Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
 Registration No. 333-255470
Prospectus Supplement dated November 13, 2023
(To Prospectus dated May 1, 2023)
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Canaan Inc.
Up to US$148,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares Represented
by American Depositary Shares
We have entered into an At Market Issuance Sales Agreement, or the sales agreement, with B. Riley Securities, Inc., or B. Riley Securities or the Sales Agent, dated November 10, 2023, relating to the sale of our American depositary shares, or the ADSs, each one representing 15 of our Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00000005 per share, offered by this prospectus supplement. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares having an aggregate offering price of up to US$148,000,000 from time to time through or to the Sales Agent, as sales agent or principal.
The ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares are traded on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “CAN”. As of November 10, 2023, the last reported sale price for the ADSs was US$1.66 per ADS.
Sales of the ADSs, if any, under this prospectus supplement will be made by any method permitted that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through the NASDAQ Global Market or any other existing trading market in the United States for ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares, sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange or otherwise, directly to the Sales Agent as principal, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices and/or in any other method permitted by law. If we and the Sales Agent agree on any method of distribution other than sales of ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares on or through the NASDAQ Global Market or another existing trading market in the United States at market prices, we will file a further prospectus supplement providing all information about such offering as required by Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act. Under the sales agreement, the Sales Agent is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
The Sales Agent will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per ADS sold under the sales agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page S-17 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to the Sales Agent. In connection with the sale of the ADSs on our behalf, the Sales Agent may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of such Sales Agent may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Sales Agent with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
In the event that we may sell additional amounts under the sales agreement, we will file another prospectus supplement prior to making such additional sales.
We are an “emerging growth company” and a “foreign private issuer” under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission rules, and will be subject to reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus supplement and future filings. See the section entitled “Prospectus Supplement Summary — Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Foreign Private Issuer” for additional information.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before buying any securities, you should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement, on page 4 of the accompanying prospectus, and in the reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
B. Riley Securities
Prospectus Supplement dated November 13, 2023

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Prospectus Supplement
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a shelf registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process and consists of two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer only to the “prospectus,” we are referring to both parts combined. This prospectus supplement may add to, update or change information in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.
If information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with the accompanying prospectus or with any document incorporated by reference that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on this prospectus supplement. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date — for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement — the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated into each by reference include important information about us, the securities being offered and other information you should know before investing in our securities. You should also read and consider information in the documents we have referred you to in the sections of this prospectus supplement entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference.”
You should rely only on this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein and therein and any free writing prospectus prepared by us or on our behalf. We have not, and the Sales Agent has not, authorized anyone to provide you with information that is in addition to or different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We and the underwriters are not offering to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus, or incorporated by reference herein, is accurate as of any date other than as of the date of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus, as the case may be, or in the case of the documents incorporated by reference, the date of such documents regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any sale of our securities. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. It is important for you to read and consider all information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, in making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents incorporated by reference herein in the sections entitled “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” and “Where You Can Find More Information” below.
We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.
In this prospectus supplement, unless otherwise indicated or unless the context otherwise requires, references to:

“ADSs” are to American depositary shares, each of which represents 15 of our Class A ordinary shares;

“China” and the “PRC” are to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purposes of this prospectus supplement only, Taiwan, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macao Special Administrative Region;

“CSRC” are to China Securities Regulatory Commission;
 
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“PRC subsidiaries” are to, for the purpose of this prospectus supplement, Hangzhou Canaan Intelligence Information Technology Co., Ltd., Canaan Creative Co., Ltd., Langfang Creative Technology Co., Ltd., Canaan Convey Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Avalon Technology Co., Ltd., Canaan Bright Sight Co., Ltd., Canaan Creative (SH) Co., Ltd, Hangzhou Ruihong Technology Co., Ltd., Hangzhou Canaan Chuangxin Technology Co., Ltd., and Hangzhou Canaan Blockchain Technology Co., Ltd.

“operating subsidiaries” are to, for the purpose of this prospectus supplement, Hangzhou Canaan Intelligence Information Technology Co., Ltd., Canaan Creative Co., Ltd., Langfang Creative Technology Co., Ltd., Canaan Convey Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Avalon Technology Co., Ltd., Canaan Bright Sight Co., Ltd., Canaan Creative (SH) Co., Ltd, Canaan Creative (HK) Holdings Limited, Canaan Creative International PTE. Ltd., Canaan Creative Global Pte. Ltd., and Canaan U.S. Inc..

“RMB” or “Renminbi” are to the legal currency of China;

“US$,” “U.S. dollars,” or “dollars” are to the legal currency of the United States; and

“we,” “us,” “our company,” “the Company,” “our” and “Canaan” are to Canaan Inc. and its subsidiaries, as the context requires.
This glossary contains explanations of certain terms used in this prospectus supplement in connection with our company and our business. In this prospectus supplement, unless otherwise indicated:

“AI” are to artificial intelligence;

“ASICs” are to application-specific ICs, meaning ICs designed for a specific application;

“edge computing” are to a method of optimizing cloud computing systems by performing data processing at the edge of the network, near the source of the data;

“ICs” or “chips” are to integrated circuits;

“neural-network accelerator” are to a class of microprocessor designed as hardware acceleration for AI applications;

“Risc-V” are to an open source instruction set architecture, which is a set of instructions that describes the way in which software talks to an underlying processor, and Risc-V’s open source nature means that anyone can build a processor to support it without paying high royalty fees;
No action is being taken in any jurisdiction outside the United States to permit a public offering of the securities or possession or distribution of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus in that jurisdiction. Persons who come into possession of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus in jurisdictions outside the United States are required to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions as to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus applicable to that jurisdiction.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The summary may not contain all the information that you should consider before investing in the ADSs. You should read the entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus carefully, including “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement, on page 4 of the accompanying prospectus contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, and any amendment or update thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, along with our consolidated financial statements and notes to those consolidated financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before making an investment decision. This prospectus supplement may add to, update or change information in the accompanying prospectus.
Our Business
We provide supercomputing solutions through our proprietary high performance computing ASICs. We have strong ASIC chip design capability underpinned by over ten years of industry experience and expertise of our founders and management team. We are one of the few fabless IC design companies with the advanced technology to independently design ASIC, established access to leading wafer foundry capacity and proven in-house capability to produce Bitcoin mining machines. We primarily dedicated technology and expertise in ASIC applications to Bitcoin mining machines and are a leading producer of Bitcoin mining machines in the global market. In addition, with our technology expertise and know-how in ASIC chip design, we strive to expand into AI fields and provide holistic AI solutions to our customers. Our operating subsidiaries have delivered commercial edge computing AI chips based on Risc-V architecture and self-developed neural- network accelerator with outstanding performance. We believe our extensive experience and expertise in ASIC applications position us well in our future endeavors.
Leveraging our deep understanding of the cryptocurrency industry and strong technology as applied to ASIC chip design, we intend to capture the growth opportunity along the value chain of the cryptocurrency industry to enhance our offerings and achieve a more stable financial performance. We have started with the Bitcoin mining business through our strategic collaboration with certain cryptocurrency mining farms and aim to develop the Bitcoin mining business as the second engine to capitalize on the Bitcoin ecosystem and synergize with our bitcoin mining machines sales. We endeavor to grow our deployed computing power for mining and improve the energized hash rate to enhance our mining business. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022, we generated revenue of nil, RMB21.7 million and RMB218.6 million (US$31.7 million) from the Bitcoin mining business, respectively. We have developed competitive advantages in our business and technological capabilities, including the following:

Our expertise in the development, designing and production of Bitcoin mining machines;

Our mastery of the whole IC design process;

Our years of accumulated engineering experience in applying theoretical research to the mass production of new products;

Our ability to achieve a fast time-to-market with our products and our successful early monetization of the ASIC design in blockchain applications have provided us with an early advantage with respect to both technology and capital reserve to pursue our strategic initiatives;

Our breakthroughs in various technological fields to improve ASIC performance, such as low voltage and high power efficiency operations and high computing density, all of which are crucial features for ASICs for blockchain and AI solutions;

Our ownership of most of the material intellectual property we employ, and our accumulation of valuable know-how and multiple generations of proprietary silicon data through our long-term ASIC design experience;

Our ability to provide a holistic AI solution to our customers, including AI chips, algorithm development and optimization, hardware module, end-product and software services;
 
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Our long-term partnerships with leading global suppliers, which have enabled us to achieve high-quality, high yield rate and stable production; and

Our penetration into the Bitcoin mining business by leveraging our experience in Bitcoin mining machines production and sales.
Our Business Model
We are a fabless IC designer engaged in the front-end and back-end of IC design, which are the major components of the IC product development chain. We currently dedicate our technology and expertise in ASIC chip design to Bitcoin mining machines and AI applications. We, through our operating subsidiaries, independently design and develop our products in-house, including the design of proprietary ASIC chips for our Bitcoin mining machines. Front-end IC design and back-end IC design are the key parts of the IC design process. We determine the parameters of the IC chip, establish the basic logic of the design, map out the initial plan for the physical layout, and conduct back-end verification on the design. We then work closely with industry-leading third-party suppliers to fabricate, test and package the IC products we design. Moreover, we have established in-house production capabilities to assemble both Bitcoin mining machines and AI chips. We assemble our Bitcoin mining machines primarily at our final assembly plant located in the PRC by integrating the ICs produced by us and related components we procure. We believe our outstanding technical expertise and production experience in IC development chain enables us to continuously introduce ICs with higher performance and power efficiency for application in both the blockchain and AI fields. In addition, we have started with the Bitcoin mining business through our strategic collaboration with certain cryptocurrency mining farms and aim to develop the Bitcoin mining business as the second engine to capitalize on the Bitcoin ecosystem and synergize with our Bitcoin mining machines sales. As we endeavor to grow our deployed computing power for mining and improve the energized hash rate to enhance our mining business, we believe that such business will play a more significant role in supplementing our Bitcoin mining machines sales, mitigate our inventory risks and contribute to our financial and operating results.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Foreign Private Issuer
Emerging Growth Company
We are an emerging growth company as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest to occur of: the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.235 billion in annual revenues; the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; the issuance, in any three-year period, by us of more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; and the last day of the fiscal year ending after the fifth anniversary of our first sale of common equity securities pursuant to a U.S. registration.
As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other publicly traded entities that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include: (i) the option to present only two years of audited financial statements and related discussion in the section titled “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” in our filings with the SEC; (ii) not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002; (iii) not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements (i.e., an auditor discussion and analysis); (iv) not being required to submit certain executive compensation matters to shareholder advisory votes, such as “say-on-pay,” “say-on-frequency,” and “say-on-golden parachutes”; and (v) not being required to disclose certain executive compensation related items such as the correlation between executive compensation and performance and comparisons of the chief executive officer’s compensation to median employee compensation.
Foreign Private Issuer
We report under the Exchange Act as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, as long as we qualify as a foreign private issuer under
 
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the Exchange Act, we will be exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including: (i) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and (iii) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specific information, and Current Reports on Form 8-K upon the occurrence of specified significant events.
Corporate Information
The principal executive offices of our main operations are located at 28 Ayer Rajah Crescent #06-08, S139959, Singapore. Our telephone number at this address is +65 6305 6618. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the offices of Sertus Chambers, Suite #5-204, 23 Lime Tree Bay Avenue, P.O. Box 2547, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands.
The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC on www.sec.gov. You can also find such information on our website https://investor.canaan-creative.com. The information contained on our website, or that can be accessed through our website, is not a part of this prospectus supplement and is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.
As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt under the Exchange Act from, among other things, the rules prescribing the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and our executive officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required under the Exchange Act to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. However, we intend to furnish the depositary with our annual reports, which will include a review of operations and annual audited consolidated financial statements prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or U.S. GAAP, and all notices of shareholders’ meeting and other reports and communications that are made generally available to our shareholders. The depositary will make such notices, reports and communications available to holders of ADSs and will make available to all record holders of ADSs the information contained in any notice of a shareholders’ meeting received by the depositary from us if we request the depositary to solicit your voting instructions.
 
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THE OFFERING
ADSs offered by us pursuant to this prospectus supplement
ADSs having an aggregate offering price of up to US$148,000,000.
ADSs outstanding immediately after this offering
249,018,442 ADSs, assuming sale of ADSs in the aggregate amount of US$148,000,000 at an assumed offering price of US$1.66 per ADS, which was the closing price on the NASDAQ Global Market on November 10, 2023. The actual number of ADSs outstanding will vary depending on the price at which ADSs may be sold from time to time during this offering.
Class A Ordinary shares issued and outstanding immediately after this offering
3,852,846,738 Class A ordinary shares, assuming sale of ADSs in the aggregate amount of US$148,000,000 at an assumed offering price of US$1.66 per ADS, which was the closing price on the NASDAQ Global Market on November 10, 2023. The actual number of Class A ordinary shares issued and outstanding will vary depending on the price at which ADSs may be sold from time to time during this offering.
Manner of offering
“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time on the NASDAQ Global Market or other market for ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares in the U.S. through the Sales Agent. See the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” on page S-17 of this prospectus supplement.
The ADSs
Each ADS represents 15 of our Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00000005 per share. The ADSs will be delivered by The Bank of New York Mellon, as depositary.
The depositary will be the holder of the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by the ADSs and, as an ADS holder, you will not be treated as one of our shareholders in respect of those ADSs. You will have the rights provided in the deposit agreement among us, the depositary and the owners and holders of ADSs from time to time. You must pay a fee for each issuance and/or cancellation of an ADS, distribution of securities by the depositary as well as for certain other depositary services.
For more information about ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares, you should carefully read the section in the accompanying prospectus entitled “Description of American Depositary Shares.” We also encourage you to read the deposit agreement, a form of which is an exhibit to the registration statement that includes this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
Depositary
The Bank of New York Mellon
Use of proceeds
We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for research and development, expansion of production scale, and other general corporate purposes. See the section entitled “Use of Proceeds” on page S-13 of this prospectus supplement.
 
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Risk factors
See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares.
NASDAQ symbol
CAN
The number of Class A ordinary shares to be issued and outstanding after this offering is based on 2,515,497,333 Class A ordinary shares outstanding as of June 30, 2023, and excludes: i) 12,338,955 Class A ordinary shares held by a trust established by the Company for the benefit of the employees who are under the 2018 Equity Incentive Plan; ii) 193,385,280 Class A ordinary shares that we repurchased under our share repurchase programs, and iii) 70,833,345 Class A ordinary shares represented by the warrants that we repurchased but not yet redeemed.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investment in the ADSs involves risks. Before deciding whether to invest in the ADSs, you should consider carefully the risk factors discussed herein and those contained in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in the accompanying prospectus and our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2022, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, as well as any amendment or update to our risk factors reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC. If any of the risks or uncertainties described in our SEC filings actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be materially and adversely affected. This could cause the trading price of ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones facing our company. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business operations.
Risks Related to this Offering
We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds of this offering and may not use them effectively.
We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for research and development, expansion of production scale, and other general corporate purposes. However, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of the ADSs. The failure by management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, cause the price of the ADSs to decline and delay the development of our product candidates.
You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.
In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional ADSs or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares at prices that may not be the same as the price per ADS in this offering. We may sell ADSs or other securities in any other offering at a price per ADS that is less than the price per ADS paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing ADSs or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing shareholders. The price per ADS at which we sell additional ADS or securities convertible or exchangeable into ADS in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per ADS paid by investors in this offering.
The ADSs offered hereby will be sold in “at-the-market” offerings, and investors who buy ADSs at different times will likely pay different prices.
Investors who purchase ADSs in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices and numbers of ADSs sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their ADSs as a result of ADS sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.
The actual number of ADSs we will sell under the sales agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.
Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a sales notice to the Sales Agent at any time throughout the term of the sales agreement. The number of ADSs that are sold by Sales Agent, if any, after we deliver a sales notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the ADSs during the sales period and limits we set with the Sales Agent. Because the price per ADS of each ADS sold will fluctuate based on the market price of ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of ADSs that will be ultimately issued.
You will suffer immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value per ADS that you purchase in this offering.
The ADSs sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices; however, the assumed public offering price of the ADSs is substantially higher than the as-adjusted net tangible book value
 
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per ADS. Therefore, investors purchasing ADSs in this offering will pay a price per ADS that substantially exceeds the as adjusted net tangible book value per ADS after this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 89,156,627 ADSs are sold at an assumed public offering price of US$1.66 per ADS, the sale price of the ADSs on the NASDAQ Global Market on November 10, 2023, for aggregate gross proceeds of US$148,000,000, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, new investors in this offering will experience immediate dilution of US$(0.02) per ADS, representing the difference between the assumed public offering price and our as adjusted net tangible book value per ADS after giving effect to this offering. See “Dilution” for a more detailed discussion of the dilution you would incur if you purchase ADSs in this offering.
We may be treated as a “passive foreign investment company” under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences for U.S. investors.
Prospective investors who are U.S. Holders (as defined below) should be aware that they could be subject to certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences if we are classified as a passive foreign investment company, a “PFIC,” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Based upon the past and projected composition of our income and assets and the valuation of our assets, we do not believe that we were a PFIC for the 2022 taxable year, and we do not expect to be a PFIC for the current taxable year, although there can be no assurance in this regard. The determination of whether we are a PFIC is made annually. Accordingly, it is possible that we may become a PFIC in the current or any future taxable year due to changes in our asset or income composition or to changes in the market value of our ADSs (which may be volatile). In addition, the determination of whether we are a PFIC for a taxable year depends, in part, on the application of complex U.S. federal income tax rules, which are subject to differing interpretations, and such determination will depend on the composition of our income and assets from time to time and the nature of our activities. For example, we intend to grow our Bitcoin mining business, but there is no authority that directly addresses the proper treatment of income from Bitcoin mining for purposes of the PFIC rules.
In general, we will be a PFIC for any taxable year in which:

at least 75% of our gross income is passive income;

or at least 50% of the value (determined based on a quarterly average) of our assets is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income.
If we are considered to be a PFIC with respect to a U.S. Holder’s ADSs, such holder generally will be liable to pay income tax at the highest ordinary income tax rate on any “excess distribution” from us and on the U.S. Holder’s gain from the disposition of ADSs as if such excess distribution or gain had been recognized ratably over the U.S. Holder’s holding period for the ADSs, plus interest on such amount as if it were treated as a series of underpayments of tax in such prior years. Prospective investors who are U.S. Holders should also be aware that, for each taxable year, if any, that we are a PFIC, the Company may not satisfy the record-keeping requirements or make available to U.S. Holders a PFIC annual information statement or any other information such U.S. Holders require to make a qualified electing fund election with respect to us or any subsidiary that also is classified as a PFIC. Accordingly, it is expected that U.S. Holders will not be able to make such an election with respect to us or our subsidiaries. Prospective investors who are U.S. Holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the likelihood and consequences of us being treated as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including the availability, advisability and implications of making tax elections to mitigate possible adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences but that may result in an inclusion in gross income without receipt of such income.
As used in this discussion, the term “U.S. Holder” means a beneficial owner of the ADSs that is, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, (i) an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States, (ii) a corporation (or an entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia, (iii) an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source or (iv) a trust (a) with respect to which a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over its administration and one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (b) that has validly elected under applicable U.S. Treasury regulations to be treated as a U.S. person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
 
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There remain uncertainties regarding interpretation and implementation of Overseas Listing Trial Measures.
On February 17, 2023, the China Securities Regulatory Commission (the “CSRC”) promulgated the Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (the “Overseas Listing Trial Measures”) and the related guidelines, which became effective on March 31, 2023. The Overseas Listing Trial Measures regulate both direct and indirect overseas offering and listing by PRC domestic companies by adopting a filing-based regulatory regime. The Overseas Listing Trial Measures provide that if the issuer meets both of the following criteria, the overseas securities offering and listing conducted by such issuer will be deemed as indirect overseas offering subject to the filing procedure set forth under the Overseas Listing Trial Measures: (i) 50% or more of the issuer’s operating revenue, total profit, total assets or net assets as documented in its audited consolidated financial statements for the most recent fiscal year is accounted for by the issuer’s domestic companies; and (ii) the issuer’s business activities are substantially conducted in mainland China, or its principal place of business are located in mainland China, or the senior managers in charge of its business operations and management are mostly Chinese citizens or domiciled in mainland China. The determination as to whether or not an overseas offering and listing by domestic companies is indirect, shall be made on a substance over form basis.
According to the Overseas Listing Trial Measures, subsequent securities offerings of an issuer in the same overseas market where it has previously offered and listed securities shall be filed with the CSRC within 3 working days after the offering is completed. In addition, Guidelines for the Application of Regulatory Rules — Overseas Issuance and Listing Category No. 1 further provides that for non-China overseas securities offerings that are offered in tranches within a total limit, the issuer is required to report the status of the issuance to the CSRC after all tranches of the issuances is completed. As the ADSs offered hereby will be sold in “at-the-market” offerings, the Company shall file with the CSRC within 3 working days after the offering is completed, and submit a report on the status of this offering to the CSRC after completion of all tranches of the issuance.
As the Overseas Listing Trial Measures are newly published, and there is uncertainty with respect to the filing requirements and implementation, we cannot assure you that we would be able to complete the filing procedures, obtain the approvals or complete other compliance procedures in a timely manner, or at all, or that any completion of filing or approval or other compliance procedures would not be rescinded. Any such failure would subject us to sanctions by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory authorities. The CSRC has the right to order rectification, issue warnings and impose fines between RMB1 million and RMB10 million on the company should it fail to fulfill filing obligations as stipulated in the Overseas Listing Trial Measures. Other regulatory authorities may impose restrictions and penalties on the operations in China, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to launch any new offering of our securities, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from future capital raising activities into China, or take other actions that could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects, as well as the trading price of our ordinary shares. Accordingly, the value of your investment may be materially and adversely affected or become worthless.
There remain uncertainties regarding interpretation and implementation of Provisions on Strengthening Confidentiality and Archives Administration in Respect of Overseas Issuance and Listing of Securities by Domestic Enterprises.
On February 24, 2023, CSRC published the Provisions on Strengthening Confidentiality and Archives Administration in Respect of Overseas Issuance and Listing of Securities by Domestic Enterprises [MISSING IMAGE: tx_chinese-bw.jpg]  (the “Provisions”), which became effective on March 31, 2023 together with Overseas Listing Trial Measures. According to the Provisions, a domestic company that plans to, either directly or through its overseas listed entity, publicly disclose or provide to relevant entities or individuals including securities companies, securities service providers, and overseas regulators, documents and materials that contain state secrets or government work secrets, shall first obtain approval from competent authorities according to law, and file with the secrecy administrative department at the same level. Further, a domestic company that plans to, either directly or through its overseas listed entity, publicly disclose or provide to relevant entities or individuals including securities companies, securities service providers, and overseas regulators, other documents and materials that, if divulged, will cause adverse impact on national security or public interest, shall strictly fulfill relevant procedures stipulated by applicable national regulations.
 
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Given the recent promulgation of the Provisions, opinions remain unclear on how they will be interpreted and implemented by relevant PRC governmental authorities. While we have implemented policies and procedures with the intent to comply with the Provisions, we cannot ensure that the Provisions will be interpreted in a manner that is consistent with our policies and procedures. After the Provisions take effect, domestic companies that fail to comply with the requirements under the Provisions in the course of their indirect overseas issuance and listing may be held legally liable by competent authorities or become subject to criminal penalties.
 
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements made herein that look forward in time or express management’s expectations or beliefs with respect to the occurrence of future events are forward-looking statements as defined under Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and are subject to the safe harbor created therein for forward-looking statements. Such statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning our anticipated operating results, research and development, regulatory proceedings, and financial resources, and can be identified by use of words such as, for example, “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe” and “would,” “should,” “could” or “may.” All statements, other than statements of historical facts, included herein that address activities, events, or developments that the Company expects or anticipates will or may occur in the future, are forward-looking statements.
We caution investors that actual results or business conditions may differ materially from those projected or suggested in forward-looking statements as a result of various factors including, but not limited to, those described above and in the Risk Factors section of our annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2022, and our subsequent SEC filings. All forward-looking statements contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise. These cautionary statements qualify all forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf.
This prospectus supplement also contains or incorporates by reference market data relating to the IC industry that are based on industry publications and reports. Statistical data in these publications and reports also include projections based on a number of assumptions. The failure of these markets to grow at the projected rates may have a material adverse effect on our business and the market price of the ADSs. If any one or more of the assumptions underlying the market data turns out to be incorrect, actual results may differ from the projections based on these assumptions.
You should read thoroughly this prospectus supplement and the documents that we refer to with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. Other sections of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus include additional factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.
The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus relate only to events or information as of the date on which the respective statements are made in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents that we have referred to in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is a part, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We may sell ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares having aggregate sales proceeds of up to US$148,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any ADSs under, or fully utilize, the sales agreement with the Sales Agent as a source of financing.
We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering for research and development, expansion of production scale, and other general corporate purposes.
 
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DIVIDEND POLICY
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our ordinary shares. We have no present plan to declare and pay any dividends on our ordinary shares or ADSs in the near future. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors considers relevant.
 
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CAPITALIZATION
The following table sets forth our capitalization as of June 30, 2023 on:

an actual basis; and

on an as-adjusted basis to give effect to the sale by us of up to 1,337,349,405 Class A ordinary shares represented by 89,156,627 ADSs offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement, resulting in estimated net proceeds of US$143,322,094, based on the assumed offering price of US$1.66 per ADS, which was the closing price on the NASDAQ Global Market on November 10, 2023, and after deducting Sales Agent commissions and other estimated offering expenses payable by us.
The amounts shown below are unaudited. There have been no material changes in our capitalization, on a consolidated basis, since June 30, 2023, the date of our most recently filed interim condensed consolidated financial statements. The information set forth in the following table should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by, reference to our audited financial statements and the notes thereto included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 20-F and the other financial information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.
As of June 30, 2023
Actual
Adjusted
US$
US$
(in thousands)
Shareholder’s equity
Ordinary shares (US$0.00000005 par value; 1,000,000,000,000 shares authorized,
2,827,121,777 shares issued and 2,550,564,197 shares outstanding, actual;
1,000,000,000,000 shares authorized, 4,164,471,182 shares issued and 3,887,913,602
shares outstanding as adjusted)
Treasury stocks (US$0.00000005 par value; 276,557,580 shares, actual and as
adjusted)
(57,055) (57,055)
Additional paid-in capital
520,088 663,410
Statutory reserves
14,892 14,892
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(51,273) (51,273)
Retained earnings
(513) (513)
Total shareholder’s equity
426,139 569,461
Total capitalization
426,139 569,461
Translations of U.S. dollars into RMB relating to the assumed offering price and estimated offering expenses were made at an exchange rate of RMB7.2513 to US$1.00, the exchange rate on June 30, 2023, as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board. Unless otherwise stated, all translations of RMB into U.S. dollars in this “Capitalization” section were made at RMB7.2513 to US$1.00, the exchange rate on June 30, 2023, as set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board.
 
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DILUTION
If you invest in the ADSs in this offering, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the offering price per ADS paid by purchasers in this offering and our as-adjusted net tangible book value per ADS after completion of this offering.
As of June 30, 2023, we had a net tangible book value of US$374.5 million (our total assets minus our intangible assets, right-of-use assets, deferred tax assets and total liabilities), corresponding to a net tangible book value of US$0.15 per ADS or US$2.20 per Class A ordinary share (using the ratio of 15 Class A ordinary shares to one ADS). Net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total assets minus our intangible assets, right-of-use assets, deferred tax assets and total liabilities, divided by the total number of our shares outstanding at June 30, 2023.
Our as-adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2023, which gives effect to the sale by us of up to 1,337,349,405 Class A ordinary shares represented by 89,156,627 ADSs offered pursuant to this prospectus supplement at an assumed offering price of US$1.66 per ADS, which was the closing price on the NASDAQ Global Market on November 10, 2023, and after deducting Sales Agent commissions and other estimated offering expenses, would have been US$517.8 million or US$0.13 per Class A ordinary share (US$2.00 per ADS). This represents an immediate decrease in net tangible book value of US$0.02 per Class A ordinary share (US$0.20 per ADS) to the then existing shareholders and an immediate dilution of US$(0.02) per Class A ordinary share to new investors (US$(0.34) per ADS).
The following table illustrates the net tangible book value dilution per Class A ordinary share to shareholders after the issuance of Class A ordinary shares under this prospectus supplement:
Assumed Offering price per ADS
US$ 1.66
Net tangible book value per ADS as of June 30, 2023
US$ 2.20
Decrease in net tangible book value per ADS attributable to the offering
US$ (0.20)
As-adjusted net tangible book value per ADS after giving effect to the offering
US$ 2.00
Dilution in net tangible book value per ADS to new investors
US$ (0.34)
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We have entered into a sales agreement with the Sales Agent, pursuant to which we may issue and sell from time to time up to US$148,000,000 of ADSs through or to B. Riley Securities, acting as our sales agent or principal. Sales of the ADSs, if any, will be made by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act. If we and B. Riley Securities agree on any method of distribution other than sales of shares of ADSs on or through the Nasdaq Global Market or another existing trading market in the United States at market prices, we will file a further prospectus supplement providing all information about such offering as required by Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act.
B. Riley Securities will offer ADSs at prevailing market prices subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement as agreed upon by us and B. Riley Securities. We will designate the number of ADSs which we desire to sell, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of ADSs that may be sold in one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, B. Riley Securities will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell on our behalf all of ADSs requested to be sold by us. We or B. Riley Securities may suspend this offering of the ADSs being made through B. Riley Securities under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party.
Settlement for sales of ADSs will occur on the second trading day or such shorter settlement cycle as may be in effect under Exchange Act Rule 15c6-1 from time to time, following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and B. Riley Securities in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of ADSs as contemplated in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and B. Riley Securities may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
We will pay B. Riley Securities in cash, upon each sale of our shares of ADSs pursuant to the sales agreement, a commission of up to 3.0% of the gross sales price of the ADSs sold. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. Pursuant to the terms of the sales agreement, we agreed to reimburse B. Riley Securities for the reasonable fees and expenses of its legal counsel incurred in connection with entering into the transactions contemplated by the sales agreement in an amount not to exceed $100,000 in the aggregate. We will report at least quarterly the number of ADSs sold through B. Riley Securities under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to B. Riley Securities in connection with the sales of ADSs.
In connection with the sales of ADSs on our behalf, B. Riley Securities may be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to B. Riley Securities may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the sales agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to B. Riley Securities against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.
This offering of the ADSs pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of the sale of all of the ADSs provided for in this prospectus supplement or termination of the sales agreement as permitted therein.
To the extent required by Regulation M, B. Riley Securities will not engage in any market making activities involving the ADSs while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus supplement.
B. Riley Securities and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees.
This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made available in electronic format on a website maintained by B. Riley Securities, and B. Riley Securities may distribute this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus electronically.
The foregoing does not purport to be a complete statement of the terms and conditions of the sales agreement.
 
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TAXATION
The following is a summary of the material Cayman Islands, People’s Republic of China and United States federal income tax consequences relevant to an investment in the ADSs and ordinary shares. The discussion is not intended to be, nor should it be construed as, legal or tax advice to any particular prospective purchaser. The discussion is based on laws and relevant interpretations thereof in effect as of the date of this document, all of which are subject to change or different interpretations, possibly with retroactive effect. The discussion does not address U.S. state or local tax laws, or tax laws of jurisdictions other than the Cayman Islands, the People’s Republic of China and the United States. You should consult your own tax advisors with respect to the consequences of acquisition, ownership and disposition of the ADSs and ordinary shares.
Cayman Islands Taxation
The Cayman Islands currently levies no taxes on individuals or corporations based upon profits, income, gains or appreciations and there is no taxation in the nature of inheritance tax or estate duty. There are no other taxes likely to be material to us levied by the government of the Cayman Islands except for stamp duties which may be applicable on instruments executed in, or after execution brought within the jurisdiction of, the Cayman Islands. Payments of dividends and capital in respect of the ADSs and ordinary shares will not be subject to taxation in the Cayman Islands and no withholding will be required on the payment of a dividend or capital to any holder of the ADSs and ordinary shares, nor will gains derived from the disposal of the ADSs and ordinary shares be subject to Cayman Islands income or corporation tax. There are no exchange control regulations or currency restrictions in the Cayman Islands.
People’s Republic of China Taxation
In March 2007, the National People’s Congress of China enacted the Enterprise Income Tax Law, which became effective on January 1, 2008 and was revised on December 29, 2018. The Enterprise Income Tax Law provides that enterprises organized under the laws of jurisdictions outside China with their “de facto management bodies” located within China may be considered PRC resident enterprises and therefore subject to PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on their worldwide income. The Implementing Rules of the Enterprise Income Tax Law further define the term “de facto management body” as the management body that exercises substantial and overall management and control over the business, personnel, accounts and properties of an enterprise. While we do not consider our company or any of our overseas subsidiaries to be a PRC resident enterprise, there is a risk that the PRC tax authorities may deem our company or any of our overseas subsidiaries as a PRC resident enterprise since a substantial majority of the members of our management team as well as the management team of some of our overseas subsidiaries are located in China, in which case we or the overseas subsidiaries, as the case may be, would be subject to the PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on worldwide income. If the PRC tax authorities determine that our Cayman Islands holding company is a “resident enterprise” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, a 10% withholding tax would be imposed on dividends we pay to our non-PRC enterprise shareholders and a 10% tax would be imposed with respect to gains derived by our non-PRC enterprise shareholders from transferring our shares or ADSs. Furthermore, dividends paid to individual investors who are non-PRC residents and any gain realized on the transfer of ADSs or ordinary shares by such investors may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 20% (which in the case of dividends may be withheld at source). Any PRC tax liability may be reduced by an applicable tax treaty. However, it is unclear whether, if we are considered a PRC resident enterprise, holders of our shares or ADSs would be able to claim the benefit of income tax treaties or agreements entered into between China and other countries or areas.
United States Federal Income Tax Considerations
The following discussion describes the material United States federal income tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of the ADSs and ordinary shares by a United States Holder (as defined below) as of the date hereof. This discussion deals only with ADSs and ordinary shares that are held as capital assets within the meaning of Section 1221 of under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”).
As used herein, the term “United States Holder” means a beneficial owner of the ADSs or ordinary shares that is, for United States federal income tax purposes, any of the following:
 
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an individual citizen or resident of the United States;

a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for United States federal income tax purposes) created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

an estate the income of which is subject to United States federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

a trust if it (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a court within the United States and one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) has a valid election in effect under applicable United States Treasury regulations to be treated as a United States person.
This discussion is based upon provisions of the Code, existing and proposed regulations promulgated thereunder, rulings, judicial decisions and the income tax treaty between the U.S. and the PRC, all as of the date hereof. Such authorities may be changed, perhaps retroactively, so as to result in United States federal income tax consequences different from those summarized below. In addition, this discussion assumes that the deposit agreement, and all other related agreements, will be performed in accordance with their terms. No ruling has been obtained and no ruling will be requested from the IRS with respect to any of the U.S. federal income tax consequences described below, and as a result, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with or challenge any of the statements provided below
This discussion does not represent a detailed description of the United States federal income tax consequences applicable to you if you are subject to special treatment under the United States federal income tax laws, including if you are:

a dealer in securities or currencies;

a financial institution;

a regulated investment company;

a real estate investment trust;

an insurance company;

a tax-exempt organization;

a person holding the ADSs or ordinary shares as part of a hedging, integrated or conversion transaction, a constructive sale or a straddle;

a trader in securities that has elected the mark-to-market method of accounting for your securities;

a person liable for alternative minimum tax;

a person liable for the corporate alternative minimum tax;

a person who owns or is deemed to own 10% or more of our stock by vote or value;

a partnership or other pass-through entity for United States federal income tax purposes;

a person required to accelerate the recognition of any item of gross income with respect to the ADSs or ordinary shares as a result of such income being recognized on an applicable financial statement;

a person holding the ADSs or ordinary shares in connection with a permanent establishment or fixed base outside the United States; or

a person whose “functional currency” is not the United States dollar.
If a partnership (or other entity treated as a partnership for United States federal income tax purposes) holds the ADSs or ordinary shares, the tax treatment of a partner will generally depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner of a partnership holding the ADSs or ordinary shares, you should consult your tax advisors.
This discussion does not contain a detailed description of all the United States federal income tax consequences to you in light of your particular circumstances and does not address U.S. federal gift or estate
 
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tax, alternative minimum tax, the Medicare tax on net investment income, the excise tax on stock repurchases, United States federal estate and gift taxes or the effects of any state, local or non-United States tax laws. You should consult your own tax advisor concerning the particular United States federal tax consequences to you of the purchase, ownership and disposition of ADSs or ordinary shares, as well as any consequences arising under the laws of any other taxing jurisdiction.
ADSs
It is generally expected that a United States Holder ADSs will be treated as the owner of the underlying ordinary shares that are represented by such ADSs for United States federal income tax purposes. The remainder of this discussion assumes that a United States Holder of the ADSs will be treated in this manner. Accordingly, deposits or withdrawals of ordinary shares for ADSs will not be subject to United States federal income tax.
Taxation of Dividends
Subject to the discussion under “— Passive Foreign Investment Company” below, the gross amount of distributions on the ADSs or ordinary shares (including any amounts withheld to reflect PRC withholding taxes, as discussed above under “— People’s Republic of China Taxation”) will be taxable as dividends to the extent paid out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under United States federal income tax principles. To the extent that the amount of any distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits for a taxable year, the distribution will first be treated as a tax-free return of capital, causing a reduction in the tax basis of the ADSs or ordinary shares, and to the extent the amount of the distribution exceeds your tax basis, the excess will be taxed as capital gain recognized on a sale or exchange. We do not, however, expect to determine earnings and profits in accordance with United States federal income tax principles. Therefore, you should expect that a distribution will generally be treated as a dividend.
Any dividends that you receive (including any withheld taxes) will be includable in your gross income as ordinary income from foreign sources on the day actually or constructively received by you, in the case of ordinary shares, or by the depositary, in the case of ADSs. Such dividends will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction allowed to corporations under the Code.
With respect to non-corporate United States investors, certain dividends received from a qualified foreign corporation may be subject to reduced rates of taxation. A foreign corporation is treated as a qualified foreign corporation with respect to dividends received from that corporation on shares (or ADSs backed by such shares) that are readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States. United States Treasury Department guidance indicates that the ADSs (which are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market) are readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States for these purposes. Thus, we believe that dividends we pay on the ADSs will meet the conditions required for these reduced tax rates. Since our ordinary shares are not listed on an established securities market in the United States, we do not believe that dividends that we pay on our ordinary shares that are not represented by ADSs currently meet the conditions required for these reduced tax rates. There also can be no assurance that the ADSs will be considered readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States in later years. A qualified foreign corporation also includes a foreign corporation that is eligible for the benefits of certain income tax treaties with the United States. In the event that we are deemed to be a PRC resident enterprise under the Enterprise Income Tax Law, we may be eligible for the benefits of the income tax treaty between the United States and PRC, or the Treaty, and if we are eligible for such benefits, dividends we pay on our ordinary shares, regardless of whether such shares are represented by ADSs, would be eligible for reduced rates of taxation. See “— People’s Republic of China Taxation” for further information on the Enterprise Income Tax Law. Non-corporate holders that do not meet a minimum holding period requirement during which they are not protected from the risk of loss or that elect to treat the dividend income as “investment income” pursuant to Section 163(d)(4) of the Code will not be eligible for the reduced rates of taxation regardless of our status as a qualified foreign corporation. In addition, the rate reduction will not apply to dividends if the recipient of a dividend is obligated to make related payments with respect to positions in substantially similar or related property. This disallowance applies even if the minimum holding period has been met. You should consult your own tax advisors regarding the application of these rules given your particular circumstances.
 
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Non-corporate United States Holders will not be eligible for reduced rates of taxation on any dividends received from us if we are a passive foreign investment company in the taxable year in which such dividends are paid or in the preceding taxable year. See “— Passive Foreign Investment Company” below.
As stated above under “People’s Republic of China Taxation” above, dividends paid by us may be subject to PRC withholding tax. Any amount withheld and paid over to PRC in respect of PRC withholding tax will be treated as distributed to you for purposes of determining the amount of any taxable dividend. Depending on your individual facts and circumstances and subject to a number of complex limitations (including a minimum holding period requirement), you may be eligible to claim a foreign tax credit in respect of PRC withholding taxes that may be imposed on dividends received on our ADSs or ordinary shares (at a rate not exceeding the applicable Treaty rate if you are entitled to Treaty benefits). However, recently issued U.S. Treasury regulations, which apply to foreign taxes paid or accrued in taxable years beginning on or after December 28, 2021, may in some circumstances prohibit a U.S. Holder from claiming a foreign tax credit with respect to certain foreign taxes that are not creditable under applicable tax treaties. You should consult your own tax advisor as to your ability, and the various limitations on your ability, to claim foreign tax credits in connection with the receipt of dividends. In lieu of claiming a credit, you may elect to deduct such PRC withholding taxes in computing your taxable income for U.S. federal income tax purposes, subject to applicable limitations. An election to deduct foreign taxes instead of claiming foreign tax creditsapplies to all foreign taxes paid or accrued in the taxable year.For purposes of calculating the foreign tax credit, dividends paid on the ADSs or ordinary shares will be treated as income from sources outside the United States and will generally constitute passive category income. The rules governing the foreign tax credit are complex. You are urged to consult your tax advisors regarding the availability of the foreign tax credit under your particular circumstances.
Distributions of ADSs, ordinary shares or rights to subscribe for ADSs or ordinary shares that are received as part of a pro rata distribution to all of our shareholders generally will not be subject to United States federal income tax.
Passive Foreign Investment Company
For U.S. federal income tax purposes, we will be a PFIC for any taxable year in which:

at least 75% of our gross income is passive income (the “income test”); or

at least 50% of the value (determined based on a quarterly average) of our assets is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income (the “income test”).
For this purpose, passive income generally includes dividends, interest, income equivalent to interest, royalties and rents (other than royalties and rents derived in the active conduct of a trade or business and not derived from a related person). Cash is generally treated as an asset that produces or is held for the production of passive income. If we own at least 25% (by value) of the stock of another corporation, for purposes of determining whether we are a PFIC, we will be treated as owning our proportionate share of the other corporation’s assets and receiving our proportionate share of the other corporation’s income. For purposes of the asset test, cash, cash equivalents and cryptocurrency are generally passive assets, and goodwill is generally an active asset to the extent that it is associated with activities that produce active income.
Based upon the historical and projected composition of our income and assets, and the valuation of our assets, we do not believe we were a PFIC for the 2022 taxable year and do not expect to be a PFIC for the current taxable year.
The determination of whether we are a PFIC is made annually. Accordingly, it is possible that we may become a PFIC in the current or any future taxable year due to changes in our asset or income composition. In particular, because the value of our assets for purposes of the asset test will generally be determined based on their fair market values, our PFIC status will depend in large part on the market price of our ADSs. Therefore, we cannot assure you that we will not be a PFIC for the current or any future taxable year and our U.S. counsel does not express any opinion with respect to our PFIC status for any prior, current or future taxable year. In addition, the determination of whether we are a PFIC for a taxable year depends, in part, on the application of complex U.S. federal income tax rules, which are subject to differing interpretations, and such determination will depend on the composition of our income and assets from time to time and the nature
 
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of our activities. For example, we intend to grow our Bitcoin mining business, but there is no authority that directly addresses the proper treatment of income from Bitcoin mining for purposes of the PFIC rules. Even if we determine that we are not a PFIC, the application of the PFIC rules is subject to uncertainty in several respects and the U.S. Internal Revenue Service may not agree with our conclusion and could successfully challenge our position.
If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which you hold the ADSs or ordinary shares, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax rules could apply. If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which you hold the ADSs or ordinary shares and you do not make a timely mark-to-market election, as described below, you will be subject to additional tax and interest charges with respect to any “excess distribution” received and any gain realized from a sale or other disposition, including a pledge, of ADSs or ordinary shares, regardless of whether we continue to be a PFIC in the year in which you receive an “excess distribution” or dispose of, or are deemed to have disposed of, your ADSs or ordinary shares. Distributions in respect of your ADSs or ordinary shares received in a taxable year will be treated as “excess distributions” to the extent that they are greater than 125% of the average annual distributions received during the shorter of the three preceding taxable years or your holding period for the ADSs or ordinary shares. Under these special tax rules:

the excess distribution or gain will be allocated ratably over your holding period for the ADSs or ordinary shares,

the amount allocated to the current taxable year, and any taxable year prior to the first taxable year in which we were a PFIC, will be treated as ordinary income, and

the amount allocated to each other year will be subject to tax at the highest tax rate in effect for that year for individuals or corporations, as applicable, in effect for that year, and the interest charge generally applicable to underpayments of tax will be imposed on the resulting tax attributable to each such year.
Although the determination of whether we are a PFIC is made annually, if we are a PFIC for any taxable year in which you hold the ADSs or ordinary shares, you will generally be subject to the special tax rules described above for that year and for each subsequent year in which you hold the ADSs or ordinary shares (even if we do not qualify as a PFIC in such subsequent years). However, if we cease to be a PFIC, you can avoid the continuing impact of the PFIC rules by making a special election to recognize gain as if your ADSs or ordinary shares had been sold on the last day of the last taxable year during which we were a PFIC. You are urged to consult your own tax advisor about this election.
In lieu of being subject to the special tax rules discussed above, you may make a “mark-to-market” election with respect to your ADSs or ordinary shares provided such ADSs or ordinary shares are treated as “marketable stock.” The ADSs or ordinary shares generally will be treated as marketable stock if the ADSs or ordinary shares are regularly traded on a “qualified exchange or other market” ​(within the meaning of the applicable Treasury regulations). The ADSs are currently listed on the Nasdaq Global Market which constitutes a qualified exchange, although there can be no assurance that the ADSs will be “regularly traded” for purposes of the mark-to-market election. Only the ADSs and not the ordinary shares are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market. Consequently, if you are a holder of ordinary shares that are not represented by ADSs, you generally will not be eligible to make a mark-to-market election.
If you make an effective mark-to-market election, for each taxable year that we are a PFIC you will include as ordinary income the excess of the fair market value of your ADSs at the end of the year over your adjusted tax basis in the ADSs. You will be entitled to deduct as an ordinary loss in each such year the excess of your adjusted tax basis in the ADSs over their fair market value at the end of the year, but only to the extent of the net amount previously included in income as a result of the mark-to-market election. Your adjusted tax basis in the ADSs will be increased by the amount of any income inclusion and decreased by the amount of any deductions under the mark-to-market rules. In addition, upon the sale or other disposition of your ADSs in a year that we are a PFIC, any gain will be treated as ordinary income and any loss will be treated as ordinary loss, but only to the extent of the net amount of previously included income as a result of the mark-to-market election.
If you make a mark-to-market election, it will be effective for the taxable year for which the election is made and all subsequent taxable years unless the ADSs are no longer regularly traded on a qualified exchange
 
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or other market, or the Internal Revenue Service consents to the revocation of the election. You are urged to consult your tax advisor about the availability of the mark-to-market election, and whether making the election would be advisable in your particular circumstances.
Alternatively, U.S. taxpayers can sometimes avoid the special tax rules described above by electing to treat a PFIC as a “qualified electing fund” under Section 1295 of the Code. However, this option is not available to you because we do not intend to comply with the requirements necessary to permit you to make this election.
If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which you hold the ADSs or our ordinary shares and any of our non-United States subsidiaries is also a PFIC, you will be treated as owning a proportionate amount (by value) of the shares of the lower-tier PFIC for purposes of the application of the PFIC rules. You will not be able to make the mark-to-market election described above in respect of any lower-tier PFIC. You are urged to consult your tax advisors about the application of the PFIC rules to any of our subsidiaries.
You will generally be required to file Internal Revenue Service Form 8621 if you hold the ADSs or our ordinary shares in any year in which we are a PFIC. You are urged to consult your tax advisors concerning the United States federal income tax consequences of holding ADSs or ordinary shares if we are a PFIC in any taxable year.
Taxation of Capital Gains
For United States federal income tax purposes, you will recognize taxable gain or loss on any sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of the ADSs or ordinary shares in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized for the ADSs or ordinary shares and your tax basis in the ADSs or ordinary shares. Your adjusted tax basis generally will equal the amount you paid for the ADSs or ordinary shares. Subject to the discussion under “— Passive Foreign Investment Company” above, such gain or loss will generally be capital gain or loss and will generally be long-term capital gain or loss if you have held the ADSs or ordinary shares for more than one year. Long-term capital gains of non-corporate United States Holders (including individuals) are eligible for reduced rates of taxation. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations. Any gain or loss recognized by a United States Holder will generally be treated as United States source gain or loss. However, if we are treated as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes and PRC tax were imposed on any gain, and if you are eligible for the benefits of the Treaty, you may elect to treat such gain as PRC source gain under the Treaty. If you are not eligible for the benefits of the Treaty or if you fail to make the election to treat any gain as PRC source, then you generally would not be able to use the foreign tax credit arising from any PRC tax imposed on the disposition of ADSs or ordinary shares unless such credit can be applied (subject to applicable limitations) against tax due on other income derived from foreign sources.
If you receive a currency other than U.S. dollars upon a disposition of the ADSs or ordinary shares, you will generally realize an amount equal to the U.S. dollar value of the currency received at the spot rate on the date of disposition or, if the ADSs or ordinary shares are traded on an established securities market and you are either a cash-basis or electing accrual-basis taxpayer, at the spot rate on the settlement date. If the ADSs or ordinary shares are not traded on an established securities market or you are an accrual-basis taxpayer that does not elect to determine the amount realized using the spot rate on the settlement date, you will generally have foreign currency gain or loss (treated as U.S. source ordinary income or loss) to the extent of any difference between the U.S. dollar amount realized on the date of disposition and the U.S. dollar value of the currency received at the spot rate on the settlement date. Any gain or loss on a subsequent conversion or disposition of the currency received generally will be U.S. source ordinary income or loss.
Information Reporting and Backup Withholding
In general, information reporting will apply to dividends in respect of the ADSs or our ordinary shares and the proceeds from the sale, exchange or other disposition of the ADSs or our ordinary shares that are paid to you within the United States (and in certain cases, outside the United States), unless you are an exempt recipient. A backup withholding tax may apply to such payments if you fail to provide a taxpayer identification number or certification of exempt status or fail to report in full dividend and interest income.
Backup withholding is not an additional tax and any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules will be allowed as a refund or a credit against your United States federal income tax liability provided the
 
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required information is timely furnished to the Internal Revenue Service. You generally may receive a refund of any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules that exceed your income tax liability by filing a refund claim with the IRS. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the application of the information reporting and backup withholding rules to your particular circumstances. Certain U.S. Holders who hold “specific foreign financial assets,” including stock of a non-U.S. corporation that is not held in an account maintained by a U.S. “financial institution” may be required to attach to their tax returns for the year certain specified information. A U.S. Holder who fails to timely furnish the required information may be subject to a penalty.
Certain U.S. Holders may be required to file an IRS Form 926 (Return by a U.S. Transferor of Property to a Foreign Corporation) to report a transfer of property (including cash) to us. Substantial penalties may be imposed on a U.S. Holder that fails to comply with this reporting requirement and the period of limitations on assessment and collection of U.S. federal income taxes will be extended in the event of a failure to comply.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters in connection with this offering will be passed upon for us by Kirkland & Ellis International LLP, our special United States counsel, to the extent governed by the laws of the State of New York, and by Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP, our special legal counsel as to the Cayman Islands law, to the extent governed by the laws of the Cayman Islands. Legal matters as to PRC law will be passed upon for us by Commerce & Finance Law Offices, our counsel as to PRC law. Duane Morris LLP, New York, New York, is counsel for the Sales Agent in connection with this offering.
 
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EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of Canaan Inc. as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, and for the years then ended, and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022 have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the reports of KPMG Huazhen LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We are currently subject to periodic reporting and other informational requirements of the Exchange Act, as applicable to foreign private issuers. Accordingly, we are required to file reports, including annual reports on Form 20-F, and other information with the SEC. You may read the registration statement, including the related exhibits and schedules, and any document we file with the SEC without charge at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov.
As a foreign private issuer, we are not required under the Exchange Act to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. However, we are required to file with the SEC, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year ending December 31, our Annual Report on Form 20-F containing financial statements which are examined and reported on, with an opinion expressed, by an independent registered public accounting firm. In accordance with the NASDAQ Listing Rules, as a foreign private issuer we are required to submit on a Report of Foreign Private Issuer Form 6-K our interim balance sheet and income statement as of the end of the second quarter of each fiscal year.
In addition, as a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from the rules under the Exchange Act relating to the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act.
Our corporate website is www.canaan-creative.com. The information contained on our websites is not a part of this prospectus supplement. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc., located at 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, New York 10168.
This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and does not contain all the information in the registration statement. You will find additional information about us in the registration statement. Any statement made in this prospectus supplement concerning a contract or other document of ours is not necessarily complete, and you should read the documents that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement or otherwise filed with the SEC for a more complete understanding of the document or matter. Each such statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers.
 
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INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with them. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. Each document incorporated by reference is current only as of the date of such document, and the incorporation by reference of such documents shall not create any implication that there has been no change in our affairs since the date thereof or that the information contained therein is current as of any time subsequent to its date. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus supplement and should be read with the same care. When we update the information contained in documents that have been incorporated by reference by making future filings with the SEC, the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement is considered to be automatically updated and superseded. In other words, in the case of a conflict or inconsistency between information contained in this prospectus supplement and information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information contained in the document that was filed later.
We hereby incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement the following documents that we have filed with the SEC under the Exchange Act:


our Reports of Foreign Private Issuer on Form 6-K filed with the SEC on March 7, 2023, April 19, 2023, May 26, 2023, August 18, 2023 and August 29, 2023; and

the description of our securities contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on November 6, 2019, as updated by Exhibit 2.2 to our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on April 15, 2020, and including any amendments or reports filed for purposes of updating such descriptions.
Our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 contains a description of our business and audited consolidated financial statements with a report by our independent auditors. These financial statements were prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the sale of all ADSs or Class A ordinary shares registered hereunder or the termination of the registration statement, but excluding any information deemed furnished and not filed with the SEC.
Any statements contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement is deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus supplement to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement, or in a subsequently filed document also incorporated by reference herein, modifies or supersedes that statement.
This prospectus supplement may contain information that updates, modifies or is contrary to information in one or more of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than that contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus supplement or the date of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.
We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus supplement is delivered, upon written or oral request, at no cost to the requester, a copy of any and all of the information that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.
 
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You may request, orally or in writing, a copy of these documents, which will be provided to you at no cost, by contacting:
Canaan Inc.
28 Ayer Rajah Crescent
#06-08
Singapore 139959
Tel: +65 6305 6618
 
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PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_canaaninc-4c.jpg]
US$148,000,000
Class A Ordinary Shares Preferred Shares Warrants
Subscription Rights Units
We may offer Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.00000005 per share, including Class A ordinary shares represented by American depositary shares, or ADSs, with each ADS representing 15 Class A ordinary shares, preferred shares, warrants, subscription rights and/ or units from time to time.
We will provide specific terms of any offered securities and offering in a supplement to this prospectus. Any prospectus supplement may also add, update, or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement as well as the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus before you purchase any of the securities offered hereby.
These securities may be offered and sold in the same offering or in separate offerings; to or through underwriters, dealers, and agents; or directly to purchasers. The names of any underwriters, dealers, or agents involved in the sale of our securities, their compensation and any over-allotment options held by them will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. For a more complete description of the plan of distribution of these securities, see the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 33 of this prospectus.
The ADSs are listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “CAN.” On April 18, 2023, the last reported sale price of the ADSs on the NASDAQ Global Market was US$2.91 per ADS.
Our issued and outstanding share capital consists of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. Holders of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares have the same rights except for voting and conversion rights. In respect of matters requiring a shareholder vote, each Class A ordinary share will be entitled to one vote and each Class B ordinary share will be entitled to 15 votes. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into one class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof. Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. See “Description of Share Capital.”
We are a Cayman Islands holding company and conduct all of our operations through our operating subsidiaries. Investors in the ADSs are not purchasing equity securities of our operating subsidiaries but instead are purchasing equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company. We face various legal and operational risks and uncertainties associated with being based in or having a portion of our operations in China and the complex and evolving PRC laws and regulations. For example, we face risks associated with regulatory approvals on offerings conducted overseas and foreign investment in China-based issuers, anti-monopoly regulatory actions, regulatory actions for virtual currency- related business activities and mining activities and oversight on cybersecurity and data privacy, which may negatively impact our ability to conduct certain businesses, access foreign investments, or list on foreign stock exchange. These risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, or cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or become worthless. For a detailed description of risks relating to doing business in China, see “Item 3. Key Information — 3.D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Doing Business in the PRC.” in our annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2022, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
Our auditors, KPMG Huazhen LLP and PricewaterhouseCoopers Zhong Tian LLP are independent registered public accounting firms that issue the audit reports included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our securities will be prohibited from trading on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA, if the Securities and Exchange Commission determines that Canaan has filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspections by the PCAOB for two consecutive years. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report to notify the SEC of its determination that the PCAOB was unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong and our auditors were subject to this determination. Consequently, we were conclusively identified as a “Commission- Identified Issuer” on May 4, 2022. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it was able to secure complete access to inspect and investigate PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and HongKong in 2022. Each year, the PCAOB will determine whether it can inspect and investigate completely audit firms in mainland China and HongKong, among other jurisdictions. If the PCAOB determines in the future that it no longer has full access to inspect and investigate completely accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong and we use an accounting firm headquartered in one of these jurisdictions to issue an audit report on its financial statements filed with the SEC, we would be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer following the filing of the annual report on Form 20-F for the relevant fiscal year. In accordance with the HFCAA, our securities would be prohibited from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the United States if it is identified as a Commission- Identified Issuer for two consecutive years in the future. If our securities are prohibited from trading in the United States, there is no certainty that we will be able to list on a non-U.S. exchange or that a market for our securities will develop outside of the United States. In the event of such prohibition, the Nasdaq may determine to delist our securities. The delisting of our securities, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. See “Item 3. Key Information — 3.D. Risk Factors-Risks Relating to Doing Business in the PRC-Our ADSs may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect auditors who are located in China. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.” in our annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2022, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
Investing in these securities involves risks. See the “Risk Factors” section contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and the documents we incorporate by reference in this prospectus to read about factors you should consider before investing in our securities.
This prospectus may not be used to offer or sell any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of the disclosures in this prospectus, including any prospectus supplement and documents incorporated by reference. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is May 1, 2023

 
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a shelf registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. By using a shelf registration statement, we may, at any time and from time to time, offer and sell up to an aggregate of US$148,000,000 of the securities as described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. We may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus by means of a prospectus supplement or by incorporating by reference information that we file or furnish to the SEC. As allowed by the SEC rules, this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For further information, we refer you to the registration statement, including its exhibits. Statements contained in this prospectus or the prospectus supplement about the provisions or contents of any agreement or other document are not necessarily complete. If the SEC’s rules and regulations require that an agreement or document be filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, please see that agreement or document for a complete description of these matters.
You should carefully read this document and any applicable prospectus supplement. You should also read the documents we have referred you to under “Where You Can Find More Information About Us” and “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” below for information on our company, the risks we face and our financial statements. The registration statement and exhibits can be read on the SEC’s website as described under “Where You Can Find More Information About Us.”
In this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated or unless the context otherwise requires, references to:

“ADRs” are to the American depositary receipts that evidence our ADSs;

“ADSs” are to our American depositary shares, each of which represents 15 Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00000005 each;

“AI” are to artificial intelligence;

“ASICs” are to application-specific ICs, meaning ICs designed for a specific application;

“China” or the “PRC” are to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purposes of this prospectus only, Taiwan, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macao Special Administrative Region;

“edge computing” are to a method of optimizing cloud computing systems by performing data processing at the edge of the network, near the source of the data;

“ICs” or “chips” are to integrated circuits;

“neural-network accelerator” are to a class of microprocessor designed as hardware acceleration for AI applications;

“operating subsidiaries” are to Canaan Creative (HK) Holdings Limited, Canaan Creative International PTE. Ltd. and our PRC operating subsidiaries.

“PRC operating subsidiaries” are to Hangzhou Canaan Intelligence Information Technology Co., Ltd., Canaan Creative Co., Ltd., Langfang Creative Technology Co., Ltd., Canaan Convey Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Avalon Technology Co., Ltd., Canaan Bright Sight Co., Ltd., Hangzhou Canaan Chuangxin Technology Co., Ltd., and Canaan Creative (SH) Co., Ltd.

“PRC subsidiaries” are to PRC operating subsidiaries, Hangzhou Ruihong Technology Co., Ltd., and Hangzhou Canaan Blockchain Technology Co., Ltd.

“Risc-V” are to an open source instruction set architecture, which is a set of instructions that describes the way in which software talks to an underlying processor, and Risc-V’s open source nature means that anyone can build a processor to support it without paying high royalty fees;

“RMB” or “Renminbi” are to the legal currency of China;

“US$,” “U.S. dollars,” “$,” and “dollars” are to the legal currency of the United States; and

“we,” “us,” “our company,” “our” and “Canaan” are to Canaan Inc., its subsidiaries and its consolidated affiliated entities, as the context requires.
 
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein contain statements of a forward- looking nature. All statements other than statements of historical facts are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are made under the “safe harbor” provision under Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In some cases, these forward-looking statements can be identified by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “potential,” “continue,” “is/are likely to” or other similar expressions. These forward-looking statements relate to, among others:

our goals and strategies;

our expansion plans;

our future business development, financial condition and results of operations;

changes in government policies and regulations

our expectations regarding demand for, and market acceptance of, our products;

general economic and business conditions; and

other risk factors discussed under “Risk Factors”.
We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs.
You should read these statements in conjunction with the risks discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” included in the applicable prospectus supplement or under similar headings in other documents which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in an emerging and evolving environment. New risks may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of such risks on our business or the extent to which any risk, or combination of risks, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this prospectus and such incorporated documents. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. You should read this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and have filed as exhibits to this prospectus and the incorporated documents, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.
 
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OUR COMPANY
We provide supercomputing solutions through our proprietary high performance computing ASICs. We have strong ASIC chip design capability underpinned by over nine years of industry experience and expertise of our founders and management team. We are one of the few fabless IC design companies with the advanced technology to independently design ASIC, established access to leading wafer foundry capacity and proven in-house capability to produce Bitcoin mining machines. We primarily dedicated technology and expertise in ASIC applications to Bitcoin mining machines and are a leading producer of Bitcoin mining machines in the global market. In addition, with our technology expertise and know-how in ASIC chip design, we strive to expand into AI fields and provide holistic AI solutions to our customers. Our PRC operating subsidiaries have delivered commercial edge computing AI chips based on Risc-V architecture and self-developed neural-network accelerator with outstanding performance. We believe our extensive experience and expertise in ASIC applications position us well in our future endeavors.
CORPORATE INFORMATION
Our principal executive offices are located at 28 Ayer Rajah Crescent, #06-08, Singapore 139959. Our telephone number at this address is +65 6305 6618. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the offices of Sertus Chambers, Suite #5-204, 23 Lime Tree Bay Avenue, P.O. Box 2547, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc., located at 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, New York 10168.
The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. You can also find information on our website at www.canaan-creative.com. The information contained on our website is not a part of this prospectus.
As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt under the Exchange Act from, among other things, the rules prescribing the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and our executive officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we will not be required under the Exchange Act to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. However, we intend to furnish the depositary with our annual reports, which will include a review of operations and annual audited consolidated financial statements prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP, and all notices of shareholders’ meeting and other reports and communications that are made generally available to our shareholders. The depositary will make such notices, reports and communications available to holders of ADSs and will mail to all record holders of ADSs the information contained in any notice of a shareholders’ meeting received by the depositary from us.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Any investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risk factors discussed or incorporated by reference in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all the other information contained in the prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks and uncertainties discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and which may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities we offer as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement(s).
 
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DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL
We are an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands with limited liability and our affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, and the Companies Act of the Cayman Islands, as amended, which we refer to as the Cayman Companies Act, and the common law of the Cayman Islands.
As of the date of this prospectus, our authorized share capital was US$50,000 divided into 999,643,375,556 Class A ordinary shares of per value US$0.00000005 each and 356,624,444 Class B ordinary shares of par value US$0.00000005 each.
As of the date of this prospectus, we have 2,515,497,333 Class A ordinary shares and 311,624,444 Class B ordinary shares issued and outstanding.
The following are summaries of certain material provisions of our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association adopted by special resolution passed on October 8, 2019 and effective immediately prior to the completion of the initial public offering of our ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares, or our articles of association and the Cayman Companies Act insofar as they relate to the material terms of our ordinary shares. The following summary is not complete, and you should read our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, a form of which was filed with the SEC as Exhibit 3.2 to the registration statement on Form F-1 (File No. 333-234356), originally filed on October 28, 2019, as amended.
Ordinary Shares
General
All of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares are fully paid and non-assessable. Our ordinary shares are divided into Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. Holders of our Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares will have the same rights except for voting and conversion rights. Each Class A Ordinary Share shall entitle the holder thereof to one vote on all matters subject to vote at our general meetings, and each Class B ordinary share shall entitle the holder thereof to 15 votes on all matters subject to vote at our general meetings. Our ordinary shares are issued in registered form, and are issued when registered in our register of shareholders. Our shareholders who are non-residents of the Cayman Islands may freely hold and vote their ordinary shares. We may not issue shares to bearer.
Conversion
Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time at the option of the holder thereof. Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. Pursuant to our articles of association, upon any sale, transfer, assignment or disposition of any Class B ordinary share by a holder thereof to any person who is not an affiliate of such holder, or upon a change of ultimate beneficial ownership of any Class B ordinary share to any person who is not an affiliate of the registered shareholder of such Class B ordinary share, such Class B ordinary share shall be automatically and immediately converted into the same number of Class A ordinary share. For this purpose, beneficial ownership shall have the meaning set forth in Rule 13d-3 under the United States Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
An “affiliate” for the purposes of our articles of association means in respect of a person, any other person that, directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, such person, and (i) in the case of a natural person, shall include, without limitation, such person’s spouse, parents, children, siblings, mother-in-law, father-in-law, brothers-in-law and sisters-in- law, a trust for the benefit of any of the foregoing, and a corporation, partnership or any other entity wholly or jointly owned by any of the foregoing, and (ii) in the case of an entity, shall include a partnership, a corporation or any other entity or any natural person which directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, such entity. The term “control” shall mean the ownership, directly or indirectly, of shares possessing more than fifty per cent (50%) of the voting power of the corporation, partnership or other entity (other than, in the case of a corporation, securities having such power only by reason of the happening of a contingency), or having the power to control the
 
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management or elect a majority of members to the board of directors or equivalent decision-making body of such corporation, partnership or other entity.
A “person” for the purposes of our articles of association means any natural person, firm, company, joint venture, partnership, corporation, association or other entity (whether or not having a separate legal personality) or any of them as the context so requires.
For the avoidance of doubt, on the transmission of shares following the death of a holder of Class B ordinary shares, such Class B ordinary shares will not automatically convert into the same number of Class A ordinary shares unless such transmission of shares results in a change in ultimate beneficial ownership of such Class B ordinary share(s) to any person who is not an affiliate of the relevant holder of Class B ordinary shares.
Dividends
The holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to such dividends as may be declared by our board of directors. In addition, our shareholders may declare dividends by ordinary resolution, but no dividend shall exceed the amount recommended by our directors. Under the laws of the Cayman Islands, our company may pay a dividend out of either profit or share premium account, provided that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in our company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business.
Voting Rights
Our authorized share capital consists of Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. Holders of our Class A ordinary shares and our Class B ordinary shares shall, at all times, vote together as one class on all matters submitted to a vote by our shareholders at any general meeting of our company. Each Class A ordinary share shall be entitled to one vote, and each Class B ordinary share shall be entitled to 15 votes, on all matters subject to a vote at general meetings of our company.
Voting at any meeting of shareholders is by a show of hands, unless a poll is (before or on the declaration of the result of the show of hands) demanded by the chairman of the meeting or any shareholder present in person or by proxy of the Company entitled to vote, and, unless a poll is so demanded, a declaration by the chairman of the meeting that a resolution has, on a show of hands, been carried or carried unanimously, or by a particular majority, or lost and an entry to that effect in the minutes of the proceedings of the Company, shall be conclusive evidence of the fact, without proof of the number of proportion of the votes recorded in favor of, or against that resolution.
Transfer of Shares
Any of our shareholders may transfer all or any of his or her ordinary shares by an instrument of transfer in any usual or common form or any other form approved by our board of directors, executed by or on behalf of the transferor.
Our board of directors may, in its absolute discretion, decline to register any transfer of any ordinary share that has not been fully paid up or is subject to a company lien. Our board of directors may also decline to register any transfer of any ordinary share unless:

the instrument of transfer is lodged with us, accompanied by the certificate for the ordinary shares to which it relates and such other evidence as our board of directors may reasonably require to show the right of the transferor to make the transfer;

the instrument of transfer is in respect of only one class of ordinary shares;

the instrument of transfer is properly stamped, if required;

the ordinary share transferred is fully paid and free of any lien in favor of us;

any fee related to the transfer has been paid to us; and

in the case of any transfer to joint holders, the transfer is not to more than four joint holders.
 
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Winding Up
On the winding up of our company, if the assets available for distribution amongst our shareholders shall be more than sufficient to repay the whole of the share capital at the commencement of the winding up, the surplus shall be distributed amongst our shareholders in proportion to the par value of the shares held by them at the commencement of the winding up, subject to a deduction from those shares in respect of which there are monies due, of all monies payable to our company for unpaid calls or otherwise. If our assets available for distribution are insufficient to repay the whole of the share capital, such assets will be distributed so that, as nearly as may be, the losses are borne by our shareholders in proportion to the par value of the shares held by them.
The liquidator may, with the sanction of a special resolution of our shareholders, divide amongst the shareholders in species or in kind the whole or any part of the assets of our company, and may for such purpose set such value as the liquidator deems fair upon any property to be divided as aforesaid and may determine how the division shall be carried out as between our shareholders or different classes of shareholders.
We are an exempted company with limited liability incorporated under the Cayman Companies Act, and under the Cayman Companies Act, the liability of our shareholders is limited to the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares respectively held by them. Our memorandum of association contains a declaration that the liability of our members is so limited.
Redemption, Repurchase and Surrender of Ordinary Shares
We may issue shares on terms that such shares are subject to redemption, at our option or at the option of the holders thereof, on such terms and in such manner as may be determined, before the issue of such shares, by our board of directors or by our shareholders by special resolution. Our company may also repurchase any of our shares (including any redeemable shares) in such manner and terms as been approved by our board of directors or by ordinary resolution of our shareholders, or as otherwise authorized by our articles of association. Under the Cayman Companies Act, the redemption or repurchase of any share may be paid out of our company’s profits or out of the proceeds of a new issue of shares made for the purpose of such redemption or repurchase, or out of capital (including share premium account and capital redemption reserve) if our company can, immediately following such payment, pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. In addition, under the Cayman Companies Act no such share may be redeemed or repurchased (a) unless it is fully paid up, (b) if such redemption or repurchase would result in there being no shares outstanding or (c) if the company has commenced liquidation. In addition, our company may accept the surrender of any fully paid share for no consideration.
Calls on Ordinary Shares and Forfeiture of Ordinary Shares
Our board of directors may from time to time make calls upon shareholders (or any of them) for any amounts unpaid on their ordinary shares in a notice served to such shareholders at least 14 calendar days prior to the specified time and place of payment. The ordinary shares that have been called upon and remain unpaid are subject to forfeiture.
General Meetings of Shareholders
As a Cayman Islands exempted company, we are not obliged by the Cayman Companies Act to call shareholders’ annual general meetings. Our articles of association provide that we may (but are not obliged to) in each year hold a general meeting as our annual general meeting in which case we shall specify the meeting as such in the notices calling it, and the annual general meeting shall be held at such time and place as may be determined by our directors.
Shareholders’ general meetings may be convened by a majority of our board of directors or by our chairman. Advance notice of at least ten calendar days is required for the convening of our annual general shareholders’ meeting (if any) and any other general meeting of our shareholders. A quorum required for any general meeting of shareholders consists of at least one shareholder present or by proxy, representing not less than one-third of all votes attaching to the total issued voting shares in our company.
 
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The Cayman Companies Act provides shareholders with only limited rights to requisition a general meeting, and does not provide shareholders with any right to put any proposal before a general meeting. However, these rights may be provided in a company’s articles of association. Our articles of association provide that upon the requisition of shareholders representing in aggregate not less than one-third of the votes attaching to the issued and outstanding shares of our company entitled to vote at general meetings, our board will convene an extraordinary general meeting and put the resolutions so requisitioned to a vote at such meeting. However, our articles of association do not provide our shareholders with any right to put any proposals before annual general meetings or extraordinary general meetings not called by such shareholders.
Proceedings of Board of Directors
Our articles of association provide that subject to the Cayman Companies Act, our articles of association and to any resolutions passed in a general meeting of our company, our business is to be managed and conducted by our board of directors. The quorum necessary for board meetings may be fixed by the board and, unless so fixed at another number, will be a majority of the directors.
Our articles of association provide that the board may from time to time at its discretion exercise all powers of our company to raise capital or borrow money, to mortgage or charge all or any part of the undertaking, property and assets (present and future) and uncalled capital of our company and issue debentures, bonds and other securities of our company, whether outright or as collateral security for any debt, liability or obligation of our company or of any third party.
Changes in Capital
Our shareholders may from time to time by ordinary resolution:

increase our share capital by such sum, to be divided into shares of such classes and amount, as the resolution shall prescribe;

consolidate and divide all or any of our share capital into shares of a larger amount than our existing shares;

sub-divide our existing shares, or any of them, into shares of a smaller amount; or

cancel any shares which, at the date of the passing of the resolution, have not been taken or agreed to be taken by any person and diminish the amount of our share capital by the amount of the shares so canceled.
Our shareholders may by special resolution, subject to confirmation by the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands on an application by our company for an order confirming such reduction, reduce our share capital or any capital redemption reserve in any manner permitted by law.
Inspection of Books and Records
Holders of our ordinary shares will have no general right under the Cayman Companies Act to inspect or obtain copies of our list of shareholders or our corporate records (except for our memorandum and articles of association, special resolutions of our shareholders and our register of mortgages and charges). However, we will provide our shareholders with annual audited financial statements. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Exempted Company
We are an exempted company with limited liability duly incorporated and validly existing under the Cayman Companies Act. The Cayman Companies Act distinguishes between ordinary resident companies and exempted companies. Any company that is registered in the Cayman Islands but conducts business mainly outside of the Cayman Islands may apply to be registered as an exempted company. The requirements for an exempted company are essentially the same as for an ordinary company except for the exemptions and privileges listed below:
 
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an exempted company does not have to file an annual return of its shareholders with the Registrar of Companies of the Cayman Islands;

an exempted company’s register of members is not open to inspection;

an exempted company does not have to hold an annual general meeting;

an exempted company may issue no par value shares;

an exempted company may obtain an undertaking against the imposition of any future taxation (such undertakings are usually given for 20 years in the first instance);

an exempted company may register by way of continuation in another jurisdiction and be deregistered in the Cayman Islands;

an exempted company may register as a limited duration company; and

an exempted company may register as a segregated portfolio company.
“Limited liability” means that the liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount unpaid by the shareholder on that shareholder’s shares of the company (except in exceptional circumstances, such as involving fraud, the establishment of an agency relationship or an illegal or improper purpose or other circumstances in which a court may be prepared to pierce or lift the corporate veil). Upon the closing of this offering, we will be subject to reporting and other informational requirements of the Exchange Act, as applicable to foreign private issuers. We may follow the home country practice for certain corporate governance practices after the closing of this offering which may differ from the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules. The Nasdaq Stock Market Rules require that every company listed on the Nasdaq Global Market hold an annual general meeting of shareholders. In addition, our articles of association allow our directors to call extraordinary general meetings of our shareholders pursuant to the procedures set forth in our articles of association.
Differences in Corporate Law
The Cayman Companies Act is derived, to a large extent, from the older Companies Acts of England, but does not follow recent statutory enactments in England and accordingly there are significant differences between the Cayman Companies Act and the current Companies Act of England. In addition, the Cayman Companies Act differs from laws applicable to United States corporations and their shareholders. Set forth below is a summary of certain significant differences between the provisions of the Cayman Companies Act applicable to us and the laws applicable to companies incorporated in the State of Delaware.
Mergers and Similar Arrangements
The Cayman Companies Act permits mergers and consolidations between the Cayman Islands companies and between the Cayman Islands companies and the non-Cayman Islands companies. For these purposes,
(a)
“merger” means the merging of two or more constituent companies and the vesting of their undertaking, property and liabilities in one of such companies as the surviving company, and (b) a “consolidation” means the combination of two or more constituent companies into a consolidated company and the vesting of the undertaking, property and liabilities of such companies to the consolidated company. In order to effect such a merger or consolidation, the directors of each constituent company must approve a written plan of merger or consolidation, which must then be authorized by (a) a special resolution of the shareholders of each constituent company, and (b) such other authorization, if any, as may be specified in such constituent company’s articles of association. The plan must be filed with the Registrar of Companies of the Cayman Islands together with, among other things, a declaration as to the solvency of the consolidated or surviving company, a list of the assets and liabilities of each constituent company and an undertaking that a copy of the certificate of merger or consolidation will be given to the members and creditors of each constituent company and that notification of the merger or consolidation will be published in the Cayman Islands Gazette. Court approval is not required for a merger or consolidation which is effected in compliance with these statutory procedures.
 
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A merger between a Cayman parent company and its Cayman subsidiary or subsidiaries does not require authorization by a resolution of shareholders of that Cayman subsidiary if a copy of the plan of merger is given to every member of that Cayman subsidiary to be merged unless that member agrees otherwise. For this purpose, a company is a “parent” of a subsidiary if it holds issued shares that together represent at least ninety percent (90%) of the votes at a general meeting of the subsidiary.
The consent of each holder of a fixed or floating security interest of a constituent company is required unless this requirement is waived by a court in the Cayman Islands.
Except in certain limited circumstances, a shareholder of a Cayman Islands constituent company who dissents from the merger or consolidation is entitled to payment of the fair value of his or her shares (which, if not agreed between the parties, will be determined by the Cayman Islands court) upon dissenting from a merger or consolidation, provided the dissenting shareholder complies strictly with the procedures set out in the Cayman Companies Act. The exercise of such dissenter rights will preclude the exercise by the dissenting shareholder of any other rights to which he or she might otherwise be entitled by virtue of holding shares, except for the right to seek relief on the grounds that the merger or consolidation is void or unlawful.
Separate from the statutory provisions relating to mergers and consolidations, the Cayman Companies Act also contain statutory provisions that facilitate the reconstruction and amalgamation of companies by way of schemes of arrangement, provided that the arrangement is approved by (a) 75% in value of the shareholders or class of shareholders, as the case may be, or (b) a majority in number representing 75% in value of the creditors or each class of creditors, as the case may be, with whom the arrangement is to be made, that are, in each case, present and voting either in person or by proxy at a meeting, or meetings, convened for that purpose. The convening of the meeting or meetings and subsequently the arrangement must be sanctioned by the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands. While a dissenting shareholder has the right to express to the court the view that the transaction ought not to be approved, the court can be expected to approve the arrangement if it determines that:

the statutory provisions as to the required majority vote have been met;

the shareholders have been fairly represented at the meeting in question and the statutory majority are acting bona fide without coercion of the minority to promote interests adverse to those of the class;

the arrangement is such that may be reasonably approved by an intelligent and honest man of that class acting in respect of his interest; and

the arrangement is not one that would more properly be sanctioned under some other provision of the Cayman Companies Act.
The Cayman Companies Act also contains a statutory power of compulsory acquisition which may facilitate the “squeeze out” of dissenting minority shareholder upon a tender offer. When a tender offer is made and accepted by holders of 90% of the shares affected within four months of the offer being made, the offeror may, within a two-month period commencing on the expiration of such four-month period, require the holders of the remaining shares to transfer such shares to the offeror on the terms of the offer. An objection can be made to the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands but this is unlikely to succeed in the case of an offer which has been so approved unless there is evidence of fraud, bad faith or collusion.
If an arrangement and reconstruction by the way of scheme of arrangement is thus approved, or if a tender offer is made and accepted in accordance with the foregoing statutory procedures, a dissenting shareholder would have no rights comparable to appraisal rights, save that objectors to a takeover offer may apply to the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands for various orders that the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands has a broad discretion to make, which would otherwise ordinarily be available to dissenting shareholders of Delaware corporations, providing rights to receive payment in cash for the judicially determined value of the shares.
Shareholders’ Suits
In principle, we will normally be the proper plaintiff to sue for a wrong done to us as a company and as a general rule, a derivative action may not be brought by a minority shareholder. However, based on English law authorities, which would in all likelihood be of persuasive authority in the Cayman Islands, the Cayman
 
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Islands court can be expected to follow and apply the common law principles (namely the rule in Foss v. Harbottle and the exceptions thereto) so that a non-controlling shareholder may be permitted to commence a class action against or derivative actions in the name of the company to challenge:

an act which is illegal or ultra vires with respect to the company and is therefore incapable of ratification by the shareholders;

an act which, although not ultra vires, requires authorization by a qualified (or special) majority (that is, more than a simple majority) which has not been obtained; and

an act which constitutes a “fraud on the minority” where the wrongdoers are themselves in control of the company.
Indemnification of Directors and Executive Officers and Limitation of Liability
The Cayman Companies Act does not limit the extent to which a company’s memorandum and articles of association may provide for indemnification of officers and directors, except to the extent any such provision may be held by the Cayman Islands courts to be contrary to public policy, such as to provide indemnification against dishonesty, willful default or fraud or the consequences of committing a crime. Our articles of association provide that we shall indemnify our officers and directors against all actions, proceedings, costs, charges, expenses, losses, damages or liabilities incurred or sustained by such directors or officer, other than by reason of such person’s dishonesty, willful default or fraud, in or about the conduct of our company’s business or affairs (including as a result of any mistake of judgment) or in the execution or discharge of his duties, powers, authorities or discretions, including without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, any costs, expenses, losses or liabilities incurred by such director or officer in defending (whether successfully or otherwise) any civil proceedings concerning our company or its affairs in any court whether in the Cayman Islands or elsewhere. This standard of conduct is generally the same as permitted under the Delaware General Corporation Law for a Delaware corporation. In addition, we intend to enter into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers that will provide such persons with additional indemnification beyond that provided in our articles of association.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers or persons controlling us under the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that, in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
Anti-Takeover Provisions in Our Articles
Some provisions of our articles of association may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or management that shareholders may consider favorable, including provisions that authorize our board of directors to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to designate the price, rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of such preferred shares without any further vote or action by our shareholders.
However, under the Cayman Islands law, our directors may only exercise the rights and powers granted to them under our articles of association, as amended and restated from time to time, for a proper purpose and in what they believe in good faith to be in the best interests of our company.
Directors’ Fiduciary Duties
Under Delaware corporate law, a director of a Delaware corporation has a fiduciary duty to the corporation and its shareholders. This duty has two components: the duty of care and the duty of loyalty. The duty of care requires that a director acts in good faith, with the care that an ordinarily prudent person would exercise under similar circumstances. Under this duty, a director must inform himself of, and disclose to shareholders, all material information reasonably available regarding a significant transaction. The duty of loyalty requires that a director acts in a manner he or she reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the corporation. He or she must not use his or her corporate position for personal gain or advantage. This duty prohibits self-dealing by a director and mandates that the best interests of the corporation and its shareholders take precedence over any interest possessed by a director, officer or controlling shareholder and not shared by
 
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the shareholders generally. In general, actions of a director are presumed to have been made on an informed basis, in good faith and in the honest belief that the action taken was in the best interests of the corporation. However, this presumption may be rebutted by evidence of a breach of one of the fiduciary duties. Should such evidence be presented concerning a transaction by a director, a director must prove the procedural fairness of the transaction, and that the transaction was of fair value to the corporation.
As a matter of Cayman Islands law, a director of a Cayman Islands company is in the position of a fiduciary with respect to the company and therefore it is considered that he owes the following duties to the company — a duty to act bona fide in good faith in the best interests of the company, a duty not to make a personal profit based on his or her position as director (unless the company permits him to do so), a duty not to put himself in a position where the interests of the company conflict with his or her personal interest or his or her duty to a third party, and a duty to exercise powers for the purpose for which such powers were intended. A director of a Cayman Islands company owes to the company a duty to act with skill and care. It was previously considered that a director need not exhibit in the performance of his or her duties a greater degree of skill than may reasonably be expected from a person of his or her knowledge and experience. However, English and Commonwealth courts have moved towards an objective standard with regard to the required skill and care and these authorities are likely to be followed in the Cayman Islands.
Shareholder Proposals
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a shareholder has the right to put any proposal before the annual meeting of shareholders, provided it complies with the notice provisions in the governing documents. The Delaware General Corporation Law does not provide shareholders an express right to put any proposal before the annual meeting of shareholders, but in keeping with common law, Delaware corporations generally afford shareholders an opportunity to make proposals and nominations provided that they comply with the notice provisions in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws. A special meeting may be called by the board of directors or any other person authorized to do so in the governing documents, but shareholders may be precluded from calling special meetings.
The Cayman Companies Act provides shareholders with only limited rights to requisition a general meeting, and does not provide shareholders with any right to put any proposal before a general meeting. However, these rights may be provided in a company’s articles of association. Our articles of association allow our shareholders holding in aggregate not less than one-third of the votes attaching to the issued and outstanding shares of our company entitled to vote at general meetings to requisition an extraordinary general meeting of our shareholders, in which case our board is obliged to convene an extraordinary general meeting and to put the resolutions so requisitioned to a vote at such meeting. Our articles of association provide no other right to put any proposals before annual general meetings or extraordinary general meetings. As a Cayman Islands exempted company, we are not obligated by law to call shareholders’ annual general meetings.
Cumulative Voting
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, cumulative voting for elections of directors is not permitted unless the corporation’s certificate of incorporation specifically provides for it. Cumulative voting potentially facilitates the representation of minority shareholders on a board of directors since it permits the minority shareholder to cast all the votes to which the shareholder is entitled on a single director, which increases the shareholder’s voting power with respect to electing such director. The Cayman Islands law does not prohibit cumulative voting, but our articles of association do not provide for cumulative voting. As a result, our shareholders are not afforded any fewer protections or rights on this issue than shareholders of a Delaware corporation.
Removal of Directors
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a director of a corporation with a classified board may be removed only for cause with the approval of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote, unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Under our articles of association, directors may be removed by ordinary resolution of our shareholders. An appointment of a director may be on terms that the director shall automatically retire from office (unless he has sooner vacated office) at the next or a subsequent annual general meeting or upon any specified event or after any specified period in a written agreement between the
 
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company and the director, if any; but no such term shall be implied in the absence of express provision. In addition, a director’s office shall be vacated if the director (i) becomes bankrupt or makes any arrangement or composition with his creditors; (ii) dies or is found to be or becomes of unsound mind; (iii) resigns his office by notice in writing to the company; (iv) without special leave of absence from our board of directors, is absent from three consecutive meetings of the board and the board resolves that his office be vacated or; (v) is removed from office pursuant to any other provisions of our articles of association.
Transactions with Interested Shareholders
The Delaware General Corporation Law contains a business combination statute applicable to Delaware public corporations whereby, unless the corporation has specifically elected not to be governed by such statute by amendment to its certificate of incorporation or bylaws that is approved by its shareholders, it is prohibited from engaging in certain business combinations with an “interested shareholder” for three years following the date that such person becomes an interested shareholder. An interested shareholder generally is a person or a group who or which owns or owned 15% or more of the target’s outstanding voting stock or who or which is an affiliate or associate of the corporation and owned 15% or more of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock within the past three years. This has the effect of limiting the ability of a potential acquirer to make a two-tiered bid for the target in which all shareholders would not be treated equally. The statute does not apply if, among other things, prior to the date on which such shareholder becomes an interested shareholder, the board of directors approves either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the person becoming an interested shareholder. This encourages any potential acquirer of a Delaware corporation to negotiate the terms of any acquisition transaction with the target’s board of directors.
The Cayman Islands law has no comparable statute. As a result, we cannot avail ourselves of the types of protections afforded by the Delaware business combination statute. However, although Cayman Islands law does not regulate transactions between a company and its significant shareholders, the fiduciary duties owed by our directors do require that such transactions must be entered into bona fide in the best interests of the company and for a proper corporate purpose and not with the effect of constituting a fraud on the minority shareholders.
Restructuring.
A company may present a petition to the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands for the appointment of a restructuring officer on the grounds that the company:
(a)   is or is likely to become unable to pay its debts; and
(b)   intends to present a compromise or arrangement to its creditors (or classes thereof) either pursuant to the Companies Act, the law of a foreign country or by way of a consensual restructuring.
The Grand Court may, among other things, make an order appointing a restructuring officer upon hearing of such petition, with such powers and to carry out such functions as the court may order. At any time (i) after the presentation of a petition for the appointment of a restructuring officer but before an order for the appointment of a restructuring officer has been made, and (ii) when an order for the appointment of a restructuring officer is made, until such order has been discharged, no suit, action or other proceedings (other than criminal proceedings) shall be proceeded with or commenced against the company, no resolution to wind up the company shall be passed, and no winding up petition may be presented against the company, except with the leave of the court. However, notwithstanding the presentation of a petition for the appointment of a restructuring officer or the appointment of a restructuring officer, a creditor who has security over the whole or part of the assets of the company is entitled to enforce the security without the leave of the court and without reference to the restructuring officer appointed.
Dissolution; Winding Up
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, unless the board of directors approves the proposal to dissolve, dissolution must be approved by shareholders holding 100% of the total voting power of the corporation. Only if the dissolution is initiated by the board of directors may it be approved by a simple
 
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majority of the corporation’s outstanding shares. Delaware law allows a Delaware corporation to include in its certificate of incorporation a supermajority voting requirement in connection with dissolutions initiated by the board of directors.
Under the Cayman Companies Act, our company may be wound up by either a special resolution of our shareholders or, if our company is unable to pay its debts as they fall due, by an ordinary resolution of our shareholders. In addition, a company may be wound up by an order of the courts of the Cayman Islands. The court has authority to order winding up in a number of specified circumstances including where it is, in the opinion of the court, just and equitable to do so.
Variation of Rights of Shares
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation may vary the rights of a class of shares with the approval of a majority of the outstanding shares of such class, unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Under our articles of association, if our share capital is divided into more than one class of shares, we may materially and adversely vary the rights attached to any class only with the consent in writing of the holders of not less than two-thirds of the issued shares of that class or with the sanction of an ordinary resolution passed at a separate meeting of the holders of the shares of that class.
Amendment of Governing Documents
Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation’s certificate of incorporation may be amended only if adopted and declared advisable by the board of directors and approved by a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote, and the bylaws may be amended with the approval of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote and may, if so provided in the certificate of incorporation, also be amended by the board of directors. Under the Cayman Companies Act and our articles of association, our memorandum and articles of association may only be amended by special resolution of our shareholders.
Rights of Non-Resident or Foreign Shareholders
There are no limitations imposed by our articles of association on the rights of non-resident or foreign shareholders to hold or exercise voting rights on our shares. In addition, there are no provisions in our articles of association that require the Company to disclose shareholder ownership above any particular ownership threshold.
Directors’ Power to Issue Shares
Under our articles of association, our board of directors is empowered to issue or allot shares or grant options, restricted shares, RSUs, share appreciation rights, dividend equivalent rights, warrants and analogous equity-based rights with or without preferred, deferred, qualified or other special rights or restrictions. In particular, pursuant to our articles of association, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the shareholders, to issue all or any part of our capital and to fix the designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions therefrom, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of our ordinary shares.
History of Securities Issuances
The following is a summary of our securities issuances since our inception.
Ordinary Shares
Upon our incorporation in the Cayman Islands in February 2018 in connection with our offshore reorganization, we issued 1,000, 1,000, 1,000 and 1,000 shares to Flueqel Ltd., Ouroboros Ltd., Urknall Ltd. and JPKONG LTD respectfully, for a consideration at a then par value of US$0.0001 per share on the same day.
In order to reflect the then onshore interest of our various stakeholders in Hangzhou Canaan, our company issued and allotted a total of 1,000,000 shares for a consideration at a then par value of US$0.0001
 
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per share to the British Virgin Islands companies held by the then shareholders of Hangzhou Canaan based on their relative interests in Hangzhou Canaan.
Share Repurchase Program
We announced a share repurchase program approved by our board of directors on September 8, 2020, under which we may repurchase up to US$10 million worth of our outstanding ADSs and/or Class A ordinary shares over a period of twelve months. In addition, we announced a new share repurchase program approved by our board of directors on September 20, 2021, under which we may repurchase up to US$20 million worth of our outstanding ADSs and/or Class A ordinary shares over a period of twelve months. On March 16, 2022, we announced another share repurchase program approved by our board of directors, under which we may repurchase up to US$100 million worth of our outstanding ADSs and/or Class A ordinary shares over a period of twenty-four months. The repurchases have been through various means, including open market transactions at prevailing market prices, privately negotiated transactions, block trades or any combination thereof. The repurchases have been, and will be, effected in compliance with Rule 10b5-1 and/or Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act, and our insider trading policy. The number of ADSs repurchased and the timing of repurchases depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, price, trading volume and general market conditions, along with our working capital requirements and general business conditions. As of the date of this prospectus, we have completed the repurchase under the abovementioned share repurchase programs.
Share Options
2018 Share Incentive Plan
We adopted a share incentive plan in April 2018, or the 2018 Share Incentive Plan, which provided for the grant of restricted ordinary shares. We have granted all 25,812 restricted ordinary shares, before the one-for- 2,000 share division, authorized under the 2018 Share Award Scheme. As of the date of this prospectus, after the share division, 51,624,000 restricted ordinary shares exist under the 2018 Share Incentive Plan, out of which 9,244,516 restricted ordinary shares have been canceled due to departing employees, 16,000,000 restricted ordinary shares and 13,928,205 restricted share units have vested in November 2019, 4,002,052 restricted share units have vested on November 21, 2020 and 5,757,945 restricted share units have vested on November 21, 2021, respectively.
Amended and Restated 2018 Share Incentive Plan
In April 2021, our board of directors approved an amendment to the 2018 Share Incentive Plan, or the Amended and Restated 2018 Share Incentive Plan. Pursuant to the Amended and Restated 2018 Share Incentive Plan, in April 2021 and on every January 1 thereafter during which the 2018 Share Incentive Plan remains in effect, the maximum aggregate number of ordinary shares which may be subject to awards under the 2018 Share Incentive Plan will be automatically increased by 15.0% of the total number of ordinary shares issued and outstanding on December 31 of the preceding calendar year, if and whenever the unallocated ordinary shares which may be issuable under the 2018 Share Incentive Plan account for less than 3% of the then total issued and outstanding ordinary shares. In May and September 2021, our board of directors approved an increase by 94,927,065 ordinary shares and 63,774,885 ordinary shares, representing 4.0% and 2.7% of total issued and outstanding shares at the end of 2021 pursuant to the Amended and Restated 2018 Share Incentive Plan, respectively. As of December 31, 2022, 299,179,140 restricted share units and 114,000,000 share options have been granted under the Amended and Restated 2018 Share Incentive Plan, 154,592,850 restricted share units have vested and 29,338,540 restricted share units have been cancelled due to departing employees.
For additional information, see “Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees — B. Compensation — Share Incentive Plan” in our annual report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES
American Depositary Shares
The Bank of New York Mellon, as depositary, will register and deliver American Depositary Shares, also referred to as ADSs. Each ADS will represent 15 Class A ordinary shares (or a right to receive 15 Class A ordinary shares) deposited with The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, as custodian for the depositary in Hong Kong. Each ADS will also represent any other securities, cash or other property that may be held by the depositary. The deposited shares together with any other securities, cash or other property held by the depositary are referred to as the deposited securities. The depositary’s office at which the ADSs will be administered and its principal executive office is located at 240 Greenwich Street, New York, New York 10286.
You may hold ADSs either (A) directly (i) by having an American Depositary Receipt, also referred to as an ADR, which is a certificate evidencing a specific number of ADSs, registered in your name, or (ii) by having uncertificated ADSs registered in your name, or (B) indirectly by holding a security entitlement in ADSs through your broker or other financial institution that is a direct or indirect participant in The Depository Trust Company, also called DTC. If you hold ADSs directly, you are a registered ADS holder, also referred to as an ADS holder. This description assumes you are an ADS holder. If you hold the ADSs indirectly, you must rely on the procedures of your broker or other financial institution to assert the rights of ADS holders described in this section. You should consult with your broker or financial institution to find out what those procedures are.
Registered holders of uncertificated ADSs will receive statements from the depositary confirming their holdings.
As an ADS holder, we will not treat you as one of our shareholders and you will not have shareholder rights. Cayman Islands law governs shareholder rights. The depositary will be the holder of the shares underlying your ADSs. As a registered holder of ADSs, you will have ADS holder rights. A deposit agreement among us, the depositary, ADS holders and all other persons indirectly or beneficially holding ADSs sets out ADS holder rights as well as the rights and obligations of the depositary. New York law governs the deposit agreement and the ADSs. The rights of holders of Class A ordinary shares (including Class A ordinary shares represented by ADSs) are governed by the laws of the Cayman Islands.
The following is a summary of the material provisions of the deposit agreement. For more complete information, you should read the entire deposit agreement and the form of ADR. See “Where You Can Find More Information” for directions on how to obtain copies of those documents.
Dividends and Other Distributions
How will you receive dividends and other distributions on the shares?
The depositary has agreed to pay or distribute to ADS holders the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on shares or other deposited securities, upon payment or deduction of its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of shares your ADSs represent.
Cash.   The depositary will convert any cash dividend or other cash distribution we pay on the shares into U.S. dollars, if it can do so on a reasonable basis and can transfer the U.S. dollars to the United States. If that is not possible or if any government approval is needed and cannot be obtained, the deposit agreement allows the depositary to distribute the foreign currency only to those ADS holders to whom it is possible to do so. It will hold the foreign currency it cannot convert for the account of the ADS holders who have not been paid. It will not invest the foreign currency and it will not be liable for any interest.
Before making a distribution, any withholding taxes, or other governmental charges that must be paid will be deducted. See “Taxation”. The depositary will distribute only whole U.S. dollars and cents and will round fractional cents to the nearest whole cent. If the exchange rates fluctuate during a time when the depositary cannot convert the foreign currency, you may lose some of the value of the distribution.
 
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Shares.   The depositary may distribute additional ADSs representing any shares we distribute as a dividend or free distribution. The depositary will only distribute whole ADSs. It will sell shares which would require it to deliver a fraction of an ADS (or ADSs representing those shares) and distribute the net proceeds in the same way as it does with cash. If the depositary does not distribute additional ADSs, the outstanding ADSs will also represent the new shares. The depositary may sell a portion of the distributed shares (or ADSs representing those shares) sufficient to pay its fees and expenses in connection with that distribution.
Rights to purchase additional shares.   If we offer holders of our securities any rights to subscribe for additional shares or any other rights, the depositary may (i) exercise those rights on behalf of ADS holders, (ii) distribute those rights to ADS holders or (iii) sell those rights and distribute the net proceeds to ADS holders, in each case after deduction or upon payment of its fees and expenses. To the extent the depositary does not do any of those things, it will allow the rights to lapse. In that case, you will receive no value for them. The depositary will exercise or distribute rights only if we ask it to and provide satisfactory assurances to the depositary that it is legal to do so. If the depositary will exercise rights, it will purchase the securities to which the rights relate and distribute those securities or, in the case of shares, new ADSs representing the new shares, to subscribing ADS holders, but only if ADS holders have paid the exercise price to the depositary. U.S. securities laws may restrict the ability of the depositary to distribute rights or ADSs or other securities issued on exercise of rights to all or certain ADS holders, and the securities distributed may be subject to restrictions on transfer.
Other Distributions.   The depositary will send to ADS holders anything else we distribute on deposited securities by any means it thinks is legal, fair and practical. If it cannot make the distribution in that way, the depositary has a choice. It may decide to sell what we distributed and distribute the net proceeds, in the same way as it does with cash. Or, it may decide to hold what we distributed, in which case ADSs will also represent the newly distributed property. However, the depositary is not required to distribute any securities (other than ADSs) to ADS holders unless it receives satisfactory evidence from us that it is legal to make that distribution. The depositary may sell a portion of the distributed securities or property sufficient to pay its fees and expenses in connection with that distribution. U.S. securities laws may restrict the ability of the depositary to distribute securities to all or certain ADS holders, and the securities distributed may be subject to restrictions on transfer.
The depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any ADS holders. We have no obligation to register ADSs, shares, rights or other securities under the Securities Act. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, shares, rights or anything else to ADS holders. This means that you may not receive the distributions we make on our shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to you.
Deposit, Withdrawal and Cancelation
How are ADSs issued?
The depositary will deliver ADSs if you or your broker deposits shares or evidence of rights to receive shares with the custodian. Upon payment of its fees and expenses and of any taxes or charges, such as stamp taxes or stock transfer taxes or fees, the depositary will register the appropriate number of ADSs in the names you request and will deliver the ADSs to or upon the order of the person or persons that made the deposit.
How can ADS holders withdraw the deposited securities?
You may surrender your ADSs to the depositary for the purpose of withdrawal. Upon payment of its fees and expenses and of any taxes or charges, such as stamp taxes or stock transfer taxes or fees, the depositary will deliver the shares and any other deposited securities underlying the ADSs to the ADS holder or a person the ADS holder designates at the office of the custodian. Or, at your request, risk and expense, the depositary will deliver the deposited securities at its office, if feasible. However, the depositary is not required to accept surrender of ADSs to the extent it would require delivery of a fraction of a deposited share or other security. The depositary may charge you a fee and its expenses for instructing the custodian regarding delivery of deposited securities.
 
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How do ADS holders interchange between certificated ADSs and uncertificated ADSs?
You may surrender your ADR to the depositary for the purpose of exchanging your ADR for uncertificated ADSs. The depositary will cancel that ADR and will send to the ADS holder a statement confirming that the ADS holder is the registered holder of uncertificated ADSs. Upon receipt by the depositary of a proper instruction from a registered holder of uncertificated ADSs requesting the exchange of uncertificated ADSs for certificated ADSs, the depositary will execute and deliver to the ADS holder an ADR evidencing those ADSs.
Voting Rights
How do you vote?
ADS holders may instruct the depositary how to vote the number of deposited shares their ADSs represent. If we request the depositary to solicit your voting instructions (and we are not required to do so), the depositary will notify you of a shareholders’ meeting and send or make voting materials available to you. Those materials will describe the matters to be voted on and explain how ADS holders may instruct the depositary how to vote. For instructions to be valid, they must reach the depositary by a date set by the depositary. The depositary will try, as far as practical, subject to the laws of the Cayman Islands and the provisions of our articles of association or similar documents, to vote or to have its agents vote the shares or other deposited securities as instructed by ADS holders or as described in the following sentence. If we asked the depositary to solicit your instructions at least 45 days before the meeting date but the depositary does not receive voting instructions from you by the specified date and we confirm to the depositary that:

we wish to receive a proxy to vote uninstructed shares;

we reasonably do not know of any substantial shareholder opposition to the proxy item(s); and

the proxy item(s) is not materially adverse to the interests of shareholders,
then the depositary will consider you to have authorized and directed it to give a discretionary proxy to a person designated by us to vote the number of deposited securities represented by your ADSs as to the proxy item(s). If we do not request the depositary to solicit your voting instructions, you can still send voting instructions, and, in that case, the depositary may try to vote as you instruct, but it is not required to do so.
Except by instructing the depositary as described above, you won’t be able to exercise voting rights unless you surrender your ADSs and withdraw the shares. However, you may not know about the meeting enough in advance to withdraw the shares. In any event, the depositary will not exercise any discretion in voting deposited securities and it will only vote or attempt to vote as instructed.
We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote your shares. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise voting rights and there may be nothing you can do if your shares are not voted as you requested.
In order to give you a reasonable opportunity to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of voting rights relating to Deposited Securities, if we request the Depositary to act, we agree to give the depositary notice of any such meeting and details concerning the matters to be voted upon at least 45 days in advance of the meeting date.
 
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Fees and Expenses
Persons depositing or withdrawing shares or ADS holders must pay: For:
$5.00 (or less) per 100 ADSs (or portion of 100 ADSs) Issuance of ADSs, including issuances resulting from a distribution of shares or rights or other property
Cancelation of ADSs for the purpose of withdrawal, including if the deposit agreement terminates
Persons depositing or withdrawing shares or ADS holders must pay: For:
$.05 (or less) per ADS Any cash distribution to ADS holders
A fee equivalent to the fee that would be payable if securities distributed to you had been shares and the shares had been deposited for issuance of ADSs Distribution of securities distributed to holders of deposited securities (including rights) that are distributed by the depositary to ADS holders
$.05 (or less) per ADS per calendar year Depositary services
Registration or transfer fees Transfer and registration of shares on our share register to or from the name of the depositary or its agent when you deposit or withdraw shares
Expenses of the depositary Cable (including SWIFT) and facsimile transmissions (when expressly provided in the deposit agreement)
Converting foreign currency to U.S. dollars
Taxes and other governmental charges the depositary or the custodian has to pay on any ADSs or shares underlying ADSs, such as stock transfer taxes, stamp duty or withholding taxes As necessary
Any charges incurred by the depositary or its agents for servicing the deposited securities As necessary
The depositary collects its fees for delivery and surrender of ADSs directly from investors depositing shares or surrendering ADSs for the purpose of withdrawal or from intermediaries acting for them. The depositary collects fees for making distributions to investors by deducting those fees from the amounts distributed or by selling a portion of distributable property to pay the fees. The depositary may collect its annual fee for depositary services by deduction from cash distributions or by directly billing investors or by charging the book-entry system accounts of participants acting for them. The depositary may collect any of its fees by deduction from any cash distribution payable (or by selling a portion of securities or other property distributable) to ADS holders that are obligated to pay those fees. The depositary may generally refuse to provide fee-attracting services until its fees for those services are paid.
From time to time, the depositary may make payments to us to reimburse us for costs and expenses generally arising out of establishment and maintenance of the ADS program, waive fees and expenses for services provided to us by the depositary or share revenue from the fees collected from ADS holders. In performing its duties under the deposit agreement, the depositary may use brokers, dealers, foreign currency dealers or other service providers that are owned by or affiliated with the depositary and that may earn or share fees, spreads or commissions.
The depositary may convert currency itself or through any of its affiliates and, in those cases, acts as principal for its own account and not as agent, advisor, broker or fiduciary on behalf of any other person and
 
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earns revenue, including, without limitation, transaction spreads, that it will retain for its own account. The revenue is based on, among other things, the difference between the exchange rate assigned to the currency conversion made under the deposit agreement and the rate that the depositary or its affiliate receives when buying or selling foreign currency for its own account. The depositary makes no representation that the exchange rate used or obtained in any currency conversion under the deposit agreement will be the most favorable rate that could be obtained at the time or that the method by which that rate will be determined will be the most favorable to ADS holders, subject to the depositary’s obligations under the deposit agreement. The methodology used to determine exchange rates used in currency conversions is available upon request.
Payment of Taxes
You will be responsible for any taxes or other governmental charges payable on your ADSs or on the deposited securities represented by any of your ADSs. The depositary may refuse to register any transfer of your ADSs or allow you to withdraw the deposited securities represented by your ADSs until those taxes or other charges are paid. It may apply payments owed to you or sell deposited securities represented by your ADSs to pay any taxes owed and you will remain liable for any deficiency. If the depositary sells deposited securities, it will, if appropriate, reduce the number of ADSs to reflect the sale and pay to ADS holders any proceeds, or send to ADS holders any property, remaining after it has paid the taxes.
Tender and Exchange Offers; Redemption, Replacement or Cancelation of Deposited Securities
The depositary will not tender deposited securities in any voluntary tender or exchange offer unless instructed to do so by an ADS holder surrendering ADSs and subject to any conditions or procedures the depositary may establish.
If deposited securities are redeemed for cash in a transaction that is mandatory for the depositary as a holder of deposited securities, the depositary will call for surrender of a corresponding number of ADSs and distribute the net redemption money to the holders of called ADSs upon surrender of those ADSs.
If there is any change in the deposited securities such as a sub-division, combination or other reclassification, or any merger, consolidation, recapitalization or reorganization affecting the issuer of deposited securities in which the depositary receives new securities in exchange for or in lieu of the old deposited securities, the depositary will hold those replacement securities as deposited securities under the deposit agreement. However, if the depositary decides it would not be lawful and practical to hold the replacement securities because those securities could not be distributed to ADS holders or for any other reason, the depositary may instead sell the replacement securities and distribute the net proceeds upon surrender of the ADSs.
If there is a replacement of the deposited securities and the depositary will continue to hold the replacement securities, the depositary may distribute new ADSs representing the new deposited securities or ask you to surrender your outstanding ADRs in exchange for new ADRs identifying the new deposited securities.
If there are no deposited securities underlying ADSs, including if the deposited securities are canceled, or if the deposited securities underlying ADSs have become apparently worthless, the depositary may call for surrender of those ADSs or cancel those ADSs upon notice to the ADS holders.
Amendment and Termination
How may the deposit agreement be amended?
We may agree with the depositary to amend the deposit agreement and the ADRs without your consent for any reason. If an amendment adds or increases fees or charges, except for taxes and other governmental charges or expenses of the depositary for registration fees, facsimile costs, delivery charges or similar items, or prejudices a substantial right of ADS holders, it will not become effective for outstanding ADSs until 30 days after the depositary notifies ADS holders of the amendment. At the time an amendment becomes effective, you are considered, by continuing to hold your ADSs, to agree to the amendment and to be bound by the ADRs and the deposit agreement as amended.
 
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How may the deposit agreement be terminated?
The depositary will initiate termination of the deposit agreement if we instruct it to do so. The depositary may initiate termination of the deposit agreement if

60 days have passed since the depositary told us it wants to resign but a successor depositary has not been appointed and accepted its appointment;

we delist the ADSs from an exchange in the United States on which they were listed and do not list the ADSs on another exchange in the United States or make arrangements for trading of ADSs on the U.S. over-the-counter market;

we delist our shares from an exchange outside the United States on which they were listed and do not list the shares on another exchange outside the United States;

the depositary has reason to believe the ADSs have become, or will become, ineligible for registration on Form F-6 under the Securities Act of 1933;

we appear to be insolvent or enter insolvency proceedings;

all or substantially all the value of the deposited securities has been distributed either in cash or in the form of securities;

there are no deposited securities underlying the ADSs or the underlying deposited securities have become apparently worthless; or

there has been a replacement of deposited securities.
If the deposit agreement will terminate, the depositary will notify ADS holders at least 90 days before the termination date. At any time after the termination date, the depositary may sell the deposited securities. After that, the depositary will hold the money it received on the sale, as well as any other cash it is holding under the deposit agreement, unsegregated and without liability for interest, for the pro rata benefit of the ADS holders that have not surrendered their ADSs. Normally, the depositary will sell as soon as practicable after the termination date.
After the termination date and before the depositary sells, ADS holders can still surrender their ADSs and receive delivery of deposited securities, except that the depositary may refuse to accept a surrender for the purpose of withdrawing deposited securities or reverse previously accepted surrenders of that kind that have not settled if it would interfere with the selling process. The depositary may refuse to accept a surrender for the purpose of withdrawing sale proceeds until all the deposited securities have been sold. The depositary will continue to collect distributions on deposited securities, but, after the termination date, the depositary is not required to register any transfer of ADSs or distribute any dividends or other distributions on deposited securities to the ADSs holder (until they surrender their ADSs) or give any notices or perform any other duties under the deposit agreement except as described in this paragraph.
Limitations on Obligations and Liability
Limits on our Obligations and the Obligations of the Depositary; Limits on Liability to Holders of ADSs
The deposit agreement expressly limits our obligations and the obligations of the depositary. It also limits our liability and the liability of the depositary. We and the depositary:

are only obligated to take the actions specifically set forth in the deposit agreement without negligence or bad faith, and the depositary will not be a fiduciary or have any fiduciary duty to holders of ADSs;

are not liable if we are or it is prevented or delayed by law or by events or circumstances beyond our or its control from performing our or its obligations under the deposit agreement;

are not liable if we or it exercises discretion permitted under the deposit agreement;

are not liable for the inability of any holder of ADSs to benefit from any distribution on deposited securities that is not made available to holders of ADSs under the terms of the deposit agreement, or for any special, consequential or punitive damages for any breach of the terms of the deposit agreement;
 
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have no obligation to become involved in a lawsuit or other proceeding related to the ADSs or the deposit agreement on your behalf or on behalf of any other person;

may rely upon any documents we believe or it believes in good faith to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person;

are not liable for the acts or omissions of any securities depository, clearing agency or settlement system; and

the depositary has no duty to make any determination or provide any information as to our tax status, or any liability for any tax consequences that may be incurred by ADS holders as a result of owning or holding ADSs or be liable for the inability or failure of an ADS holder to obtain the benefit of a foreign tax credit, reduced rate of withholding or refund of amounts withheld in respect of tax or any other tax benefit.
In the deposit agreement, we and the depositary agree to indemnify each other under certain circumstances.
Requirements for Depositary Actions
Before the depositary will deliver or register a transfer of ADSs, make a distribution on ADSs, or permit withdrawal of shares, the depositary may require:

payment of stock transfer or other taxes or other governmental charges and transfer or registration fees charged by third parties for the transfer of any shares or other deposited securities;

satisfactory proof of the identity and genuineness of any signature or other information it deems necessary; and

compliance with regulations it may establish, from time to time, consistent with the deposit agreement, including presentation of transfer documents.
The depositary may refuse to deliver ADSs or register transfers of ADSs when the transfer books of the depositary or our transfer books are closed or at any time if the depositary or we think it advisable to do so.
Your Right to Receive the Shares Underlying your ADSs
ADS holders have the right to cancel their ADSs and withdraw the underlying shares at any time except:

when temporary delays arise because: (i) the depositary has closed its transfer books or we have closed our transfer books; (ii) the transfer of shares is blocked to permit voting at a shareholders’ meeting; or (iii) we are paying a dividend on our shares;

when you owe money to pay fees, taxes and similar charges; or

when it is necessary to prohibit withdrawals in order to comply with any laws or governmental regulations that apply to ADSs or to the withdrawal of shares or other deposited securities.
This right of withdrawal may not be limited by any other provision of the deposit agreement.
Direct Registration System
In the deposit agreement, all parties to the deposit agreement acknowledge that the Direct Registration System, also referred to as DRS, and Profile Modification System, also referred to as Profile, will apply to the ADSs. DRS is a system administered by DTC that facilitates interchange between registered holding of uncertificated ADSs and holding of security entitlements in ADSs through DTC and a DTC participant. Profile is a feature of DRS that allows a DTC participant, claiming to act on behalf of a registered holder of uncertificated ADSs, to direct the depositary to register a transfer of those ADSs to DTC or its nominee and to deliver those ADSs to the DTC account of that DTC participant without receipt by the depositary of prior authorization from the ADS holder to register that transfer.
In connection with and in accordance with the arrangements and procedures relating to DRS/Profile, the parties to the deposit agreement understand that the depositary will not determine whether the DTC
 
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participant that is claiming to be acting on behalf of an ADS holder in requesting registration of transfer and delivery as described in the paragraph above has the actual authority to act on behalf of the ADS holder (notwithstanding any requirements under the Uniform Commercial Code). In the deposit agreement, the parties agree that the depositary’s reliance on and compliance with instructions received by the depositary through the DRS/Profile system and in accordance with the deposit agreement will not constitute negligence or bad faith on the part of the depositary.
Shareholder communications; inspection of register of holders of ADSs
The depositary will make available for your inspection at its office all communications that it receives from us as a holder of deposited securities that we make generally available to holders of deposited securities. The depositary will send you copies of those communications or otherwise make those communications available to you if we ask it to. You have a right to inspect the register of holders of ADSs, but not for the purpose of contacting those holders about a matter unrelated to our business or the ADSs.
Waiver of Jury Trial
The deposit agreement, the ADRs and the ADSs will be interpreted in accordance with the laws of the State of New York. The rights of holders of Class A ordinary shares (including Class A ordinary shares represented by ADSs) are governed by the laws of the Cayman Islands.
The deposit agreement provides that, to the extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial of any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our Class A ordinary shares, the ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under U.S. federal securities laws. If we or the depositary opposed a jury trial demand based on the waiver, the court would determine whether the waiver was enforceable on the facts and circumstances of that case in accordance with applicable case law. However, you cannot waive our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED SHARES
The particular terms of each issue or series of preferred shares will be described in the related prospectus supplement. This description will include, where applicable, a description of:

the title and nominal value of the preferred shares;

the number of preferred shares we are offering;

the liquidation preference per preferred share, if any;

the issue price per preferred share (or if applicable, the calculation formula of the issue price per preferred share);

whether preferential subscription rights will be issued to existing shareholders;

the dividend rate per preferred share, dividend period and payment dates and method of calculation for dividends;

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

our right, if any, to defer payment of dividends and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred shares as to dividend rights (preferred dividend if any) and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up the Company;

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

any listing of the preferred shares on any securities exchange or market;

whether the preferred shares will be convertible into our ordinary shares (including in the form of ADSs) or preferred shares of another category, and, if applicable, conditions of an automatic conversion into ordinary shares (including in the form of ADSs), if any, the conversion period, the conversion price, or how such price will be calculated, and under what circumstances it may be adjusted;

voting rights, if any, of the preferred shares;

preemption rights, if any;

other restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment, if any;

whether interests in the preferred shares will be represented by American Depositary Preferred Shares;

a discussion of any material or special Cayman Islands or United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred shares;

any limitations on issuances of any class or series of preferred shares ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred shares being issued as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

any rights attached to the preferred shares regarding the corporate governance of our company, which may include, for example representation rights to the board of directors; and

any other specific terms, rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications or restrictions of the preferred shares.
Our board of directors may cause the Company to issue from time to time, out of the authorized share capital of the Company (other than the authorized but unissued ordinary shares), series of preferred shares in their absolute discretion and without approval of the shareholders; provided, however, before any preferred shares of any such series are issued, our board of directors shall by resolution of directors determine, with respect to any series of preferred shares, the terms and rights of that series.
When we issue preferred shares under this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, the shares will be fully paid and non-assessable and will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.
 
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The issuance of preferred shares could adversely affect the voting power of holders of ordinary shares and ADSs and reduce the likelihood that holders of ordinary shares and ADSs will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. The issuance could have the effect of decreasing the market price of our ADSs. The issuance of preferred shares also could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of our company.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
The following summary of certain provisions of the warrants does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the provisions of the warrant agreement that will be filed with the SEC in connection with the offering of such warrants.
General
We may issue warrants to purchase ordinary shares, including ordinary shares represented by ADSs. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities and may be attached to, or separate from, such securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency for or with holders or beneficial owners of warrants. The terms of any warrants to be issued and a description of the material provisions of the applicable warrant agreement will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the following terms of any warrants in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered:

the title of such warrants;

the aggregate number of such warrants;

the price or prices at which such warrants will be issued and exercised;

the currency or currencies in which the price of such warrants will be payable;

the securities purchasable upon exercise of such warrants;

the date on which the right to exercise such warrants shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which such warrants are issued and the number of such warrants issued with each such security;

if applicable, the date on and after which such warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

any material Cayman Islands or United States federal income tax consequences;

the antidilution provisions of the warrants, if any; and
any other terms of such warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of such warrants.
Amendments and Supplements to Warrant Agreement
We and the warrant agent may amend or supplement the warrant agreement for a series of warrants without the consent of the holders of the warrants issued thereunder to effect changes that are not inconsistent with the provisions of the warrants and that do not materially and adversely affect the interests of the holders of the warrants.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS
The following summary of certain provisions of the subscription rights does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the provisions of the certificate evidencing the subscription rights that will be filed with the SEC in connection with the offering of such subscription rights.
General
We may issue subscription rights to purchase ordinary shares, including ordinary shares represented by ADSs. Subscription rights may be issued independently or together with any other offered security and may or may not be transferable by the person purchasing or receiving the subscription rights. In connection with any subscription rights offering to our shareholders, we may enter into a standby underwriting arrangement with one or more underwriters pursuant to which such underwriters will purchase any offered securities remaining unsubscribed for after such subscription rights offering. In connection with a subscription rights offering to our shareholders, we will distribute certificates evidencing the subscription rights and a prospectus supplement to our shareholders on the record date that we set for receiving subscription rights in such subscription rights offering.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the following terms of subscription rights in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered:

the title of such subscription rights;

the securities for which such subscription rights are exercisable;

the exercise price for such subscription rights;

the number of such subscription rights issued to each shareholder;

the extent to which such subscription rights are transferable;

if applicable, a discussion of the material Cayman Islands or United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the issuance or exercise of such subscription rights;

the date on which the right to exercise such subscription rights shall commence, and the date on which such rights shall expire (subject to any extension);

the extent to which such subscription rights include an over-subscription privilege with respect to unsubscribed securities;

if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or other purchase arrangement that we may enter into in connection with the subscription rights offering; and

any other terms of such subscription rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of such subscription rights.
Exercise of Subscription Rights
Each subscription right will entitle the holder of the subscription right to purchase for cash such amount of securities at such exercise price as shall be set forth in, or be determinable as set forth in, the prospectus supplement relating to the subscription rights offered thereby. Subscription rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for such subscription rights set forth in the prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, all unexercised subscription rights will become void.
Subscription rights may be exercised as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the subscription rights offered thereby. Upon receipt of payment and the subscription rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the subscription rights agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will forward, as soon as practicable, the ordinary shares purchasable upon such exercise. We may determine to offer any unsubscribed offered securities directly to persons other than shareholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby underwriting arrangements, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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The following summary of certain provisions of the units does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the provisions of the certificate evidencing the units that will be filed with the SEC in connection with the offering of such units.
We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder, with the rights and obligations of a holder, of each security included in the unit. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date or upon the occurrence of a specified event or occurrence.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

any unit agreement under which the units will be issued;

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
The following summary of certain provisions of the units does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the provisions of the certificate evidencing the units that will be filed with the SEC in connection with the offering of such units.
We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder, with the rights and obligations of a holder, of each security included in the unit. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date or upon the occurrence of a specified event or occurrence.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

any unit agreement under which the units will be issued;

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form.
 
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ENFORCEABILITY OF CIVIL LIABILITIES
We are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands as an exempted company with limited liability. We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands because of certain benefits associated with being a Cayman Islands company, such as political and economic stability, an effective judicial system, a favorable tax system, the absence of foreign exchange control or currency restrictions and the availability of professional and support services. However, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws as compared to the United States and provides protections for investors to a lesser extent. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to sue before the federal courts of the United States.
Most of our operations are conducted in China, and most of our assets are located in China. In addition, most of our directors and officers are residents of jurisdictions other than the United States and all or a substantial portion of their assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon us or these persons, or to enforce against us or them judgments obtained in United States courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States. It may also be difficult for you to enforce in United States courts judgments obtained in United States courts based on the civil liability provisions of the United States federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors.
We have appointed Cogency Global Inc. as our agent to receive service of process with respect to any action brought against us in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York under the federal securities laws of the U.S. or of any state in the U.S. or any action brought against us in the Supreme Court of the State of New York in the County of New York under the securities laws of the State of New York.
Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP, our counsel as to Cayman Islands law, has advised us that the courts of the Cayman Islands are unlikely (1) to recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained against us or our directors or officers that are predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or the securities laws of any state in the United States, or (2) in original actions brought in the Cayman Islands to impose liabilities against us or our directors or officers that are predicated upon the federal securities laws of the United States or the securities laws of any state in the United States so far as the liabilities imposed by those provisions are penal in nature.
In addition, Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP has advised us that although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the federal or state courts of the United States (and the Cayman Islands are not a party to any treaties for the reciprocal enforcement or recognition of such judgments), a judgment obtained in such jurisdiction will be recognized and enforced in the courts of the Cayman Islands at common law, without any re-examination of the merits of the underlying dispute, by an action commenced on the foreign judgment debt in the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands, provided such judgment (i) is given by a foreign court of competent jurisdiction, (ii) imposes on the judgment debtor a liability to pay a liquidated sum for which the judgment has been given, (iii) is final and conclusive, (iv) is not in respect of taxes, a fine or a penalty, (v) is not inconsistent with a Cayman Islands judgment in respect of the same matter, and (vi) is not impeachable on the grounds of fraud and was not obtained in a manner and is not of a kind the enforcement of which is contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands. A Cayman Islands court may stay enforcement proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere.
Commerce & Finance Law Offices, our PRC legal adviser, has advised us that the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are provided for under the PRC Civil Procedure Law. PRC courts may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of the PRC Civil Procedure Law based either on treaties between China and the country where the judgment is made or on principles of reciprocity between jurisdictions. Commerce & Finance Law Offices has advised us further that under PRC law, courts in the PRC will not recognize or enforce a foreign judgment against us or our directors and officers if they decide that the judgment violates the basic principles of PRC law or national sovereignty, security or social public interest. As there existed no treaty or other form of reciprocity between China and the United States governing the recognition and enforcement of judgments as of the date of this prospectus, including those predicated upon the liability provisions of the United States federal securities laws, there is uncertainty whether and on what basis a PRC court would enforce judgments rendered by United States courts. In addition, because there is no treaty or other form of reciprocity between the Cayman Islands and China
 
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governing the recognition and enforcement of judgments as of the date of this prospectus, there is further uncertainty as to whether and on what basis a PRC court would enforce judgments rendered by a Cayman Islands court.
 
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TAXATION
Certain income tax considerations relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of any of the securities offered by this prospectus will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the offering of those securities.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus (1) to or through underwriters or dealers, (2) directly to purchasers, including our affiliates, (3) through agents, or (4) through a combination of any these methods. The securities may be distributed at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, market prices prevailing at the time of sale, prices related to the prevailing market prices, or negotiated prices. The prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the offering, including the following information, if applicable:

the name or names of any dealers or agents;

the name or names of any managing underwriter or underwriters;

the purchase price of the securities;

the net proceeds from the sale of the securities;

any delayed delivery arrangements;

any underwriting discounts, commissions and other items constituting underwriters’ compensation;

any offering price to the public;

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

any commissions paid to agents.
Sale through underwriters or dealers
If underwriters are used in the sale, the underwriters will acquire the securities for their own account, including through underwriting, purchase, security lending or repurchase agreements. The underwriters may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions. Underwriters may sell the securities in order to facilitate transactions in any of our other securities (described in this prospectus or otherwise), including other public or private transactions and short sales. Underwriters may offer securities to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions, and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all the offered securities if they purchase any of them. The underwriters may change from time to time any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers. The prospectus supplement will include the names of the principal underwriters the respective amount of securities underwritten, the nature of the obligation of the underwriters to take the securities and the nature of any material relationship between an underwriter and us.
If dealers are used in the sale of securities offered through this prospectus, we will sell the securities to them as principals. They may then resell those securities to the public at varying prices determined by the dealers at the time of resale. The prospectus supplement will include the names of the dealers and the terms of the transaction.
Direct sales and sales through agents
We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus directly. In this case, no underwriters or agents would be involved. Such securities may also be sold through agents designated from time to time. The prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities and will describe any commissions payable to the agent by us. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, any agent will agree to use its reasonable best efforts to solicit purchases for the period of its appointment.
We may sell the securities directly to institutional investors or others who may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any sale of those securities. The terms of any such sales will be described in the prospectus supplement.
Delayed delivery contracts
If the prospectus supplement indicates, we may authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers from certain types of institutions to purchase securities at the public offering price under delayed delivery
 
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contracts. These contracts would provide for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The contracts would be subject only to those conditions described in the prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the commission payable for solicitation of those contracts.
Market making, stabilization and other transactions
Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, each series of offered securities will be a new issue and will have no established trading market. We may elect to list any series of offered securities on an exchange. Any underwriters that we use in the sale of offered securities may make a market in such securities, but may discontinue such market making at any time without notice. Therefore, we cannot assure you that the securities will have a liquid trading market.
Any underwriter may also engage in stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Rule 104 under the Exchange Act. Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase the underlying security in the open market for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the securities. Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions.
Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when the securities originally sold by the syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction to cover syndicate short positions. Stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would be in the absence of the transactions. The underwriters may, if they commence these transactions, discontinue them at any time.
Derivative transactions and hedging
We, the underwriters or other agents may engage in derivative transactions involving the securities. These derivatives may consist of short sale transactions and other hedging activities. The underwriters or agents may acquire a long or short position in the securities, hold or resell securities acquired and purchase options or futures on the securities and other derivative instruments with returns linked to or related to changes in the price of the securities. In order to facilitate these derivative transactions, we may enter into security lending or repurchase agreements with the underwriters or agents. The underwriters or agents may effect the derivative transactions through sales of the securities to the public, including short sales, or by lending the securities in order to facilitate short sale transactions by others. The underwriters or agents may also use the securities purchased or borrowed from us or others (or, in the case of derivatives, securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives) to directly or indirectly settle sales of the securities or close out any related open borrowings of the securities.
Electronic auctions
We may also make sales through the Internet or through other electronic means. Since we may from time to time elect to offer securities directly to the public, with or without the involvement of agents, underwriters or dealers, utilizing the Internet or other forms of electronic bidding or ordering systems for the pricing and allocation of such securities, you should pay particular attention to the description of that system we will provide in a prospectus supplement.
Such electronic system may allow bidders to directly participate, through electronic access to an auction site, by submitting conditional offers to buy that are subject to acceptance by us, and which may directly affect the price or other terms and conditions at which such securities are sold. These bidding or ordering systems may present to each bidder, on a so-called “real-time” basis, relevant information to assist in making a bid, such as the clearing spread at which the offering would be sold, based on the bids submitted, and whether a bidder’s individual bids would be accepted, prorated or rejected. Of course, many pricing methods can and may also be used.
Upon completion of such an electronic auction process, securities will be allocated based on prices bid, terms of bid or other factors. The final offering price at which securities would be sold and the allocation of securities among bidders would be based in whole or in part on the results of the Internet or other electronic bidding process or auction.
 
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General information
Agents, underwriters, and dealers may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification by us against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
We are being represented by Kirkland & Ellis International LLP with respect to certain legal matters of United States federal securities and New York state law. The validity of the ordinary shares represented by the ADSs offered in this offering and legal matters as to Cayman Islands law will be passed upon for us by Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP. Certain legal matters as to PRC law will be passed upon for us by Commerce & Finance Law Offices. Kirkland & Ellis International LLP and Maples and Calder (Hong Kong) LLP may rely upon Commerce & Finance Law Offices with respect to matters governed by PRC law.
 
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EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of Canaan Inc. as of December 31, 2021 and 2022, and for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2022, and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022 have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the reports of KPMG Huazhen LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
 
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION ABOUT US
We are currently subject to periodic reporting and other informational requirements of the Exchange Act, as applicable to foreign private issuers. Accordingly, we are required to file reports, including annual reports on Form 20-F, and other information with the SEC. All information filed with the SEC can be inspected and copied at the public reference facilities maintained by the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You can request copies of these documents upon payment of a duplicating fee, by writing to the SEC. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the public reference room. Our SEC filings may also be obtained over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
Our corporate website is www.canaan-creative.com. The information contained on our websites is not a part of this prospectus. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc., located at 122 East 42nd Street, 18th Floor, New York, New York 10168.
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and does not contain all the information in the registration statement. You will find additional information about us in the registration statement. Any statement made in this prospectus concerning a contract or other document of ours is not necessarily complete, and you should read the documents that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement or otherwise filed with the SEC for a more complete understanding of the document or matter. Each such statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers.
 
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INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with them. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. Each document incorporated by reference is current only as of the date of such document, and the incorporation by reference of such documents shall not create any implication that there has been no change in our affairs since the date thereof or that the information contained therein is current as of any time subsequent to its date. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus and should be read with the same care. When we update the information contained in documents that have been incorporated by reference by making future filings with the SEC, the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus is considered to be automatically updated and superseded. In other words, in the case of a conflict or inconsistency between information contained in this prospectus and information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, you should rely on the information contained in the document that was filed later.
We incorporate by reference the following documents:


the description of our securities contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on November 6, 2019, as updated by Exhibit 2.2 to our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on April 15, 2020, and including any amendments or reports filed for purposes of updating such descriptions.;

any future annual reports on Form 20-F filed with the SEC after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of the securities offered by this prospectus; and

any future reports on Form 6-K that we furnish to the SEC after the date of this prospectus that are identified in such reports as being incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
Our annual report for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 contains a description of our business and audited consolidated financial statements with a report by our independent auditor. The consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
Unless expressly incorporated by reference, nothing in this prospectus shall be deemed to incorporate by reference information furnished to, but not filed with, the SEC. Copies of all documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, other than exhibits to those documents unless such exhibits are specially incorporated by reference in this prospectus, will be provided at no cost to each person, including any beneficial owner, who receives a copy of this prospectus on the written or oral request of that person made to:
Canaan Inc.
28 Ayer Rajah Crescent #06-08
Singapore 139959
Tel: +65 6305 6618
You should rely only on the information that we incorporate by reference or provide in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making any offer of these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of those documents.
 
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[MISSING IMAGE: lg_canaaninc-4c.jpg]
Canaan Inc.
Up to US$148,000,000 Class A Ordinary Shares Represented
by American Depositary Shares
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
B. Riley Securities
November 13, 2023


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