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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                        to    

Commission File Number: 001-38624

 

Vaccinex, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

16-1603202

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

1895 Mount Hope Avenue

Rochester, New York

14620

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (585) 271-2700

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934:

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value

VCNX

Nasdaq Capital Market

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes   No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

 

As of May 12, 2022, the registrant had 42,664,051 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, outstanding.

 

 

 


 

 

 

VACCINEX, INC.

FORM 10-Q

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

 

 

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

Financial Statements

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets (Unaudited)

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss (Unaudited)

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Unaudited)

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

7

 

 

 

 

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

19

 

 

 

 

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

26

 

 

 

 

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

 

26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART II – OTHER INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

 

27

 

 

 

 

Item 6.

Exhibits

 

28

 

 

 

 

 

Signatures

 

29

 

 

2


 

 

 

PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements

VACCINEX, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets (Unaudited)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

 

 

As of

March 31, 2022

 

 

As of

December 31, 2021

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

16,803

 

 

$

8,589

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

963

 

 

 

816

 

Total current assets

 

 

17,766

 

 

 

9,405

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

256

 

 

 

297

 

Operating lease right-of-use asset

 

 

99

 

 

 

141

 

TOTAL ASSETS

 

$

18,121

 

 

$

9,843

 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

589

 

 

$

1,061

 

Accrued expenses

 

 

1,015

 

 

 

980

 

Current portion of long-term debt

 

 

74

 

 

 

74

 

Operating lease liability

 

 

99

 

 

 

141

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

1,777

 

 

 

2,256

 

Long-term debt

 

 

156

 

 

 

175

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES

 

 

1,933

 

 

 

2,431

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity (deficit):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, par value of $0.0001 per share; 100,000,000 shares authorized

   as of March 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021; 42,664,903 and 30,801,962

   shares issued as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively;

   42,664,051 and 30,801,110 shares outstanding as of March 31, 2022

   and December 31, 2021, respectively

 

 

4

 

 

 

3

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

320,651

 

 

 

307,281

 

Treasury stock, at cost; 852 shares of common stock as of March 31, 2022 and

   December 31, 2021, respectively

 

 

(11

)

 

 

(11

)

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(304,456

)

 

 

(299,861

)

TOTAL STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

 

16,188

 

 

 

7,412

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

$

18,121

 

 

$

9,843

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

3


 

 

VACCINEX, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss (Unaudited)

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Revenue

 

$

-

 

 

$

850

 

Costs and expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

 

2,966

 

 

 

5,513

 

General and administrative

 

 

1,628

 

 

 

1,577

 

Total costs and expenses

 

 

4,594

 

 

 

7,090

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(4,594

)

 

 

(6,240

)

Interest expense

 

 

(1

)

 

 

(332

)

Other income (expense), net

 

 

-

 

 

 

(2

)

Loss before provision for income taxes

 

 

(4,595

)

 

 

(6,574

)

Provision for income taxes

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

Net loss

 

 

(4,595

)

 

 

(6,574

)

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

Net loss attributable to Vaccinex, Inc. common stockholders

 

$

(4,595

)

 

$

(6,574

)

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(4,595

)

 

$

(6,574

)

Net loss per share attributable to Vaccinex, Inc. common stockholders, basic and diluted

 

$

(0.12

)

 

$

(0.26

)

Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to

   Vaccinex, Inc. common stockholders, basic and diluted

 

 

38,758,283

 

 

 

25,216,788

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

4


 

 

VACCINEX, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Unaudited)

(in thousands, except share data)

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treasury Stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Additional

Paid-in

Capital

 

 

Common

Stock

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Accumulated

Deficit

 

 

Total

Vaccinex, Inc.

Stockholders’

Equity (Deficit)

 

 

Noncontrolling

Interests

 

 

Total

Stockholders’

Equity (Deficit)

 

Balance as of January 1, 2021

 

 

22,388,027

 

 

$

3

 

 

$

250,914

 

 

 

852

 

 

$

(11

)

 

$

(277,481

)

 

$

(26,575

)

 

$

23,963

 

 

$

(2,612

)

Issuance of Common Shares

 

 

5,937,900

 

 

 

 

 

 

31,863

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31,863

 

 

 

 

 

 

31,863

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

104

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

104

 

 

 

 

 

 

104

 

Shares issued for compensation

 

 

9,979

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exchange of VX3 Units for common shares

 

 

109,900

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2,000

 

 

 

(2,000

)

 

 

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(6,574

)

 

 

(6,574

)

 

 

 

 

 

(6,574

)

Balance as of March 31, 2021

 

 

28,445,806

 

 

$

3

 

 

$

284,881

 

 

 

852

 

 

$

(11

)

 

$

(284,055

)

 

$

818

 

 

$

21,963

 

 

$

22,781

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treasury Stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Additional

Paid-in

Capital

 

 

Common

Stock

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Accumulated

Deficit

 

 

Total

Vaccinex, Inc.

Stockholders’

Equity

 

 

Noncontrolling

Interests

 

 

Total

Stockholders’

Equity

 

Balance as of January 1, 2022

 

 

30,801,962

 

 

$

3

 

 

$

307,281

 

 

 

852

 

 

$

(11

)

 

$

(299,861

)

 

$

7,412

 

 

$

 

 

$

7,412

 

Issuance of Common Shares

 

 

11,862,941

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

13,229

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13,230

 

 

 

 

 

 

13,230

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

141

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

141

 

 

 

 

 

 

141

 

Net loss

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(4,595

)

 

 

(4,595

)

 

 

 

 

 

(4,595

)

Balance as of March 31, 2022

 

 

42,664,903

 

 

$

4

 

 

$

320,651

 

 

 

852

 

 

$

(11

)

 

$

(304,456

)

 

$

16,188

 

 

$

 

 

$

16,188

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

5


 

 

 

VACCINEX, INC.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)

(in thousands)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(4,595

)

 

$

(6,574

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation

 

 

41

 

 

 

55

 

Debt related charges included in interest expense

 

 

-

 

 

 

176

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

141

 

 

 

104

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

-

 

 

 

149

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

(147

)

 

 

(383

)

Accounts payable

 

 

(472

)

 

 

70

 

Accrued expenses

 

 

35

 

 

 

(711

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(4,996

)

 

 

(7,114

)

CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchase of property and equipment

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

Net cash used in investing activities

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock

 

 

3,519

 

 

 

31,863

 

Redemption of convertible debt

 

 

-

 

 

 

(5,956

)

Payments of long-term debt

 

 

(19

)

 

 

-

 

Proceeds from private offering of common stock

 

 

9,710

 

 

 

-

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

13,210

 

 

 

25,907

 

NET INCREASE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS

 

 

8,214

 

 

 

18,793

 

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS–Beginning of period

 

 

8,589

 

 

 

10,596

 

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS–End of period

 

$

16,803

 

 

$

29,389

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

 

6


 

 

VACCINEX, INC.

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

Note 1.

  COMPANY AND NATURE OF BUSINESS

Vaccinex, Inc. (together with its subsidiaries, the “Company”) was incorporated in Delaware in April 2001 and is headquartered in Rochester, New York. The Company is a clinical-stage biotechnology company engaged in the discovery and development of targeted biotherapeutics to treat serious diseases and conditions with unmet medical needs, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmune disorders. Since its inception, the Company has devoted substantially all of its efforts toward product research, manufacturing and clinical development, and raising capital.

The Company is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties common to other early-stage biotechnology companies including, but not limited to, dependency on the successful development and commercialization of its product candidates, rapid technological change and competition, dependence on key personnel and collaborative partners, uncertainty of protection of proprietary technology and patents, clinical trial uncertainty, fluctuation in operating results and financial performance, the need to obtain additional funding, compliance with governmental regulations, technological and medical risks, management of growth and effectiveness of marketing by the Company. The Company is also subject to risks related to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, discussed under “COVID-19 Pandemic” below. If the Company does not successfully commercialize or partner any of its product candidates, it will be unable to generate product revenue or achieve profitability.

Going Concern

These condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles applicable to a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business.

The Company has incurred significant losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception and expects to incur additional losses until such time that it can generate significant revenue from the commercialization of its product candidates. The Company had negative cash flow from operations of $5.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022, and an accumulated deficit of $304.5 million as of March 31, 2022. Given the Company’s projected operating requirements and its existing cash and cash equivalents, the Company is projecting insufficient liquidity to sustain its operations through one year following the date that the condensed consolidated financial statements are issued.  These conditions and events raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.

In response to these conditions, management is currently evaluating different strategies to obtain the required funding for future operations. Financing strategies may include, but are not limited to, the public or private sale of equity, debt financings or funds from other capital sources, such as government funding, collaborations, strategic alliances, or licensing arrangements with third parties.  There can be no assurances that the Company will be able to secure additional financing, or if available, that it will be sufficient to meet its needs or on favorable terms.  Because management’s plans have not yet been finalized and are not within the Company’s control, the implementation of such plans cannot be considered probable.  As a result, the Company has concluded that management’s plans do not alleviate substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.

The condensed consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded asset amounts or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

 

7


 

 

COVID-19 Pandemic

In order to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, governments have at times imposed unprecedented restrictions on business operations, travel, and gatherings, resulting in a global economic downturn and other adverse economic and societal impacts. The Company has complied with state reopening guidance and has allowed research and development staff to begin working in the laboratory when necessary and using recommended health and safety precautions.  The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the expected timing of the Company’s clinical trials, the economy, the biotechnology industry, and the Company’s business. For example, the Company previously anticipated initiating a trial of pepinemab in Alzheimer’s disease in mid-2020 but the initial enrollment date was delayed until the first half of 2021.  In addition, to mitigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including impacts on the Company’s ability to raise capital and to maintain its personnel, the Company applied for and received a PPP Loan (See Note 9).  The Company may experience further disruptions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic that could adversely impact its business, including disruption of research and development activities, plans for release of data, manufacturing, supply, and interactions with regulators and other third parties, and difficulties in raising additional capital.  The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact the Company’s business will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence.

 

Note 2.

  SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Basis of Presentation and Consolidation

Through the period ended September 3, 2021, the Company’s accounts included Vaccinex Products, LP, a Delaware limited partnership (“Vaccinex Products”), and VX3 (DE) LP, a Delaware limited partnership (“VX3”). Subsequently on September 3, 2021, Vaccinex Products and VX3 were dissolved when all remaining partnership interests were exchanged for shares of our common stock. Accordingly, prior to dissolution, these condensed consolidated financial statements reflect the accounts and operations of the Company for the three months ended March 31, 2021and those of its subsidiaries in which the Company had a controlling financial interest.

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information (Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 270, Interim Reporting) and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, these financial statements do not include all of the information necessary for a full presentation of financial position, results of operations, and cash flows in conformity with GAAP. In the opinion of management, the condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair presentation of the results of the Company for the periods presented. Intercompany transactions and balances have been fully eliminated in consolidation.

These condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 31, 2022.

 

Use of Estimates

These condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amount of expenses during the reporting period. Such management estimates include those relating to assumptions used in the valuation of stock option awards, and valuation allowances against deferred income tax assets. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

8


 

Concentration of Credit Risk, Other Risks and Uncertainties

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are deposited in interest-bearing money market accounts. Although the Company deposits its cash with multiple financial institutions, cash balances may occasionally be in excess of the amounts insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. Management believes the financial risk associated with these balances is minimal and has not experienced any losses to date.

The Company depends on third-party manufacturers for the manufacture of drug substance and drug product for clinical trials. The Company also relies on certain third parties for its supply chain. Disputes with these third- party manufacturers or shortages in goods or services from third-party suppliers could delay the manufacturing of the Company’s product candidates and adversely impact its results of operations.

Convertible Instruments

The Company applies the accounting standards for derivatives and hedging and for distinguishing liabilities from equity when accounting for hybrid contracts that contain conversion options and other embedded features. The accounting standards require companies to bifurcate embedded features from their host instruments and account for them as free-standing derivative financial instruments according to certain criteria. The criteria include circumstances in which (i) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instrument are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract, (ii) the hybrid instrument that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not re-measured at fair value under otherwise applicable generally accepted accounting principles with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur and (iii) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would be considered a derivative instrument.

The Company’s derivative instrument related to certain features embedded within the Company’s 8% Original Issue Discount Senior Secured Convertible Debenture (“the Debenture”) is discussed in Note 10. The derivative is accounted for as a derivative liability and remeasured to fair value as of each balance sheet date and the related remeasurement adjustments are included in interest expense in the Company’s condensed consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted

In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“the FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13, “Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments” to improve reporting requirements specific to loans, receivables, and other financial instruments. The new standard requires that credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost be determined using an expected loss model, instead of the current incurred loss model, and requires that credit losses related to available-for-sale debt securities be recorded through an allowance for credit losses and limited to the amount by which carrying value exceeds fair value. The new standard also requires enhanced disclosure of credit risk associated with financial assets. The standard is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2022 with early adoption permitted. Based on the composition of the Company’s financial assets, current market conditions and historical credit loss activity, the adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.

9


 

 

Note 3.  BALANCE SHEET COMPONENTS

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment consist of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

As of

March 31, 2022

 

 

As of

December 31, 2021

 

Leasehold improvements

 

$

3,213

 

 

$

3,213

 

Research equipment

 

 

3,499

 

 

 

3,499

 

Furniture and fixtures

 

 

350

 

 

 

350

 

Computer equipment

 

 

284

 

 

 

284

 

Property and equipment, gross

 

 

7,346

 

 

 

7,346

 

Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization

 

 

(7,090

)

 

 

(7,049

)

Property and equipment, net

 

$

256

 

 

$

297

 

 

Depreciation expense related to property and equipment was $41,000 and $55,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

 

Accrued Expenses

Accrued expenses consist of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

As of

March 31, 2022

 

 

As of

December 31, 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accrued clinical trial cost

 

$

434

 

 

$

468

 

Accrued payroll and related benefits

 

 

354

 

 

 

409

 

Accrued consulting and legal

 

 

189

 

 

 

74

 

Accrued other

 

 

38

 

 

 

29

 

Accrued expenses

 

$

1,015

 

 

$

980

 

 

Note 4.

  FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS OF FINANCIAL MEASUREMENTS

 

Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Nonrecurring Basis

Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value on a nonrecurring basis in the condensed consolidated balance sheets are categorized based upon the level of judgment associated with the inputs used to measure their fair values. Financial instruments consist of cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, and long-term debt. Cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, and debt, are stated at their carrying value, which approximates fair value due to the short time to the expected receipt or payment date of such amounts.  

Assets and Liabilities Measured at Fair Value on a Recurring Basis

Fair value measurement standards also apply to certain financial assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis (each reporting period). For the Company, these financial assets and liabilities include its cash equivalents deposited in money market funds and derivative instruments. The Company does not have any nonfinancial assets or liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis.

10


 

The following table sets forth the fair value of the Company’s financial assets by level within the fair value hierarchy (in thousands):

 

 

 

As of March 31, 2022

 

 

 

Fair Value

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

Financial Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market fund

 

$

14,298

 

 

$

14,298

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

-

 

Total Financial Assets

 

$

14,298

 

 

$

14,298

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

 

 

As of December 31, 2021

 

 

 

Fair Value

 

 

Level 1

 

 

Level 2

 

 

Level 3

 

Financial Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash equivalents:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Money market fund

 

$

426

 

 

$

426

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

-

 

Total Financial Assets

 

$

426

 

 

$

426

 

 

$

-

 

 

$

-

 

 

The Company did not transfer any assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis to or from Level 1 and Level 2 during either of the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.  

 

11


 

 

Note 5.  

LICENSE AND SERVICES AGREEMENT

In November 2017, the Company entered into a license agreement (the “VX3 License Agreement”) with VX3, which was formed by a group of Canadian investors including the Company’s majority stockholder, FCMI Parent Co. (“FCMI Parent”). VX3 was created for the purpose of funding the Company’s research and development activities for pepinemab, the Company’s most advanced product candidate. Under the VX3 License Agreement, the Company granted VX3 the license to use, make, have made, sell, offer and import pepinemab for the treatment of Huntington’s disease in the U.S. and Canada. In return, VX3 agreed to fund research and development activities with up to an aggregate of $32.0 million in milestone payments to the Company and to share any pepinemab profits and sublicensing revenue under the agreement in an amount based on a calculation set forth in the agreement. The Company also entered into a services agreement with VX3 (the “Services Agreement”), pursuant to which the Company carried out development activities for pepinemab for the treatment of Huntington’s disease in the U.S. and Canada in exchange for services payments from VX3.  

 

The Company entered into an exchange agreement on August 13, 2018 with VX3 and its partners, including FCMI Parent, that provided each VX3 partner with the right to exchange all, but not less than all, of its partnership interests in VX3 for shares of the Company’s common stock. The exchange agreement also provides that FCMI Parent’s exercise of its option to exchange its VX3 partnership interests for shares of Company common stock would trigger the exchange of all VX3 partnership interests for shares of Company common stock.

 

In March 2021, one VX3 partner exchanged its partnership interest in VX3 for 109,900 shares of the Company’s common stock.  This exchange resulted in a non-cash transaction, increasing additional paid in capital and decreasing noncontrolling interests by $2.0 million, respectively, in the Company’s consolidated condensed financial statements for the three months ended March 31, 2021.

 

Subsequently during 2021, exchange transactions were effected whereby all remaining limited partnership interests in VX3 were exchanged for 1,318,797 shares of our common stock in accordance with the terms of the respective exchange agreement and Vaccinex Products and VX3 were dissolved as of September 3, 2021 and the VX3 License Agreement and Service Agreement were terminated.  

 

  Prior to the exchanges, the Company had a variable interest in VX3 through FCMI Parent, which was majority owned and controlled by the Company’s chairman, and which controlled 98% of VX3’s voting interest as of March 31, 2021.  VX3 did not have any business operations or generate any income or expenses and was primarily a funding mechanism specifically for the benefit of the Company, as its only activities consisted of the receipt of funding and the contribution of such funding to the Company.  Therefore, the Company determined that it was the primary beneficiary of VX3 and that the operating results of VX3 should be incorporated into the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements accordingly.

For the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company did not receive any amounts from VX3 or record any related capital contributions from noncontrolling interests on the condensed financial statements.  Noncontrolling equity interests did not participate in a proportionate share of the Company’s net losses for the three month period ended March 31, 2021 pursuant to the aforementioned partnership, license, services and exchange agreements.

Note 6.  

COLLABORATION AGREEMENTS

Surface Oncology, Inc.

In November 2017, the Company entered into a research collaboration and license option agreement with Surface Oncology, Inc. (“Surface”) to identify and select antibodies against two target antigens, using the Company’s proprietary technology as described in the agreement. The term for each research program is nine to twelve months (not exceeding twelve months unless extended by written agreement) including time necessary for any functional assessment conducted by Surface following the commencement of the research program. Surface will provide the Company material to carry out the research activities. During the research program term, the Company also may grant Surface a non-exclusive, worldwide, limited-purpose license for each target to use the Company’s research program materials for conducting the research work pursuant to the agreement. The Company recorded

12


 

revenue of $850,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2021, related to its agreement with Surface, all of which was for an exclusive product license. This agreement will expire upon the latest of the expiration of both research programs and all evaluation and testing periods.

Under the agreement, Surface may purchase exclusive options, exercisable by providing a written notice to the Company, to obtain (i) an exclusive product license to make, use, sell and import products incorporating antibodies targeting the first antigen and (ii) an exclusive research tool license to use antibodies targeting the second antigen to perform research.  Surface purchased the first option and exercised the second option and the Company entered into an exclusive research tool license agreement with Surface in the third quarter of 2019.

Note 7.

  COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES

Sublicense Termination Payments

In 2006, the Company licensed certain technology to EUSA Pharma SAS (“EUSA”), and in 2008, this technology was sublicensed by EUSA to Glaxo Group Limited (“GSK”) for development. GSK terminated its sub-license with EUSA in March 2010 and ownership of the technology reverted back to the Company. The Company may be required to pay EUSA up to $25.5 million plus ongoing royalty payments of 1% of net sales upon the occurrence of certain events involving the previously licensed technology, including a Phase 3 clinical trial, Food and Drug Administration acceptance and approval and product sales. The Company is not planning any further commercialization efforts related to the previously licensed technology, and therefore does not anticipate any of the above-described amounts will be paid.

Other Contingencies

The Company is subject to claims and assessments from time to time in the ordinary course of business. The Company records a provision for a liability when it believes that it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Significant judgment is required to determine both probability and the estimated amount.

In the normal course of business, the Company may become involved in legal proceedings. The Company will accrue a liability for such matters when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated. When only a range of possible loss can be established, the most probable amount in the range is accrued. If no amount within this range is a better estimate than any other amount within the range, the minimum amount in the range is accrued. The accrual for a litigation loss contingency might include, for example, estimates of potential damages, outside legal fees and other directly related costs expected to be incurred. As of March 31, 2022 and, December 31, 2021 the Company was not involved in any material legal proceedings.

Note 8.  

LEASES

The Company leases its facilities from 1895 Management, Ltd., a New York corporation controlled by an entity affiliated with a director of the Company, under non-cancellable operating leases. Following entry into a lease extension agreement in August 2020, the lease agreement requires monthly rental payments of $14,511 through October 31, 2022. The Company is responsible for all maintenance, utilities, insurance and taxes related to the facility. The Company has elected the practical expedient on not separating lease components from non-lease components.

The leases do not provide an implicit rate so in determining the present value of lease payments, the Company utilized its incremental borrowing rate for the applicable lease, which was 7.0%. The Company recognizes lease expense on a straight-line basis over the remaining lease term.

As of March 31, 2022, the future minimum payments for the operating leases total $101,577 in 2022, less imputed interest of $2,328, for an operating lease liability of $99,249 as of March 31, 2022. For the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities was $43,500.

13


 

Lease expense incurred under the operating lease for each of the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $43,500 and is a component of general and administrative expense.

Note 9.  

LONG-TERM DEBT

On May 8, 2020, the Company received the PPP Loan in the amount of $1,133,600. The PPP Loan originally matured on May 8, 2022, with no principal payments required prior to the maturity date, and bearing interest at an annual rate of 1.0%, with interest payments commencing on November 8, 2020, less the amount of any potential forgiveness.  On November 8, 2021, the Company was awarded loan forgiveness of $876,171 and the remaining balance of the loan was refinanced.  The loan has a maturity date of May 8, 2025, bears interest of 1%, and is being repaid in monthly payments of $6,334.  The Company has recorded interest expense of $1,000 and $3,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively on its condensed statement of operations and comprehensive loss. loss, respectively.  

 

Note 10. CONVERTIBLE DEBENTURE

 

On July 30, 2020, the Company consummated the Convertible Debt Financing pursuant to which the Company issued its Senior Secured Convertible Debenture in the principal amount of $8,640,000 for a purchase price of $8,000,000, which reflects an original issue discount of approximately 8% (the “Debenture”), issued pursuant to the Securities Purchase Agreement, dated as of July 30, 2020, with 3i, as collateral; agent (the “SPA”).  The maturity date of the Debenture was August 3, 2021, and the sale of the Debenture occurred on August 3, 2020.

 

As of August 3, 2021, the Company repaid in full its 7% Original Issue Discount Senior Secured Convertible Debenture due August 3, 2021 (the “Debenture”), issued pursuant to the Securities Purchase Agreement, dated as of July 30, 2020, with 3i, LP, as collateral agent (the “SPA”), by making a payment of $2,755,895, representing all principal and interest due at maturity.  The Company has no further obligation under the Debenture and incurred no early termination or prepayment penalties in connection with the repayment.

 

As a result of the repayment of the Debenture, (i) the Security Agreement dated as of July 31, 2020, between the Company and 3i, LP, as collateral agent, pursuant to which the Company granted a security interest in certain assets of the Company as collateral to secure the Debenture, (ii) the stock underlying the Debenture, and (iii) the SPA, were terminated.

 

Subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, at any time, the Company could have elected to redeem all or any portion of the Debenture for an amount equal to 115% of the outstanding principal balance being redeemed plus all accrued unpaid interest on the amount being redeemed and an amount due under the Interest Make-Whole (the “Optional Redemption”).

 

The Debenture also provided that in connection with future capital raising transactions (subject to certain exceptions), the Company must offer to use 20% of the funds raised to redeem amounts outstanding under the Debenture (“Mandatory Redemption”). Any redemption in this circumstance was to be at the election of the holder.   Consistent with the Optional Conversion or Optional Redemption provisions, the Mandatory Redemption was subject to the Interest Make-Whole.  During the three month period ended March 31, 2021, the Company made payments under the Mandatory Redemption provision totaling $6,372,575 consisting of $5,955,678 for principal repayments and $416,897 for accrued and make-whole interest.  

 

The Company incurred $50,000 in fees paid to 3i, LP (“3i”) in connection with the issuance of the Debenture. These costs were primarily allocated to the debt component and recognized as additional debt discount. The Company amortized the debt discount, including the initial value of the derivative liability of $65,000, allocated fees of $50,000 and the original issuance discount of $640,000, over the term of the Debenture using the effective interest method. The annual effective interest rate was 16.54%. Total interest expense under the Senior Secured Convertible Debenture for the three months ended March 31, 2021 was $150,545.

 

14


 

 

Note 11.  COMMON STOCK RESERVED FOR ISSUANCE

Common stock has been reserved for the following potential future issuances:

 

 

 

As of

March 31, 2022

 

 

As of

December 31, 2021

 

Shares underlying outstanding stock options

 

 

1,161,345

 

 

 

1,154,563

 

Shares available for future stock option grants

 

 

1,005,564

 

 

 

396,324

 

Total shares of common stock reserved

 

 

2,166,909

 

 

 

1,550,887

 

 

 

Note 12.  

STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION

2011 Employee Equity Plan

In connection with the adoption of the Company’s 2018 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “2018 Plan”) in August 2018, the Company ceased granting stock options under the Company’s 2011 Employee Equity Plan (the “2011 Plan”). However, the 2011 Plan will continue to govern the terms and conditions of the outstanding stock options previously granted thereunder. Any shares of stock related to awards outstanding under the 2011 Plan that terminate by expiration, forfeiture, cancellation, or otherwise without the issuances of such shares will become available for grant under the 2018 Plan. Stock options granted under the 2011 Plan expire in five or ten years from the date of grant.

2018 Omnibus Incentive Plan

In August 2018, the Company’s board of directors adopted, and its stockholders approved, the 2018 Plan, which allows for the granting of stock, stock options, and stock appreciation rights awards to employees, advisors and consultants. Stock options granted under the 2018 Plan may be either incentive stock options or non-statutory stock options. Incentive stock options may be granted to employees, advisors and consultants at exercise prices of no less than the fair value of the common stock on the grant date. If at the time of grant, the optionee owns stock representing more than 10% of the voting power of all classes of stock of the Company, the exercise price must be at least 110% of the fair value of the common stock on the grant date as determined by the board of directors. Non-statutory stock options may be granted to employees, advisors and consultants at exercise prices of less than the fair market value of a share of common stock on the date the non-statutory stock option is granted but shall under no circumstances be less than adequate consideration as determined by the board of directors for such a share. The vesting period of stock option grants is determined by the board of directors, ranging from zero to eight years. Stock options granted under the 2018 Plan expire in five or ten years from the date of grant.

The Company initially reserved 425,000 shares of common stock for issuance, subject to certain adjustments, pursuant to awards under the 2018 Plan. Any shares of common stock related to awards outstanding under the 2011 Plan as of the effective date of the 2018 Plan, which thereafter terminate by expiration, forfeiture, cancellation or otherwise without the issuance of such shares, will be added to, and included in, the number of shares of common stock available for grant under the 2018 Plan. In addition, effective January 1, 2020 and continuing until the expiration of the 2018 Plan, the number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the 2018 Plan will automatically increase annually by 2% of the total number of issued and outstanding shares of the Company’s common stock as of December 31st of the immediately preceding year or such lesser number as the Company’s board of directors may decide, which may be zero. Accordingly, on January 1, 2022, 616,022 additional shares of common stock became available for issuance under the 2018 Plan.

15


 

A summary of the Company’s stock option activity and related information is as follows:

 

 

 

Stock

Options

 

 

Weighted-

Average

Exercise

Price

 

 

Weighted-

Average

Remaining

Contractual

Life (Years)

 

 

Aggregate

Intrinsic

Value (in thousands)

 

Balance as of January 1, 2022

 

 

1,154,563

 

 

$

5.55

 

 

 

6.9

 

 

$

-

 

Granted

 

 

10,032

 

 

 

1.32

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercised

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

$

-

 

Forfeited

 

 

(3,250

)

 

 

5.27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance as of March 31, 2022

 

 

1,161,345

 

 

$

5.51

 

 

 

6.7

 

 

$

4

 

Exercisable as of March 31, 2022

 

 

724,584

 

 

$

7.00

 

 

 

5.6

 

 

$

4

 

 

The weighted-average grant date fair value of stock options granted to employees and directors for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $0.87 per share and $2.23 per share, respectively. The aggregate grant date fair value of stock options that vested during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 was $224,374 and $230,176, respectively.

The intrinsic value of stock options vested and exercisable and expected to vest and become exercisable is calculated based on the difference between the exercise price and the fair value of the Company’s common stock as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021. The intrinsic value of exercised stock options is the difference between the fair value of the underlying common stock and the exercise price as of the exercise date.

As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, total unrecognized compensation cost related to stock options granted to employees was $489,986 and $621,996, respectively, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.19 and 2.1 years, respectively.

The grant date fair value of employee stock options was estimated using a Black-Scholes option-pricing model with the following weighted-average assumptions:  

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Expected term (in years)

 

 

6.0

 

 

 

6.0

 

Expected volatility

 

 

75

%

 

 

75

%

Risk-free interest rate

 

 

1.8

%

 

 

0.5

%

Expected dividend yield

 

 

-

%

 

 

-

%

 

 

Total stock-based compensation expense recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss is as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Research and development

 

$

42

 

 

$

28

 

General and administrative

 

 

99

 

 

 

76

 

Total stock-based compensation expense

 

$

141

 

 

$

104

 

 

16


 

 

Note 13.

INCOME TAXES

No provision for income taxes was recorded in either of the three month periods ended March 31, 2022 and 2021. The Company remains in a cumulative loss position with a full valuation allowance recorded against its net deferred income tax assets as of March 31, 2022.

 

The Company evaluates tax positions for recognition using a more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, and those tax positions eligible for recognition are measured as the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon the effective settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had no unrecognized income tax benefits that would affect the Company’s effective tax rate if recognized.

 

Note 14.  

NET LOSS PER SHARE ATTRIBUTABLE TO COMMON STOCKHOLDERS

 

The following weighted-average common stock equivalents were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share for the periods presented as they had an anti-dilutive effect:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Options to purchase common stock

 

 

1,153,444

 

 

 

826,748

 

Contingently issuable common stock prior to exchange of

   Vaccinex Products, LP units

 

 

-

 

 

 

1,147,259

 

Contingently issuable common stock prior to exchange of

   VX3 units

 

 

-

 

 

 

1,309,028

 

 

Note 15.

  SEGMENT AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

The Company’s chief operating decision maker, its Chief Executive Officer, reviews its operating results on an aggregate basis for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance. The Company has one business activity, the discovery and development of targeted biotherapeutics to treat serious diseases and conditions with unmet medical needs, and there are no segment managers who are held accountable for operations or operating results. Accordingly, the Company operates in one reportable segment. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, all long-lived assets are located in the United States.

Note 16.  

RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

As discussed in Note 8, the Company leases its facility from 1895 Management, Ltd., a New York corporation controlled by an entity affiliated with the Company’s chairman and major stockholder of the Company. Rent expense incurred under the operating lease was $43,500 for each of the three month periods ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.

As discussed in Note 6, in November 2017, the Company entered into a research collaboration and license option agreement with Surface to identify and select antibodies against two target antigens, using the Company’s proprietary technology as described in the agreement. J. Jeffrey Goater, a member of the Company’s board of directors, served as the Chief Business Officer of Surface at that time, and currently serves as the Chairman of the Board of Surface. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, the Company recorded revenue related to this agreement of $850,000, all of which was for an exclusive product license. This agreement will expire upon the latest of the expiration of both research programs and all evaluation and testing periods.       

 

On January 27, 2022, the Company entered into a stock purchase agreement (as amended, the “Stock Purchase Agreement”) pursuant to which the Company agreed to issue and sell to the investors named therein an aggregate of 5,945,943 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of the Company (the “Common Stock”) at a purchase price of $1.11 per share.  On January 31, 2022, the Stock Purchase Agreement was amended, pursuant to which the Company agreed to issue and sell to additional investors, and the additional investors (together with the original investor, the “investors”) agreed to purchase from the Company, on the same terms and conditions, and

17


 

aggregate of 2,801,801 shares of Common Stock.  The closing of the sale of shares under the Stock Purchase Agreement (“the private placement”) occurred on January 31, 2022, and the Company issued an aggregate of 8,747,744 shares of Common Stock with aggregate gross proceeds to the Company of approximately $9.7 million.  The Company intends to use the net proceeds from the private placement to fund the ongoing development of its lead drug candidate, pepinemab, in cancer and neurodegenerative disease and for working capital and general corporate purposes.

Several of the investors are affiliated with directors or officers of the Company: Vaccinex (Rochester), L.L.C., which is controlled by Maurice Zauderer, Ph.D., the Company’s president, chief executive officer and a member of its board of directors; Friedberg Global-Macro Hedge Fund Ltd., the investment manager of which is an entity controlled by Albert D. Friedberg, chairman of the Company’s board of directors; FCMI Parent Co., which is controlled by Mr. Friedberg; and Benbow Estates Ltd., which is controlled by Jacob Frieberg, one of the Company’s directors.

 

18


 

 

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

References in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, or this Report, to the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us” mean Vaccinex, Inc. and its subsidiaries except where the context otherwise requires You should read the following discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations together with our condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Report, as well as the audited financial statements, related notes and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and other disclosures included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, or the Annual Report.

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

The following discussion and other parts of this Report contain forward-looking statements that involve risk and uncertainties, such as statements of our plans, objectives, expectations and intentions. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential,” “intends” or “continue,” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

our ability to continue as a going concern;

 

the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the expected timing and progress of our clinical trials, as well as other impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy, our industry, and our business, financial condition and results of operations, including our ability to raise capital;

 

the sufficiency of the financing arrangements we have entered into, that is intended to fund our payroll and certain other operations for a limited period of time and our ability to service our outstanding debt obligations;

 

our estimates regarding our expenses, future revenues, anticipated capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;

 

the impact of inflation on our expenses and business;

 

the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business and technology;

 

the timing and success of the commencement, progress and receipt of data from any of our preclinical and clinical trials;

 

our expectations regarding the potential safety, efficacy or clinical utility of our product candidates;

 

the expected results of any clinical trial and the impact on the likelihood or timing of any regulatory approval;

 

the difficulties in obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of our product candidates;

 

the rate and degree of market acceptance of any of our product candidates;

 

the success of competing therapies and products that are or become available;

 

regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;

 

current and future legislation regarding the healthcare system;

 

the scope of protection we establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our technology;

 

developments relating to our competitors and our industry;

 

our failure to recruit or retain key scientific or management personnel or to retain our executive officers;

 

the performance of third parties, including collaborators, contract research organizations and third-party manufacturers;

19


 

 

the development of our commercialization capabilities, including the need to develop or obtain additional capabilities; and

 

our use of the proceeds from the offerings of our common stock.

Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements contained herein are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements. These statements are only current predictions and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our or our industry’s actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from those anticipated by the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in the risk factors identified in the “Risk Factors” section of this Report, and in Part II, Item 1A of the Annual Report, as well as in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. The forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they were made. Except as required by law, after the date of this Report, we are under no duty to update or revise any of the forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by the foregoing cautionary statements.

Company Overview

We are a clinical-stage biotechnology company engaged in the discovery and development of targeted biotherapeutics to treat serious diseases and conditions with unmet medical needs, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmune disorders. We believe we are the leader in the field of semaphorin 4D, or SEMA4D, biology and that we are the only company targeting SEMA4D as a potential treatment for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, or autoimmune disorders. SEMA4D is an extracellular signaling molecule that regulates the migration of immune and inflammatory cells to sites of injury, cancer, or infection. We are leveraging our SEMA4D antibody platform and our extensive knowledge of SEMA4D biology to develop our lead product candidate, pepinemab, an antibody that we believe utilizes novel mechanisms of action. We are focused on developing pepinemab for the treatment of head and neck cancer (or “HNSCC”), Huntington’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, third party investigators are studying pepinemab in integrated biomarker “window of opportunity” studies in head and neck cancer and melanoma. We have developed multiple proprietary platform technologies and are developing product candidates to address serious diseases or conditions that have a substantial impact on day-to-day functioning and for which treatment is not addressed adequately by available therapies. We employ our proprietary platform technologies, including through our work with our academic collaborators, to identify potential product candidates for sustained expansion of our internal product pipeline and to facilitate strategic development and commercial partnerships.

Our lead platform technologies include our SEMA4D antibody platform and our ActivMAb antibody discovery platform. Our lead product candidate, pepinemab, is currently in clinical development for the treatment of HNSCC, Huntington’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease, through our efforts or through investigator-sponsored trials, or ISTs. Additional product candidates VX5 and VX25 are in earlier stages of development and were selected using our ActivMAb and NKT vaccine platforms, respectively. We believe our multiple platform technologies position us well for continued pipeline expansion and partnership opportunities going forward.

We have generated a limited amount of service revenue from collaboration agreements but have not generated any revenue from product sales to date. We continue to incur significant development and other expenses related to our ongoing operations. As a result, we are not and have never been profitable and have incurred losses in each period since our inception. We reported a net loss of $4.6 million and $6.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, we had cash and cash equivalents of $16.8 million and $8.6 million, respectively. We expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future, and we expect these losses to increase as we continue our research and development of, and seek regulatory approvals for, our product candidates. We may also encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and inflation, that may adversely affect our business. The size of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of future growth of our expenses and our ability to generate revenues, if any.

20


 

Our recurring net losses and negative cash flows from operations raised substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the issuance of our condensed consolidated financial statements. Until we can generate sufficient revenue from the commercialization of our product candidates, we expect to finance our operations through the public or private sale of equity, debt financings or other capital sources, such as government funding, collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third parties. For example, we have (i) entered into an Open Market Sale Agreement with Jefferies LLC, or Jefferies, and filed a related prospectus supplement pursuant to which we are able to issue and sell up $113.0 million of shares of our common stock through Jefferies as sales agent, and (ii) in January 2022 entered into a stock purchase agreement pursuant to which we agreed to issue and sell to the investors named therein an aggregate of 8,747,744 shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, at a purchase price of $1.11 per share with aggregate gross proceeds to us of approximately $9.7 million.  During the three months ended March 31, 2022, 3,115,197 shares of our common stock were sold through the Open Market Sales Agreement for proceeds of $3,518,760, net of commission.  Our cash and cash equivalents were $16.8 million and total current assets were $17.8 million at March 31, 2022, which will be insufficient to fund our planned operations through one year of the date that these condensed consolidated financial statements are available for issuance. See Note 1 of our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. There can be no assurances that we will be able to secure additional financing when needed, or if available, that it will be sufficient to meet our needs or on favorable terms.

In order to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, governments have imposed unprecedented restrictions on business operations, travel, and gatherings, resulting in a global economic downturn and other adverse economic and societal impacts, which has had an adverse impact on our strategic plans, certain of our clinical trial operations, and our ability to raise additional capital necessary to continue as a going concern. We had anticipated initiating a phase 1/2a trial of pepinemab in Alzheimer’s disease in mid-2020 and commenced activating clinical sites to screen and enroll patients in the second quarter of 2021, which efforts continued into the second half of 2021. In addition, as discussed above, to mitigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including impacts on our ability to raise capital and to maintain its personnel, we applied for and received the PPP Loan. We may experience further disruptions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic that could adversely impact our business, including disruption of research and clinical development activities, plans for release of data, manufacturing, supply, and interactions with regulators and other third parties, and further difficulties in raising additional capital. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact our business will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence.

Financial Overview

Revenue

To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales.  Our ability to generate revenue and become profitable depends on our ability to successfully obtain marketing approval of and commercialize our product candidates. We do not expect to generate product revenue in the foreseeable future as we continue our development of, and seek regulatory approvals for, our product candidates, and potentially commercialize approved products, if any.

21


 

Operating Expenses

Research and Development. Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs for our clinical trials and activities related to regulatory filings, employee compensation-related costs, supply expenses, equipment depreciation and amortization, consulting and other miscellaneous costs. The following table sets forth the components of our research and development expenses and the amount as a percentage of total research and development expenses for the periods indicated.

 

 

 

Three Months Ended March 31,

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

%

 

 

(in thousands)

 

 

%

 

Clinical trial costs

 

$

1,400

 

 

 

47

%

 

$

3,690

 

 

 

67

%

Wages, benefits, and related costs

 

 

1,026

 

 

 

35

%

 

 

1,042

 

 

 

19

%

Preclinical supplies and equipment

   depreciation

 

 

395

 

 

 

13

%

 

 

503

 

 

 

9

%

Consulting, non-clinical trial

   services, and other

 

 

145

 

 

 

5

%

 

 

278

 

 

 

5

%

Total research and development

   expenses

 

$