. Because these new strategies and offerings are inherently risky, no assurance can be given that they will be successful.
As we enhance our platform and develop new features, our platform has also become increasingly sophisticated requiring additional technology, sales, customer support and professional services resources. In order for our customers to understand and derive value from these new products and features, we will need to devote additional resources to train our sales personnel and provide
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higher-quality customer support and professional services. In addition, as our software becomes more complex, we may fail to detect errors, bugs or vulnerabilities.
Even if we are successful in these endeavors, diversifying our platform offerings will bring us more directly into competition with other providers that may be better established or have greater resources than we have. Our new features or enhancements could fail to attain sufficient market acceptance for many reasons, including:
delays in introducing new, enhanced or modified features;
failure to accurately predict market demand or end consumer preferences;
defects, errors or failures in any of our features or our platform;
introduction of competing products;
poor business conditions for our customers or poor general macroeconomic conditions;
changes in legal or regulatory requirements, or increased legal or regulatory scrutiny, adversely affecting our platform;
failure of our brand promotion activities or negative publicity about the performance or effectiveness of our existing features; and
disruptions or delays in the availability and delivery of our platform.
There is no assurance that we will successfully identify new opportunities or develop and bring new features to market on a timely basis, or that products and technologies developed by others will not render our platform obsolete or noncompetitive, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results and compromise our ability to generate revenue. If our new features or enhancements do not achieve adequate acceptance in the market, or if our new features do not result in increased sales or subscriptions, our brand and competitive position will be impaired, our anticipated revenue growth may not be achieved and the negative impact on our operating results may be particularly acute because of the upfront technology and development, marketing, advertising and other expenses we may incur in connection with the new feature or enhancement.
If we fail to adapt and respond effectively to rapidly changing technology, evolving industry standards and changing customer needs or requirements, our platform may become less competitive.
Our future success depends on our ability to adapt and be innovative. To attract new customers and increase revenue from existing customers, we need to continue to enhance and improve our offerings to meet customer needs at prices that our customers are willing to pay. Such efforts will require adding new functionality and responding to technological advancements, which will increase our research and development costs. If we are unable to develop new features that address our customers' needs, or to enhance and improve our platform in a timely manner, we may not be able to maintain or increase market acceptance of our platform. Our ability to grow is also subject to the risk of future disruptive technologies. Access and use of our platform is provided via the cloud, which, itself, was disruptive to the previous enterprise software model. If new technologies emerge that are able to deliver software and related applications at lower prices, more efficiently, more conveniently or more securely, such technologies could adversely affect our ability to compete.
If customers do not expand their use of our platform beyond their current subscriptions and licenses, our ability to grow our business and operating results may be adversely affected.
Our ability to grow our business depends in part on our ability to encourage current and future customers to subscribe to our higher priced packages with more extensive features or to purchase greater capacity. If we fail to achieve market acceptance of new features, or if a competitor establishes a more widely adopted platform, our revenue and operating results will be harmed. In addition, customers may initially purchase licenses for only a portion of the locations or entities that comprise their business or a limited amount of capacity. If these customers do not expand the number of licenses managed with our platform or purchase additional capacity, our revenue and operating results will be harmed.
Because our platform is sold to enterprises that often have complex operating environments, we may encounter long and unpredictable sales cycles, which could adversely affect our operating results in any given period.
Our ability to increase revenue and achieve profitability depends, in large part, on widespread acceptance of our platform by enterprises. As we target our sales efforts at these customers, we face greater costs, longer sales cycles and less predictability in completing some of our sales. As a result of the variability and length of the sales cycle, we have only a limited ability to forecast the timing of sales. A delay in or failure to complete sales could harm our business and financial results, and could cause our financial results to vary from period to period. Our sales cycle varies widely, reflecting differences in potential customers' decision-making processes, procurement requirements and budget cycles, and is subject to significant risks over which we have little or no control, including:
customers' budgetary constraints and priorities;
the timing of customers' budget cycles;
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the need by some customers for lengthy evaluations prior to purchasing products; and
the length and timing of customers' approval processes.
Our typical sales cycles for more substantial enterprise customers can often be long, and we expect that this lengthy sales cycle may continue or could even increase. In the large enterprise market, the customer’s decision to use our platform may be an enterprise-wide decision or may require the approval of senior management, which may not only lengthen the sales cycle but also reduce the likelihood of completing a sale. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the operations of our customers making sales cycles more complex. Delayed and more complex sales cycles could cause our operating results and financial condition to suffer in a given period. If we cannot adequately expand and scale our sales force, we will experience further delays in signing new customers, which could slow our revenue growth.
A portion of our revenue is dependent on a few customers.
For the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, the aggregate of our top five customers accounted for approximately 8%, 9% and 11%, respectively, of our revenue. We anticipate that sales of our platform to a relatively small number of customers will continue to account for a significant portion of our revenue in future periods. If we were to lose any of our significant customers, our revenue could decline and our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. These negative effects could be exacerbated by customer consolidation, changes in technologies or solutions used by customers, changes in demand for our features, selection of suppliers other than us, customer bankruptcies or customer departures from their respective industries, pricing competition or deviation from marketing and sales methods away from physical location retailing, any one of which may result in even fewer customers accounting for a high percentage of our revenue and reduced demand from any single significant customer.
In addition, some of our customers have used, and may in the future use, the size and relative importance of their purchases to our business to require that we enter into agreements with more favorable terms than we would otherwise agree to, to obtain price concessions, or to otherwise restrict our business.
A significant portion of our revenue is dependent on third-party reseller customers, the efforts of which we do not control.
Third-party reseller customers comprise a significant portion of our revenue. In transactions with third-party reseller customers, we are only party to the transaction with the reseller and are not a party to the reseller's transaction with its customer, and we do not control the efforts of these resellers. Such resellers may elect not to renew their subscriptions with us or may elect to purchase significantly fewer licenses, which would materially adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. In addition, our third-party reseller customers, which often sell to small and midsized organizations that can have liquidity and expense limitations, are also susceptible to global economic weakness and uncertainty, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. See also "—If customers do not renew their subscriptions for our platform or if they reduce their subscriptions at the time of renewal, our revenue will decline and our business will suffer." Lower demand from certain of our reseller customers has and may continue to result in them not renewing their subscriptions with us, purchasing fewer licenses, attempting to renegotiate contracts to obtain concessions and requesting extended billing and payment terms. Such an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results would not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods. In addition, if third-party reseller customers merge or consolidate with other businesses, declare bankruptcy or depart from their respective industries, our business could be harmed. For example, consolidation among our third-party reseller customers may require us to renegotiate agreements on less favorable terms, including longer payment periods, or may lead to a termination of our agreements with these resellers. We may expend significant resources managing these relationships. Further, in some international markets, we grant certain reseller customers the exclusive right to sell our features. If those reseller customers to whom we have granted exclusive rights elect not to renew their subscriptions or to purchase significantly fewer licenses, then we may be unable to adequately address sales opportunities in that territory. If we are unable to maintain or replace our contractual relationships with our existing reseller customers, efficiently manage our relationships with them or establish new contractual relationships with other third parties, we may fail to retain customers or acquire potential new customers and may experience delays and increased costs in adding or replacing customers that were lost, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
We previously identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. We may identify additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, and as a result, investor confidence in us and the value of our common stock could be materially and adversely affected.
As a public company, we are required to establish and maintain internal control over financial reporting. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and provide a management report on internal control over financial reporting. Under standards established by the United States Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, a material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected and corrected on a timely basis.
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As of January 31, 2021, we had identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting associated with processes to calculate, record and account for sales commissions. In fiscal year 2022, we remediated the previously identified deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting and concluded that as of January 31, 2022 we had maintained effective internal control over financial reporting.
If we are unable to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, the reliability of our financial reporting, investor confidence in us and the value of our common stock could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, we may discover other control deficiencies in the future, and we cannot assure you that we will not have a material weakness in future periods. Additionally, the process of designing, implementing and maintaining internal control over financial reporting required to comply with Section 404 is time consuming, costly and complicated. Effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to provide reliable and timely financial reports and, together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures, are designed to reasonably detect and prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation and maintenance could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. Undetected material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting could lead to financial statement restatements and require us to incur the expense of remediation. Deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are identified in such assessments may be deemed to be material weaknesses or may require prospective or retroactive changes to our financial statements or identify other areas for further attention or improvement.
We may acquire other companies or technologies, which could divert our management's attention, result in additional dilution to our stockholders and otherwise disrupt our operations and adversely affect our operating results.
We have in the past acquired and may in the future seek to acquire or invest in businesses, features or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our platform, enhance our technical capabilities or otherwise offer growth opportunities. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated.
Although we have previously acquired businesses, we have limited acquisition experience. If we acquire additional businesses, we may not be able to integrate the acquired personnel, operations and technologies successfully or effectively manage the combined business following the acquisition. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from the acquired business due to a number of factors, including:
unanticipated liabilities associated with the acquisition;
difficulty incorporating acquired technology and rights into our platform and of maintaining quality and security standards consistent with our brand;
inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset acquisition or investment costs;
incurrence of acquisition-related costs;
difficulties and additional expenses associated with supporting legacy products and hosting infrastructure of the acquired business;
difficulty converting the customers of the acquired business into our customers;
diversion of our management's attention from other business concerns;
adverse effects to our existing business relationships as a result of the acquisition;
potential loss of key employees;
use of resources that are needed in other parts of our business; and
use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisition.
In addition, a significant portion of the purchase price of companies we acquire may be allocated to acquired goodwill and intangible assets, which must be assessed for impairment at least annually. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our operating results based on this impairment assessment process, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our operating results. If an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, our business, operating results and financial condition may suffer.
Natural disasters and other events beyond our control could adversely affect us.
Natural disasters or other catastrophic events may cause damage or disruption to our operations and the global economy, and thus could have a strong negative effect on us. Our business operations are subject to interruption by natural disasters, fire, power shortages, civil unrest, pandemics, acts of terrorism and other events beyond our control. While we maintain crisis management and
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disaster response plans, natural disasters and other events could also make it difficult or impossible for us to continue operations, and could decrease demand for our platform. For example, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic the operation of our business has been disrupted. Our offices have been open on a voluntary basis in accordance with guidance provided by government agencies, although currently the majority of our employees are still working remotely. While we continue to hold virtual events, we have also resumed in-person marketing events. The duration of the business disruption and related financial impact cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. However, a prolonged disruption to our operations may have a material adverse effect on our business reducing operational efficiency and increasing operational costs.
In addition, our data centers are located in New Jersey and Texas and our cloud computing providers operate from facilities in northern Virginia, Frankfurt, Germany and Tokyo, Japan, making our business particularly susceptible to natural disasters and other catastrophic events in those areas. Any natural disaster or other event affecting our data centers could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.
We depend on our senior management team and the loss of our chief executive officer, president or one or more key employees could adversely affect our business.
Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our key executive officers. We also rely on our leadership team in the areas of research and development, marketing, sales, services and general and administrative functions. From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. For example in March 2022, we changed our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and broader leadership team and the change of key executives may disrupt strategic initiatives of these functions for a period of time. We do not have employment agreements with our executive officers or other key personnel that require them to continue to work for us for any specified period and, therefore, they could terminate their employment with us at any time. The loss of one or more of our executive officers or key employees could have a serious adverse effect on our business.
The failure to attract and retain additional qualified personnel could prevent us from executing our business strategy.
To execute our business strategy, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel. In particular, we compete with many other companies for software developers with high levels of experience in designing, developing and managing cloud-based software and search software, as well as for skilled information technology, sales, marketing, legal and accounting professionals, and we may not be successful in attracting and retaining the professionals we need. In the future, we may experience difficulty in hiring and retaining highly skilled employees with appropriate qualifications. For example, we have experienced such difficulty during the COVID-19 pandemic particularly with respect to our quota-carrying sales representatives. In addition, recent decreases in our stock price may also decrease retention. We face intense competition for qualified individuals from numerous software and other technology companies. For example, we may not be successful in attracting and retaining software developers with search expertise, as our competitors have greater experience and name recognition in this area. Competition for qualified personnel is particularly intense in metropolitan areas where we have offices including the New York area. We may incur significant costs to attract and retain qualified personnel, and we may lose new employees to our competitors or other technology companies before we capitalize the benefit of our investment in recruiting and training them. We also employ a number of foreign nationals on work visas, primarily under the H-1B visa. Current and future restrictions on the availability of visas or delays in the issuance of visas could impair our ability to employ skilled professionals. If we are unable to hire and retain highly qualified personnel, our rate of growth and business will be adversely affected.
In addition, in making employment decisions, particularly in the software industry, job candidates often consider the value of the stock options or other equity incentives they are to receive in connection with their employment. If the price of our stock declines, does not appreciate or experiences significant volatility, our ability to attract or retain key employees will be adversely affected. Also, as employee equity awards vest, we may have difficulty retaining key employees or may be required to grant larger equity awards from our equity plans, which would cause dilution. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our growth prospects could be severely harmed.
If we fail to provide high-quality customer support and professional services, our business and reputation may suffer.
High-quality customer support and professional services are important for the successful retention of existing customers. Providing support and services, including education, training, data cleansing and processing, ongoing support as well as custom development services, requires that our personnel have specific knowledge and expertise of our platform, making it more difficult for us to hire qualified personnel and to scale up these operations. The importance of high-quality customer support and professional services and the difficulty of hiring qualified personnel will increase as we expand our business and pursue new customers and as our platform becomes more complex with the development more features and capabilities. If we do not provide effective and timely ongoing customer support and professional services, our ability to sell additional features to, or to retain, existing customers may suffer, and our reputation with existing or potential customers may be harmed.
In addition, certain aspects of our customer support, for example data cleansing, are conducted manually and are subject to error. While there are processes designed to verify the accuracy of data, if information is not updated or matched correctly, our reputation may be harmed and we may be subject to liability.
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If we fail to continue to develop our brand, our business may suffer.
We believe that continuing to develop and maintain awareness of our brand is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our platform and is an important element in attracting and retaining customers. Efforts to build our brand may involve significant expense and may not generate customer awareness or increase revenue at all, or in an amount sufficient to offset expenses we incur in building our brand. In addition, we sell our features to companies in a number of industries, including healthcare, retail and financial services. If we are not successful in building our brand, we may become identified with a single industry, which could make it more difficult for us to penetrate other industries.
Promotion and enhancement of our brand will depend largely on our success in being able to provide high quality, reliable and cost-effective features. If customers do not perceive our platform as meeting their needs, or if we fail to market our platform effectively, we will likely be unsuccessful in creating the brand awareness that is critical for broad customer adoption of our platform.
Our reported financial results may be adversely affected by changes in accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.
Generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or U.S. GAAP, are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, the SEC, and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change.
Our estimates of market opportunity, market size and forecasts of market growth may prove to be inaccurate, and even if the market in which we compete achieves our forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
Market opportunity and size estimates and growth forecasts are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. We had historically analyzed the size of our estimated total addressable market, solely with respect to locations, using data published by third parties as well as internally generated data and assumptions regarding our ability to generate revenue from those locations. We have not independently verified the estimate of locations published by third parties and cannot assure you of its accuracy or completeness. In addition, our estimated market size for location-related data was based on an assumed annual revenue per location.
As we continue to develop new features, the methodology and assumptions used to estimate new market opportunities may differ materially from methodologies and assumptions previously used to estimate total addressable market with respect to locations. With the addition of new products and features including our search product, we are targeting and positioning our platform towards new markets. To estimate the size of these new markets and their growth rates, we have relied on historical estimates and forecasts provided by industry publications and other third-party sources, including Gartner. We have not independently verified these estimates published by third parties and cannot assure you of their accuracy or completeness. The target markets in which we operate are also subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk. Our customers as well as analysts, market participants, and others may disagree with our assessment of our target markets and we may never successfully compete in these markets. In addition, third parties may have different assessments of the size of the markets in which in our products compete.
These estimates of total addressable market and growth forecasts are subject to significant uncertainty, are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. In addition, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, our total addressable market may be more difficult to estimate and subject to greater uncertainty as the assumptions and forecasts on which we and third-parties have based estimates may not reflect future trends. Even if the market in which we compete meets the size estimates and growth we forecast, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
Our management team has limited experience managing a public company.
Our chief executive officer and chief financial officer have limited experience managing a public company, interacting with public company investors and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. While certain other executives have such experience, our management team, as a whole, may not successfully or efficiently manage the ongoing transition to being a public company subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These new obligations and constituents will require significant attention from our senior management, particularly from our chief executive officer and chief financial officer, and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates.
We face exposure to movements in currency exchange rates, which may cause our revenue and operating results to differ materially from expectations. Our operating results could be negatively affected depending on the amount of expense and intercompany transactions including loans denominated in foreign currencies. As exchange rates vary, revenue, cost of revenue, operating expenses and other operating results, when re-measured, may differ materially from expectations. For example, a significant portion of our international revenue is derived from Europe including the United Kingdom. Our revenues and cash flows from these regions may be adversely affected as a result of weakness in the Euro or British Pound. In addition, our operating results are subject to
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fluctuation if our mix of U.S. and foreign currency denominated transactions and expenses changes in the future. Although in the future we may apply certain strategies to mitigate foreign currency risk, these strategies might not eliminate our exposure to foreign exchange rate fluctuations and would involve costs and risks of their own, such as ongoing management time and expertise, external costs to implement the strategies and potential accounting implications. Additionally, as we anticipate growing our business further outside of the United States, the effects of movements in currency exchange rates will increase as our transaction volume outside of the United States increases.
Our credit facility contains restrictive covenants that may limit our operating flexibility.
Our credit facility contains restrictive covenants that limit our ability to transfer or dispose of assets, merge with other companies or consummate certain changes of control, acquire other companies, pay dividends or repurchase Yext stock, incur additional indebtedness and liens and enter into new businesses. We therefore may not be able to engage in any of the foregoing transactions unless we obtain the consent of the lender or terminate the credit facility, which may limit our operating flexibility. In addition, our credit facility is secured by all of our assets and requires us to satisfy certain financial covenants. There is no guarantee that we will be able to generate sufficient cash flow or sales to meet these financial covenants or pay the principal and interest on any such debt. Furthermore, there is no guarantee that future working capital, borrowings or equity financing will be available to repay or refinance any such debt. In addition, if we do not comply with certain covenants, then other covenants may become applicable that we may not meet. Any inability to make scheduled payments or meet the financial covenants on our credit facility would adversely affect our business.
Loans under our credit facility bear interest, at our option, at an annual rate based on LIBOR (or a successor benchmark rate) or a base rate. LIBOR is expected to be replaced as an index rate in financial transactions by an alternative benchmark rate in the near future. While our credit agreement provides for a methodology to effect a transition from LIBOR to a new benchmark rate, it is not possible to predict the effect or timing of any establishment of a successor benchmark rate or its effect on our credit facility or our business generally. The transition from LIBOR could result in our interest costs increasing and our access to capital could change, which could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.
We may require additional capital to support our business, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.
We intend to continue to make investments to support our business and may require additional funds. In particular, we may seek additional funds to develop new features and enhance our existing features, expand our operations, including our sales and marketing organizations and our presence outside of the United States, expand office space including into new facilities, improve our infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses, technologies, services, features and other assets. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through future issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our common stock. Any debt financing that we may secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities. We may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to support our business growth, scale our infrastructure, develop feature enhancements and respond to business challenges could be significantly impaired, and our business, operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected.
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Risks Related to Information Technology, Intellectual Property, and Data Security
A security breach, network attack or information security incident could delay or interrupt service to our customers, result in the unauthorized access to, or use, modification or publishing of customer content or other information, harm our reputation or subject us to significant liability.
We are vulnerable to computer viruses, break-ins, phishing attacks, ransomware, supply chain attacks, attempts to overload our servers with denial-of-service or other attacks and similar disruptions from unauthorized use of our computer systems. Any such attack, or any information security incident from any other source affecting us or our services providers, including through employee error or misconduct or additional vulnerabilities introduced by remote work arrangements, could lead to interruptions, delays, website or application shutdowns, loss of data or unauthorized access to, or use or acquisition of, personal information, confidential information or other data that we or our services providers process or maintain.
For example, in December 2015, we suffered a denial-of-service attack, which resulted in the inability for some of our customers to access our platform for several hours. If we experience additional compromises to our security that result in performance or availability problems, the complete shutdown of our platform or the actual or perceived loss of, or unauthorized access to, unavailability of, or unauthorized use, disclosure, destruction, or other unauthorized processing of, personal information or other types of confidential information, our customers or application providers may assert claims against us for credits, refunds or other damages, and may lose trust and confidence in our platform. Additionally, security breaches and incidents or other unauthorized access to, unavailability of, or unauthorized use, disclosure, destruction, acquisition, or other processing of, personal information or other types of confidential information that we or our services providers maintain, or the perception that any of these have occurred, could result in claims against us for identity theft or other similar fraud claims, breach of contract or indemnity, governmental enforcement actions, litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity, or other claims and litigation, and could cause our customers and partners to lose trust in us, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, reputation, operating results and financial condition. Our existing insurance coverage may not continue to be available on acceptable terms or may not be available in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims related to a security breach. An insurer may also deny coverage as to a future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies could have a material adverse effect on our business. We could also be required to incur significant costs for remediation or expend significant capital and other resources to address a security breach. The techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems change frequently, often are not recognized until launched against a target and may originate from less regulated countries, we may be unable to proactively address these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures.
In addition, customers' and application providers' accounts and listing pages hosted on our platform could be accessed by unauthorized persons for the purpose of placing illegal, abusive or otherwise unauthorized content on their respective websites and applications. If an unauthorized person obtained access to a customer's account or our platform, such person could update the customer's business information with abusive content or create and disseminate false responses to reviews. This type of unauthorized activity could negatively affect our ability to attract new customers and application providers, deter current customers and application providers from using our platform, subject us to third-party lawsuits, regulatory fines, indemnification requests or additional liability under customer contracts, or other action or liability, any of which could materially harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
Assertions by third parties of infringement or other violations by us of their intellectual property rights could result in significant costs and harm our business and operating results.
Patent and other intellectual property disputes are common in our industry. Some companies, including some of our competitors, own large numbers of patents, copyrights and trademarks, which they may use to assert claims against us. In addition, because patent applications can take years to issue and are often afforded confidentiality for some period of time, there may currently be pending applications, unknown to us, that later result in issued patents that could cover one or more of our features.
Third parties may in the future assert claims of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property rights against us. If asserted, we cannot assure you that an infringement claim will be successfully defended. Certain third parties have substantially greater resources than we have and may be able to sustain the costs of intellectual property litigation for longer periods of time than we can. A successful claim against us could require that we pay substantial damages or ongoing royalty payments, prevent us from offering our platform, or require that we comply with other unfavorable terms. We may also be obligated to indemnify our customers or business partners or pay substantial settlement costs, including royalty payments, in connection with any such claim or litigation and to obtain licenses, modify applications or refund fees, which could be costly. Even if we were to prevail in such a dispute, any litigation regarding our intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations.
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We could incur substantial costs in protecting or defending our intellectual property rights, and any failure to protect our intellectual property could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect our proprietary methods and technologies. There can be no assurance that the particular forms of intellectual property protection that we seek, including business decisions about when to file trademark applications and patent applications, will be adequate to protect our business. We intend to continue to file and prosecute patent applications when appropriate to attempt to protect our rights in our proprietary technologies. However, there can be no assurance that our patent applications will be approved, that any patents issued will adequately protect our intellectual property, that the scope of the claims in our issued patents will be sufficient or have the coverage originally sought, that our issued patents will provide us with any competitive advantages, or that such patents will not be challenged by third parties or found by a judicial authority to be invalid or unenforceable.
We could be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect our intellectual property rights. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights, determine the validity and scope of our proprietary rights or those of others, or defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Such litigation may fail, and even if successful, could be costly, time-consuming and distracting to management and could result in a diversion of significant resources. Our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights or alleging that we infringe the counterclaimant's own intellectual property. An adverse determination of any litigation or defense proceedings could put our intellectual property at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and could put our related pending patent applications at risk of not being issued. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential or sensitive information could be compromised by disclosure in the event of litigation. During the course of litigation there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock.
Any of our patents, copyrights, trademarks or other intellectual property rights could be challenged by others or invalidated through administrative processes or litigation. Furthermore, there can be no guarantee that others will not independently develop similar products, duplicate any of our products or design around our patents.
We also rely, in part, on confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, advisors, customers and others in our efforts to protect our proprietary technology, processes and methods. These agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of our confidential information, and it may be possible for unauthorized parties to copy our software or other proprietary technology or information, or to develop similar software independently without our having an adequate remedy for unauthorized use or disclosure of our confidential information. In addition, others may independently discover our trade secrets and proprietary information, and in these cases, we would not be able to assert any trade secret rights against those parties. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.
In addition, the laws of some countries do not protect intellectual property and other proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. To the extent we expand our international activities, our exposure to unauthorized copying, transfer and use of our proprietary technology or information may increase. For example, many foreign countries have compulsory licensing laws under which a patent owner must grant licenses to third parties. In addition, many countries limit the enforceability of patents against third parties, including government agencies or government contractors. In these countries, patents may provide limited or no benefit. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business. Accordingly, our efforts to protect our intellectual property rights in such countries may be inadequate. In addition, changes in the law and legal decisions by courts in the United States and foreign countries may affect our ability to obtain adequate protection for our technology and the enforcement of intellectual property.
We cannot be certain that our means of protecting our intellectual property and proprietary rights will be adequate or that our competitors will not independently develop similar technology. If we fail to meaningfully protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
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Our platform utilizes open source software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more of these open source licenses could negatively affect our business.
Our platform utilizes software governed by open source licenses. The terms of various open source licenses have not been interpreted by United States courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to market our platform. By the terms of certain open source licenses, we could be required to release the source code of our proprietary software, and to make our proprietary software available under open source licenses, if we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a specified manner. In the event that portions of our proprietary software are determined to be subject to an open source license, we could be required to publicly release the affected portions of our source code, or to re-engineer all or a portion of software, each of which could reduce or eliminate the value of our platform. In addition to risks related to license requirements, usage of open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of the software. Many of the risks associated with usage of open source software cannot be eliminated and could negatively affect our business.
We employ third-party licensed software for use in or with our platform, and the inability to maintain these licenses or errors in the software we license could result in increased costs, or reduced service levels, which could adversely affect our business.
Our platform incorporates certain third-party software obtained under licenses from other companies, including companies that sell products that compete with our platform. We anticipate that we will continue to rely on such third-party software and development tools in the future. There is no assurance that we will be able to renew licenses for third-party software that we use. Although we believe that there are commercially reasonable alternatives to the third-party software we currently license, this may not always be the case, or the software we currently license may be difficult or costly to replace. In addition, integration of the software used in our platform with new third-party software may require significant work and require substantial investment of our time and resources. Also, to the extent that our platform depends upon the successful operation of third-party software in conjunction with our software, any undetected errors or defects in this third-party software could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our platform, delay new feature introductions, result in a failure of our platform and injure our reputation. Our use of additional or alternative third-party software would require us to enter into license agreements with third parties.
The reliability of our network and support infrastructure will be critical to our success. Sustained failures or outages could lead to significant costs and service disruptions, which could negatively affect our business, financial results and reputation.
Our reputation and ability to attract, retain, and serve our customers and application providers are dependent upon the reliable performance of our platform and our underlying technical and network infrastructure. Our customers access our platform through our website and related technologies. We rely on internal systems and third-party service providers, including data center, cloud computing, bandwidth and telecommunications equipment providers, to maintain the availability of our platform. If any service provider fails to provide sufficient capacity to support our platform, experiences service outages, reduces or suspends service due to a natural disaster or pandemic such as the COVID-19 pandemic, or otherwise ceases to do business, such failure could interrupt our customers' access to our services. For example, we currently serve our customers from third-party data center hosting facilities and cloud computing providers located in the United States, Germany and Japan. Our primary data center is in New Jersey, and our backup data center is in Texas. If these data centers or cloud computing services become unavailable to us without sufficient advance notice, if we are unable to renew our agreements with these providers or if a provider is acquired or ceases business, we would likely experience delays in delivering our platform until we could migrate to an alternate provider. Our disaster recovery program contemplates transitioning our platform to our backup center in the event of a catastrophe and our platform may be unavailable, in whole or in part, during any transition procedure.
We have experienced, and will in the future experience, interruptions, outages and other performance problems. Such disruptions may be due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, capacity constraints due to an overwhelming number of customers and partners accessing our platform simultaneously and inadequate design. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of these performance problems within an acceptable period of time.
If we do not accurately predict our infrastructure requirements, our existing customers may experience performance degradation or service outages, which may subject us to financial penalties, financial liabilities and customer losses. For example, to support the international growth of our business, we have expanded and may need to continue to expand capacity outside the United States, but we may not be able to address future capacity constraints, either through existing or alternative providers, in a cost-effective and timely manner, if at all. When we add capacity, we may move or transfer our data and our customers’ data. Despite precautions taken during this process, any unsuccessful data transfers may impair the delivery of our services, which may damage our business.
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Real or perceived errors, failures or bugs in our software, or in the software or systems of our third-party application providers and partners, could materially and adversely affect our operating results and growth prospects.
Our features are highly technical and complex. Our software has previously contained, and may now or in the future contain, undetected errors, bugs, or vulnerabilities. Some errors in our software may only be discovered after the software has been deployed. Any errors, bugs, or vulnerabilities discovered in our software after it has been deployed could result in damage to our reputation, loss of customers, partners or application providers, loss of revenue or liability for damages.
In addition, the proper functioning of our platform is dependent on the ability of our Knowledge Network application providers and partners to maintain the availability and proper functioning of their software integrations with our systems and also is dependent on the ability of our third-party application providers to maintain the availability and proper functioning of their websites and applications on which business listing information is published for customers. For example, a number of our Knowledge Network application providers provide us with an Application Program Interface, or API, on which our ability to interface with that provider is based. Furthermore, in a rapidly changing business environment, for example in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, our Knowledge Network application providers may experience limitations and delays, which could limit the functionality of our platform. If the functionality of the software, APIs or websites of our third-party application providers is impaired, our customers may attribute such limitations to us and our platform thus damaging our reputation and customer relationships. If our Knowledge Network application providers do not maintain the availability and proper functioning of their software, APIs, websites and applications, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially affected.
Risks Related to Laws, Regulation and Taxation
We are subject to general litigation that may materially adversely affect us.
From time to time, we may be involved in disputes or regulatory inquiries that arise in the ordinary course of business. We expect that the number and significance of potential disputes may increase as our business expands and our company grows larger. While our agreements with customers limit our liability for damages arising from our platform, we cannot assure you that these contractual provisions will protect us from liability for damages in the event we are sued or a dispute arises. Although we carry general liability insurance coverage, our insurance may not cover all potential claims to which we are exposed or may not be adequate to indemnify us for all liability that may be imposed. Any claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could be time-consuming, result in costly litigation or dispute resolution, require significant amounts of management time, and result in the diversion of significant operational resources. Because litigation is inherently unpredictable, we cannot assure you that the results of any of these actions will not have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial condition.
We are subject to governmental regulation and other legal obligations, including those related to privacy, data protection and information security, and our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business. Compliance with such laws could also impair our efforts to maintain and expand our customer base, and thereby decrease our revenue.
We receive, store and process personal data and other data from and about customers, including third-party reseller customers, partners, end users of our services, and in limited cases, end consumers in addition to our employees and services providers. Also, in connection with future feature offerings, we may receive, store and process additional types of data, including personal data. Our handling of data is subject to a variety of laws and regulations, including regulation by various government agencies, such as the U.S. Federal Trade Commission, or FTC, and various state, local and foreign agencies. Our data handling also is subject to contractual obligations and industry standards.
The U.S. federal and various state governments have adopted or proposed limitations on the collection, distribution, use, storage and security of data relating to individuals, including the use of contact information and other data for marketing, advertising and other communications with individuals and businesses. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, or CCPA, became effective January 1, 2020. The CCPA requires covered businesses to, among other things, make new disclosures to consumers about their data collection, use, and sharing practices, and allows consumers to opt out of certain data sharing with third parties. The CCPA also provides a new private cause of action for certain data breaches. The California Privacy Rights Act, or CPRA, which will become effective on January 1, 2023, will significantly modify the CCPA, and also create a new state agency that will be vested with authority to implement and enforce the CCPA and the CPRA. The effects of the CCPA and the CPRA are potentially significant and may require us to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply and increase our potential exposure to regulatory enforcement and/or litigation. States such as Virginia and Colorado have enacted and we expect additional states may also enact legislation similar to the CCPA and CRPA. Additionally, the FTC and many state attorneys general are interpreting federal and state consumer protection laws as imposing standards for the online collection, use, dissemination and security of data.
Several foreign countries and governmental bodies, including the European Union, Switzerland and the United Kingdom have laws and regulations dealing with the handling and processing of personal information obtained from their residents, which in certain cases are more restrictive than those in the United States, and we expect additional jurisdictions may enact similar regulations. Laws and regulations in these jurisdictions apply broadly to the collection, use, storage, disclosure and security of various types of data, including data that identifies or may be used to identify an individual, such as names, email addresses and in some jurisdictions, Internet Protocol, or IP, addresses. Within the European Union, legislators have adopted the General Data Protection Regulation, or
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GDPR, which became effective in May 2018. The GDPR includes more stringent operational requirements for processors and controllers of personal data than previous EU data protection laws and imposes significant penalties for non-compliance. The United Kingdom has implemented data protection laws that substantially implements the GDPR and provide for similar penalties. However, the United Kingdom’s decision to exit the European Union, known as Brexit, has created uncertainty regarding the regulation of data protection in the United Kingdom in the medium to long term, which may delay or deter transactions with customers that transfer personal data to and from the United Kingdom. We participate in and have certified under the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield and Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield frameworks with respect to our transfer of certain personal data from the European Union and Switzerland to the United States. In July 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union invalidated the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield framework, but concluded that the Standard Contractual Clauses issued by the European Commission for the transfer of personal data, or SCCs, are valid, subject to companies being required to engage in additional measures when relying on the SCCs. The Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield subsequently was invalidated in September 2020 by the Swiss Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner. On June 4, 2021, the European Commission published new SCCs that are required to be implemented. In addition, the United Kingdom Parliament approved new standard contractual clauses to support personal data transfers out of the United Kingdom, which became effective March 21, 2022. As a result of the foregoing, we may, in addition to other impacts, experience additional costs associated with increased compliance burdens and be required to engage in new contract negotiations with third parties that aid in processing personal data on our behalf or localize certain personal data. The invalidation of the EU-U.S. and Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield frameworks and related developments and uncertainty regarding other data transfer mechanisms could require us to implement additional contractual and technical safeguards for any personal data transferred out of the European Economic Area, or EEA, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, which may increase compliance and related costs and risks, lead to increased regulatory scrutiny or liability, necessitate additional contractual negotiations, and adversely impact our business, operating results and financial condition. Customers and potential customers may hesitate or refuse to purchase and use our products and services due to the potential risk posed by the Court of Justice of the European Union ruling or may view alternative data transfer mechanisms as being too costly, burdensome or uncertain. Our ability to attract and retain customers may therefore be impaired. In addition, other mechanisms that we use or may use in the future in an effort to legitimize cross-border data transfers may be challenged or invalidated or may evolve such that they do not function as appropriate means for us to transfer certain personal data from the European Union, Switzerland and the United Kingdom to the United States.
These domestic and foreign laws and regulations relating to privacy and data security are evolving, can be subject to significant change and may result in ever-increasing regulatory and public scrutiny and escalating levels of enforcement and sanctions. Interpretation of certain requirements remains unclear and may evolve, in particular for regulations that have recently been enacted. Application of laws may be inconsistent or may conflict among jurisdictions resulting in additional complexity and increased legal risk. In addition, these regulations have increased our compliance costs and may impair our ability to grow our business or offer our service in some locations, may subject us to liability for non-compliance, may require us to modify our data processing and transferring practices and policies and may strain our technical capabilities. In addition as we, our customers and potential customers evaluate the impact of new regulations such as GDPR and as additional requirements pursuant to such regulations are adopted, sales cycles have lengthened and transaction costs have increased as customers conduct additional diligence and contractual obligations under the new regulations are negotiated.
We also handle credit card and other personal data. Due to the sensitive nature of such information, we have implemented policies and procedures in an effort to preserve and protect our data and our customers' data against loss, misuse, corruption, misappropriation caused by systems failures, unauthorized access or misuse. Notwithstanding these policies, we could be subject to liability claims by individuals and customers whose data resides in our databases for the misuse of that information, and we are required to comply with applicable industry standards with respect to our handling of this information. If we fail to meet appropriate compliance levels, this could negatively impact our ability to utilize credit cards as a method of payment, and/or collect and store credit card information, which could disrupt our business.
We may be subject to rules of the FTC, the Federal Communications Commission, or FCC, and potentially other federal agencies, state laws as well as international regulations related to commercial electronic mail and other messages. Compliance with these provisions may limit our ability to send certain types of messages. If we were found to have violated such rules and regulations, we may face enforcement actions by the FTC or FCC or face civil penalties, either of which could adversely affect our business.
As our products are applied to new uses and in new verticals, we may become subject to additional regulations or legal risks. For example, we have begun selling our platform to government entities. Risks associated with sales to government entities include adherence to complex procurement regulations and other government-specific contractual requirements. We may be subject to audits and investigations relating to our government contracts and any violations could result in various civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, payment of fines, and suspension or debarment from future government business, as well as harm to our reputation and financial results. Sales to government entities can be highly competitive, expensive and time consuming, often requiring significant upfront time and expense without any assurance that we will successfully complete a sale. Our platform has been and increasingly may be used to store confidential or sensitive information, which exposes us to additional risks. For example, in order to offer our products to certain customers in the health care industry we have implemented certain security and privacy measures and related procedures to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH. This may require us
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to execute HIPAA business associate agreements, or BAAs, with certain customers that are “covered entities” under HIPAA, which would subject us to additional liabilities, penalties and fines in the event we fail to comply with the terms of such agreements. The storage of such information may require us to modify and enhance our platform at a significant cost.
Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with laws, regulations, policies, legal or contractual obligations, industry standards, or regulatory guidance relating to privacy or data security, may result in governmental investigations and enforcement actions, litigation, fines and penalties or adverse publicity, and could cause our customers and partners to lose trust in us, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business. We expect that there will continue to be new proposed laws, regulations and industry standards relating to privacy, data protection, marketing, consumer communications, information security and local data residency in the United States, the European Union and other jurisdictions, and we cannot determine the impact such future laws, regulations and standards may have on our business. Future laws, regulations, standards and other obligations or any changed interpretation of existing laws or regulations could impair our ability to develop and market new features and maintain and grow our customer base and increase revenue. Future restrictions on the collection, use, sharing or disclosure of data or additional requirements placed upon us, our customers, partners or end consumers in connection with the use and disclosure of such information could require us to incur additional costs or modify our platform or other aspects of our products and services, possibly in a material manner, and could increase the complexity and cost of developing and deploying new products or limit our ability to develop new products and features altogether. If our policies, procedures, or measures relating to privacy, data protection, marketing, or customer communications fail or are perceived to fail to comply with laws, regulations, policies, legal obligations or industry standards, we may be subject to governmental enforcement actions, litigation, regulatory investigations, fines, penalties, consumer actions and negative publicity and could cause our application providers, customers and partners to lose trust in us, which could materially affect our business, operating results and financial condition. Furthermore, our third-party reseller customers, over which we have more limited control, may not comply with the laws, regulations and policies described above, which may damage our reputation or subject us to costly legal or regulatory inquiries and liability.
We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal penalties or significant fines and harm our business and reputation.
We are subject to anti-corruption and anti-bribery and similar laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 and possibly other anti-corruption, anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws have been enforced aggressively in recent years, are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies and their employees and agents from promising, authorizing, making, offering, soliciting or accepting improper payments or other benefits to or from government officials and others in the private sector. As we increase our international sales and business, particularly in countries with a low score on the Corruptions Perceptions Index by Transparency International, and increase our use of third-party business partners such as sales agents, distributors, resellers, or consultants, our risks under these laws may increase. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of our employees, representatives, contractors, business partners, resellers and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize, control or have actual knowledge of such activities. While we have policies and procedures in this area, we cannot guarantee that improprieties committed by our employees or third parties will not occur. Non-compliance with these laws could subject us to investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, other enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, significant fines, damages, other civil and criminal penalties or injunctions, suspension or debarment from contracting with certain persons, the loss of export privileges, whistleblower complaints, reputational harm, adverse media coverage, and other collateral consequences. If any subpoenas or investigations are launched, or governmental or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal litigation, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially harmed. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a materially significant diversion of management's attention and resources and significant defense and compliance costs and other professional fees and may harm our reputation, which may damage our relationships with our customers, strategic partners and other third parties. In certain cases, enforcement authorities may even require us to appoint an independent compliance monitor, which can result in added costs and administrative burdens. Any investigations, actions or sanctions or other previously mentioned harm could have a material negative effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
We are subject to governmental export and import controls and economic sanctions laws that could impair our ability to compete in international markets and subject us to liability if we are not in full compliance with applicable laws.
Our business activities are subject to various restrictions under U.S. export and import controls and trade and economic sanctions laws, including U.S. customs regulations, the U.S. Commerce Department's Export Administration Regulations and economic and trade sanctions regulations maintained by the U.S. Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control. The U.S. export control laws and U.S. economic sanctions laws include prohibitions on the sale or supply of certain products and services to U.S. embargoed or sanctioned countries, governments, persons and entities and also require authorization for the export of certain encryption items. In addition, various countries regulate the import of certain encryption technology, including through import permitting and licensing requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our services or could limit our customers' ability to implement our services in those countries. Although we take precautions to prevent our platform from being provided in violation of such laws, our platform may have been in the past, and could in the future be, provided inadvertently in violation of such laws, despite
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the precautions we take. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we and certain of our employees could be subject to civil or criminal penalties, including the possible loss of export or import privileges, monetary penalties, and, in extreme cases, imprisonment of responsible employees for knowing and willful violations of these laws. Obtaining the necessary authorizations, including any required license, for a particular transaction may be time-consuming, is not guaranteed, and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. In addition, changes in our platform or changes in applicable export or import regulations may create delays in the introduction and sale of our products in international markets, prevent our customers with international operations from deploying our products or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our products to certain countries, governments or persons altogether. Any change in export or import regulations, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations, could also result in decreased use of our products or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products to existing or potential customers with international operations. For example, in February 2022, following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the United States and other countries announced economic sanctions against Russia, and the United States and other countries could impose wider sanctions and take other actions as the conflict further escalate. Any decreased use of our products or limitation on our ability to export or sell our products would likely adversely affect our business. Although we take precautions to prevent transactions with U.S. sanction targets, we could inadvertently provide our platform to persons prohibited by U.S. sanctions. Violations of export and import regulations and economic sanctions could result in negative consequences to us, including government investigations, penalties and reputational harm.
Changes in laws and regulations related to the internet or changes in internet infrastructure itself may diminish the demand for our platform and could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The future success of our business depends upon the continued use of the internet. Federal, state or foreign government bodies or agencies have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws or regulations affecting the use of the internet as a commercial medium. In addition, government agencies or private organizations have imposed and may impose additional taxes, fees or other charges for accessing the internet, generally. These laws or charges could limit the use of the internet or decrease the demand for internet-based solutions. In addition, the use of the internet as a business tool could be adversely affected due to delays in the development or adoption of new standards and protocols to handle increased demands of internet activity, security, reliability, cost, ease-of-use, accessibility and quality of service. The performance of the internet and its acceptance as a business tool has been adversely affected by "viruses", "worms" and similar malicious programs. If the use of the internet is reduced as a result of these or other issues, then demand for our platform could decline, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Unanticipated changes in our effective tax rate may impact our financial results.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and various jurisdictions outside of the United States, and we continue to expand our operations internationally. Our effective tax rate could fluctuate due to changes in the mix of earnings and losses in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in non-deductible expenses, expiration or non-utilization of net operating losses, changes in excess tax benefits related to exercises and vesting of stock options and awards compensation, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities and our ability to utilize them, the applicability of withholding taxes and changes in accounting principles and tax laws in jurisdictions where we operate. While we regularly evaluate new information that may change our judgment resulting in recognition, derecognition or change in measurement of a tax position taken, there can be no assurance that the final determination of any examinations will not have an adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial condition.
We may have additional tax liabilities, which could harm our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Significant judgments and estimates are required in determining the (provision for) benefit from income taxes and other tax liabilities. We generally conduct our international operations through wholly-owned subsidiaries and report our taxable income based upon our business operations in those jurisdictions. The amount of taxes we pay may depend on the application of the tax laws of various jurisdictions, including the United States, to our business activities, changes in tax rates, new or revised tax laws or interpretations of existing tax laws and policies and our ability to operate our business in a manner consistent with our corporate structure and intercompany arrangements.
In determining the adequacy of income taxes, we assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes that could result if our tax positions were challenged by the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, and other tax authorities. The tax authorities in the United States and other countries where we do business may examine our income and other tax returns. The ultimate outcome of these examinations cannot be predicted with certainty. Should the IRS or other tax authorities assess additional taxes as a result of examinations, we may be required to record charges that would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We may also be subject to additional tax liabilities and penalties due to changes in non-income based taxes resulting from tax examinations in federal, state, city or international jurisdictions, settlements or judicial decisions, changes in taxing jurisdictions’ tax laws and administrative interpretations, or changes in accounting principles. Any resulting increase in our tax obligation or cash taxes paid could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
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Adverse tax laws or regulations could be enacted or existing laws could be applied to us or our customers, which could increase our costs and adversely affect our business.
The application of federal, state, local and international tax laws to services provided electronically is evolving. New income, sales, use or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be enacted at any time, possibly with retroactive effect, and could be applied solely or disproportionately to services provided over the internet. These enactments could adversely affect our sales activity due to the inherent cost increase the taxes would represent and ultimately result in a negative impact on our operating results and cash flows.
Existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to us, possibly with retroactive effect, which could require us or our customers to pay additional tax amounts, as well as require us or our customers to pay fines or penalties and interest for past amounts. If we are unsuccessful in collecting such taxes from our customers, we could be held liable for such costs.
Certain jurisdictions in which we do not collect sales and use, value added or similar taxes may assert that such taxes are applicable, which has resulted or could result in tax assessments, penalties and interest, to us or our customers for past amounts, and we may be required to collect such taxes in the future. Such tax assessments, penalties and interest, or future requirements may adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
Our ability to use our net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.
As of January 31, 2022, we had significant U.S. federal and state net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, due to prior period losses. In general, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an ownership change, which is generally defined as a greater than 50-percentage-point cumulative change by value in the equity ownership of certain stockholders over a rolling three-year period, is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change NOLs to offset post-change taxable income. Our existing NOLs may be subject to limitations arising from previous ownership changes, and if we undergo an ownership change our ability to utilize NOLs could be further limited by Section 382 of the Code and similar state provisions. Future changes in our stock ownership, some of which may be outside of our control, could result in an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code. Furthermore, our ability to utilize NOLs of companies that we may acquire in the future may be subject to limitations. There is also a risk that due to regulatory changes, such as suspensions on the use of NOLs, or other unforeseen reasons, our existing NOLs could expire, decrease in value or otherwise be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock and Our Status as a Public Company
Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly and may not fully reflect the underlying performance o