Securities Registration Statement (simplified Form) (s-3)

Date : 03/29/2019 @ 9:25PM
Source : Edgar (US Regulatory)
Stock : MannKind Corporation (MNKD)
Quote : 1.34  -0.04 (-2.90%) @ 12:24AM

Securities Registration Statement (simplified Form) (s-3)

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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 29, 2019

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

MannKind Corporation

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   13-3607736

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

30930 Russell Ranch Road, Suite 300

Westlake Village, California 91362

(818) 661-5000

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Michael E. Castagna, Pharm.D.

Chief Executive Officer

MannKind Corporation

30930 Russell Ranch Road, Suite 300

Westlake Village, California 91362

(818) 661-5000

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

David Thomson, Esq.   L. Kay Chandler, Esq.

MannKind Corporation

30930 Russell Ranch Road, Suite 300

Westlake Village, California 91362

(818) 661-5000

 

Sean M. Clayton, Esq.

Cooley LLP

4401 Eastgate Mall

San Diego, CA 92121

(858) 550-6000

From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement

(Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public)

 

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer        Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer        Smaller reporting company  
       Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of each

class of securities

to be registered (1)(2)

 

Amount

to be

registered (1)

 

Proposed maximum
aggregate offering

price (3)

  Amount of
registration fee (4)

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

  —     —     —  

Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share

  —     —     —  

Debt Securities

  —     —     —  

Warrants

  —     —     —  

Total

  —     $500,000,000.00   $60,600.00

Shares of Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share, issuable upon exercise of Common Stock Purchase Warrants

  26,666,667   $42,666,667.20   $5,171.20

Total

  —     $542,666,667.20   $65,771.20

 

 

 

(1)

There are being registered hereunder (i) such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities and such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $500,000,000 (the “New Securities”), and (ii) 26,666,667 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding Common Stock Purchase Warrants issued by us on December 26, 2018 (the “Warrant Shares”). If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the principal amount of such debt securities shall be in such greater amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $500,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all New Securities previously issued hereunder. Any New Securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or in combination with other New Securities registered hereunder. The New Securities registered also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or pursuant to the antidilution provisions of any such New Securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.

(2)

Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, the securities being registered hereunder include $285,026,931.60 of unsold securities that were previously registered under the registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-210792), which was initially filed on April 18, 2016 and declared effective on April 27, 2016. The filing fee paid in connection with such unsold securities was $28,702.21.

(3)

For the New Securities, the proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the New Securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. The aggregate offering price of the Warrant Shares is based upon the warrant exercise price of $1.60 per share.

(4)

Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act. Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, the total amount of the filing fee payable in connection with this Registration Statement is $31,225.94. The filing fee of $28,702.21 paid with respect to the unsold securities described in Note (2) above will continue to be applied to such unsold securities.

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

   

a base prospectus that covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to $500.0 million in the aggregate of any combination of shares of our common stock, shares of our preferred stock, various series of debt securities and warrants to purchase any of such securities in one or more offerings, which we refer to as the Base Prospectus; and

 

   

a warrant exercise prospectus that covers the offering, issuance and sale by us from time to time of up to 26,666,667 shares of our common stock upon exercise of certain common stock purchase warrants, or the 2018 Common Warrants, issued by us on December 26, 2018, which we refer to as the Warrant Exercise Prospectus.

The Base Prospectus immediately follows this Explanatory Note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the Base Prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the Base Prospectus. The Warrant Exercise Prospectus immediately follows the Base Prospectus.


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where such offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MARCH 29, 2019

PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

$500,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

From time to time, we may offer and sell up to $500,000,000 of any combination of shares of our common stock, shares of our preferred stock, various series of debt securities and warrants to purchase any of such securities in one or more offerings as described in this prospectus. We may also offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable antidilution provisions.

This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before you invest in any of the securities being offered.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “MNKD.” On March 28, 2019, the last reported sales price of our common stock was $1.93 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on the Nasdaq Global Market or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the prospectus supplement.

We will sell these securities directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents or underwriters and any applicable fees, commissions, discounts or over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “ Risk Factors ” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

The date of this prospectus is                , 2019.


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this prospectus, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $500,000,000.

Each time we sell securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” before investing in any of the securities offered.

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

Neither we, nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. This prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered, or securities are sold, on a later date.

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

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SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “MannKind,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to MannKind Corporation.

Company Overview

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of inhaled therapeutic products for patients with diseases such as diabetes and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Our only approved product, Afrezza (insulin human) Inhalation Powder, is a rapid-acting inhaled insulin that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, in June 2014. Afrezza became available by prescription in U.S. retail pharmacies in February 2015. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 30.3 million people in the United States had diabetes in 2015. Globally, the International Diabetes Federation has estimated that approximately 425.0 million people had diabetes in 2017 and approximately 629.0 million people will have diabetes by 2045.

Afrezza

Afrezza is a rapid-acting inhaled insulin used to improve glycemic control in adults with diabetes. The product consists of a dry powder formulation of human insulin delivered from a small portable inhaler. Administered at the beginning of a meal, Afrezza dissolves rapidly upon inhalation to the lung and delivers insulin quickly to the bloodstream. The first measurable effects of Afrezza occur approximately 12 minutes after administration.

From August 2014 until April 2016, Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC, or Sanofi, was responsible for commercial, regulatory and development activities associated with Afrezza pursuant to a license and collaboration agreement between us and Sanofi, or the Sanofi License Agreement. The Sanofi License Agreement terminated effective April 2016 and, after a transition period during which Sanofi continued to fulfill orders for Afrezza, we assumed responsibility for worldwide development and commercialization of Afrezza in July 2016.

Currently, we promote Afrezza to endocrinologists and certain high-prescribing primary care physicians through our specialty sales force. To support our sales efforts, we have implemented several patient and physician support programs, including a co-pay assistance and product savings program, direct purchase and our MannKind Cares program that supports providers and patients who have questions about insurance coverage, prescription cost and product use. We have also entered into a number of rebate or other agreements with various payors and pharmacy benefit managers that are intended to facilitate more favorable insurance coverage for Afrezza.

In the future, we may seek to supplement our sales force through a co-promotion arrangement with a third party that has an underutilized primary care sales force, that can be used to promote Afrezza to greater number of primary care physicians in the United States. Internationally, our strategy is to establish regional partnerships in foreign jurisdictions where there are commercial opportunities, subject to receipt of the necessary foreign regulatory approvals. In May 2017 we entered into a supply and distribution agreement with Biomm S.A. to pursue regulatory approval and commercialization of Afrezza in Brazil. In May 2018, we entered into a similar agreement with Cipla Ltd. for the regulatory approval and commercialization of Afrezza in India. Our partners have not yet commenced commercialization in their respective territories.

We continue to conduct clinical studies of Afrezza, including an open-label pharmacokinetics (PK) and multiple-dose safety and tolerability dose-titration trial of Afrezza in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. The first cohort (patients aged 13-17) in this study was completed in September 2018. Patients in the second cohort (ages 8-12) are currently being recruited and dosed. During the past year, we also supported a collaborative clinical trial with investigators at the Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver that examined the effect of Afrezza on post-prandial glucose excursions and glucose time-in-range using continuous glucose monitors. We have additional collaborative clinical studies that are underway at this time. As part of the approval of Afrezza, the FDA required us to conduct a five-year, randomized, controlled trial in 8,000-10,000 patients with type 2 diabetes to assess the potential serious risk of pulmonary malignancy with Afrezza use. We have not yet agreed with the FDA on the final study design for this long-term study.



 

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Technosphere Platform

We believe there are additional opportunities for our proprietary Technosphere and inhaler technologies for the delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients, or API. We believe that our proprietary Technosphere formulation technology represents a versatile drug delivery platform that may allow the oral inhalation of a wide range of API. We have successfully prepared Technosphere formulations of anionic and cationic drugs, hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, proteins, peptides and small molecules. Technosphere powders are based on our proprietary excipient, fumaryl diketopiperazine, which is a pH-sensitive organic molecule that self-assembles into small particles under acidic conditions. Certain drugs, such as insulin or treprostinil, can be loaded onto these particles by combining a solution of the drug with a solution or suspension of Technosphere material, which is then dried to powder form. The resulting powder has a consistent and narrow range of particle sizes with good aerodynamic properties that enable efficient delivery deep into the lungs. Technosphere powders dissolve quickly when the particles contact the moist lung surface with its neutral pH, releasing the drug molecules to diffuse across a thin layer of cells into the arterial circulation, bypassing the liver to provide excellent systemic exposure.

We have also created an innovative line of breath-powered, dry powder inhalers. Our inhalers are easy to use, cost-effective and can be produced in both a reusable (chronic treatment) and a single-use (acute treatment) format. Both the reusable and single use inhaler formats use the same internal air-flow design. Being breath-powered, our inhalers require only the patient’s inhalation effort to deliver the powder. To administer the inhalation powder, a patient loads a cartridge into our inhaler and inhales through the mouthpiece. Upon inhalation, the dry powder is lifted out of the cartridge and broken (or de-agglomerated) into small particles. The inhalers are engineered to produce an aggressive airstream to de-agglomerate the powder while keeping the powder moving slowly. This slow-moving powder effectively navigates the patient’s airways for delivery into the lung with minimal deposition at the back of the throat. Our inhalers show very little change in performance (i.e., efficient cartridge emptying) over a wide range of inhalation efforts.

We advanced an inhaled formulation of treprostinil, or TreT, into clinical development, completing a Phase 1 dose-escalation study in June 2018. In September 2018, we announced a license and collaboration agreement with United Therapeutics Corporation, or UT, pursuant to which UT became responsible for global development, regulatory and commercial activities with respect to TreT, or the UT License Agreement. We will manufacture clinical supplies and initial commercial supplies of TreT, whereas long-term commercial supplies may be manufactured by UT. In September 2018, we also signed a research agreement with UT, or the UT Research Agreement, pursuant to which we will evaluate the feasibility of preparing a dry powder formulation of an additional API for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. In addition to our activities under the UT License Agreement and the UT Research Agreement, we intend to advance additional dry-powder candidates into formulation feasibility and preclinical studies during the next 12-18 months. Our internal product development efforts are supplemented by a collaboration and license agreement with Receptor Life Sciences, or Receptor, which we entered into in January 2016, pursuant to which Receptor is responsible for the development, manufacture and commercialization of inhaled formulations of certain cannabinoid compounds utilizing our technology. To date, Receptor has conducted formulation studies with a range of different API and has informed us of their plans to commence preclinical development of the most promising powder candidate(s) during 2019.

To aid in the development of our oral inhalation products, we have created a number of innovative tools such as a novel inhalation profiling apparatus that uses miniature sensors to assess the drug delivery process at the level of an individual inhaler. This apparatus provides real-time data regarding patient usage and delivery system performance that is transmitted to a user interface, such as a smartphone application. We are currently evaluating the desirability of developing this apparatus further for use as a training tool in physician offices or as a connected care device that will allow patients to integrate dosing information with other health data, such as blood glucose levels from a self-managed glucose meter or a continuous glucose monitor.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in the State of Delaware on February 14, 1991. Our principal executive offices are located at 30930 Russell Ranch Road, Suite 300, Westlake Village, California 91362, and our telephone number at that address is (818) 661-5000. Our website address is www.mannkindcorp.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.

Afrezza ® and Technosphere ® are our trademarks in the United States. We have also applied for or have registered company trademarks in other jurisdictions. This prospectus also contains references to our trademarks and to trademarks



 

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belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

The Securities We May Offer

We may offer shares of our common stock, shares of our preferred stock, various series of debt securities and warrants to purchase any of such securities, up to a total aggregate offering price of $500,000,000 from time to time in one or more offerings under this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the relevant offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

designation or classification;

 

   

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

 

   

maturity, if applicable;

 

   

original issue discount, if any;

 

   

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

 

   

redemption, conversion, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;

 

   

conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange;

 

   

ranking, if applicable;

 

   

restrictive covenants, if any;

 

   

voting or other rights, if any; and

 

   

important U.S. federal income tax considerations.

The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

We may sell the securities directly to investors or through underwriters, dealers or agents. We, and our underwriters or agents, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities through underwriters or agents, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

 

   

the names of those underwriters or agents;

 

   

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

 

   

details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

 

   

the estimated net proceeds to us.

Common Stock . We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote per share for the election of directors and on all other matters that require stockholder approval. Subject to any preferential rights of any then outstanding preferred stock, in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in the assets remaining after payment of liabilities and the liquidation preferences of any then outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock does not carry any preemptive rights enabling a holder to subscribe for, or receive shares of, any class of our common stock or any other securities convertible into shares of any class of our common stock, or any redemption rights.

Preferred Stock . We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by stockholders, to designate up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications and restrictions granted to or imposed upon the preferred stock, including dividend rights, conversion



 

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rights, voting rights, rights and terms of redemption, liquidation preference and sinking fund terms, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of the common stock. To date, none of the 10,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock have been designated by our board of directors. Convertible preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or exchangeable for our other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at the option of the holders of our preferred stock and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

We will fix the rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications and restrictions of the preferred stock of each series that we sell under this prospectus and applicable prospectus supplements in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will incorporate by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred stock. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.

Debt Securities . We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into our common stock or preferred stock. Conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.

The debt securities will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. A form of indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

Warrants . We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. Forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants being offered have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we will issue. Warrants may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, as updated by our annual, quarterly and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being registered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Statements contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein that are not strictly historical in nature are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These forward-looking statements are subject to the “safe harbor” created by Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act and may include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

our ability to successfully market, commercialize and achieve market acceptance for Afrezza or any other product candidates or therapies that we may develop;

 

   

our ability to manufacture sufficient quantities of Afrezza and obtain insulin supply as needed;

 

   

our ability to successfully commercialize our Technosphere drug delivery platform;

 

   

our estimates for future performance;

 

   

our estimates regarding anticipated operating losses and financial results and our needs for additional financing;

 

   

the progress or success of our research, development and clinical programs, including the application for and receipt of regulatory clearances and approvals;

 

   

our ability to protect our intellectual property and operate our business without infringing upon the intellectual property rights of others

 

   

scientific studies and the conclusions we draw from them; and

 

   

our anticipated use of proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus.

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “goal,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “should,” “will,” “would,” the negative of these words and words or similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our views as of the date on which they were made with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties. The underlying information and expectations are likely to change over time. In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date the statement is made, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements as actual events or results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements due to various factors, including, but not limited to, those set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” in any applicable prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference therein or any free writing prospectus that we authorized. These forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement. Our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus, in the documents incorporated by reference herein and in any prospectus supplement by these cautionary statements. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. Before deciding to purchase our securities, you should carefully consider the risk factors discussed herein or incorporated by reference, in addition to the other information set forth in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Except as described in any prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, including manufacturing expenses, clinical trial expenses, research and development expenses, sales and marketing expenses, general and administrative expenses, and other expenses associated with the commercialization of Afrezza, any other product candidate we develop and our Technosphere drug delivery platform. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to in-license, invest in or acquire businesses, assets or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses of the proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus. Accordingly, we will retain broad discretion over the use of such proceeds. Pending the use of the net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus as described above, we intend to invest the net proceeds in investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

General

Our authorized capital stock consists of 280,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value. All of our authorized preferred stock is undesignated.

The following summary description of our capital stock is based on the provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and the applicable provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL. This information is qualified entirely by reference to the applicable provisions of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and the Delaware General Corporation Law. For information on how to obtain copies of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information Reference.”

Common Stock

Voting Rights . Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, including the election of our directors. Under our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, our stockholders will not have cumulative voting rights. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of our outstanding shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose. In all other matters, an action by our common stockholders requires the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of our outstanding shares of common stock entitled to vote.

Dividends . Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any outstanding shares of our preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends our board of directors declares out of funds legally available for that purpose. Any dividends on our common stock will be non-cumulative.

Liquidation, Dissolution or Winding Up . If we liquidate, dissolve or wind up, the holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any outstanding shares of our preferred stock.

Rights and Preferences . Our common stock has no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of any outstanding shares of our preferred stock, which we may designate and issue in the future.

Preferred Stock

Pursuant to our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders (unless such stockholder action is required by applicable law or Nasdaq rules), to designate and issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each such series, to fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each wholly unissued series, and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, and to increase or decrease the number of shares of any such series, but not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding.

We will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering before the issuance of that series of preferred stock. This description will include:

 

   

the title and stated value;

 

   

the number of shares we are offering;

 

   

the liquidation preference per share;

 

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the purchase price per share;

 

   

the dividend rate per share, dividend period, payment date or dates and method of calculation for dividends;

 

   

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

   

our right, if any, to defer payment of dividends and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

 

   

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

 

   

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or other securities of ours, including warrants, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances and the mechanism by which it may be adjusted, and the conversion period;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities or other securities of ours, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances it may be adjusted, and the exchange period;

 

   

voting rights, if any;

 

   

preemptive rights, if any;

 

   

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

 

   

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

 

   

any limitations on issuances of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on parity with the series of preferred stock being issued as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

 

   

any other specific terms, rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications or limitations of, or restrictions on the preferred stock.

If we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will be fully-paid and non-assessable.

The DGCL provides that the holders of preferred stock will have the right to vote separately as a class (or, in some cases, as a series) on an amendment to our certificate of incorporation if the amendment would change the par value or, unless the certificate of incorporation provided otherwise, the number of authorized shares of the class or change the powers, preferences or special rights of the class or series so as to adversely affect the class or series, as the case may be. This right is in addition to any voting rights that may be provided for in the applicable certificate of designation.

Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. Preferred stock could be issued quickly with terms designed to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock may have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, Our Bylaws and Delaware Law

Delaware Anti-Takeover Law

We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, which generally prohibits a public Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless:

 

   

prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

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the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding upon consummation of the transaction, excluding for purposes of determining the number of shares outstanding (1) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (2) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

on or subsequent to the consummation of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Section 203 of the DGCL defines a business combination to include:

 

   

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

   

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;

 

   

subject to exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder;

 

   

subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder; and

 

   

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 of the DGCL defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by the entity or person.

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws

Provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, and amended and restated bylaws, may delay or discourage transactions involving an actual or potential change in our control or change in our management, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares or transactions that our stockholders might otherwise deem to be in their best interests. Therefore, these provisions could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Among other things, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, and amended and restated bylaws:

 

   

permit our board of directors to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with any rights, preferences and privileges as they may designate;

 

   

provide that, subject to the rights of the holders of any outstanding series of preferred stock, all vacancies, including newly created directorships, may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum;

 

   

provide that our board of directors may fix the number of directors by resolution;

 

   

require that any action to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and not be taken by written consent or electronic transmission;

 

   

provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide timely notice in writing and also specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice;

 

   

do not provide for cumulative voting rights (therefore allowing the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors to elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose);

 

   

provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by the Chairman of our board of directors, by our Chief Executive Officer, by our board of directors upon a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors or, under certain limited circumstances, by the holders of at least 5% of our outstanding voting stock.

 

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Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 2335 Alaska Avenue, El Segundo, California 90245. The transfer agent for any series of preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus will be named and described in the prospectus supplement for that series.

Listing on the Nasdaq Global Market

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “MNKD.”

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

General

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

   

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

   

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

 

   

the maturity date or dates;

 

   

the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

   

the applicability of any guarantees;

 

   

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

   

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

   

if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

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the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

   

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

   

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

   

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

   

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

   

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

   

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

   

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

   

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

   

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

   

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

   

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

   

whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any, and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

   

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

 

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Consolidation, Merger or Sale

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Events of Default under the Indenture

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

   

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

   

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

   

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

   

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

   

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

   

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

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A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

   

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request;

 

   

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

 

   

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

 

   

to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities-Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

 

   

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

   

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

   

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities-General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

 

   

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

   

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

 

   

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

 

   

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

 

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Discharge

The indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

   

provide for payment;

 

   

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

   

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

   

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

 

   

maintain paying agencies;

 

   

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

   

recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

   

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

   

appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

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Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is applicable.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements and free writing prospectuses, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be issued independently or together with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement, and may be attached to or separate from those securities. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

We have filed forms of the warrant agreements as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant agreement, if any, including a form of warrant certificate, that describes the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering. The following summaries of material provisions of the warrants and the warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses, and the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

General

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms relating to a series of warrants being offered, including:

 

   

the title of such securities;

 

   

the offering price or prices and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

   

the currency or currencies for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

   

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and the currency in which, these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to force the exercise of the warrants;

 

   

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

   

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

   

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

 

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Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent in connection with the exercise of the warrant.

Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.

Governing Law

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the warrants or warrant agreements, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

Each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

A global security may be terminated in certain situations as described under “-Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated,” or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

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For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the legal holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that legal holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of an indenture, or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the legal holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

   

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

   

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

   

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

   

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

   

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

   

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “-Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

Special Considerations for Global Securities

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

   

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

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an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

 

   

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

   

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

   

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security;

 

   

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security, nor will we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

 

   

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

 

   

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

A global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

   

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

   

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

   

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

We may also sell equity securities covered by this registration statement in an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act. Such offering may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price, either:

 

   

on or through the facilities of the Nasdaq Global Market or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale; and/or

 

   

to or through a market maker other than on the Nasdaq Global Market or such other securities exchanges or quotation or trading services.

Such “at the market offerings”, if any, may be conducted by underwriters acting as principal or agent.

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents, if any;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

   

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

   

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

   

any public offering price;

 

   

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

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We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities related to this offering, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

Other than common stock, all securities we offer will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time. These transactions may be effected on any exchange or over-the-counter market or otherwise.

Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Global Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on the Nasdaq Global Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, certain legal matters in connection with the offering and the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon by Cooley LLP.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference from MannKind Corporation’s Annual Report on Form 10-K and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports, which are incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. Neither we nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including MannKind. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

We maintain a website at www.mannkindcorp.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus. We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus the documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC (other than Current Reports or portions thereof furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items and other portions of documents that are furnished, but not filed, pursuant to applicable rules promulgated by the SEC) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, and (ii) after the effectiveness of the registration statement but prior to the termination of the offering of the common stock covered by this prospectus:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on February 26, 2019;

 

   

our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, which was filed on March 28, 2019; and

 

   

the description of our common stock, which is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on July 23, 2003, including all amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

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We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents by writing us at 30930 Russell Ranch Road, Suite 300, Westlake Village, California 91362, Attn: Corporate Secretary, or by telephoning us at (818) 661-5000.

Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of the document to the extent that a statement contained in this document or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document modifies or supersedes the statement.

DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION’S POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR

SECURITIES ACT LIABILITY

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling the Company pursuant to the DGCL, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

 

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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where such offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MARCH 29, 2019

PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

26,666,667 Shares of Common Stock Issuable Upon Exercise of Warrants

This prospectus relates to the offer and sale by us of up to 26,666,667 shares of our common stock issuable from time to time upon exercise of common stock purchase warrants, or the 2018 Common Warrants. The 2018 Common Warrants were issued by us on December 26, 2018 pursuant to a prospectus dated April 27, 2016 and a related prospectus supplement dated December 19, 2018. The 2018 Common Warrants are exercisable at an exercise price of $1.60 per share at any time on or before December 26, 2019.

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “MNKD.” On March 28, 2019, the last reported sales price of our common stock was $1.93 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on the Nasdaq Global Market or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the prospectus supplement.

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “ Risk Factors ” on page 4 of this prospectus and elsewhere in this prospectus for a discussion of information that should be considered in connection with an investment in our common stock.

NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

The date of this prospectus is                , 2019

 


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. This prospectus relates to the offer and sale by us of up to 26,666,667 shares of our common stock issuable from time to time upon exercise of common stock purchase warrants, or the 2018 Common Warrants.

We have not authorized any person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. This prospectus and any related free writing prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus is delivered, or securities are sold, on a later date.

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

 

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SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “MannKind,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to MannKind Corporation.

Company Overview

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of inhaled therapeutic products for patients with diseases such as diabetes and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Our only approved product, Afrezza (insulin human) Inhalation Powder, is a rapid-acting inhaled insulin that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, in June 2014. Afrezza became available by prescription in U.S. retail pharmacies in February 2015. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 30.3 million people in the United States had diabetes in 2015. Globally, the International Diabetes Federation has estimated that approximately 425.0 million people had diabetes in 2017 and approximately 629.0 million people will have diabetes by 2045.

Afrezza

Afrezza is a rapid-acting inhaled insulin used to improve glycemic control in adults with diabetes. The product consists of a dry powder formulation of human insulin delivered from a small portable inhaler. Administered at the beginning of a meal, Afrezza dissolves rapidly upon inhalation to the lung and delivers insulin quickly to the bloodstream. The first measurable effects of Afrezza occur approximately 12 minutes after administration.

From August 2014 until April 2016, Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC, or Sanofi, was responsible for commercial, regulatory and development activities associated with Afrezza pursuant to a license and collaboration agreement between us and Sanofi, or the Sanofi License Agreement. The Sanofi License Agreement terminated effective April 2016 and, after a transition period during which Sanofi continued to fulfill orders for Afrezza, we assumed responsibility for worldwide development and commercialization of Afrezza in July 2016.

Currently, we promote Afrezza to endocrinologists and certain high-prescribing primary care physicians through our specialty sales force. To support our sales efforts, we have implemented several patient and physician support programs, including a co-pay assistance and product savings program, direct purchase and our MannKind Cares program that supports providers and patients who have questions about insurance coverage, prescription cost and product use. We have also entered into a number of rebate or other agreements with various payors and pharmacy benefit managers that are intended to facilitate more favorable insurance coverage for Afrezza.

In the future, we may seek to supplement our sales force through a co-promotion arrangement with a third party that has an underutilized primary care sales force, that can be used to promote Afrezza to greater number of primary care physicians in the United States. Internationally, our strategy is to establish regional partnerships in foreign jurisdictions where there are commercial opportunities, subject to receipt of the necessary foreign regulatory approvals. In May 2017 we entered into a supply and distribution agreement with Biomm S.A. to pursue regulatory approval and commercialization of Afrezza in Brazil. In May 2018, we entered into a similar agreement with Cipla Ltd. for the regulatory approval and commercialization of Afrezza in India. Our partners have not yet commenced commercialization in their respective territories.

We continue to conduct clinical studies of Afrezza, including an open-label pharmacokinetics (PK) and multiple-dose safety and tolerability dose-titration trial of Afrezza in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. The first cohort (patients aged 13-17) in this study was completed in September 2018. Patients in the second cohort (ages 8-12)



 

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are currently being recruited and dosed. During the past year, we also supported a collaborative clinical trial with investigators at the Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver that examined the effect of Afrezza on post-prandial glucose excursions and glucose time-in-range using continuous glucose monitors. We have additional collaborative clinical studies that are underway at this time. As part of the approval of Afrezza, the FDA required us to conduct a five-year, randomized, controlled trial in 8,000-10,000 patients with type 2 diabetes to assess the potential serious risk of pulmonary malignancy with Afrezza use. We have not yet agreed with the FDA on the final study design for this long-term study.

Technosphere Platform

We believe there are additional opportunities for our proprietary Technosphere and inhaler technologies for the delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients, or API. We believe that our proprietary Technosphere formulation technology represents a versatile drug delivery platform that may allow the oral inhalation of a wide range of API. We have successfully prepared Technosphere formulations of anionic and cationic drugs, hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, proteins, peptides and small molecules. Technosphere powders are based on our proprietary excipient, fumaryl diketopiperazine, which is a pH-sensitive organic molecule that self-assembles into small particles under acidic conditions. Certain drugs, such as insulin or treprostinil, can be loaded onto these particles by combining a solution of the drug with a solution or suspension of Technosphere material, which is then dried to powder form. The resulting powder has a consistent and narrow range of particle sizes with good aerodynamic properties that enable efficient delivery deep into the lungs. Technosphere powders dissolve quickly when the particles contact the moist lung surface with its neutral pH, releasing the drug molecules to diffuse across a thin layer of cells into the arterial circulation, bypassing the liver to provide excellent systemic exposure.

We have also created an innovative line of breath-powered, dry powder inhalers. Our inhalers are easy to use, cost-effective and can be produced in both a reusable (chronic treatment) and a single-use (acute treatment) format. Both the reusable and single use inhaler formats use the same internal air-flow design. Being breath-powered, our inhalers require only the patient’s inhalation effort to deliver the powder. To administer the inhalation powder, a patient loads a cartridge into our inhaler and inhales through the mouthpiece. Upon inhalation, the dry powder is lifted out of the cartridge and broken (or de-agglomerated) into small particles. The inhalers are engineered to produce an aggressive airstream to de-agglomerate the powder while keeping the powder moving slowly. This slow-moving powder effectively navigates the patient’s airways for delivery into the lung with minimal deposition at the back of the throat. Our inhalers show very little change in performance (i.e., efficient cartridge emptying) over a wide range of inhalation efforts.

We advanced an inhaled formulation of treprostinil, or TreT, into clinical development, completing a Phase 1 dose-escalation study in June 2018. In September 2018, we announced a license and collaboration agreement with United Therapeutics Corporation, or UT, pursuant to which UT became responsible for global development, regulatory and commercial activities with respect to TreT, or the UT License Agreement. We will manufacture clinical supplies and initial commercial supplies of TreT, whereas long-term commercial supplies may be manufactured by UT. In September 2018, we also signed a research agreement with UT, or the UT Research Agreement, pursuant to which we will evaluate the feasibility of preparing a dry powder formulation of an additional API for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. In addition to our activities under the UT License Agreement and the UT Research Agreement, we intend to advance additional dry-powder candidates into formulation feasibility and preclinical studies during the next 12-18 months. Our internal product development efforts are supplemented by a collaboration and license agreement with Receptor Life Sciences, or Receptor, which we entered into in January 2016, pursuant to which Receptor is responsible for the development, manufacture and commercialization of inhaled formulations of certain cannabinoid compounds utilizing our technology. To date, Receptor has conducted formulation studies with a range of different API and has informed us of their plans to commence preclinical development of the most promising powder candidate(s) during 2019.

To aid in the development of our oral inhalation products, we have created a number of innovative tools such as a novel inhalation profiling apparatus that uses miniature sensors to assess the drug delivery process at the level of an individual inhaler. This apparatus provides real-time data regarding patient usage and delivery system performance that is transmitted to a user interface, such as a smartphone application. We are currently evaluating the desirability of developing this apparatus further for use as a training tool in physician offices or as a connected care device that will allow patients to integrate dosing information with other health data, such as blood glucose levels from a self-managed glucose meter or a continuous glucose monitor.



 

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Corporate Information

We were incorporated in the State of Delaware on February 14, 1991. Our principal executive offices are located at 30930 Russell Ranch Road, Suite 300, Westlake Village, California 91362, and our telephone number at that address is (818) 661-5000. Our website address is www.mannkindcorp.com. Information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.

Afrezza ® and Technosphere ® are our trademarks in the United States. We have also applied for or have registered company trademarks in other jurisdictions. This prospectus also contains references to our trademarks and to trademarks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

The Offering

This prospectus relates to the offer and sale by us of up to 26,666,667 shares of our common stock issuable from time to time upon exercise of the 2018 Common Warrants. The 2018 Common Warrants are exercisable at an exercise price of $1.60 per share, subject to any adjustment pursuant to the terms of the warrants, at any time on or prior to December 26, 2019. For additional information regarding the 2018 Common Warrants, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, as updated by our annual, quarterly and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase our common stock by exercising your 2018 Common Warrants. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our common stock, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations.

Risks Related to this Offering

Our management will have broad discretion in how we use the net proceeds from this offering, and we may not use these proceeds effectively or in ways with which you agree.

We have not designated any portion of the net proceeds from this offering to be used for any particular purpose. Our management will have broad discretion as to the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of this offering. Our stockholders may not agree with the manner in which our management chooses to allocate and spend the net proceeds from this offering. Moreover, our management may use the net proceeds from this offering for corporate purposes that may not increase the market price of our common stock.

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value (deficit) per share of the common stock you purchase in this offering.

To the extent that the exercise price of the common stock issuable upon exercise of the 2018 Common Warrants is higher than our net tangible book value (deficit) per share when and if you exercise any 2018 Common Warrants, you will experience immediate dilution with respect to the net tangible book value (deficit) per share of the common stock you purchase in this offering. As of December 31, 2018, our net tangible book deficit was approximately $(175.1) million, or $(0.94) per share. Based on the exercise price of the 2018 Common Warrants of $1.60 per share and our net tangible book deficit as of December 31, 2018, if you exercise any 2018 Common Warrants, you will suffer immediate dilution of $2.22 per share. The exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants and the settlement of restricted stock units may result in further dilution of your investment. See “Dilution” for a more detailed discussion of the dilution you will incur if you purchase common stock in this offering.

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the exercise price of the 2018 Common Warrants. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the exercise price per share paid by investors in this offering upon exercise of any 2018 Common Warrants, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders.

In addition, any future sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales may occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. We cannot predict the effect, if any, that sales of those shares of common stock, or the perception that those sales may occur, will have on the market price of our common stock.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Statements contained in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein that are not strictly historical in nature are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These forward-looking statements are subject to the “safe harbor” created by Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act and may include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

our ability to successfully market, commercialize and achieve market acceptance for Afrezza or any other product candidates or therapies that we may develop;

 

   

our ability to manufacture sufficient quantities of Afrezza and obtain insulin supply as needed;

 

   

our ability to successfully commercialize our Technosphere drug delivery platform;

 

   

our estimates for future performance;

 

   

our estimates regarding anticipated operating losses and financial results and our needs for additional financing;

 

   

the progress or success of our research, development and clinical programs, including the application for and receipt of regulatory clearances and approvals;

 

   

our ability to protect our intellectual property and operate our business without infringing upon the intellectual property rights of others

 

   

scientific studies and the conclusions we draw from them; and

 

   

our anticipated use of proceeds from the sale of common stock under this prospectus.

In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “goal,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “potential,” “predicts,” “projects,” “should,” “will,” “would,” the negative of these words and words or similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our views as of the date on which they were made with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties. The underlying information and expectations are likely to change over time. In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date the statement is made, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements as actual events or results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements due to various factors, including, but not limited to, those set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated herein by reference. These forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statement. Our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein by these cautionary statements. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements. Before deciding to purchase our common stock, you should carefully consider the risk factors discussed herein or incorporated by reference, in addition to the other information set forth in this prospectus, any free writing prospectus and in the documents incorporated herein by reference.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of common stock under this prospectus, if any, for general corporate purposes, including manufacturing expenses, clinical trial expenses, research and development expenses, sales and marketing expenses, general and administrative expenses, and other expenses associated with the commercialization of Afrezza, any other product candidate we develop and our Technosphere drug delivery platform. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds, if any, to in-license, invest in or acquire businesses, assets or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions. As of the date of this prospectus, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses of the proceeds from the sale of common stock under this prospectus, if any. Accordingly, we will retain broad discretion over the use of any such proceeds. Pending the use of the net proceeds from the sale of common stock under this prospectus, if any, as described above, we intend to invest the net proceeds in investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

 

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DILUTION

If you purchase our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent that the public offering price per share of our common stock exceeds our as adjusted net tangible book value (deficit) per share after this offering. Our net tangible book value (deficit) as of December 31, 2018 was approximately $(175.1) million, or $(0.94) per share. Net tangible book value (deficit) per share is determined by dividing our total tangible assets (total assets, less intangible assets), less total liabilities, by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018.

After giving effect to the issuance and sale of 26,666,667 shares of our common stock upon exercise of the 2018 Common Warrants in this offering at an exercise price of $1.60 per share, our as adjusted net tangible book value (deficit) as of December 31, 2018 would have been approximately $(132.4) million, or $(0.62) per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value (deficit) of $0.32 per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution in net tangible book value (deficit) of $2.22 per share to investors purchasing shares of our common stock upon exercise of the 2018 Common Warrants.

The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Public offering price per share

      $ 1.60  
     

 

 

 

Net tangible book value (deficit) per share as of December 31, 2018

   $ (0.94   

Increase in net tangible book value (deficit) per share attributable to this offering

     0.32     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value (deficit) per share as of December 31, 2018, after giving effect to this offering

        (0.62
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering

      $ 2.22  
     

 

 

 

The number of shares of common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering set forth above is based on 187,029,967 shares of common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and excludes, as of that date:

 

   

10,976,118 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options with a weighted average exercise price of $5.75 per share;

 

   

691,266 shares of common stock issuable upon the settlement of outstanding restricted stock units;

 

   

9,211,379 shares of common stock available for future grant under our 2018 equity incentive plan;

 

   

2,897,394 shares of common stock issuable under our employee stock purchase plan;

 

   

31,851 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants at an exercise price of $13.05 per, which warrants expire on November 16, 2020;

 

   

14,000,000 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding warrants at an exercise price of $2.38 per share, which warrants expire on April 9, 2019;

 

   

3,629,127 shares of common stock issuable upon the conversion of our 5.75% senior convertible notes due 2021 at a conversion price of approximately $5.15 per share; and

 

   

21,909,541 shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of our promissory note with The Mann Group LLC (principal plus accrued and unpaid interest thereon as of December 31, 2018) at a conversion price of $4.00 per share.

To the extent that outstanding options or warrants are exercised or outstanding restricted stock units are settled, you may experience further dilution. We may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if at that time we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. If we raise additional capital through the sale of common stock or securities exchangeable or exercisable for common stock, you may experience further dilution.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

General

Our authorized capital stock consists of 280,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value. All of our authorized preferred stock is undesignated.

The following summary description of our capital stock is based on the provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws and the applicable provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL. This information is qualified entirely by reference to the applicable provisions of our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and the Delaware General Corporation Law. For information on how to obtain copies of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information Reference.”

Common Stock

Voting Rights . Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, including the election of our directors. Under our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, our stockholders will not have cumulative voting rights. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of our outstanding shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose. In all other matters, an action by our common stockholders requires the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of our outstanding shares of common stock entitled to vote.

Dividends . Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any outstanding shares of our preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends our board of directors declares out of funds legally available for that purpose. Any dividends on our common stock will be non-cumulative.

Liquidation, Dissolution or Winding Up . If we liquidate, dissolve or wind up, the holders of our common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any outstanding shares of our preferred stock.

Rights and Preferences . Our common stock has no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of any outstanding shares of our of preferred stock, which we may designate and issue in the future.

Preferred Stock

Pursuant to our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders (unless such stockholder action is required by applicable law or Nasdaq rules), to designate and issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each such series, to fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each wholly unissued series, and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, and to increase or decrease the number of shares of any such series, but not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding.

We will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering before the issuance of that series of preferred stock. This description will include:

 

   

the title and stated value;

 

   

the number of shares we are offering;

 

   

the liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the purchase price per share;

 

   

the dividend rate per share, dividend period, payment date or dates and method of calculation for dividends;

 

   

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

 

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our right, if any, to defer payment of dividends and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

 

   

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

 

   

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

 

   

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or other securities of ours, including warrants, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances and the mechanism by which it may be adjusted, and the conversion period;

 

   

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities or other securities of ours, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances it may be adjusted, and the exchange period;

 

   

voting rights, if any;

 

   

preemptive rights, if any;

 

   

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

 

   

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

 

   

any limitations on issuances of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on parity with the series of preferred stock being issued as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

 

   

any other specific terms, rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications or limitations of, or restrictions on the preferred stock.

If we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will be fully-paid and non-assessable.

The DGCL provides that the holders of preferred stock will have the right to vote separately as a class (or, in some cases, as a series) on an amendment to our certificate of incorporation if the amendment would change the par value or, unless the certificate of incorporation provided otherwise, the number of authorized shares of the class or change the powers, preferences or special rights of the class or series so as to adversely affect the class or series, as the case may be. This right is in addition to any voting rights that may be provided for in the applicable certificate of designation.

Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. Preferred stock could be issued quickly with terms designed to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. Additionally, the issuance of preferred stock may have the effect of decreasing the market price of our common stock.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, Our Bylaws and Delaware Law

Delaware Anti-Takeover Law

We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, which generally prohibits a public Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless:

 

   

prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding upon consummation of the transaction, excluding for purposes of determining the number of shares outstanding (1) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (2) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

on or subsequent to the consummation of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

 

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Section 203 of the DGCL defines a business combination to include:

 

   

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

   

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;

 

   

subject to exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder;

 

   

subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder; and

 

   

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 of the DGCL defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by the entity or person.

Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws

Provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, and amended and restated bylaws, may delay or discourage transactions involving an actual or potential change in our control or change in our management, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares or transactions that our stockholders might otherwise deem to be in their best interests. Therefore, these provisions could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Among other things, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, and amended and restated bylaws:

 

   

permit our board of directors to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with any rights, preferences and privileges as they may designate;

 

   

provide that, subject to the rights of the holders of any outstanding series of preferred stock, all vacancies, including newly created directorships, may, except as otherwise required by law, be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum;

 

   

provide that our board of directors may fix the number of directors by resolution;

 

   

require that any action to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and not be taken by written consent or electronic transmission;

 

   

provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide timely notice in writing and also specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice;

 

   

do not provide for cumulative voting rights (therefore allowing the holders of a majority of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors to elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose);

 

   

provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by the Chairman of our board of directors, by our Chief Executive Officer, by our board of directors upon a resolution adopted by a majority of the total number of authorized directors or, under certain limited circumstances, by the holders of at least 5% of our outstanding voting stock.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 2335 Alaska Avenue, El Segundo, California 90245. The transfer agent for any series of preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus will be named and described in the prospectus supplement for that series.

Listing on the Nasdaq Global Market

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “MNKD.”

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

The 26,666,667 shares of common stock referenced on the cover page of this prospectus will be offered solely by us and will be issued and sold upon the exercise of the 2018 Common Warrants. We will pay all expenses incident to the registration of the issuance and sale of the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the 2018 Common Warrants.

The following is a brief summary of certain terms and conditions of the 2018 Common Warrants and is subject in all respects to the provisions contained in the 2018 Common Warrants, the form of which is filed as Exhibit 4.6 to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part.

Exercisability . The 2018 Common Warrants are exercisable on or before December 26, 2019, at which time any unexercised 2018 Common Warrants will expire and cease to be exercisable.

The 2018 Common Warrants are exercisable, at the option of each holder, in whole or in part by delivering to us a duly executed exercise notice and by payment in full in immediately available funds for the number of shares of common stock purchased upon such exercise. If a registration statement registering the issuance of the shares of common stock underlying the 2018 Common Warrants under the Securities Act is not then effective or available, and if a resale registration statement registering the resale of the shares of common stock underlying the 2018 Common Warrants under the Securities Act is also not then effective or available, the holder may exercise the 2018 Common Warrant through a cashless exercise, in whole or in part, in which case the holder would receive upon such exercise the net number of shares of common stock determined according to the formula set forth in the 2018 Common Warrant. No fractional shares of common stock will be issued in connection with the exercise of a 2018 Common Warrant. In lieu of fractional shares, we will either pay the holder an amount in cash equal to the fractional amount multiplied by the exercise price or round up to the next whole share.

Exercise Limitation . A holder will not have the right to exercise any portion of a 2018 Common Warrant if the holder (together with its affiliates) would beneficially own in excess of 4.99% (or on election of the holder, 9.99%) of the number of shares of our stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the exercise, as such percentage ownership is determined in accordance with the terms of the 2018 Common Warrants. However, any holder may increase or decrease such percentage to any other percentage not in excess of 9.99%, provided that any increase in such percentage shall not be effective until 61 days after such notice to us.

Exercise Price . The exercise price per share of common stock purchasable upon exercise of the 2018 Common Warrants is $1.60. The exercise price is subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of certain stock dividends and distributions, stock splits, stock combinations, reclassifications or similar events affecting our common stock.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Cooley LLP.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference from MannKind Corporation’s Annual Report on Form 10-K and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their reports, which are incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the reports of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the common stock we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. We have not authorized any person to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of the common stock covered by this prospectus in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of common stock offered by this prospectus.

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including MannKind. The address of the SEC website is www.sec.gov.

We maintain a website at www.mannkindcorp.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus. Information in this prospectus supersedes information incorporated by reference that we filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus, while information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information in this prospectus. We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus the documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC (other than Current Reports or portions thereof furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items and other portions of documents that are furnished, but not filed, pursuant to applicable rules promulgated by the SEC) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, and (ii) after the effectiveness of the registration statement but prior to the termination of the offering of the securities covered by this prospectus:

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on February 26, 2019;

 

   

our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, which was filed on March 28, 2019; and

 

   

the description of our common stock, which is registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on July 23, 2003, including all amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits which are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents by writing us at 30930 Russell Ranch Road, Suite 300, Westlake Village, California 91362, Attn: Corporate Secretary, or by telephoning us at (818) 661-5000.

 

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Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of the document to the extent that a statement contained in this document or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this document modifies or supersedes the statement.

DISCLOSURE OF COMMISSION’S POSITION ON INDEMNIFICATION FOR

SECURITIES ACT LIABILITY

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling the Company pursuant to the DGCL, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

 

 

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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14.

Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth the estimated costs and expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by us in connection with the offering of the securities being registered. All the amounts shown below are estimates, except for the Securities Exchange Commission, or the SEC, registration fee.

 

SEC registration fee

   $ 65,771.20  

Accounting fees and expenses

     *  

Legal fees and expenses

     *  

Transfer agent fees and expenses

     *  

Trustee fees and expenses

     *  

Printing and miscellaneous expenses

     *  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ *  
  

 

 

 

 

*

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15.

Indemnification of Officers and Directors

Under Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, we have broad powers to indemnify our directors and officers against liabilities they may incur in such capacities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Section 145 of the DGCL generally provides that a Delaware corporation has the power to indemnify its present and former directors, officers, employees and agents against expenses incurred by them in connection with any suit to which they are or are threatened to be made, a party by reason of their serving in such positions so long as they acted in good faith and in a manner they reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation and, with respect to any criminal action, they had no reasonable cause to believe their conduct was unlawful.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, and amended and restated bylaws include provisions that (i) eliminate the personal liability of our directors for monetary damages resulting from breaches of their fiduciary duty to the fullest extent permitted under applicable law, (ii) require us to indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL or other applicable law and (iii) provide us with the power, in our discretion, to indemnify our other officers, employees and other agents as set forth in the DGCL or other applicable law. We believe that these provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, and amended and restated bylaws are necessary to attract and retain qualified persons as directors and officers. These provisions do not eliminate our directors’ or officers’ duty of care, and, in appropriate circumstances, equitable remedies such as injunctive or other forms of non-monetary relief will remain available under the DGCL. In addition, each director will continue to be subject to liability pursuant to Section 174 of the DGCL, for breach of such director’s duty of loyalty to us, for acts or omissions not in good faith or involving intentional misconduct, for knowing violations of law, for acts or omissions that such director believes to be contrary to our best interests or the best interests of our stockholders, for any transaction from which such director derived an improper personal benefit, for acts or omissions involving a reckless disregard for such director’s duty to us or to our stockholders when such director was aware or should have been aware of a risk of serious injury to us or to our stockholders, for acts or omission that constitute an unexcused pattern of inattention that amounts to an abdication of such director’s duty to us or to our stockholders, for improper transactions between such director and us and for improper loans to directors and officers. These provisions also do not affect a director’s responsibilities under any other law, such as the federal securities law or state or federal environmental laws.

As permitted by Delaware law, we have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our current directors and officers pursuant to the foregoing provisions. We have an insurance policy covering our officers and directors with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act or otherwise.

The underwriting agreement that we may enter into, filed as Exhibit 1.1 to this Registration Statement, will provide for indemnification by any underwriters of the company, our directors, our officers who sign the registration statement and our controlling persons, if any, for some liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act.

 

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Item 16.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

Exhibit
Number

  

Description of Document

1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement.
4.1    Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the registrant’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (File No. 000-50865), filed with the SEC on August 9, 2016).
4.2    Certificate of Amendment of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of MannKind Corporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 000-50865), filed with the SEC on March 2, 2017).
4.3    Certificate of Amendment of Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of MannKind Corporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 000-50865), filed with the SEC on December 13, 2017).
4.4    Amended and Restated Bylaws (incorporated by reference to the registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 000-50865), filed with the SEC on November 19, 2007).
4.5    Form of common stock certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to the registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K (File No. 000-50865), filed with the SEC on March 16, 2017).
4.6    Form of Common Stock Purchase Warrant issued December  26, 2018 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 000-50865), filed with the SEC on December  21, 2018).
4.7*    Form of Specimen Preferred Stock Certificate and Certificate of Designations of Preferred Stock.
4.8    Form of Indenture.
4.9*    Form of Senior Note.
4.10*    Form of Subordinated Note.
4.11    Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.
4.12    Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.
4.13    Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.
5.1    Opinion of Cooley LLP.
23.1    Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.
23.2    Consent of Cooley LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).
24.1    Power of Attorney (included on signature page).
25.1*    Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture.

 

*

To be filed by amendment or by a report filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated herein by reference, if applicable.

 

Item 17.

Undertakings

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

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(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that the undertakings set forth in paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement or are contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however , that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser: (i) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424; (ii) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant; (iii) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and (iv) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(7) That for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, (i) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(l) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be a part of the

 

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registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and (ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offing of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(8) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Westlake Village, State of California, on March 29, 2019.

 

MannKind Corporation
By:  

/s/ Michael E. Castagna

  Michael E. Castagna
  Chief Executive Officer

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Michael E. Castagna and David Thomson, and each or of them, his true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to (i) act on, sign, and file with the SEC any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement together with all schedules and exhibits thereto, (ii) act on, sign and file such certificates, instruments, agreements and other documents as may be necessary or appropriate in connection therewith, (iii) act on and file any supplement to any prospectus included in this registration statement or any such amendment or any subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933 and (iv) take any and all actions which may be necessary or appropriate to be done, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby approving, ratifying and confirming all that such agent, proxy and attorney-in-fact or any of his substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof..

 

Signature

  

Title

  

Date

/s/ Michael E. Castagna

  

Chief Executive Officer and

Director

   March 29, 2019
Michael E. Castagna    (Principal Executive Officer)     

/s/ Steven B. Binder

   Chief Financial Officer    March 29, 2019
Steven B. Binder    (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)     

/s/ Kent Kresa

   Chairman of the Board of Directors    March 29, 2019
Kent Kresa          

/s/ Ronald J. Consiglio

   Director    March 29, 2019
Ronald J. Consiglio          

/s/ Michael Friedman, M.D.

   Director    March 29, 2019
Michael Friedman, M.D.          

/s/ David H. MacCallum

   Director    March 29, 2019
David H. MacCallum          

/s/ Christine Mundkur

   Director    March 29, 2019
Christine Mundkur          

/s/ James S. Shannon

   Director    March 29, 2019
James S. Shannon          

/s/ Henry L. Nordhoff

   Director    March 29, 2019
Henry L. Nordhoff          

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