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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_______________________________
FORM 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended
June 30, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period
from ________ to ________
Commission file number: 001-38855
___________________________________
Nasdaq, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 52-1165937
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

151 W. 42nd Street, New York, New York 10036
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: +1 212 401 8700
No Changes
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share NDAQ The Nasdaq Stock Market
0.875% Senior Notes due 2030 NDAQ30 The Nasdaq Stock Market
1.75% Senior Notes due 2029 NDAQ29 The Nasdaq Stock Market
1.75% Senior Notes due 2023 NDAQ23 The Nasdaq Stock Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
        Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No    
        Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
Class Outstanding at July 28, 2020
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share 164,258,414    shares






Nasdaq, Inc.

   
Page  
Part I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
     
Item 1.
2
     
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets - June 30, 2020 (unaudited) and December 31, 2019
2
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income - Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 (unaudited)
3
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income - Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 (unaudited)
4
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders' Equity - Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 (unaudited)
5
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows - Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 (unaudited)
6
7
Item 2.
     
Item 3.
     
Item 4.
   
Item 1.
   
Item 1A.
   
Item 2.
   
Item 3.
   
Item 4.
   
Item 5.
   
Item 6.



i


About this Form 10-Q
Throughout this Form 10-Q, unless otherwise specified:
“Nasdaq,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Nasdaq, Inc.
• “Nasdaq Baltic” refers to collectively, Nasdaq Tallinn AS, Nasdaq Riga, AS, and AB Nasdaq Vilnius.
• “Nasdaq BX” refers to the cash equity exchange operated by Nasdaq BX, Inc.
“Nasdaq BX Options” refers to the options exchange operated by Nasdaq BX, Inc.
“Nasdaq Clearing” refers to the clearing operations conducted by Nasdaq Clearing AB.
“Nasdaq CXC” and “Nasdaq CX2” refer to the Canadian cash equity trading books operated by Nasdaq CXC Limited.
“Nasdaq First North” refers to our alternative marketplaces for smaller companies and growth companies in the Nordic and Baltic regions.
“Nasdaq GEMX” refers to the options exchange operated by Nasdaq GEMX, LLC.
“Nasdaq ISE” refers to the options exchange operated by Nasdaq ISE, LLC. 
“Nasdaq MRX” refers to the options exchange operated by Nasdaq MRX, LLC. 
“Nasdaq Nordic” refers to collectively, Nasdaq Clearing AB, Nasdaq Stockholm AB, Nasdaq Copenhagen A/S, Nasdaq Helsinki Ltd, and Nasdaq Iceland hf.
“Nasdaq PHLX” refers to the options exchange operated by Nasdaq PHLX LLC.
“Nasdaq PSX” refers to the cash equity exchange operated by Nasdaq PHLX LLC.
“The Nasdaq Options Market” refers to the options exchange operated by The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC.
“The Nasdaq Stock Market” refers to the cash equity exchange and listing venue operated by The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC.
* * * * * *
Nasdaq also provides as a tool for the reader the following list of abbreviations and acronyms that are used throughout this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
401(k) Plan: Voluntary Defined Contribution Savings Plan
2017 Credit Facility: $1 billion senior unsecured revolving credit facility, which matures on April 25, 2022
2021 Notes: €600 million aggregate principal amount of 3.875% senior unsecured notes due June 7, 2021, repaid in full and terminated in March 2020
2023 Notes: €600 million aggregate principal amount of 1.75% senior unsecured notes due May 19, 2023
2024 Notes: $500 million aggregate principal amount of 4.25% senior unsecured notes due June 1, 2024
2026 Notes: $500 million aggregate principal amount of 3.85% senior unsecured notes due June 30, 2026
2029 Notes: €600 million aggregate principal amount of 1.75% senior unsecured notes due March 28, 2029
2030 Notes: €600 million aggregate principal amount of 0.875% senior unsecured notes due February 13, 2030
2050 Notes: $500 million aggregate principal amount of 3.25% senior unsecured notes due April 28, 2050
ASU: Accounting Standards Update
ASU 2016-13: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments
AUM: Assets Under Management
CCP: Central Counterparty
EMIR: European Market Infrastructure Regulation
Equity Plan: Nasdaq Equity Incentive Plan
ESPP: Nasdaq Employee Stock Purchase Plan
ETF: Exchange Traded Fund
ETP: Exchange Traded Product
Exchange Act: Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
FASB: Financial Accounting Standards Board
FICC: Fixed Income and Commodities Trading and Clearing
FINRA: Financial Industry Regulatory Authority
IPO: Initial Public Offering
LIBOR: London Interbank Offered Rate
NFF: Nasdaq Financial Framework; Nasdaq's end-to-end technology solutions for market infrastructure operators, buy-side firms, sell-side firms and other non-financial markets
NFX: Nasdaq Futures, Inc.
NPM: The NASDAQ Private Market, LLC
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NSCC: National Securities Clearing Corporation
OCC: The Options Clearing Corporation
OTC: Over-the-Counter
PSU: Performance Share Unit
SaaS: Software as a Service
SEC: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

SERP: Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan
SFSA: Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority
S&P: Standard & Poor’s
S&P 500: S&P 500 Stock Index
TSR: Total Shareholder Return
U.S. GAAP: U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
* * * * * *
NASDAQ, the NASDAQ logos, and other brand, service or product names or marks referred to in this report are trademarks or service marks, registered or otherwise, of Nasdaq, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries. FINRA and TRADE REPORTING FACILITY are registered trademarks of FINRA.
* * * * * *
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q includes market share and industry data that we obtained from industry publications and surveys, reports of governmental agencies and internal company surveys. Industry publications and surveys generally state that the information they contain has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but we cannot assure you that this information is accurate or complete. We have not independently verified any of the data from third-party sources nor have we ascertained the underlying economic assumptions relied upon therein. Statements as to our market position are based on the most currently available market data. For market comparison purposes, The Nasdaq Stock Market data in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for IPOs is based on data generated internally by us; therefore, the data may not be comparable to other publicly-available IPO data. Data in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for new listings of equity securities on The Nasdaq Stock Market is based on data generated internally by us, which includes issuers that switched from other listing venues, closed-end funds and ETPs. Data in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for IPOs and new listings of equity securities on the Nasdaq Nordic and Nasdaq Baltic exchanges and Nasdaq First North also is based on data generated internally by us. IPOs and new listings data is presented as of period end. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding industry data presented herein, our estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors. We refer you to the “Risk Factors” section in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, the “Risk Factors” section in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, and the “Risk Factors” section in our most recent Form 10-K. 
 * * * * * *
Nasdaq intends to use its website, ir.nasdaq.com, as a means for disclosing material non-public information and for complying with SEC Regulation FD and other disclosure obligations.  
iii


Forward-Looking Statements
The SEC encourages companies to disclose forward-looking information so that investors can better understand a company’s future prospects and make informed investment decisions. This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains these types of statements. Words such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “anticipates,” “envisions,” “estimates,” “expects,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes” and words or terms of similar substance used in connection with any discussion of future expectations as to industry and regulatory developments or business initiatives and strategies, future operating results or financial performance, and other future developments are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These include, among others, statements relating to:
our strategic direction;
the integration of acquired businesses, including accounting decisions relating thereto;
the scope, nature or impact of acquisitions, divestitures, investments, joint ventures or other transactional activities;
the effective dates for, and expected benefits of, ongoing initiatives, including transactional activities and other strategic, restructuring, technology, de-leveraging and capital return initiatives;
our products, order backlog and services;
the impact of pricing changes;
tax matters;
the cost and availability of liquidity and capital;
any litigation, or any regulatory or government investigation or action, to which we are or could become a party or which may affect us; and
the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the response of governments and other third parties on our business, operations, results of operations, financial condition, workforce or the operations or decisions of our customers, suppliers or business partners.
Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by the forward-looking statements include, among others, the following:
our operating results may be lower than expected;
our ability to successfully integrate acquired businesses or divest sold businesses or assets, including the fact that any integration or transition may be more difficult, time consuming or costly than expected, and we may be unable to realize synergies from business combinations, acquisitions, divestitures or other transactional activities;
loss of significant trading and clearing volumes or values, fees, market share, listed companies, market data customers or other customers;
our ability to develop and grow our non-trading businesses, including our technology and analytics offerings;
our ability to keep up with rapid technological advances and adequately address cybersecurity risks;
economic, political and market conditions and fluctuations, including interest rate and foreign currency risk, inherent in U.S. and international operations;
the performance and reliability of our technology and technology of third parties on which we rely;
any significant error in our operational processes;
our ability to continue to generate cash and manage our indebtedness; and
adverse changes that may occur in the litigation or regulatory areas, or in the securities markets generally, or increased regulatory oversight domestically or internationally.
Most of these factors are difficult to predict accurately and are generally beyond our control. You should consider the uncertainty and any risk related to forward-looking statements that we make. These risk factors are discussed under the caption “Part II. Item 1A. Risk Factors,” in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, the “Risk Factors” section in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2020, and more fully described in the “Risk Factors section in our most recent Form 10-K. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this report. You should carefully read this entire Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including “Part I. Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes. Except as required by the federal securities laws, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement, release publicly any revisions to any forward-looking statements or report the occurrence of unanticipated events. For any forward-looking statements contained in any document, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.
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PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements.
Nasdaq, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in millions, except share and par value amounts)
June 30, 2020 December 31, 2019
(unaudited)
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents $ 711    $ 332   
Restricted cash 30    30   
Financial investments 206    291   
Receivables, net 523    422   
Default funds and margin deposits 3,098    2,996   
Other current assets 148    219   
Total current assets 4,716    4,290   
Property and equipment, net 396    384   
Goodwill 6,488    6,366   
Intangible assets, net 2,215    2,249   
Operating lease assets 405    346   
Other non-current assets 339    289   
Total assets $ 14,559    $ 13,924   
Liabilities
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable and accrued expenses $ 129    $ 148   
Section 31 fees payable to SEC 318    132   
Accrued personnel costs 149    188   
Deferred revenue 351    211   
Other current liabilities 204    161   
Default funds and margin deposits 3,098    2,996   
Short-term debt —    391   
Total current liabilities 4,249    4,227   
Long-term debt 3,482    2,996   
Deferred tax liabilities, net 506    552   
Operating lease liabilities 403    331   
Other non-current liabilities 162    179   
Total liabilities 8,802    8,285   
Commitments and contingencies
Equity
Nasdaq stockholders’ equity:
Common stock, $0.01 par value, 300,000,000 shares authorized, shares issued: 170,521,938 at June 30, 2020 and 171,075,011 at December 31, 2019; shares outstanding: 164,248,600 at June 30, 2020 and 165,094,440 at December 31, 2019
   
Additional paid-in capital 2,533    2,632   
Common stock in treasury, at cost: 6,273,338 shares at June 30, 2020 and 5,980,571 shares at December 31, 2019
(367)   (336)  
Accumulated other comprehensive loss (1,715)   (1,686)  
Retained earnings 5,301    5,027   
Total Nasdaq stockholders’ equity 5,754    5,639   
Noncontrolling interests   —   
Total equity 5,757    5,639   
Total liabilities and equity $ 14,559    $ 13,924   
                                            
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Nasdaq, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income
(Unaudited)
(in millions, except per share amounts)
  Three Months Ended June 30, Six Months Ended June 30,
  2020 2019 2020 2019
Revenues:      
Market Services $ 975    $ 665    $ 1,908    $ 1,304   
Corporate Services 126    123    254    243   
Information Services 213    194    424    387   
Market Technology 84    79    165    156   
Other revenues —    —    —    10   
Total revenues 1,398    1,061    2,751    2,100   
Transaction-based expenses:        
Transaction rebates (530)   (331)   (1,009)   (661)  
Brokerage, clearance and exchange fees (169)   (107)   (342)   (182)  
Revenues less transaction-based expenses 699    623    1,400    1,257   
Operating expenses:        
Compensation and benefits 189    169    384    344   
Professional and contract services 31    30    58    68   
Computer operations and data communications 35    33    70    65   
Occupancy 26    24    51    48   
General, administrative and other 25    40    86    56   
Marketing and advertising   10    14    20   
Depreciation and amortization 50    48    98    96   
Regulatory     14    15   
Merger and strategic initiatives     10    14   
Restructuring charges 13    —    25    —   
Total operating expenses 384    367    810    726   
Operating income 315    256    590    531   
Interest income        
Interest expense (26)   (31)   (52)   (68)  
Net gain on divestiture of business —    —    —    27   
Other income —         
Net income from unconsolidated investees 26    10    43    55   
Income before income taxes 316    239    589    552   
Income tax provision 75    65    145    131   
Net income attributable to Nasdaq $ 241    $ 174    $ 444    $ 421   
Per share information:        
Basic earnings per share $ 1.47    $ 1.05    $ 2.70    $ 2.54   
Diluted earnings per share $ 1.45    $ 1.04    $ 2.67    $ 2.52   
Cash dividends declared per common share $ 0.49    $ 0.47    $ 0.96    $ 0.91   
See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Nasdaq, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
(Unaudited)
(in millions)
  Three Months Ended June 30, Six Months Ended June 30,
  2020 2019 2020 2019
Net income $ 241    $ 174    $ 444    $ 421   
Other comprehensive income (loss):      
Foreign currency translation gains (losses) 184    (29)   (31)   (135)  
Income tax benefit (expense)(1)
10        (1)  
Foreign currency translation, net 194    (21)   (29)   (136)  
Comprehensive income attributable to Nasdaq $ 435    $ 153    $ 415    $ 285   
____________
(1) Primarily relates to the tax effect of unrealized gains and losses on Euro denominated notes.


See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

4


Nasdaq, Inc. 
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders' Equity
(Unaudited)
(in millions)

Three Months Ended June 30, Six Months Ended June 30,
2020 2019 2020 2019
Shares $ Shares $ Shares $ Shares $
Common stock 164      166      165      165     
Additional paid-in capital
Beginning balance 2,527    2,732    2,632    2,716   
Share repurchase program —    (30)   (1)   (50)   (2)   (152)   (1)   (50)  
Share-based compensation 23    20      40      36   
Stock option exercises, net        
Other issuances of common stock, net 12    10    12    10   
Ending balance 2,533    2,713    2,533    2,713   
Common stock in treasury, at cost
Beginning balance (364)   (327)   (336)   (297)  
Other employee stock activity —    (3)   —    (31)   (30)  
Ending balance (367)   (327)   (367)   (327)  
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
Beginning balance (1,909)   (1,645)   (1,686)   (1,530)  
Other comprehensive loss 194    (21)   (29)   (136)  
Ending balance (1,715)   (1,666)   (1,715)   (1,666)  
Retained earnings
Beginning balance 5,140    4,732    5,027    4,558   
Impact of adoption of ASU 2016-13
—    —    (12)   —   
Net income 241    174    444    421   
Cash dividends declared per common share
(80)   (77)   (158)   (150)  
Ending balance 5,301    4,829    5,301    4,829   
Total Nasdaq stockholders’ equity 5,754    5,551    5,754    5,551   
Noncontrolling interests
Beginning balance   —    —    —   
Net activity related to noncontrolling interests
  —      —   
Ending balance   —      —   
Total Equity 164    $ 5,757    165    $ 5,551    164    $ 5,757    165    $ 5,551   


See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
5


Nasdaq, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(Unaudited)
(in millions)
Six Months Ended June 30,
2020 2019
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income $ 444    $ 421   
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization 98    96   
Share-based compensation 40    36   
Deferred income taxes (3)   (1)  
Extinguishment of debt 36    11   
Net gain on divestiture of business —    (27)  
Net income from unconsolidated investees (43)   (55)  
Other reconciling items included in net income 13     
Net change in operating assets and liabilities, net of effects of divestiture and acquisitions:
Receivables, net (127)   (20)  
Other assets 10    (186)  
Accounts payable and accrued expenses (30)   (37)  
Section 31 fees payable to SEC 186    61   
Accrued personnel costs (39)   (78)  
Deferred revenue 130    112   
Other liabilities 106    186   
Net cash provided by operating activities 821    523   
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of securities (149)   (311)  
Proceeds from sales and redemptions of securities 234    309   
Proceeds from divestiture of business —    108   
Acquisition of businesses, net of cash and cash equivalents acquired (157)   (193)  
Purchases of property and equipment (68)   (63)  
Other investing activities (5)   (13)  
Net cash used in investing activities (145)   (163)  
Cash flows from financing activities:
Proceeds from (repayments of) commercial paper, net (391)   192   
Repayments of borrowings under our credit commitment and debt obligations (1,470)   (1,215)  
Payment of debt extinguishment cost (36)   (11)  
Proceeds from issuances of long-term debt, net of issuance costs and utilization of credit commitment 1,928    680   
Repurchases of common stock (152)   (50)  
Dividends paid (158)   (150)  
Proceeds received from employee stock activity and other issuances 13    11   
Payments related to employee shares withheld for taxes (31)   (30)  
Other financing activities   —   
Net cash used in financing activities (294)   (573)  
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash (3)   (10)  
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash 379    (223)  
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period 362    586   
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period $ 741    $ 363   
Supplemental Disclosure Cash Flow Information
Cash paid for:
Interest $ 69    $ 85   
Income taxes, net of refund $ 80    $ 129   

See accompanying notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.
6


Nasdaq, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
1. Organization and Nature of Operations
Nasdaq is a global technology company serving the capital markets and other industries. Our diverse offerings of data, analytics, software and services enables clients to optimize and execute their business vision with confidence.
We manage, operate and provide our products and services in four business segments: Market Services, Corporate Services, Information Services and Market Technology.
Market Services
Our Market Services segment includes our Equity Derivative Trading and Clearing, Cash Equity Trading, FICC and Trade Management Services businesses. We operate multiple exchanges and other marketplace facilities across several asset classes, including derivatives, commodities, cash equity, debt, structured products and ETPs. In addition, in some countries where we operate exchanges, we also provide broker services, clearing, settlement and central depository services. In November 2019, we sold NFX’s futures exchange business to a third party which acquired the core assets of NFX, including the portfolio of open interest in NFX contracts. As of June 30, 2020, all open interest has been migrated to other exchanges. Also, in January 2020, management commenced an orderly wind-down of our Nordic broker services operations business. We expect this wind-down to continue through the second quarter of 2021.
Our transaction-based platforms provide market participants with the ability to access, process, display and integrate orders and quotes. The platforms allow the routing and execution of buy and sell orders as well as the reporting of transactions, providing fee-based revenues.
In the U.S., we operate six electronic options exchanges and three cash equity exchanges. The Nasdaq Stock Market, the largest of our cash equities exchanges, is the largest single venue of liquidity for trading U.S.-listed cash equities. We also operate an electronic platform for trading of U.S. Treasuries and a Canadian exchange for the trading of certain Canadian-listed securities.
In Europe, we operate exchanges in Stockholm (Sweden), Copenhagen (Denmark), Helsinki (Finland), and Reykjavik (Iceland), as well as the clearing operations of Nasdaq Clearing, as Nasdaq Nordic. We also operate exchanges in Tallinn (Estonia), Riga (Latvia) and Vilnius (Lithuania) as Nasdaq Baltic. Collectively, Nasdaq Nordic and Nasdaq Baltic offer trading in cash equities, depository receipts, warrants, convertibles, rights, fund units and ETFs, as well as trading and clearing of derivatives and clearing of resale and repurchase agreements.
Nasdaq Commodities is the brand name for Nasdaq’s European commodity-related products and services. Nasdaq Commodities’ offerings include derivatives in power, natural
gas and carbon emission markets, seafood, electricity certificates and clearing services. These products are listed on Nasdaq Oslo ASA, except for seafood, which is listed on Fishpool, a third party platform.
Through our Trade Management Services business, we provide market participants with a wide variety of alternatives for connecting to and accessing our markets via a number of different protocols used for quoting, order entry, trade reporting, and connectivity to various data feeds. We also provide co-location services to market participants, whereby we offer firms cabinet space and power to house their own equipment and servers within our data centers. Additionally, we offer a number of wireless connectivity routes between select data centers using millimeter wave and microwave technology. Our broker services operations business primarily offers technology and customized securities administration solutions to financial participants in the Nordic market.
Corporate Services
Our Corporate Services segment includes our Listing Services and Corporate Solutions businesses. These businesses deliver critical capital market and governance solutions across the lifecycle of public and private companies.
Our Listing Services business includes our U.S. and European Listing Services businesses. We operate a variety of listing platforms around the world to provide multiple global capital raising solutions for private and public companies. Our main listing markets are The Nasdaq Stock Market and the Nasdaq Nordic and Nasdaq Baltic exchanges. Through Nasdaq First North, our Nordic and Baltic operations also offer alternative marketplaces for smaller companies and growth companies. Our Listing Services business also includes NPM, which provides liquidity solutions for private companies and private funds.
We continue to grow our U.S. Corporate Bond exchange for the listing and trading of corporate bonds. This exchange operates pursuant to The Nasdaq Stock Market exchange license and is powered by NFF. We also continue to grow the Nasdaq Sustainable Bond Network, a platform for increased transparency in the global sustainable bond markets.
As of June 30, 2020, there were 3,156 total listings on The Nasdaq Stock Market, including 410 ETPs. The combined market capitalization was approximately $16.8 trillion. In Europe, the Nasdaq Nordic and Nasdaq Baltic exchanges, together with Nasdaq First North, were home to 1,042 listed companies with a combined market capitalization of approximately $1.6 trillion.
Our Corporate Solutions business includes our Investor Relations Intelligence and Governance Solutions businesses, which serve both public and private companies and organizations. Our public company clients can be companies listed on our exchanges or other U.S. and global exchanges.
7


We help organizations enhance their ability to understand and expand their global shareholder base and improve corporate governance through our suite of advanced technology, analytics, and consultative services. We provide clients with counsel on a range of governance and sustainability-related issues. Our acquisition of OneReport in February 2020 broadens our environmental, social and governance, or ESG, offerings, which also include our ESG Advisory service and our board assessment and collaboration technology.
Information Services
Our Information Services segment includes our Market Data, Index and Investment Data & Analytics businesses.
Our Market Data business sells and distributes historical and real-time market data to the sell-side, the buy-side, retail online brokers, proprietary trading shops, other venues, internet portals and data distributors. Our market data products enhance transparency of market activity within our exchanges and provide critical information to professional and non-professional investors globally.
Our Index business develops and licenses Nasdaq-branded indexes, associated derivatives, and financial products and sells and distributes historical and real-time index data. As of June 30, 2020, we had 323 ETPs licensed to Nasdaq’s indexes which had $272 billion in AUM.
Our Investment Data & Analytics business is a leading content and analytics cloud-based solutions provider used by asset managers, investment consultants and asset owners to help facilitate better investment decisions. In March 2020, we acquired Solovis, which offers multi-asset class, public and private market portfolio management, analytics, and reporting tools used by institutional investors and consultants.
Market Technology
Powering over 100 market infrastructure operators in more than 50 countries, our Market Technology segment is a leading global technology solutions provider and partner to exchanges, clearing organizations, central securities depositories, regulators, banks, brokers, buy-side firms and corporate businesses. Our Market Technology business is the sales channel for our complete global offering to other marketplaces. Our solutions can handle a wide array of assets, including but not limited to cash equities, equity derivatives, currencies, various interest-bearing securities, commodities, energy products and digital currencies. Our solutions can also be used in the creation of new asset classes, and non-capital markets customers, including those in insurance liabilities securitization, cryptocurrencies and sports wagering.
Nasdaq’s market technology is utilized by leading markets in the U.S., Europe and Asia as well as emerging markets in the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa. Additionally, more than 160 market participants leverage our surveillance technology globally to manage their integrity obligations and
assist them in complying with market rules, regulations and internal market surveillance policies.
2. Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and include the accounts of Nasdaq, its wholly-owned subsidiaries and other entities in which Nasdaq has a controlling financial interest. When we do not have a controlling interest in an entity but exercise significant influence over the entity’s operating and financial policies, such investment is accounted for under the equity method of accounting. We recognize our share of earnings or losses of an equity method investee based on our ownership percentage. See “Equity Method Investments,” of Note 6, “Investments,” for further discussion of our equity method investments.
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments which are, in the opinion of management, necessary for a fair statement of the results. These adjustments are of a normal recurring nature. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
As permitted under U.S. GAAP, certain footnotes or other financial information can be condensed or omitted in the interim condensed consolidated financial statements. The information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in Nasdaq’s Form 10-K. The year-end condensed balance sheet data was derived from the audited financial statements, but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP.
Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
Accounting Estimates
In preparing our condensed consolidated financial statements, we make assumptions, judgments and estimates that can have a significant impact on our revenue, operating income and net income, as well as on the value of certain assets and liabilities in our condensed consolidated balance sheets. At least quarterly, we evaluate our assumptions, judgments and estimates, and make changes as deemed necessary.
Nasdaq considered the impact of COVID-19 on the assumptions and estimates used in evaluating our assets and liabilities, including but not limited to our goodwill, intangible assets, equity method investments, equity securities and allowance for losses on accounts receivable. We determined that there were no material adverse impacts on our results of operations and financial position for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020. In addition, there were no material impairment charges recorded for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020. These estimates may change as new events occur and additional information is obtained. Actual results could differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

8


Recently Adopted Accounting Standard
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, “Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments.” This standard changes the impairment model for certain financial instruments. The new model is a forward looking expected loss model and applies to financial assets subject to credit losses and measured at amortized cost and certain off-balance sheet credit exposures. This includes loans, held-to-maturity debt securities, loan commitments, financial guarantees and trade receivables. For available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, credit losses are measured in a manner similar to previous accounting, except that the losses are recognized as allowances rather than reductions in the amortized cost of the securities.
We adopted this standard on January 1, 2020 using the modified retrospective transition method. We recorded a $12 million non-cash cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings on our opening Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of January 1, 2020.
The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods. We expect the impact of the adoption of the new standard to be immaterial to our net income on an on-going basis.
At the date of adoption, the adjustment impacted by the standard related primarily to an adjustment to trade receivables. We took into consideration all financial instruments held at the date of adoption which were impacted by the standard, including reverse repurchase agreements and commercial paper, and estimated the risk of loss to be immaterial. Therefore, no adjustment was recorded for these instruments.
In accordance with the new standard, Nasdaq must recognize an allowance when a receivable or contract asset is established, regardless of whether there has been an incurred loss. Our receivables are concentrated with our member firms, market data distributors, listed companies and corporate solutions and market technology customers.
In order to assess the appropriate allowance as of January 1, 2020, we disaggregated our trade receivables by business unit and the aging of receivables. We concluded that historical loss information is a reasonable starting point on which to determine expected credit losses for trade receivables held at the date of adoption as the composition of our trade receivables at adoption of the standard is materially consistent with that used in developing the historical loss percentages for each business unit. In order to incorporate our expectation of credit losses over the life of our receivables, we considered corporate default rate averages over an extended period as compared to the period covered by our historical loss data and included an adjustment to historical loss percentages for current conditions and expected future conditions at the date of adoption.
The allowance for losses is reviewed monthly and adjustments may be required if economic conditions at the measurement date reflect stronger or weaker economic performance than the historical data implies. If circumstances change (i.e., higher than expected defaults or an unexpected material adverse change in a major customer’s ability to pay), our estimates of recoverability could be reduced by a material amount. When we deem all or a portion of a receivable uncollectible the allowance for losses is reduced by the amount being written off. Any change in the allowance is included in general, administrative and other expense in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income.
Receivables are shown net of the allowance for losses. The total allowance netted against receivables in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets was $20 million as of June 30, 2020 and $9 million as of December 31, 2019.
Subsequent Events
There have been no subsequent events through the issuance date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q that would require disclosure in, or adjustment to, the condensed consolidated financial statements.


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3. Revenue From Contracts With Customers
Disaggregation of Revenue
The following tables summarize the disaggregation of revenue by major product and service and by segment for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019:
Three Months Ended June 30, 2020
Market Services Corporate Services Information Services Market Technology Consolidated
(in millions)
Transaction-based trading and clearing, net $ 203    $ —    $ —    $ —    $ 203   
Trade management services 73    —    —    —    73   
Listing services —    74    —    —    74   
Corporate solutions —    52    —    —    52   
Market data —    —    101    —    101   
Index —    —    68    —    68   
Investment data & analytics —    —    44    —    44   
Market technology —    —    —    84    84   
Revenues less transaction-based expenses $ 276    $ 126    $ 213    $ 84    $ 699   

Three Months Ended June 30, 2019
Market Services Corporate Services Information Services Market Technology Consolidated
(in millions)
Transaction-based trading and clearing, net $ 154    $ —    $ —    $ —    $ 154   
Trade management services 73    —    —    —    73   
Listing services —    74    —    —    74   
Corporate solutions —    49    —    —    49   
Market data —    —    100    —    100   
Index —    —    55    —    55   
Investment data & analytics —    —    39    —    39   
Market technology —    —    —    79    79   
Revenues less transaction-based expenses $ 227    $ 123    $ 194    $ 79    $ 623   
For the three months ended June 30, 2020, approximately 71.0% of Market Services revenues were recognized at a point in time and 29.0% were recognized over time. For the three months ended June 30, 2019, approximately 64.0% of Market Services revenues were recognized at a point in time and 36.0% were recognized over time. The increase in Market Services revenues recognized at a point in time for the three months ended June 30, 2020 compared with the same period in 2019 was primarily due to higher U.S. industry trading volumes in our equity derivative trading and clearing business and higher U.S. and European industry trading volumes in our cash equity trading business. Substantially all revenues from the Corporate Services, Information Services and Market Technology segments were recognized over time for the three months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019.
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Six Months Ended June 30, 2020
  Market Services Corporate Services Information Services Market Technology Consolidated
  (in millions)
Transaction-based trading and clearing, net
$ 412    $ —    $ —    $ —    $ 412   
Trade management services
145    —    —    —    145   
Listing services
—    149    —    —    149   
Corporate solutions
—    105    —    —    105   
Market data
—    —    198    —    198   
Index
—    —    141    —    141   
Investment data & analytics
—    —    85    —    85   
Market technology
—    —    —    165    165   
Revenues less transaction-based expenses
$ 557    $ 254    $ 424    $ 165    $ 1,400   

Six Months Ended June 30, 2019
  Market Services Corporate Services Information Services Market Technology Other Revenues Consolidated
  (in millions)
Transaction-based trading and clearing, net
$ 315    $ —    $ —    $ —    $ —    $ 315   
Trade management services
146    —    —    —    —    146   
Listing services
—    145    —    —    —    145   
Corporate solutions
—    98    —    —    —    98   
Market data
—    —    200    —    —    200   
Index
—    —    109    —    —    109   
Investment data & analytics
—    —    78    —    —    78   
Market technology
—    —    —    156    —    156   
Other revenues
—    —    —    —    10    10   
Revenues less transaction-based expenses
$ 461    $ 243    $ 387    $ 156    $ 10    $ 1,257   
For the six months ended June 30, 2020, approximately 71.0% of Market Services revenues were recognized at a point in time and 29.0% were recognized over time. For the six months ended June 30, 2019, approximately 65.0% of Market Services revenues were recognized at a point in time and 35.0% were recognized over time. The increase in Market Services revenues recognized at a point in time for the six months ended 2020 compared with the same period in 2019 was primarily due to higher U.S. industry trading volumes in our equity derivative trading and clearing business and higher U.S. and European industry trading volumes in our cash equity trading business. Substantially all revenues from the Corporate Services, Information Services and Market Technology segments were recognized over time for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019.
* * * * * *
Contract Balances
Substantially all of our revenues are considered to be revenues from contracts with customers. The related accounts receivable balances are recorded in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as receivables which are net of allowance for losses of $20 million as of June 30, 2020 and $9 million as of December 31, 2019. The changes in the balance between periods were immaterial. We do not have obligations for warranties, returns or refunds to customers.
For the majority of our contracts with customers, except for our market technology and listings services contracts, our performance obligations are short-term in nature and there is no significant variable consideration.
We do not have a material amount of revenue recognized from performance obligations that were satisfied in prior periods. We do not provide disclosures about transaction price allocated to unsatisfied performance obligations if contract durations are less than one year. Excluding our market technology contracts, for contract durations that are one-year or greater, materially all of the transaction price allocated to unsatisfied performance obligations is included in deferred revenue. For our market technology contracts, the portion of transaction price allocated to unsatisfied performance obligations is shown in the table below. Deferred revenue primarily represents our contract liabilities related to our fees for annual and initial listings, market technology, corporate solutions and information services
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contracts. Deferred revenue is the only significant contract asset or liability as of June 30, 2020. See Note 7, “Deferred Revenue,” for our discussion on deferred revenue balances, activity, and expected timing of recognition.
Transaction Price Allocated to Remaining Performance Obligations
As stated above, for contract durations that are one-year or greater, we do not have a material portion of transaction price
allocated to unsatisfied performance obligations that are not included in deferred revenue other than for our market technology contracts.
* * * * * *
For our market technology contracts, the following table summarizes the amount of the transaction price allocated to performance obligations that are unsatisfied as of June 30, 2020:
(in millions)
2020(1)
$ 160   
2021 269   
2022 138   
2023 75   
2024 55   
2025 and thereafter 107   
Total $ 804   
____________
(1) Represents performance obligations to be recognized over the remaining six months of 2020.
Market technology deferred revenue, as discussed in Note 7, “Deferred Revenue,” represents consideration received that is yet to be recognized as revenue for unsatisfied performance obligations.
4. Acquisitions and Divestiture
The financial results of the below transactions are included in our condensed consolidated financial statements from the date of each acquisition or divestiture.
2020 Acquisition
Acquisition of Solovis
In March 2020, we acquired Solovis, Inc., which offers multi-asset class, public and private market portfolio management, analytics, and reporting tools used by institutional investors and consultants. Solovis is part of our Information Services segment.
2019 Acquisition and Divestiture
2019 Divestiture
Divestiture of BWise
In March 2019, we sold our BWise enterprise governance, risk and compliance software platform, which was part of our Corporate Solutions business within our Corporate Services segment, to SAI Global and recognized a pre-tax gain on the sale of $27 million, net of disposal costs ($20 million after tax). The pre-tax gain is included in net gain on divestiture of business in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income for the six months ended June 30, 2019.
2019 Acquisition
Acquisition of Cinnober
Purchase Consideration Total Net Assets Acquired Total Net Deferred Tax Liability Acquired
Intangible Assets
Goodwill
(in millions)
Cinnober $ 219    $ 18    $ (19)   $ 74    $ 146   

In January 2019, we acquired Cinnober, a Swedish financial technology provider to brokers, exchanges and clearinghouses worldwide for $219 million. Cinnober is part of our Market Technology segment.
Nasdaq used cash on hand to fund this acquisition.
The amounts in the table above represent the final allocation of the purchase price. The allocation of the purchase price
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was subject to revision during the measurement period, a period not to exceed 12 months from the acquisition date. Adjustments to the provisional values, which may include tax and other estimates, during the measurement period are recorded in the reporting period in which the adjustment amounts are determined. In 2019, we recorded a measurement period adjustment of $4 million which resulted in a decrease to net assets acquired and an increase in goodwill and a measurement period adjustment of $5 million which resulted in a decrease to acquired intangible assets and an increase in goodwill. These adjustments relate to new information obtained during the period regarding the acquisition date fair values of an acquired equity investment and an acquired customer relationship intangible asset. These adjustments did not result in an impact to our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income. The allocation of the purchase price for Cinnober was finalized in December 2019.
See “Intangible Assets” below for further discussion of intangible assets acquired in the Cinnober acquisition.
Intangible Assets
The following table presents the details of the customer relationships intangible asset at the date of acquisition for Cinnober which was the significant acquired intangible asset for this acquisition. All acquired intangible assets with finite lives are amortized using the straight-line method.
Customer relationships (in millions)
$ 67   
Discount rate used 9.5  %
Estimated average useful life 13 years
Customer Relationships
Customer relationships represent the non-contractual and contractual relationships with customers.
Methodology
Customer relationships were valued using the income approach, specifically an excess earnings method. The excess earnings method examines the economic returns contributed by the identified tangible and intangible assets of a company, and then isolates the excess return that is attributable to the intangible asset being valued.
Discount Rate
The discount rate used reflects the amount of risk associated with the hypothetical cash flows for the customer relationships relative to the overall business. In developing a discount rate for the customer relationships, we estimated a weighted-average cost of capital for the overall business and we employed this rate when discounting the cash flows. The resulting discounted cash flows were then tax-effected at the applicable statutory rate.
For our acquisition of Cinnober, a discounted tax amortization benefit was added to the fair value of the assets under the assumption that the customer relationships would be amortized for tax purposes over a period of 5 years.
Estimated Useful Life
We estimate the useful life based on the historical behavior of the customers and a parallel analysis of the customers using the excess earnings method.
Pro Forma Results and Acquisition-Related Costs
The condensed consolidated financial statements for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 include the financial results of the above acquisitions from the dates of these acquisitions. Pro forma financial results have not been presented since these acquisitions both individually and in the aggregate were not material to our financial results.
Acquisition-related costs for the transactions described above
were expensed as incurred and are included in merger and strategic initiatives expense in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income.
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5. Goodwill and Acquired Intangible Assets
Goodwill
The following table presents the changes in goodwill by business segment during the six months ended June 30, 2020:
Market
Services
Corporate Services Information Services Market Technology Total
(in millions)
Balance at December 31, 2019 $ 3,342    $ 460    $ 2,283    $ 281    $ 6,366   
Goodwill acquired —    —    134    —    134   
Foreign currency translation adjustment (7)   (2)     (5)   (12)  
Balance at June 30, 2020 $ 3,335    $ 458    $ 2,419    $ 276    $ 6,488   

The goodwill acquired for Information Services shown above relates to our acquisition of Solovis. See “2020 Acquisition,” of Note 4, “Acquisitions and Divestiture,” for further discussion of this acquisition.
Goodwill represents the excess of purchase price over the value assigned to the net assets, including identifiable intangible assets, of a business acquired. Goodwill is allocated to our reporting units based on the assignment of the fair values of each reporting unit of the acquired company. We test goodwill for impairment at the reporting
unit level annually, or in interim periods if certain events occur indicating that the carrying amount may be impaired, such as changes in the business climate, poor indicators of operating performance or the sale or disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit. There was no impairment of goodwill for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019; however, events such as extended economic weakness or unexpected significant declines in operating results of any of our reporting units or businesses may result in goodwill impairment charges in the future.
* * * * * *
Acquired Intangible Assets
The following table presents details of our total acquired intangible assets, both finite- and indefinite-lived:
June 30, 2020 December 31, 2019
Gross Amount Accumulated Amortization Net Amount Gross Amount Accumulated Amortization Net Amount
(in millions) (in millions)
Finite-Lived Intangible Assets
           
Technology $ 76    $ (19)   $ 57    $ 63    $ (19)   $ 44   
Customer relationships 1,599    (600)   999    1,596    (532)   1,064   
Other 18    (5)   13    18    (5)   13   
Foreign currency translation adjustment
(173)   84    (89)   (159)   55    (104)  
Total finite-lived intangible assets
$ 1,520    $ (540)   $ 980    $ 1,518    $ (501)   $ 1,017   
Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
           
Exchange and clearing registrations
$ 1,257    $ —    $ 1,257    $ 1,257    $ —    $ 1,257   
Trade names 121    —    121    121    —    121   
Licenses 52    —    52    52    —    52   
Foreign currency translation adjustment
(195)   —    (195)   (198)   —    (198)  
Total indefinite-lived intangible assets
$ 1,235