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Table of Contents

 

 

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 


 

FORM 10-K

 


 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2023

 

TRANSITION REPORT UNDER SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE EXCHANGE ACT

For the transition period from __________ to ___________

 

Commission file number: 000-55462

 

GB SCIENCES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 


 

Nevada

59-3733133

(State or other Jurisdiction of

(IRS Employer I.D. No.)

Incorporation or Organization)

 

 


 

9205 W. Russell Road, Suite 240

Las Vegas, Nevada 89148

Phone: (866) 721-0297

(Address and telephone number of

principal executive offices)

 


 

Securities registered under Section 12 (b) of the Exchange Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

None

 

None

 

Securities registered under Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act:

 

Common Stock $.0001 Par Value

 

Title of Class

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes ☐  No ☑

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes ☐  No  ☑     

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes ☒ No ☐

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☐ 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.).

 

 

Large accelerated filer  ☐

Accelerated filer ☐

 

Non-accelerated filer  ☑

Smaller reporting company   

  

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. 

 

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. 

 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes   No ☑  

 

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, that being September 2022, was approximately $11.3 million.

 

Total shares outstanding on July 14, 2023, were 381,872,561

 

Documents Incorporated by Reference

None

 

 
 

GB SCIENCES, INC.

FORM 10-K

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I

4
   

ITEM 1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS

5
   

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

18
   

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

25
   

ITEM 2. PROPERTY

25
   

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

25
   

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

26
   

PART II

26
   

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANTS COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

26
   

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

27
   

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENTS DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATION

27
   

ITEM 7A QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

36
   

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

37
   

ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURES

73
   

ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

73
   

ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION

75
   

PART III

75
   

ITEM 10 DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS, AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

75
   

ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

79
   

ITEM 12 SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

82
   

ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS, RELATED TRANSACTIONS AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

83
   

ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

83
   

PART IV

84
   

ITEM 15. EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

84

 

 

 

PART I

 

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K of GB Sciences, Inc., a Nevada corporation and its subsidiaries (the “Company”), contains “forward-looking statements,” as defined in the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may”, “will”, “should”, “could”, “expects”, “plans”, “intends”, “anticipates”, believes”, “estimates”, “predicts” or “continue”, which list is not meant to be all-inclusive, and other such negative terms and comparable technology. These forward-looking statements, include, without limitation, statements about market opportunity, strategies, competition, expected activities and expenditures as we pursue business our plan, and the adequacy of available cash reserves. Although we believe the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. Actual results may differ materially from the predictions discussed in these forward-looking statements. The economic environment within which we operate could materially affect actual results. Additional factors that could materially affect these forward-looking statements and/or predictions include among other things:

 

(i) product demand, market and customer acceptance of any or all of the Company’s products, equipment and other goods,

(ii) ability to obtain financing to expand its operations,

(iii) ability to attract and retain qualified personnel,

(iv) the results, cost and timing of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, including any delays to such clinical trials relating to enrollment or site initiation, as well as the number of required trials for regulatory approval and the criteria for success in such trials,

(v) our dependence on third parties in the conduct of our preclinical studies and clinical trials,

(vi) legal and regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries, including any actions or advice that may affect the design, initiation, timing, continuation, progress or outcome of clinical trials or result in the need for additional clinical trials,

(vii) the results of our preclinical studies and earlier clinical trials of our product candidates may not be predictive of future results and we may not have favorable results in our ongoing or planned clinical trials,

(viii) the difficulties and expenses associated with obtaining and maintaining regulatory approval of our product candidates, and the indication and labeling under any such approval,

(ix) our plans and ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates,

(x) successful development of our commercialization capabilities, including sales and marketing capabilities, whether alone or with potential future collaborators,

(xi) the size and growth of the potential markets for our product candidates, the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates and our ability to serve those markets,

(xii) the success of competing therapies and products that are or become available,

(xiii) our ability to limit our exposure under product liability lawsuits, shareholder class action lawsuits or other litigation,

(xiv) our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates,

(xv) our ability to obtain and maintain third-party manufacturing for our product candidates on commercially reasonable terms,

(xvi) delays, interruptions or failures in the manufacture and supply of our product candidates,

(xvii) the performance of third parties upon which we depend, including third-party contract research organizations, or CROs, contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, contractor laboratories and independent contractors,

(xviii) the timing and outcome of current and future legal proceedings,

(xix) our ability to maintain proper functionality and security of our internal computer and information systems and prevent or avoid cyberattacks, malicious intrusion, breakdown, destruction, loss of data privacy or other significant disruption,

(xx) the adequacy of capital reserves and liquidity including, but not limited to, access to additional borrowing capacity,

(xxi) the extent to which health epidemics and other outbreaks of communicable diseases, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, could disrupt our operations or materially and adversely affect our business and financial conditions, and

(xxii) general industry and market conditions and growth rates, unexpected natural disasters, and other factors, which we have little or no control: and any other factors discussed in the Company’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

 

You should refer to Part I Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of material factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. As a result of these factors, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame or at all. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

 

You should read this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the documents that we reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and have filed as exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 10-K completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

 

 

ITEM 1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS

 

Unless the context indicates otherwise, all references to GB and GB Sciences refers solely to GB Sciences, Inc., a Nevada corporation, and all references to the Company, we, us or our in this Annual Report refers to GB Sciences and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

Overview

 

GB Sciences, Inc. (“the Company”, “GB Sciences”, “we”, “us”, or “our”) is a plant-inspired, biopharmaceutical research and development company creating patented, disease-targeted formulations of cannabis- and other plant-inspired therapeutic mixtures for the prescription drug market through its wholly owned Canadian subsidiary, GbS Global Biopharma, Inc. (“GBSGB”).

 

Through GBSGB, the Company is engaged in the research and development of plant-inspired medicines, with virtual operations in North America and Europe. GBSGB’s assets include a portfolio of intellectual property containing both proprietary plant-inspired formulations and our AI-enabled drug discovery platform, as well as critical research contracts and key supplier arrangements. The Company’s intellectual property portfolio, which is held by GBSGB, contains six U.S. and five foreign patents issued, one US and three foreign patents allowed, as well as 18 U.S. and 55 foreign patent-pending applications.

 

On February 3, 2023, GB Sciences’ first foreign patent protecting its proprietary cannabinoid-based formulations for Parkinson’s disease was issued in China. China is an increasingly important pharmaceutical market with cultural acceptance of plant-based formulations, which is a good fit for GB Sciences’ drug candidates. The global market for treatments of Parkinson’s disease is projected to grow to $8.8 billion by the year 2026, and new therapies to address Parkinson’s disease symptoms are greatly needed. GB Sciences’ first foreign patent also confirms that the Company’s intellectual property strategy can work globally and validates both our plant-inspired drug discovery process and intellectual property strategy, which involves defining and protecting Minimum Essential Mixtures. GBLX/GBSGB starts its drug discovery process with plant-based therapies that are working anecdotally or in traditional medical systems, then the Company systematically reduces the number of compounds to reveal Minimum Essential Mixtures. The Company’s novel Minimum Essential Mixtures retain the increased efficacy of whole plant medicines, but they are easier to manufacture with precision at scale like single ingredient drugs. These Minimum Essential Mixtures are a viable alternative to standard single ingredient drugs or traditional whole plant medicines. The Chinese Patent was issued for GBSGB’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

 

Several more of GBLX/GBSGB’s foreign patents for plant-based treatments of serious disorders were allowed in different countries, expanding our patent protections as follows. On December 1, 2022, the Israeli (IL) Patent was allowed, protecting our Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). MCAS is a severe immunological condition in which mast cells inappropriately and excessively release inflammatory mediators, resulting in a range of severe chronic hyperinflammatory symptoms and life-threatening anaphylaxis attacks. On December 15, 2022, the Australian (AU) Patent was allowed, protecting the Company’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). On February 20, 2023, the Japanese (JP) Patent was allowed, protecting the Company’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). Additionally, on March 9, 2023, the Notice of Allowance was received for the Company’s U.S. Patent Application No. 16/878,295. This Notice of Allowance protects the use of the Company’s Myrcene-Containing Complex Mixtures in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy, overactive bladder, and refractory chronic cough. On April 25, 2023, the Japanese patent was also issued for the use of GBSGB’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

 

GBSGB’s intellectual property covers a range of over 65 medical conditions, from which five drug development programs are in the preclinical stage of drug development including our formulations for Parkinson’s disease ("PD"), chronic pain, COVID-related cytokine release syndrome, depression/anxiety, and cardiovascular therapeutic programs. The Company’s primary focus is on preparing its lead program for the treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease for a first-in-human clinical trial. Depending on the results of ongoing preclinical studies, the Company intends to move forward with clinical trials for its chronic pain and COVID-related cytokine release syndrome therapies after PD. The Company’s formulations for chronic pain, anxiety, and depression are currently in preclinical animal studies with researchers at the National Research Council Canada. The Company recently received proof-of-concept data supporting its kava-inspired anxiety formulations. The Company also has positive preclinical proof-of-concept data supporting its complex mixtures for the treatment of Cytokine Release Syndrome, and its lead candidates will be optimized based on late-stage preclinical studies at Michigan State University. Proof-of-concept studies in animals that support our heart disease formulations have been successfully completed at the University of Hawaii. The Company runs a lean drug development program through GBSGB and takes effort to minimize expenses, including personnel, overhead, and fixed capital expenses through strategic partnerships with Universities and Contract Research Organizations (“CROs”). Our productive research and development network includes distinguished universities, hospitals, and Contract Research Organizations. 

 

We were incorporated in the State of Delaware on April 4, 2001, under the name “Flagstick Venture, Inc.” On March 28, 2008, stockholders owning a majority of our outstanding common stock approved changing our then name “Signature Exploration and Production Corp.” as our business model had changed.

 

On April 4, 2014, we changed our name from Signature Exploration and Production Corporation to Growblox Sciences, Inc. Effective December 12, 2016, the Company amended its Certificate of Corporation pursuant to shareholder approval, and the Company’s name was changed from Growblox Sciences, Inc. to GB Sciences, Inc.

 

Effective April 8, 2018, Shareholders of the Company approved the change in corporate domicile from the State of Delaware to the State of Nevada and increase in the number of authorized capital shares from 250,000,000 to 400,000,000. Effective August 15, 2019, Shareholders of the Company approved an increase in authorized capital shares from 400,000,000 to 600,000,000. Effective March 09, 2023, Shareholders of the Company approved an increase in authorized capital shares from 600,000,000 to 950,000,000.

 

 

Business Strategy

 

Drug Discovery and Development of Novel Cannabis- and Other Plant-Inspired Therapies 

 

Through its wholly owned Canadian subsidiary, GBS Global Biopharma, Inc. ("GBSGB"), the Company has conducted ground-breaking research embracing the rational design of plant-inspired medicines led by Dr. Andrea Small-Howard, the Company’s President, Chief Science Officer, and Director. In the early days, Small-Howard and Dr. Helen Turner, Vice President of Innovation and Dean of the Natural Sciences and Mathematics Department at Chaminade University, posited that minimum essential mixtures of plant-based ingredients would provide more targeted and effective treatments for specific disease conditions than either single ingredient or whole plant formulations. They started with cannabis-based drug discovery and developed a rapid screening and assaying system that tested thousands of combinations of cannabinoids and terpenes in vitro against cell-based models of disease. This process identified precise mixtures of cannabinoids and terpenes, many of which contained no THC, to treat categories of disease conditions, including neurological disorders, inflammation, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, and chronic neuropathic pain. More recently, a similar approach has been applied to the discovery and validation of therapies informed by plants described in a variety of Traditional Medical Systems. These rich discovery efforts have yielded new preclinical programs; for example, our anxiety and depression formulations that contain minimum essential mixtures of compounds derived from plants in the Piper plant family, such as kava.  

 

Currently, the Company’s drug discovery engine involves both a data analytics/machine learning tool to expedite drug discovery and high throughput screening of cell and animal models of disease. As previously mentioned, the Company initially explored the potential medical uses of specific mixtures derived from cannabis-based raw materials, but our early in silico tools have now been improved, and they are becoming increasingly effective for investigating the medical applications of potential therapeutic mixtures from any plant-derived starting material. In 2014, the Company developed its first rapid screening and assaying system which tested thousands of combinations of cannabinoids and terpenes against cell-based models of diseases. This process has been refined over the years and now has identified precise mixtures of cannabinoids and terpenes, many of which contained no THC, to treat categories of disease conditions, including neurological disorders, inflammation, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic and neuropathic pain. Through GBSGB, the Company has filed for patent protection on these plant-inspired, minimum essential mixtures, and they are validating them in disease-specific animal models in preparation for human trials.

 

The Company’s drug discovery process combines: 1) PhAROS™: Phytomedical Analytics for Research Optimization at Scale for the prediction of minimum essential mixtures from plant-based materials, and 2) HTS: high throughput screening to refine and validate plant-inspired, minimum essential mixtures in well-established cell and animal models of diseases. This combined approach to drug discovery increases research efficiency and accuracy reducing the time from ideation to patenting from 7 years to 1.5 years. The Company now uses its PhAROS™ Drug Discovery Platform to ‘pre-validate’ therapeutic mixtures. PhAROS can both prioritize and eliminate some potential combinations, which reduces time and resources used in the discovery period. PhAROS™ can also be used to identify and predict the efficacy of plant-inspired, minimum essential mixtures for specific diseases in silico, which are then tested by screening in cell and animal models. Screening of plant-inspired mixtures for drug discovery involves the testing of specific combinations of plant chemicals from many naturally occurring plants and the use of live models for these diseases that have been well established by other researchers. The Company refines the potential therapeutic mixtures pre-validated by PhAROS™ to optimize their effectiveness using cell and animal models. Based on data from disease-specific assays, therapeutic formulations are refined during the HTS screening process by removing compounds that do not act synergistically with the others in the mixtures. The goal is to identify minimum essential mixtures (MEM) that retain the efficacy of the whole plant extracts, but with the manufacturing and quality control advantages of single ingredient pharmaceutical products.

 

Recently, the Company has received positive preclinical results supporting the efficacy of its proprietary kava-based formulas designed for the treatment of anxiety, which were obtained as a part of its on-going preclinical study of kava-inspired formulations for the treatment of anxiety or depression. The Company is addressing the growing need for anxiety and depression medications with non-psychedelic kava-based formulations. As mental health disorders increasingly impact global populations, Gb Sciences is developing psychotropic but non-psychedelic treatments for anxiety and depression that compete with the emerging billion-dollar psychedelic companies. Gb Sciences’ psychotropic kava-inspired formulas enhance mood, but they do not have potentially unwanted psychedelic side-effects. The National Research Council of Canada (“NRC”) has been testing the Company’s proprietary, psychotropic plant-based formulas for the treatment of depression and anxiety. For these novel psychotropic drug candidates, the Company used their AI-enabled PhAROS™ platform to identify new ingredients to improve upon an initial formulation for anxiety based on traditional medicine. The original plant mixture was derived from the kava plant, but some elements of kava are thought to cause liver toxicity. PhAROS™ identified ingredients from the Piper plant family as a substitute for the functionality of the ingredients in question without the potentially adverse safety profiles of those original ingredients. The Piper plant family includes pepper plants that are used worldwide in traditional medicines. The Company’s novel psychotropic formulations have been tested in preclinical trials at the Zebrafish Toxicology, Genomics and Neurobiology Lab at the NRC, led by Dr. Lee Ellis, Research Officer and Team Lead. The ongoing work between the NRC and the Company has produced strong and applicable data for the evaluation of its therapies, and this trial could provide novel treatment options for patients with depression and anxiety.

 

The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office allows complex mixtures to be claimed as Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients ("APIs"). Through GBSGB, the Company has six issued patents, plus a series of pending patents containing plant-derived complex mixtures and minimum essential mixtures that act as therapeutic agents for specific disease categories, as described below. The Company’s pending patents are protected whether the individual compounds are derived from the cannabis plant, another plant, synthetically produced, or derived from a combination of sources for the individual chemical compounds in these mixtures.

 

On February 3, 2023, GB Sciences’ first foreign patent protecting its proprietary cannabinoid-based formulations for Parkinson’s disease was issued in China. China is an increasingly important pharmaceutical market with cultural acceptance of plant-based formulations, which is a good fit for GB Sciences’ drug candidates. The global market for treatments of Parkinson’s disease is projected to grow to $8.8 billion by the year 2026, and new therapies to address Parkinson’s disease symptoms are greatly needed. The Chinese Patent was issued for GBSGB’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

 

Several more of GBLX/GBSGB’s foreign patents for plant-based treatments of serious disorders were allowed in different countries, expanding our patent protections as follows. On December 1, 2022, the Israeli (IL) Patent was allowed, protecting our Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). MCAS is a severe immunological condition in which mast cells inappropriately and excessively release inflammatory mediators, resulting in a range of severe chronic hyperinflammatory symptoms and life-threatening anaphylaxis attacks. On December 15, 2022, the Australian (AU) Patent was allowed, protecting the Company’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). On February 20, 2023, the Japanese (JP) Patent was allowed, protecting the Company’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). Additionally, on March 9, 2023, the Notice of Allowance was received for the Company’s U.S. Patent Application No. 16/878,295. This Notice of Allowance protects the use of the Company’s Myrcene-Containing Complex Mixtures in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy, overactive bladder, and refractory chronic cough. On April 25, 2023, the Japanese patent was also issued for the use of GBSGB’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

 

 

Drug Development Progress

 

The Company has made significant strides in the past year with respect to both its drug discovery research and product development programs. The Company, through GBSGB, has five preclinical phase product development programs and is aggressively preparing its lead formulations for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease for a first-in-human clinical trial. Our lead program in Parkinson’s disease is being prepared for a first-in-human trial through the following essential steps: a) creating clinical prototypes by combining our proprietary Parkinson’s formulas with a convenient oral delivery system; b) performing a dose response study in rodents to establish the correct range of active ingredients for our first-in-human trial; c) performing necessary ADMET (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Toxicology) tests on the clinical prototypes; and d) selecting a Contract Research Organization (CRO) to prepare an Investigational New Drug (IND) application to the US FDA to begin our first-in-human trial. In addition to our work in preparing the Parkinson’s formulation for a First-in-Human trial, the Company’s chronic pain, anxiety, and depression formulations are currently in preclinical animal studies with Dr. Lee Ellis of the National Research Council ("NRC") Canada in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Based on our positive preclinical, proof-of-concept data supporting our minimum essential mixtures for the treatment of Cytokine Release Syndrome in COVID-19 (COVID-CRS) and other severe hyperinflammatory conditions, the Company’s lead COVID-CRS candidates will be optimized in late-stage preclinical studies with Dr. Norbert Kaminski at Michigan State University.

 

For the Company’s lead program in PD therapeutics, the efficacy of our original formulations has been improved and the Company has filed a new patent application family to protect our defined cannabinoid ratio-minimum essential mixtures (DCR-MEMs) for the treatment of Parkinsonian motor symptoms. The Company had announced previously that it has obtained the statistically significant reduction of Parkinson’s-disease like symptoms using proprietary cannabinoid-containing MEMs in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease ("PD"). These important preclinical results will be included in GBS’ Investigational New Drug ("IND") application with the US FDA to enter human clinical trials as soon as possible. New therapies to address Parkinson’s disease symptoms are needed to help those afflicted with this debilitating disease. The combined direct and indirect costs associated with Parkinson’s disease are estimated at $52 billion in the U.S. alone.

 

This year, we have successfully created clinical prototypes of our top three performing cannabinoid-containing Parkinson’s formulations with Catalent Pharma based on incorporating our proprietary cannabinoid formulations for Parkinson’s disease into Catalent Pharma’s proprietary Zydis® delivery system. Catalent Pharma’s Zydis® delivery system is an Orally Disintegrating Tablet format (“ODT”) that should be ideal for delivering our cannabinoid-ratio controlled formulations to Parkinson’s patients. More than 50% of Parkinson’s patients have trouble swallowing, but the Zydis® format delivers the active ingredients into the mouth by dispersion without needing water or the ability to swallow. To ready the Company’s Parkinson’s disease therapies for a First-in-Human trial, the initial clinical prototypes of our Defined Cannabinoid Ratio (DCR)-MEM have been formulated by Catalent Pharma using Catalent’s Zydis® Orally Disintegrating Tablet technology and they are being evaluated in stability and functional testing. As mentioned above, the ODT format was selected for the PD formulas because it dissolves on the tongues of patients without the need to swallow for ease of use in patients with PD, who often have difficulties with swallowing. Previously, the Company has completed two proof-of-concept studies for its MEM. Now, the Company has completed a Feasibility Study that has produced the clinical prototypes for its DCR-MEM. The Company selected Catalent for the delivery of their PD therapies due to Catalent’s prior experience in working on US FDA-approved, cannabinoid-containing drugs, their Schedule I drug manufacturing facilities, their familiarity with US FDA and international regulatory and manufacturing requirements, their expertise in tackling formulation challenges, and their ability to achieve the stability and dosing necessary for these novel therapeutic mixtures. In addition to its Zydis® technology, Catalent has early drug development services and additional oral drug delivery solutions available for the efficient delivery of the Company's proprietary APIs.

 

 

Additionally, the Company has successfully completed our required dose response study in a rodent model of Parkinson’s disease, which will help us to establish the correct dosing for our first-in-human trial. The University of Lethbridge completed this study in February of 2023, and the final report has recently been delivered to us for our usage. Prior to filing our IND application, we must conduct ADMET testing on the clinical prototypes of our Parkinson’s medication being formulated for us by Catalent Pharma. The Company has identified a Contract Research Organization that will perform the ADMET testing. In the IND application for our novel Parkinson’s disease therapy, the ADMET testing data will be combined with the Chemistry Manufacturing and Controls (CMC) data prepared by Catalent Pharma and our proof-of-concept data (National Research Council Canada). In the near future, we expect to announce the selection of the Contract Research Organization that will write the IND-application and run the first-in-human trials for our novel treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

 

For its lead chronic pain program, the Company is testing its MEM for chronic pain both as encapsulated, time-released nanoparticles, as well as in non-encapsulated forms of these therapeutic mixtures in an animal model at the NRC in Halifax, Nova Scotia. In preparation for human clinical trials, our standard MEM and the time-released MEM are currently being compared in an animal model that demonstrates their potential effectiveness at treating chronic pain. The early results from this preclinical research project look very promising.

 

The Company received positive proof-of-concept data from a human immune cell model supporting the efficacy of their proprietary MEM designed for the suppression of COVID-related, cytokine release syndromes (CRS) while preserving key anti-viral immune responses. Based on this new positive proof-of-concept data, GBSGB converted their provisional patent application entitled, “CANNABINOID-CONTAINING COMPLEX MIXTURES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CYTOKINE RELEASE SYNDROME WHILE PRESERVING KEY ANTI-VIRAL IMMUNE REACTIONS” to a nonprovisional patent application. The best performing MEM will be further developed in preparation for clinical studies to evaluate their anti-inflammatory potential in the treatment of severely ill COVID-19 patients contending with Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS) and associated hyperinflammatory conditions, such as macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). CRS, MAS, and ARDS are the leading causes of deaths in COVID-19 patients. The Company’s proof-of-concept study was performed at Michigan State University using a state-of-the-science human immune model. In the Company’s proof-of-concept study, immune cells from human donors were co-cultured together in one of four treatment groups: untreated (no inflammatory stimulus), inflammatory stimulus, control (inflammatory stimulus + vehicle from cannabinoid mixtures), or pre-treatment with the cannabinoid mixture + inflammatory stimulus. Then a panel of cytokines and inflammatory markers was measured from each of these treatment groups from different immune cell types within the co-cultured cells at four time points to determine whether the Company’s MEMs were able to alter the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines or other inflammatory agents. The Company’s COVID-CRS formulations showed potential for the selective inhibition of pro-inflammatory processes in response to viral- and bacterial-triggered hyperinflammation in a human immune cell model. These positive proof-of-concept results support the potential for some of these mixtures to accomplish our therapeutic goals, but, ultimately, clinical trial results will determine whether they are efficacious. The Company’s plant-based drug discovery platform is advancing biopharmaceutical research at a time when thousands are dying from COVID-19. The next step is to further develop our plant-inspired drugs and eventually bring them to human trials so that the use of well-defined cannabinoid mixtures in clinical practice can become a reality.

 

 

As mentioned above, the Company has announced that our kava-inspired formulas for anxiety have achieved statistically significant efficacy in animal proof-of-concept studies. Gb Sciences is now preparing its non-psychedelic, kava-based anxiety formulations to treat the growing global need for anxiety and depression relief. The NRC of Canada has tested our proprietary, psychotropic plant-based formulas for the treatment of depression and anxiety in preclinical animal studies. The Company has leveraged its patent-pending PhAROS™ (Phytomedical Analytics for Research Optimization at Scale) platform to identify these combinations of plant compounds for novel drug candidates to treat depression and anxiety. These are the company’s first non-cannabis formulations to achieve proof-of-concept efficacy in preclinical studies. For these novel psychotropic drug candidates, the Company used the PhAROS™ platform to identify new ingredients to improve upon an initial formulation for anxiety based on traditional medicine. The original plant mixture was derived from the kava plant, but some elements of kava are thought to cause liver toxicity. PhAROS™ identified ingredients from the Piper plant family as a substitute for the functionality of the ingredients in question without the potentially adverse safety profiles of those original ingredients. The Piper plant family includes pepper plants that are used worldwide in traditional medicines. The Global Anxiety Disorder and Depression Treatment Market size is forecast to reach USD 19.81 Billion by 2028 according to Reports & Data.

 

Favorable Research Updates from our university collaborators reveal the promise in our discovery programs including: 1) Multiple MEM discovery projects using and advancing our proprietary PhAROS™ drug discovery platform in conjunction with Chaminade University, 2) the Company’s Cannabis Metabolomics Project with both Chaminade University of Honolulu, Hawai’i and the University of Athens, Greece, and 3) the Company’s Time-Released Nanoparticles for Delivery of Cannabis-based Ingredients with the University of Seville, Spain and the University of Cadiz, Spain.

 

In the past year GBLX/GBSGB’s foreign patents for plant-based treatments of serious disorders were allowed in different countries, expanding our patent protections as follows. On February 3, 2023, GB Sciences’ first foreign patent protecting its proprietary cannabinoid-based formulations for Parkinson’s disease was issued in China. China is an increasingly important pharmaceutical market with cultural acceptance of plant-based formulations, which is a good fit for GB Sciences’ drug candidates. The global market for treatments of Parkinson’s disease is projected to grow to $8.8 billion by the year 2026, and new therapies to address Parkinson’s disease symptoms are greatly needed. The Chinese Patent was issued for GBSGB’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. On December 1, 2022, the Israeli (IL) Patent was allowed, protecting our Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). MCAS is a severe immunological condition in which mast cells inappropriately and excessively release inflammatory mediators, resulting in a range of severe chronic hyperinflammatory symptoms and life-threatening anaphylaxis attacks. On December 15, 2022, the Australian (AU) Patent was allowed, protecting the Company’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). On February 20, 2023, the Japanese (JP) Patent was allowed, protecting the Company’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). Additionally, on March 9, 2023, the Notice of Allowance was received for the Company’s U.S. Patent Application No. 16/878,295. This Notice of Allowance protects the use of the Company’s Myrcene-Containing Complex Mixtures in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy, overactive bladder, and refractory chronic cough. On April 25, 2023, the Japanese patent was also issued for the use of GBSGB’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

 

In 2021, our growing intellectual property portfolio was augmented with additional patent-protections for our PhAROS™ drug discovery platform that were filed in July of 2021 and in October of 2021. The Company, through GBSGB, also filed for protection of new PhAROS™ discovered, non-cannabis formulations in July of 2021. In September of 2021, the Company filed a patent application for the Company’s improved DCR-MEM formulations for our PD therapeutic program. These new patent applications expanded upon the solid foundation of intellectual property developed over the past six years. In 2020, the three patents which protect formulations for the Company’s lead therapeutic programs were issued by the USPTO. The issuance of U.S. Patent No. 10,653,640 entitled "Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases" on May 19, 2020 protects methods of using GBSGB’s proprietary cannabinoid-containing complex mixtures (CCCM™) for treating Parkinson’s Disease. This was an important milestone in the development of these vitally important therapies and validates GBSGB’s drug discovery platform. In the US alone, the combined direct and indirect costs associated with Parkinson’s disease are estimated at $52 billion, and new therapies to address Parkinson’s disease symptoms are greatly needed. This was also the first time that a US patent has been awarded for a cannabis-based complex mixture defined using this type of drug discovery method. The first US patent for PD therapies validated our drug discovery platform and strengthened our intellectual property portfolio of unique CCCM’s™, each targeting one of up to 60 specific clinical applications.

 

The issuance of the Company’s second and third US patents for active pharmaceutical ingredients that are complex mixtures identified by our biotech platform further confirmed that the Company’s pharmaceutical compositions can be patent protected for use as biopharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The US Patent entitled “Myrcene-Containing Complex Mixtures Targeting TRPV1” protects methods of using our proprietary MEMs for the treatment of pain disorders related to arthritis, shingles, irritable bowel syndrome, sickle cell disease, and endometriosis. In the US alone, chronic pain represents an estimated health burden of between $560 and $650 billion dollars, and an estimated 20.4% of U.S. adults suffer from chronic pain that significantly decreases their quality of life. Despite the widespread rates of addiction and death, opioids remain the standard of care treatment for most people with chronic pain. The Company believes that it is important to create safer, less addictive alternatives to opioids for the treatment of chronic pain disorders, like GBSGB’s myrcene-containing MEMs.

 

The Company's third issued US Patent entitled "Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the Treatment of Mast-Cell-Associated or Basophil-Mediated Inflammatory Disorders" protects methods of using the Company’s proprietary MEMs for treating Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). MCAS is a severe immunological condition in which mast cells inappropriately and excessively release inflammatory mediators, resulting in a range of severe chronic hyperinflammatory symptoms and life-threatening anaphylaxis attacks. Receiving this patent for the treatment of MCAS using our MEMs is an important milestone in the development of this urgently needed medicine. There is no single recommended treatment for MCAS patients. Instead, they attempt to manage MCAS symptoms primarily by avoiding ‘triggers’ and using rescue medicines for their severe hyperinflammatory attacks. Therefore, MCAS patients need new therapeutic options to control their mast cell related symptoms, and our MEMs were designed to simultaneously control multiple inflammatory pathways within mast cells as a comprehensive treatment option. The Company is strategically targeting MCAS for two additional reasons. By focusing on a rare disease with no known cure, our company can apply for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s expedited approval process, which allows clinically successful treatments to get to market both quicker and more cost effectively. Gaining approval from the US FDA for the entire anti-inflammatory market would be extremely time consuming and cost prohibitive. Demonstrating that our MEMs are safe for the treatment of MCAS would favorably position our Company for clinical testing of these MEMs as potential treatments for other related inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, thereby widening the target market and drastically shortening the development cycle and costs.

 

The Company’s fourth US Patent was issued on March 1, 2022 for a cannabinoid-containing mixture designed to treat cardiac hypertrophy, often present in advanced heart disease. Gb Sciences’ newly issued patent also covers the use of these receptor-targeted formulations for the treatment of TRPV1-receptor associated hearing loss and urinary cystitis. Despite multiple categories of prescription heart medications on the market, heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States for people of most racial and ethnic groups. Alternative therapeutic approaches are still needed, especially for the treatment of advanced heart disease. The market for prescription heart disease medications is predicted to rise to $64 billion dollars in the US by 2026, with future market growth fueled by innovative new therapeutic approaches.

 

 

Intellectual Property

 

GBSGB retained Fenwick & West, a Silicon Valley based law firm focusing on life sciences and high technology companies with a nationally top-ranked intellectual property practice, to develop strategies for the protection of the Company's intellectual property. The status of the intellectual property portfolio is as follows. Unless otherwise indicated, all patents listed below are assigned to the Company's wholly-owned subsidiary, GBS Global Biopharma, Inc.

 

Six USPTO & Five International Patents Issued; One USPTO & Three International Patents Allowed*

*Notice of Allowances received which confirms patent protection on claim set

 

Title: CANNABINOID-CONTAINING COMPLEX MIXTURES FOR THE TREATMENT OF NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES (002 Patent Family)

 

U.S. Patent Number: US10653640B2 Issued: May 19, 2020
Expiration date: October 10, 2037 Inventors: Andrea Small-Howard et al.
Chinese Patent Number: CN109963595B Issued: Feb 3, 2023
Expiration date: October 10, 2037 Inventors: Andrea Small-Howard et al.
Japanese Patent Number: JP7225103B2 Issued: April 25, 2023
Expiration date: October 10, 2037 Inventors: Andrea Small-Howard et al.

                                    

On May 19, 2020, U.S. Patent protection was granted for GbS’ Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. On February 3, 2023, the Chinese Patent was issued for GbS’ Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. On April 25, 2023, the Japanese patent was issued for the use of GbS’ Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. These patents claim benefit of U.S. Patent Application No. 62/406,764 that was originally filed October 11, 2016.

 

Title: MYRCENE-CONTAINING COMPLEX MIXTURES TARGETING TRPV1 (005 Patent Family)

 

U.S. Patent Number US10709670B2 Issued: July 14, 2020
Expiration date: May 22, 2038 Inventors: Andrea Small-Howard, et al.
US Patent Application: US20200390721A1 Allowed: March 9, 2023
Expiration date: May 22, 2038 Inventors: Andrea Small-Howard et al.

                                    

As of July 14, 2020, GbS’ Myrcene-Containing Complex Mixtures (MCCM) are protected in the US for use in the treatment of pain related to arthritis, shingles, irritable bowel syndrome, sickle cell disease, and endometriosis. On March 9, 2023, the Notice of Allowance was received for GbS’ U.S. Patent Application No. 16/878,295, which was filed as a Continuation of Review of US Patent Application No. 15/986,316 (originally filed on May 22, 2018). The Notice of Allowance on the Continued Review Application protects the use of GbS’ MCCM in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy, overactive bladder, and refractory chronic cough. These patents claim benefit of U.S. Patent Application No. 62/509,546 that was originally filed May 22, 2017.

 

Title: CANNABINOID-CONTAINING COMPLEX MIXTURES FOR THE TREATMENT OF MAST CELL-ASSOCIATED OR BASOPHIL-MEDIATED INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS (003 Patent Family)

 

U.S. Patent Number US10,857,107B2 Issued: December 8, 2020
Expiration date: January 31, 2038 Inventors: Andrea Small-Howard et al.
IL Patent Number: IL268211B Allowed: December 1, 2022
Expiration date: January 31, 2038 Inventors: Andrea Small-Howard et al.
AU Patent Number: AU2018215200B2 Allowed: December 15, 2022
Expiration date: January 31, 2038 Inventors: Andrea Small-Howard et al.
JP Patent Number: JP7225104B2 Allowed: February 20, 2023
Expiration date: January 31, 2038 Inventors: Andrea Small-Howard et al.

                                    

On December 8, 2020, U.S. Patent protection was granted for GbS’ Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). On December 1, 2022, the Israeli (IL) Patent was allowed, protecting GbS’ Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). On December 15, 2022, the Australian (AU) Patent was allowed, protecting GbS’ Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). On February 20, 2023, the Japanese (JP) Patent was allowed, protecting GbS’ Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). These patents claim benefit of U.S. Patent Application No. 62/453,161 originally filed February 1, 2017.

 

 

Title: TRPV1 ACTIVATION-MODULATING COMPLEX MIXTURES OF CANNABINOIDS AND/OR TERPENES (006 Patent Family)

 

U.S. Patent Number US11260044B2 Issued: May 1, 2022
Expiration date: May 22, 2039 Inventors: Andrea Small-Howard, et al.

                                    

U.S. Patent coverage was granted for CBGA-containing mixtures used for the treatment of TRPV1-associated heart disease, renal cystitis, and hearing loss. This patent claims benefit of U.S. Patent Application Nos. 62/674,843 filed May 22, 2018; 62/769,743 filed November 20, 2018; and 62/849,719 filed May 17, 2019.

 

Title: METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY (050 Patent Family)

 

U.S. Patent Number: US9084786B2 Issued: July 21, 2015
U.S. Patent Number: US10137123B2 Issued: November 27, 2018
European Union Patent Number: EP2635281B1 Issued: March 14, 2018
Hong Kong Patent Number: HK14102182.8B1 Issued: March 14, 2018
Inventor: Alexander Stokes Assignee: University of Hawai’i

                                    

GbS has sublicensed these two issued USPTO patents and two issued international patents for the prevention and treatment of heart failure due to cardiac hypertrophy through therapeutic regulation of TRPV1 from Makai Biotechnology, LLC.

 

Title: METHOD FOR PRODUCING A PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION OF POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES FOR TREATING NEUROPATHIC PAIN CAUSED BY PERIPHERAL NERVE COMPRESSION (008 Patent Family)

Spanish Patent: ES2582287                                              Issued: September 29, 2017

Expiration: February 9, 2035

Inventors: Martin Banderas, Lucia; Fernandez Arevalo, Mercedes; Berrocoso, Dominguez, Esther; and Mico Segura, Juan Antonio

Assignees: Universidad de Sevilla, Universidad de Cadiz, and Centro de Investigacion Biomedica En Red

Exclusive worldwide license held by GbS Global Biopharma, Inc. Claims benefit of Spanish Patent Application no. P201500129 (Pub. No. ES 2582287).

 

GbS holds the exclusive worldwide rights to commercialize the issued Spanish patent-protected, cannabinoid-containing, time-released, oral nanoparticles for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

 

Issued Patents

 

In addition to the issued patents listed above, GBSGB's intellectual property portfolio includes a total of ten USPTO and thirty-five international patents pending:

 

Title

 

Jurisdiction

 

Application Number

 

Other

International

Applications

Filed

 

Continuation of

CANNABINOID-CONTAINING COMPLEX MIXTURES FOR THE TREATMENT OF NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES

 

US

 

USPTO 16/844,713
PCT/US2017/055989

 

AU, CA, CN, EP, HK, IL, JP

 

US15/729,565

CN202310039015.8A JP2023058599A

MYRCENE-CONTAINING COMPLEX MIXTURES TARGETING TRPV1

 

US

 

USPTO 16/878,295
PCT/US2018/033956

 

AU, CA, CN, EP, HK, IL, JP

 

US15/986,316 US16/878,295

CANNABINOID-CONTAINING COMPLEX MIXTURES FOR THE TREATMENT OF MAST CELL-ASSOCIATED OR BASOPHIL-MEDIATED INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS

 

US

 

USPTO 17/065,400
PCT/US2018/016296

 

AU, CA, CN, EP, HK, IL, JP

 

US15/885,620

TRPV1 ACTIVATION-MODULATING COMPLEX MIXTURES OF CANNABINOIDS AND/OR TERPENES

 

US

 

USPTO 16/420,004 PCT/US2019/033618

 

AU, CA, CN, EP, HK, IL, JP

 

US17/576,485

THERAPEUTIC NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATING TERPENOIDS AND/OR CANNABINOIDS

 

US

 

USPTO 16/686,069
PCT/ES2019/070765

 

AU, CA, CN, EP, HK, IL, JP

   

TREATMENT OF PAIN USING ALLOSTERIC MODULATOR OF TRPV1

 

US

 

USPTO 16/914,205
PCT/US2020/039989

 

AU, CA, CN, EP, HK, IL, JP

   

CANNABINOID-CONTAINING COMPLEX MIXTURES FOR THE TREATMENT OF CYTOKINE RELEASE SYNDROME WHILE PRESERVING KEY ANTI-VIRAL IMMUNE REACTIONS

 

US

 

USPTO 17/406,035
PCT/US2021/046584

 

AU, CA, CN, EP, HK, IL, JP

   

IN SILICO META-PHARMACOPEIA ASSEMBLY FROM NON-WESTERN MEDICAL SYSTEMS USING ADVANCED DATA ANALYTIC TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY AND DESIGN PHYTOTHERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES

 

US

 

USPTO 17/501,498
PCT/US2021/055056

 

CA, EP, HK, KR 

   

 

 

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY

 

US/EU

 

EPO 3,348,267

 

IN, CN

   

METHOD FOR PRODUCING A PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION OF POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES FOR TREATING NEUROPATHIC PAIN CAUSED BY PERIPHERAL NERVE COMPRESSION

 

WIPO/PCT

 

WIPO 2016/128591
PCT/ES2016/000016

 

US, EU, CA

   

CANNABINOID-CONTAINING FORMULATIONS FOR PARKINSONIAN MOVEMENT DISORDERS

 

US

 

USPTO 17/501,498 PCT/US2021/055056

       

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES TO MIGRAINE USING THE PHAROS IN SILICO DRUG DISCOVERY PLATFORM

 

US

 

USPTO 63/221,334
(provisional)

       

METHOD AND COMPOSITIONS FOR THE PHYTOMEDICAL COMPONENT SUPPLY CHAIN DECISION SUPPORT USING THE PHAROS IN SILICO DRUG DISCOVERY PLATFORM

 

US

 

Incorporated into

USPTO 17/501,498
PCT/US2021/055056

       

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR NOVEL PAIN THERAPIES INCLUDING OPIOID-ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES IDENTIFIED USING THE PHAROS IN SILICO DRUG DISCOVERY PLATFORM

 

US

 

Incorporated into

USPTO 17/501,498
PCT/US2021/055056

       

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR NOVEL PAIN THERAPIES TARGETED TO SPECIFIC PAIN SUBTYPES IDENTIFIED USING THE PHAROS IN SILICO DRUG DISCOVERY PLATFORM

 

US

 

Incorporated into

USPTO 17/501,498
PCT/US2021/055056

       

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL THERAPEUTICS BASED ON PIPER SPECIE-CONTAINING PHYTOMEDICINES FOR ANXIETY AND ASSOCIATED DISORDERS USING THE PHAROS IN SILICO DRUG DISCOVERY PLATFORM

 

US

 

Incorporated into

USPTO 17/501,498
PCT/US2021/055056

       

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR DECONVOLUTION OF COMPLEX PHYTOMEDICAL FORMULAE FOR CANCER TO IDENTIFY TARGETED STRATEGIES FOR CANCER PAIN AND CYTOTOXIC THERAPEUTIC CANDIDATES USING THE PHAROS IN SILICO DRUG DISCOVERY PLATFORM

 

US

 

Incorporated into

USPTO 17/501,498
PCT/US2021/055056

       

NANOPARTICLE FORMULATIONS FOR TREATING PAIN

 

US

 

63/374,581 (provisional)

       

FORMULATIONS FOR TREATING CYTOKINE RELEASE SYNDROME

 

US

 

63/374,583 (provisional)

       

FORMULATIONS FOR TREATING ANXIETY

 

US

 

63/374,584 (provisional)

       

 

 

Partnering Strategy 

 

The Company runs a lean drug development program and minimizes expenses, including personnel, overhead, and fixed capital expenses (such as lab and diagnostic equipment), through strategic partnerships with universities, hospitals, suppliers, Contract Research Organizations (“CROs”), and Contract Manufacturing Organizations (“CMOs”). Through these research and development agreements, the Company has created a virtual pipeline for the further development of novel medicines based on ingredients originally derived from the cannabis plant and other plant-based traditional medicines. The partners bring both expertise and infrastructure at a reasonable cost to the life sciences program. In most instances, the Company has also negotiated with these partners to keep 100% of the ownership of the IP within GBSGB for original patent filings.

 

The Company currently has on-going research agreements with the following institutions covering the indicated areas of research:

 

Chaminade University: Broad-based research program to support the drug discovery platform that has yielded many of the Company’s original patents to date in the areas of neurodegenerative diseases, heart disease, inflammatory diseases, neuropathic and chronic pain. They have also performed the bioassay portion of the Cannabis Metabolomics study performed with the University of Athens, Greece and the Company. Our collaborations with Chaminade also led to the development of our PhAROS™ drug discovery platform.

 

University of Athens: Broad-based metabolomics analysis of over 100 cannabis genotypes including both hemp and THC-producing cannabis varieties, in combination with the Company’s bioassay data linking genotypes and potential disease-remediations. This project has the potential to define active ingredients from plant-derived mixtures beyond the standard cannabinoids and terpenoids. The discovery potential is huge, and novel agents have recently been discovered. Novel ligands have been identified and are being validated. This project will ultimately yield novel patent-protected therapies.

 

Michigan State University: Preclinical work using a cutting-edge, multi-cellular model of the human immune system and a multi-cell model of the brain to validate our MEMs for use in the treatment of COVID-19-related cytokine release syndromes (COVID-CRS). MSU has performed experiments using their novel model of the human-immune system that have allowed GBSGB to prepare cannabis-based formulas for the potential treatment of virally-induced hyperinflammation/cytokine storm syndrome that has led to the majority of COVID-19 deaths. Positive proof-of-concept results have guided the development of these selectively anti-inflammatory MEM.

 

The University of Lethbridge: Our research partners bring expertise in studying neurodegenerative diseases using animal models and “Home Cage Small World” assessments using cameras and Artificial Intelligence-to assess efficacy of our proprietary Minimum Essential Mixtures for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease symptoms. Our colleagues at the University of Lethbridge have recently finished the dose-response study for our Company’s cannabinoid-containing Parkinson’s disease therapies.

 

The University of Seville: Bringing their novel expertise to the development and functional testing of time-released and disease-targeted nanoparticles of cannabis-based minimum essential mixtures for oral administration. These specialized nanoparticles are being used for the precise and time-released delivery of several of our therapies, including the Company’s chronic pain MEMs used in the preclinical animal testing performed at the NRC Canada. The University of Seville has completed functional testing on nanoparticles containing myrcene, nerolidol, and beta-caryophyllene for our chronic pain MEMs. In cell-based assays, the effectiveness and kinetics of the nanoparticle-forms of these terpenes were compared with the “naked” terpenes both individually and in mixtures. In all cases, the effectiveness of the nanoparticles was superior to the naked terpenes, however, the mixtures were dramatically more effective than the individuals. Recently, our partners at the University of Seville have completed the formulation of new cannabis-based ingredients for inclusion into the oral, time-released nanoparticle format for the completion of our maximally effective MEMs for chronic pain. The results from Seville are very promising, and these nanoparticles have entered the animal testing phase at the NRC of Canada in Halifax.

 

The National Research Center (NRC) of Canada, Halifax, Nova Scotia: Three animal-phase studies are being performed by Dr. Lee Ellis’ group at the NRC of Canada. 1) Chronic Pain: The Company has re-started a safety and efficacy study in animals for our Chronic Pain (CP) formulas. The midterm results for these preclinical pain studies were promising, but the study was significantly delayed by the COVID pandemic. 2) Anxiety: We recently announced the positive performance of our plant-inspired formulas in an animal model of anxiety. 3) Depression: Minimum essential mixtures of plant-based ingredients from kava and the related Piper plant family are being evaluated now.

 

The University of Cadiz: Testing the safety and efficacy of the above-mentioned time-released nanoparticles in rodent models of chronic pain. Proof of concept complete for one formulation.

 

University of Hawaii: Validating the efficacy of a complex cannabis-based mixture for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac disease in a rodent model. Proof of concept work is complete in rodents, and we are seeking commercialization partners.

 

 

Path to Market: Drug Development Stages and Proposed Clinical Trials

 

The Company has plant-based therapeutic products in the following stages of drug development: Discovery, Pre-Clinical, and entering the Clinical Phase. It has also licensed therapeutic products that the Company intends to develop through partners, labeled Partner Programs.

 

The completion of discovery, preclinical studies, clinical trials, and the required regulatory submissions required for obtaining US FDA pre-market approvals for pharmaceutical products (and equivalent approvals from other corresponding agencies worldwide) is traditionally a long and expensive process. However, the Company asserts that its proprietary, PhAROS™, AI-enabled, drug discovery engine; plant-inspired formulations; lean development program; novel regulatory strategy; experienced development partners; and aggressive licensing of these products at early clinical stages can mitigate some of the risks. The Company uses a combination of in silico discovery methods and automated screening of cellular and animal models of disease to decrease the time in Discovery prior to filing novel patent applications for disease-specific therapeutics. Through GBSGB, the Company’s original patent applications cover new chemical entities (“NCE”) based on discovery and validation of minimum essential mixtures derived from complex, plant-based therapeutics. The Company plans to use an Exploratory IND/Phase 0 Program that gets the Company to First-in-Human sooner than traditional programs, which reduces translational risks, and includes preliminary efficacy measures for responsible development decisions. In contrast, a traditional phased-development path would not provide any efficacy measures until Phase II. After the completion of our Phase 0 study for PD, which compares the efficacies of multiple related cannabinoid-based formulations, the Company plans to advance the lead PD drug candidate using an adaptive trial design that is more efficient than the traditional phased-development pathway. Through GBSGB, the Company has entered into research contracts, partnerships, and/or joint ventures with several respected, independent contract research organizations, medical schools, universities, and with other scientific consultants to increase developmental efficiencies. If and when one or more of the Company’s drugs, therapies or treatments are approved by the US FDA, the Company will seek to market them under licensing arrangements with major biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies.

 

There can be no assurance that we will ever be able to enter into any joint ventures or other arrangements with third parties to finance our drug development program or that if we are able to do so, that any of our projected therapies will ever be approved by the US FDA. Even if we obtain US FDA approval to market one of our therapies, there can be no assurance that it could be successfully marketed or would not be superseded by another plant-based therapy produced by one or more of our competitors. It also may be anticipated that even if we enter into a joint venture development with a financially stable pharmaceutical or institutional partner, we will still be required to raise significant additional capital in the future to achieve the strategic goals of the Company. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain such additional capital on reasonable terms, if at all. If the Company fails to achieve its goal of producing one or more plant-inspired pharmaceuticals or therapies, it would have a material adverse effect on our future financial condition and business prospects.

 

Other Operations

 

On March 24, 2020, the Company entered into the Membership Interest Purchase Agreement ("Teco MIPA") with AJE Management, LLC. Pursuant to the Teco MIPA, the Company agreed to sell 100% of its membership interests in GB Sciences Nevada, LLC, and GB Sciences Las Vegas, LLC (the "Teco Subsidiaries") for approximately $8 million, which amount includes a cash payment at closing, the extinguishment of certain liabilities owed to the purchaser and affiliates of the purchaser, and an 8% promissory note.

 

On August 10, 2020, the Company entered into the Membership Interest Purchase Agreement ("Nopah MIPA") and Promissory Note Modification Agreement with 483 Management, LLC. Pursuant to the Nopah MIPA, the Company agreed to sell its 100% membership interest in GB Sciences Nopah, LLC ("Nopah"), which holds a Nevada medical marijuana cultivation certificate. As consideration, the Company would receive $300,000 as a reduction to the balance of the 0% Note payable dated October 23, 2017 and accounts payable of $74,647, which were owed to an affiliate of the purchaser.

 

The closing of the Teco and Nopah sales was contingent upon the successful transfer of the Nevada cultivation and production licenses. On December 14, 2021, the Company received approval from the Nevada Cannabis Compliance Board for the transfer of cannabis cultivation and extraction licenses held by its subsidiaries GB Sciences Nevada, LLC, GB Sciences Las Vegas, LLC, and GB Sciences Nopah, LLC (the "Nevada Subsidiaries"). Consequently, all conditions to closing the sales of the 100% membership interests in the Nevada Subsidiaries were satisfied, and the transactions formally closed on December 31, 2021. After the closing date, the Company retains no ownership interest in the Nevada Subsidiaries.

 

 

Competition

 

The biotech industry is subject to intense and increasing competition. We face potential competition from many different sources, including large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, specialty pharmaceutical and generic drug companies, and medical technology companies. Any product candidates that we successfully develop and commercialize will compete with existing therapies and new therapies that may become available in the future. Some of our competitors may have substantially greater capital resources, facilities and infrastructure then we have, which may enable them to compete more effectively in this market. These competitors include Cara Therapeutics Inc., Corbus Pharmaceuticals Holdings Inc., Zynerba Pharmaceuticals Inc., Tetra Bio-Pharma, Inc., Revive Therapeutics, Inc., Axim Biotechnologies, Inc., and Emerald BioScience, Inc., among others.

 

There are several organizations that may be developing or marketing therapies for the indications that we are pursuing. Many of our competitors, including many of the organizations named above, have substantially greater financial, technical and human resources than we do and significantly greater experience in the development of product candidates, obtaining FDA and other regulatory approvals of products and the commercialization of those products. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of competitors.

 

We believe the key competitive factors that will affect the development and commercial success of our product candidates, if approved for marketing, are likely to be their safety, efficacy and tolerability profile, reliability, convenience of dosing, price and reimbursement from government and third-party payers. Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or other regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market. In addition, our ability to compete may be affected in many cases by insurers or other third-party payers seeking to encourage the use of generic products. Generic products that broadly address these indications are currently on the market for the indications that we are pursuing, and additional products are expected to become available on a generic basis over the coming years. If our product candidates achieve marketing approval, we expect that they will be priced at a significant premium over competitive generic products.

 

Government Regulation and Federal Policy

 

Government authorities in the U.S. (including federal, state and local authorities) and in other countries extensively regulate, among other things, the manufacturing, research and clinical development, marketing, labeling and packaging, storage, distribution, post-approval monitoring and reporting, advertising and promotion, export and import of pharmaceutical products, such as those we are developing. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and the subsequent compliance with appropriate federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Moreover, failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements may result in, among other things, warning letters, clinical holds, civil or criminal penalties, recall or seizure of products, injunction, disbarment, partial or total suspension of production or withdrawal of the product from the market. Any agency or judicial enforcement action could have a material adverse effect on us.

 

FDA Regulation

 

In the U.S., the FDA regulates drugs under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (“FDCA”) and its implementing regulations. Drugs are also subject to other federal, state and local statutes and regulations. The process required by the FDA before product candidates may be marketed in the U.S. generally involves the following:

 

●completion of extensive preclinical laboratory tests and preclinical animal studies, all performed in accordance with the FDA’s Good Laboratory Practice (“GLP”) regulations. Preclinical testing generally includes evaluation of our product candidates in the laboratory or in animals to characterize the product and determine safety and efficacy; 

●submission to the FDA of an Investigational New Drug application ("IND"), which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin and must be updated annually; 

●performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of the product candidate for each proposed indication; 

●submission to the FDA of a New Drug Application ("NDA") after completion of all pivotal clinical trials; 

●a determination by the FDA within 60 days of its receipt of an NDA to file the NDA for review; 

●satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities at which the active pharmaceutical ingredient (“API”) and finished drug product are produced and tested to assess compliance with cGMP regulations; 

●satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of one or more of the clinical sites at which the clinical trials were conducted; 

●at the discretion of the FDA, a public Advisory Committee Meeting where the data is reviewed by experts who discuss the data and give their opinion (which the FDA is not obliged to follow) of the adequacy of the data to support an approval; and 

●FDA review and approval of an NDA prior to any commercial marketing or sale of the drug in the U.S. 

 

 

We rely and expect to continue to rely on third parties for the production, distribution, shipping and storage of clinical and commercial quantities of our product candidates. Future FDA and state inspections may identify compliance issues at the facilities of our contract manufacturers that may disrupt production or distribution or require substantial resources to correct. In addition, discovery of previously unknown problems with a product or the failure to comply with applicable requirements may result in restrictions on a product, manufacturer or holder of an approved NDA, including withdrawal or recall of the product from the market or other voluntary, FDA-initiated or judicial action that could delay or prohibit further marketing. Newly discovered or developed safety or effectiveness data may require changes to a product’s approved labeling, including the addition of new warnings and contraindications, and also may require the implementation of other risk management measures. Also, new government requirements, including those resulting from new legislation, may be established, or the FDA’s policies may change, which could delay or prevent regulatory approval of our product candidates under development.

 

In addition to regulations in the U.S., we will be subject to a variety of regulations in other jurisdictions governing, among other things, clinical trials and any commercial sales and distribution of our products. Whether or not we obtain FDA approval for a product, we must obtain the requisite approvals from regulatory authorities in foreign countries prior to the commencement of clinical trials or marketing of the product in those countries. Certain countries outside of the U.S. have a similar process that requires the submission of a clinical trial application much like the IND prior to the commencement of human clinical trials. In Europe, for example, a clinical trial application (“CTA”) must be submitted to each country’s national health authority and an independent ethics committee, much like the FDA and IRB, respectively. Once the CTA is approved in accordance with a country’s requirements, clinical trial development may proceed.

 

The requirements and process governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary from country to country. In all cases, the clinical trials are conducted in accordance with GCP and the applicable regulatory requirements and the ethical principles that have their origin in the Declaration of Helsinki.

 

To obtain regulatory approval of an investigational drug under European Union regulatory systems, we must submit a marketing authorization application. The application used to file the NDA in the U.S. is similar to that required in Europe, with the exception of, among other things, country-specific document requirements. For other countries outside of the European Union, such as countries in Eastern Europe, Latin America or Asia, the requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary from country to country. In all cases, again, the clinical trials are conducted in accordance with GCP and the applicable regulatory requirements and the ethical principles that have their origin in the Declaration of Helsinki.

 

If we fail to comply with applicable foreign regulatory requirements, we may be subject to, among other things, fines, suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals, product recalls, seizure of products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecution.

 

Cannabis Regulation

 

Although the Company has completely divested of its cannabis cultivation and production facilities effective December 31, 2021, the Company has owned and operated subsidiaries that were involved in the manufacturing and distribution of cannabis products under State law. These operations were subject to prohibition under United States federal law.

 

Under the Controlled Substances Act (“CSA”), the policies and regulations of the Federal government and its agencies are that cannabis (marijuana) is a Schedule 1 narcotic that is addictive and has no medical benefit. Accordingly, and a range of activities including cultivation and the personal use of cannabis is prohibited and subject to prosecution and criminal penalties. Unless and until Congress amends the CSA with respect to medical cannabis, there is a risk that the federal authorities may enforce current federal law, and we may be deemed to have engaged in producing, cultivating, or dispensing cannabis in violation of federal law, or we may be deemed to have facilitated the sale or distribution of drug paraphernalia in violation of federal law with respect to our Company’s divested business operations. Active enforcement of the current federal regulatory position on cannabis may thus indirectly and adversely affect our strategic goals, revenues and profits. The risk of strict enforcement of the CSA in light of Congressional activity, judicial holdings, and stated federal policy remains uncertain. See “Risk Factors” below. The U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear a case brought by San Diego County, California that sought to establish federal preemption over state medical cannabis laws. The preemption claim was rejected by every court that reviewed the case. The California 4th District Court of Appeals wrote in its unanimous ruling, “Congress does not have the authority to compel the states to direct their law enforcement personnel to enforce federal laws.” However, in another case, the U.S. Supreme Court held that, as long as the CSA contains prohibitions against cannabis, under the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, the United States may criminalize the production and use of cannabis even where states approve its use for medical purposes.

 

In an effort to provide guidance to federal law enforcement, the Department of Justice (“DOJ”) issued Guidance Regarding Cannabis Enforcement to all United States attorneys in a memorandum from Deputy Attorney General David Ogden on October 19, 2009, in a memorandum from Deputy Attorney General James Cole on June 29, 2011 and in a memorandum from Deputy Attorney General James Cole on August 29, 2013. Each memorandum provides that the DOJ is committed to the enforcement of the CSA, but, the DOJ is also committed to using its limited investigative and prosecutorial resources to address the most significant threats in the most effective, consistent and rational way.

 

 

The August 29, 2013 memorandum provides updated guidance to federal prosecutors concerning cannabis enforcement in light of state laws legalizing medical and recreational cannabis possession in small amounts.

 

The memorandum sets forth certain enforcement priorities that are important to the federal government:

 

 

Distribution of cannabis to children;

 

Revenue from the sale of cannabis going to criminals;

 

Diversion of medical cannabis from states where it is legal to states where it is not;

 

Using state authorized cannabis activity as a pretext of another illegal drug activity;

 

Preventing violence in the cultivation and distribution of cannabis;

 

Preventing drugged driving;

 

Growing cannabis on federal property; and

 

Preventing possession or use of cannabis on federal property.

 

On January 4, 2018, Attorney General Jeff Sessions revoked the Ogden Memo and the Cole Memos.

 

The DOJ has not historically devoted resources to prosecuting individuals whose conduct is limited to possession of small amounts of cannabis for use on private property but has relied on state and local law enforcement to address cannabis activity. In the event the DOJ reverses its stated policy and begins strict enforcement of the CSA in states that have laws legalizing medical cannabis and recreational cannabis in small amounts, there may be a direct and adverse impact to our business and our revenue and profits. Furthermore, H.R. 83, enacted by Congress on December 16, 2014, provides that none of the funds made available to the DOJ pursuant to the 2015 Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act may be used to prevent certain states, including Nevada and California, from implementing their own laws that authorized the use, distribution, possession, or cultivation of medical cannabis.

 

In contrast to federal policy, the majority of U.S. states, four U.S. territories, and the District of Columbia have laws and/or regulations that recognize, in one form or another, legitimate medical uses for cannabis and adult recreational use of cannabis. Many other states are considering similar legislation.

 

Employees

 

As of March 31, 2023, we had three employees.

 

 

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

 

You should carefully consider the risks, uncertainties and other factors described below, in addition to the other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our financial statements and the related notes thereto. Any of these risks, uncertainties and other factors could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. An investment in our securities is speculative and involves a high degree of risk. You should not invest in our securities if you cannot bear the economic risk of your investment for an indefinite period of time and cannot afford to lose your entire investment. There may be additional risks that we do not presently know of or that we currently believe are immaterial which could also impair our business and financial position. See also Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.

 

RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

 

We have a limited operating history, which may make it difficult for investors to predict future performance based on current operations.

 

We have a limited operating history upon which investors may base an evaluation of our potential future performance. In particular, we have not proven that we can obtain and/or maintain relationships with strategic partners to extract value from our intellectual property, raise sufficient capital in the public and/or private markets, or respond effectively to competitive pressures. As a result, there can be no assurance that we will be able to develop or maintain consistent revenue sources, or that our operations will be profitable and/or generate positive cash flows.

 

Any forecasts we make about our operations may prove to be inaccurate. We must, among other things, respond to economic and market variables outside of our control, respond to competitive developments and continue to attract, retain and motivate qualified employees. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in meeting these challenges and addressing such risks and the failure to do so could have a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Our prospects must be considered in light of the risks, expenses, and difficulties frequently encountered by companies in the early stage of development. As a result of these risks, challenges and uncertainties, the value of your investment could be significantly reduced or completely lost.

 

Our independent auditors report for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 have expressed doubts about our ability to continue as a going concern;

 

Due to the uncertainty of our ability to meet our current operating and capital expenses, in our audited annual financial statements as of and for the years ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 our independent auditors included a note to our financial statements regarding concerns about our ability to continue as a going concern. The Company has incurred recurring losses since inception. These factors and the need for additional financing in order for the Company to meet its business plan, raise substantial doubt about the ability to continue as a going concern. The presence of the going concern note to our financial statements may have an adverse impact on the relationships we are developing and plan to develop with third parties as we continue the commercialization of our intellectual properties and could make it challenging and difficult for us to raise additional financing, all of which could have a material adverse impact on our business and prospects and result in a significant or complete loss of your investment.

 

We have incurred significant losses in prior periods, and losses in the future could cause the quoted price of our Common Stock to decline or have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, our ability to pay our debts as they become due and on our cash flows.

 

We have incurred significant losses in prior periods. For the years ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, we had net losses of $4,125,194 and $530,873, respectively, and we had an accumulated deficit of $108,705,315 and $104,580,122, respectively. Any losses in the future could cause the quoted price of our common stock to decline or have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, our ability to pay our debts as they become due, and on our cash flows.

 

We will need additional capital to sustain our operations and will need to seek further financing, which we may not be able to obtain on acceptable terms or at all. If we fail to raise additional capital, as needed, our ability to implement our business plan could be compromised.

 

We have limited capital resources and operations. To date, our operations have been funded primarily from the proceeds of debt and equity financings. We expect to require substantial additional capital in the near future to implement our strategies, develop our intellectual property base, and establish our targeted levels of commercial production. There is no assurance that we will be able to raise the amount of capital needed for future growth plans.

 

 

Even if financing is available, it may not be on terms that are acceptable. If unable to raise the necessary capital at the times required, the Company may have to materially change the business plan, including delaying implementation of aspects of the business plan or curtailing or abandoning the business plan. Even if we obtain financing for our near-term operations, we expect that we will require additional capital thereafter, especially if we are to develop our Science division and start to conduct, individually or with joint venture partners, pre-clinical and clinical trials for potential pharmaceutical, or nutraceutical products derived from cannabis. Our capital needs will depend on numerous factors including: (i) our profitability; (ii) the release of competitive products by our competition; (iii) the level of our investment requirements for research and development; and (iv) the amount of our capital expenditures, including acquisitions. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain capital in the future to meet our needs.

 

If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, the percentage ownership held by our existing stockholders will be reduced and our stockholders may experience significant dilution. In addition, new securities may contain rights, preferences or privileges that are senior to those of our common stock. If we raise additional capital by incurring debt, this will result in increased interest expense. If we raise additional funds through the issuance of securities, market fluctuations in the price of our shares of common stock could limit our ability to obtain equity financing.

 

We cannot give you any assurance that any additional financing will be available to us, or if available, will be on terms favorable to us. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, our business, financial condition, and results of operations would be materially adversely affected, and we could be forced to reduce or discontinue our operations.

 

Drug research and development programs typically involves huge expenditures, long periods to obtain FDA approvals and the potential that such prospective pharmaceutical products will not prove to be safe and effective.

 

The production of FDA-approved pharmaceutical products and related drug is typically a highly expensive a long and drawn out process, typically involving hundreds of millions of dollars and a decade or more to achieve. Although we believe that some, if not all, of our planned cannabinoid based pharmaceutical protocols can qualify for “orphan drug” status and be accelerated through the FDA approval process, there can be no assurance that this will be the case.

 

In addition, we do not now have, and do not expect in the foreseeable future to have, the capital resources to fund our drug discovery programs, nor do we have the infrastructure to conduct such program alone. For that reason, we intend to engage in joint ventures with third parties, including hospitals, clinics, foundations and other qualified sources. Although we are in preliminary discussions with various potential partners, to date, we have not entered into any definitive drug development joint venture or partnership agreement. Our failure or inability to enter into one or more drug development agreements will materially and adversely affect our ability to develop our Science division. Even if we are able to obtain such joint drug development agreements there can be no assurance that it will be on terms and conditions that will be favorable to us.

 

There is the further risk that the anticipated costs of producing an FDA approved drug will not escalate to the point that will cause us and any of our prospective development partners to abandon such efforts.

 

Even if we do develop an FDA-approved pharmaceutical product, there is the risk that it will not be saleable to a major pharmaceutical company (either before or after completion of the FDA approval process), or that other competing drugs will not be produced providing the same medical benefits.

 

Accordingly, there is a significant risk that we will never be able to generate a return on our investment, and we could lose our entire investment in GBS Global Biopharma, Inc. Either of such events, would have a material adverse effect on our business prospects and equity value.

 

There has been limited study on the effects of cannabinoids and future clinical research studies may lead to conclusions that dispute or conflict with our understanding and belief regarding the medical benefits, viability, safety, efficacy, dosing and social acceptance of cannabinoid-based active ingredients.

 

Many of the Company's products involve the use of complex mixtures of cannabinoids. Research regarding the medical benefits, viability, safety, efficacy and dosing of cannabinoids remains in relatively early stages. There have been few clinical trials on the benefits of cannabinoids conducted, but the number of trials is growing.

 

Future research and clinical trials may draw opposing conclusions to statements contained in the articles, reports and studies we have relied on or could reach different or negative conclusions regarding the medical benefits, viability, safety, efficacy, dosing or other facts and perceptions related to cannabinoid-containing prescription medicines. However, our proprietary formulations will have been through the rigorous premarket approval process of the US FDA prior to marketing.

 

 

Federal law prohibits the use of cannabis for the purposes in which the Company has previously engaged.

 

Under the federal Controlled Substances Act (“CSA”), cannabis is deemed to be a Schedule One narcotic that has no medical benefit. Therefore, a range of activities including cultivation and the personal use of cannabis is prohibited and is a criminal offense. Unless and until Congress amends the CSA with respect to medical cannabis, as to the timing or scope of any such amendments there can be no assurance, there is a risk that federal authorities may enforce current federal law. The risk of strict enforcement of the CSA in light of Congressional activity, judicial holdings, and stated federal policy remains uncertain.

 

The current policy and regulations of the Federal government and its agencies, including the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency and the FDA, are that cannabis has no medical benefit and a range of activities including cultivation and use of cannabis for personal use is prohibited on the basis of Federal law. Although the majority of states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation permitting the cultivation and dispensing of medical cannabis, these laws are, in many jurisdictions, subject to strict regulation and limitations and are still being developed. Active enforcement of the current federal regulatory position on cannabis on a regional or national basis may directly and adversely affect the Company even though it was allowed by state regulation in the various states in which the Company operated. Accordingly, although the Company was successful in obtaining state cultivation and production licenses in Nevada and other states and operated pursuant to such licenses, the operations were in violation of federal law. If existing federal laws are enforced by the United States Department of Justice or the FDA, it is possible that the Company could be prosecuted for its former operations in cannabis cultivation and production under state licensing.

 

Because the Company's sales were subject to IRC 280E, we owe federal income taxes even though we incurred losses.

 

Under the federal Controlled Substances Act (“CSA”), cannabis is deemed to be a Schedule One narcotic that has no medical benefit. The production and distribution of Schedule One narcotics is subject to Internal Revenue Code Section 280E, which prohibits the Company from deducting any ordinary and necessary business expenses from taxable gross profit related to the sale of cannabis products. Without the deduction of business expenses, the Company owes income taxes in the amount of $958,455, including accrued penalties and interest, despite having generated net losses and substantial net operating loss carryforwards. The Company does not currently have sufficient resources to pay those taxes, and if we are unable to pay those taxes we may be subject to penalties and IRS enforcement action.

 

Because the business activities of some of our former customers were illegal under Federal law, we may be deemed to have aided and abetted illegal activities through the products that we provided to those customers. As a result, we may be subject to actions by law enforcement authorities which would materially and adversely affect our business.

 

Until the December 31, 2021 sale of the Nevada Subsidiaries, we provided products to customers that were engaged in businesses involving the possession, use, cultivation, and transfer of cannabis. As a result, law enforcement authorities may seek to bring an action or actions against us, including, but not limited, to a claim of aiding and abetting another’s criminal activities. Such an action would have a material effect on our business and operations.

 

If we incur substantial liability from litigation, complaints, or enforcement actions, our financial condition could suffer.

 

Our previous participation in the cannabis industry may lead to litigation, formal or informal complaints, enforcement actions, and inquiries by various federal, state, or local governmental authorities against the Company. Litigation, complaints, and enforcement actions involving these subsidiaries could consume considerable amounts of financial and other corporate resources, which could have a negative impact on our ability to move forward with our business plan.

 

We could have difficulty accessing the service of banks, which may make it difficult for us to operate.

 

Since the use of cannabis is illegal under Federal law, there is an argument that banks should not accept for deposit funds from businesses involved with the cannabis industry. Consequently, such businesses often have difficulty finding a bank willing to accept their business.

 

On February 14, 2014, the U.S. government issued rules allowing banks to legally provide financial services to state licensed marijuana businesses. A memorandum issued by the Justice Department to federal prosecutors re-iterated guidance previously given, this time to the financial industry that banks can do business with legal marijuana businesses and “may not” be prosecuted. The Treasury Department's Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) issued guidelines to banks that “it is possible to provide financial services" to state-licensed marijuana businesses and still be in compliance with federal anti-money laundering laws.

 

Notwithstanding the above federal guidelines and in addition to potential federal sanctions, regulators in the states in which we are able to conduct business may make it difficult for local banks to do business with companies considered to have engaged in cultivating and distributing cannabis. Furthermore, banks may be reluctant to do business with us because of past participation in the cannabis industry. Failure to maintain a permanent banking relationship could have a material and adverse effect on our future business operations.

 

 

We face intense competition and many of our competitors have greater resources that may enable them to compete more effectively.

 

The industry in which we operate is subject to intense and increasing competition. Some of our competitors have greater capital resources, facilities and diversity of product lines, which may enable them to compete more effectively in this market. Our competitors may devote their resources to developing and marketing products that will directly compete with our product lines. Due to this competition, there is no assurance that we will not encounter difficulties in obtaining revenues and market share in the future from products we are attempting to develop. There are no assurances that competition in our respective industries will not lead to reduced prices for our potential products. If we are unable to successfully compete with existing companies and new entrants to the market this will have a negative impact on our business and financial condition.

 

If we fail to protect or develop our intellectual property, our business could be adversely affected.

 

Our viability will depend, in part, on our ability to develop and maintain the proprietary aspects of our technology to distinguish our products from our competitors’ products. We will rely on patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and confidentiality provisions to establish and protect our intellectual property.

 

Any infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property could damage its value and limit our ability to compete. We may have to engage in litigation to protect the rights to our intellectual property, which could result in significant litigation costs and require a significant amount of our time. In addition, our ability to enforce and protect our intellectual property rights may be limited in certain countries outside the United States, which could make it easier for competitors to capture market position in such countries by utilizing technologies that are similar to those developed or licensed by us.

 

Competitors may also harm our sales by designing products that mirror the capabilities of our products or technology without infringing on our intellectual property rights. If we do not obtain sufficient protection for our intellectual property, or if we are unable to effectively enforce our intellectual property rights, our competitiveness could be impaired, which would limit our growth and future revenue.

 

We may also find it necessary to bring infringement or other actions against third parties to seek to protect our intellectual property rights. Litigation of this nature, even if successful, is often expensive and time-consuming to prosecute and there can be no assurance that we will have the financial or other resources to enforce our rights or be able to enforce our rights or prevent other parties from developing similar technology or designing around our intellectual property.

 

Although we believe that our intellectual property does not and will not infringe upon the patents or violate the proprietary rights of others, it is possible such infringement or violation has occurred or may occur, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

We are not aware of any infringement by us of any person’s or entity’s intellectual property rights. In the event that products we sell are deemed to infringe upon the patents or proprietary rights of others, we could be required to modify our products or obtain a license for the manufacture and/or sale of such products or cease selling such products. In such event, there can be no assurance that we would be able to do so in a timely manner, upon acceptable terms and conditions, or at all, and the failure to do any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect upon our business.

 

There can be no assurance that we will have the financial or other resources necessary to enforce or defend a patent infringement or proprietary rights violation action. If our products or proposed products are deemed to infringe or likely to infringe upon the patents or proprietary rights of others, we could be subject to injunctive relief and, under certain circumstances, become liable for damages, which could also have a material adverse effect on our business and our financial condition.

 

Our trade secrets may be difficult to protect.

 

Our success depends upon the skills, knowledge, and experience of our scientific and technical personnel, our consultants and advisors, as well as our licensors and contractors. Because we operate in a highly competitive industry, we rely in part on trade secrets to protect our proprietary technology and processes. However, trade secrets are difficult to protect. We enter into confidentiality or non-disclosure agreements with our corporate partners, employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators, developers, and other advisors. These agreements generally require that the receiving party keep confidential and not disclose confidential information developed by the receiving party or made known to the receiving party by us during the course of the receiving party’s relationship with us. These agreements also generally provide that inventions conceived by the receiving party in the course of rendering services to us will be our exclusive property, and we enter into assignment agreements to perfect our rights.

 

These confidentiality, inventions and assignment agreements may be breached and may not effectively assign intellectual property rights to us. Our trade secrets also could be independently discovered by competitors, in which case we would not be able to prevent the use of such trade secrets by our competitors. The enforcement of a claim alleging that a party illegally obtained and was using our trade secrets could be difficult, expensive and time consuming and the outcome would be unpredictable. In addition, courts outside the United States may be less willing to protect trade secrets. The failure to obtain or maintain meaningful trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive position.

 

 

Our future success depends on our key executive officers and our ability to attract, retain, and motivate qualified personnel.

 

Our future success largely depends upon the continued services of our executive officers and management team. If one or more of our executive officers are unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to replace them readily, if at all. Additionally, we may incur additional expenses to recruit and retain new executive officers. If any of our executive officers joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose some of our potential customers. Finally, we do not maintain “key person” life insurance on any of our executive officers. Because of these factors, the loss of the services of any of these key persons could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations, and thereby an investment in our stock.

 

Our continuing ability to attract and retain highly qualified personnel will also be critical to our success because we will need to hire and retain additional personnel as our business grows. There can be no assurance that we will be able to attract or retain highly qualified personnel. We face significant competition for skilled personnel in our industry. This competition may make it more difficult and expensive to attract, hire, and retain qualified managers and employees. Because of these factors, we may not be able to effectively manage or grow our business, which could adversely affect our financial condition or business. As a result, the value of your investment could be significantly reduced or completely lost.

 

We may not be able to effectively manage our growth or improve our operational, financial, and management information systems, which would impair our results of operations.

 

In the near term, we intend to expand the scope of our operations activities significantly. If we are successful in executing our business plan, we will experience growth in our business that could place a significant strain on our business operations, finances, management and other resources. The factors that may place strain on our resources include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

 

The need for continued development of our financial and information management systems;

 

The need to manage strategic relationships and agreements with manufacturers, customers and partners; and

 

Difficulties in hiring and retaining skilled management, technical, and other personnel necessary to support and manage our business.

 

Additionally, our strategy could produce a period of rapid growth that may impose a significant burden on our administrative and operational resources. Our ability to effectively manage growth will require us to substantially expand the capabilities of our administrative and operational resources and to attract, train, manage, and retain qualified management and other personnel. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in recruiting and retaining new employees or retaining existing employees.

 

We cannot provide assurances that our management will be able to manage this growth effectively. Our failure to successfully manage growth could result in our sales not increasing commensurately with capital investments or otherwise materially adversely affecting our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

 

If we are unable to continually innovate and increase efficiencies, our ability to attract new customers may be adversely affected.

 

In the area of innovation, we must be able to develop new technologies and products that appeal to our customers. This depends, in part, on the technological and creative skills of our personnel and on our ability to protect our intellectual property rights. We may not be successful in the development, introduction, marketing, and sourcing of new technologies or innovations, that satisfy customer needs, achieve market acceptance, or generate satisfactory financial returns.

 

 

Litigation may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

From time to time in the normal course of our business operations, we may become subject to litigation that may result in liability material to our financial statements as a whole or may negatively affect our operating results if changes to our business operations are required. The cost to defend such litigation may be significant and may require a diversion of our resources. There also may be adverse publicity associated with litigation that could negatively affect customer perception of our business, regardless of whether the allegations are valid or whether we are ultimately found liable. Insurance may not be available at all or in sufficient amounts to cover any liabilities with respect to these or other matters. A judgment or other liability in excess of our insurance coverage for any claims could adversely affect our business and the results of our operations.

 

If we fail to implement and maintain proper and effective internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements and public reports could be impaired, which could adversely affect our operating results, our ability to operate our business, and investors views of us.

 

As of March 31, 2023, management assessed the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. Management concluded, as of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2023, that our internal controls and procedures were not effective to detect the inappropriate application of U.S. GAAP rules. Management concluded that our internal controls were adversely affected by deficiencies in the design or operation of our internal controls, which management considered to be material weakness; specifically, no member of our board of directors qualifies as an “audit committee financial expert” as defined in Item 407(d)(5) of Regulation S-K promulgated under the Securities Act.

 

The failure to implement and maintain proper and effective internal controls and disclosure controls could result in material weaknesses in our financial reporting such as errors in our financial statements and in the accompanying footnote disclosures that could require restatements. Investors may lose confidence in our reported financial information and disclosure, which could negatively impact our stock price.

 

We do not expect that our internal controls over financial reporting will prevent all errors and all fraud. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Further, the design of a control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints, and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs. Controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people, or by management override of the controls. Over time, controls may become inadequate because changes in conditions or deterioration in the degree of compliance with policies or procedures may occur. Because of the inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.

 

Our insurance coverage may be inadequate to cover all significant risk exposures; because we have operated in the cannabis industry, we have a difficult time obtaining the various insurances that are desired to operate our business, which may expose us to additional risk and financial liabilities.

 

We will be exposed to liabilities that are unique to the products we provide. While we intend to maintain insurance for certain risks, the amount of our insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover all claims or liabilities, and we may be forced to bear substantial costs resulting from risks and uncertainties of our business. It is also not possible to obtain insurance to protect against all operational risks and liabilities. The failure to obtain adequate insurance coverage on terms favorable to us, or at all, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We do not have any business interruption insurance. Any business disruption or natural disaster could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources. We do not have directors' and officers' liability insurance in place and could incur substantial costs to indemnify our directors and officers against any claims that may arise. We currently have insurance coverage in place for workers' compensation.

 

 

Insurance that is otherwise readily available is more difficult for us to find, and more expensive, because we have engaged in the cannabis industry. There are no guarantees that we will be able to find such insurances in the future, or that the cost will be affordable to us. If we are forced to go without such insurances, it may prevent us from entering into certain business sectors, may inhibit our growth, and may expose us to additional risk and financial liabilities.

 

RISKS RELATED TO AN INVESTMENT IN OUR SECURITIES

 

We expect to experience volatility in the price of our common stock, which could negatively affect stockholders investments.

 

The trading price of our common stock may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. The stock market in general has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of companies with securities traded in those markets. Broad market and industry factors may seriously affect the market price of companies’ stock, including ours, regardless of actual operating performance. All of these factors could adversely affect your ability to sell your shares of common stock or, if you are able to sell your shares, to sell your shares at a price that you determine to be fair or favorable.

 

Our common stock is categorized as penny stock, which may make it more difficult for investors to sell their shares of common stock due to suitability requirements.

 

Our common stock is categorized as “penny stock”. The Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) has adopted Rule 15g-9 which generally defines “penny stock” to be any equity security that has a market price (as defined) less than $5.00 per share or an exercise price of less than $5.00 per share, subject to certain exceptions. The price of our common stock is significantly less than $5.00 per share and is therefore considered “penny stock.” This designation imposes additional sales practice requirements on broker-dealers who sell to persons other than established customers and accredited investors. The penny stock rules require a broker-dealer buying our securities to disclose certain information concerning the transaction, obtain a written agreement from the purchaser and determine that the purchaser is reasonably suitable to purchase the securities given the increased risks generally inherent in penny stocks. These rules may restrict the ability and/or willingness of brokers or dealers to buy or sell our common stock, either directly or on behalf of their clients, may discourage potential stockholders from purchasing our common stock, or may adversely affect the ability of stockholders to sell their shares.

 

Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) sales practice requirements may also limit a stockholders ability to buy and sell our common stock, which could depress the price of our common stock.

 

In addition to the “penny stock” rules described above, FINRA has adopted rules that require a broker-dealer to have reasonable grounds for believing that the investment is suitable for that customer before recommending an investment to a customer. Prior to recommending speculative low-priced securities to their non-institutional customers, broker-dealers must make reasonable efforts to obtain information about the customer’s financial status, tax status, investment objectives and other information. Under interpretations of these rules, FINRA believes that there is a high probability that speculative, low-priced securities will not be suitable for at least some customers. Thus, the FINRA requirements make it more difficult for broker-dealers to recommend that their customers buy our common stock, which may limit your ability to buy and sell our shares of common stock, have an adverse effect on the market for our shares of common stock, and thereby depress our price per share of common stock.

 

The elimination of monetary liability against our directors, officers, and employees under Nevada law and the existence of indemnification rights for or obligations to our directors, officers, and employees may result in substantial expenditures by us and may discourage lawsuits against our directors, officers, and employees.

 

Our Articles of Incorporation contain a provision permitting us to eliminate the personal liability of our directors to us and our stockholders for damages for the breach of a fiduciary duty as a director or officer to the extent provided by Nevada law. We may also have contractual indemnification obligations under any future employment agreements with our officers. The foregoing indemnification obligations could result in us incurring substantial expenditures to cover the cost of settlement or damage awards against directors and officers, which we may be unable to recoup. These provisions and the resulting costs may also discourage us from bringing a lawsuit against directors and officers for breaches of their fiduciary duties and may similarly discourage the filing of derivative litigation by our stockholders against our directors and officers even though such actions, if successful, might otherwise benefit us and our stockholders. We do not have directors' and officers' liability insurance in place and could incur substantial costs to indemnify our directors and officers against any claims that may arise.

 

 

We may issue additional shares of common stock in the future, which could cause significant dilution to all stockholders.

 

Our Articles of Incorporation authorize the issuance of up to 950,000,000 shares with a par value of $0.0001 per share. As of March 31, 2023, we had 381,872,561 shares of common stock outstanding. However, we require additional capital and will likely issue additional shares of Common Stock in the future in connection with one or more financings or an acquisition. Such issuances may not require the approval of our stockholders. In addition, certain of our outstanding rights to purchase additional shares of common stock or securities convertible into our common stock are subject to full-ratchet anti-dilution protection, which could result in the right to purchase significantly more shares of common stock being issued or a reduction in the purchase price for any such shares or both. Any issuance of additional shares of our common stock, or equity securities convertible into our common stock, including but not limited to, warrants, and options, will dilute the percentage ownership interest of all stockholders, may dilute the book value per share of our common stock, and may negatively impact the market price of our common stock. 

 

Because we do not intend to pay any cash dividends on our common stock, our stockholders will not be able to receive a return on their shares unless they sell them.

 

We intend to retain any future earnings to finance the development and expansion of our business. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Declaring and paying future dividends, if any, will be determined by our Board, based upon earnings, financial condition, capital resources, capital requirements, restrictions in our Articles of Incorporation, contractual restrictions, and such other factors as our Board deems relevant. Unless we pay dividends, our stockholders will not be able to receive a return on their shares unless they sell them. There is no assurance that stockholders will be able to sell shares when desired. 

 

We are a public company and must meet the expenses associated with the maintenance of a public company.

 

We are a public company and are required to file annual, quarterly, and periodic reports with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission as required by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Our annual and quarterly reports must contain financial statements that are audited and/or reviewed by an independent accounting firm licensed with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. The preparation of such reports also incur other bookkeeping, accounting and legal expense.

 

As noted, meeting the filing requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 requires paying applicable professionals significant amounts of money. In the event the Company is not able to meet its filing requirements with the Securities and Exchange Commission, it will put a chill on the trading of our common stock in the over-the-counter markets and investors in our stock will have a more difficult time liquidating their investments.  

 

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

None

 

ITEM 2. PROPERTY

 

The company does not own or lease any physical premises. Our executive officers and employees work remotely in a "virtual office" setting, and our mailing address is 9205 W. Russell Road, Suite 240 Las Vegas, Nevada 89148.

 

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

We are currently not involved in any other material legal proceedings.

 

 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

Not Applicable

 

PART II

 

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANTS COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

GB Sciences, Inc.’s common stock is quoted on the OTCQB under the symbol "GBLX".

 

For the periods indicated, the following table sets forth the high and low per share intra-day sales prices per share of common stock. These prices represent inter-dealer quotations without retail markup, markdown, or commission and may not necessarily represent actual transactions.

 

Fiscal Year 2023

 

High ($)

   

Low ($)

 

Fourth Quarter

  $ 0.02     $ 0.02  

Third Quarter

    0.03       0.02  

Second Quarter

    0.03       0.02  

First Quarter

    0.04       0.02  
                 

Fiscal Year 2022

               

Fourth Quarter

  $ 0.04     $ 0.02  

Third Quarter

    0.04       0.02  

Second Quarter

    0.06       0.03  

First Quarter

    0.07       0.04  

 

As of July 14, 2023, there were 201 holders of record of our common stock. Because many of our shares are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of shareholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of beneficial holders.

 

Dividend Policy

 

Cash dividends have never been declared or paid on common stock and dividends are not anticipated on common stock in the foreseeable future. Future earnings, if any, will be retained to finance the expansion business and for general corporate purposes. There is no assurance we will pay dividends in the future. Future dividend policy is within the discretion of the board of directors and will depend upon various factors, including results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements and investment opportunities.

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

 

On May 9, 2022 the Company entered into a Placement Agent's Agreement with its brokers for the private placement of up to $565,000 in units at a price of $0.03 per unit. For each unit purchased, the investor will receive one share of the Company's common stock and one warrant to purchase one share of the Company's common stock at a price of $0.10 for a period of five years. On September 9, 2022, the Company entered into the Amendment to the Placement Agent's Agreement which extended the placement to November 30, 2022 and increased the amount to $2,000,000, all other terms remaining the same.  During the year ended March 31, 2023, the Company received $1,705,000 under the private placement, net of brokerage fees of $221,650, for proceeds of $1,483,350, and issued 56,835,004 shares of its common stock and 56,835,004 warrants to purchase one share of the Company's common stock at $0.10 for five years. 

 

 

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 

As a "smaller reporting company" as defined by Item 10 of Regulation S-K, the Company is not required to provide information required by this Item.

 

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENTS DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATION

 

The following discussion of the plan of operation, financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the Companys financial statements, and notes thereto, included elsewhere herein. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors including, but not limited to, those discussed in this Annual Report.

 

Executive Overview

 

GB Sciences, Inc. (“the Company”, “GB Sciences”, “GBLX”, “we”, “us”, or “our”) is a plant-inspired, biopharmaceutical research and development company creating patented, disease-targeted formulations of cannabis- and other plant-inspired therapeutic mixtures for the prescription drug market through its wholly owned Canadian subsidiary, GbS Global Biopharma, Inc. (“GBSGB”).

 

Through GBSGB, the Company is engaged in the research and development of plant-inspired medicines, with virtual operations in North America and Europe. GBSGB’s assets include a portfolio of intellectual property containing both proprietary plant-inspired formulations and our AI-enabled drug discovery platform, as well as critical research contracts and key supplier arrangements. The Company’s intellectual property portfolio, which is held by GBSGB, contains six U.S. and five foreign patents issued, one US and three foreign patents allowed, as well as 18 U.S. and 55 foreign patent-pending applications.

 

Several of GBLX/GBSGB’s foreign patents for plant-based treatments of serious disorders were allowed this year in different countries, expanding our patent protections as follows. On February 3, 2023, GB Sciences’ first foreign patent protecting its proprietary cannabinoid-based formulations for Parkinson’s disease was issued in China. China is an increasingly important pharmaceutical market with cultural acceptance of plant-based formulations, which is a good fit for GB Sciences’ drug candidates. The global market for treatments of Parkinson’s disease is projected to grow to $8.8 billion by the year 2026, and new therapies to address Parkinson’s disease symptoms are greatly needed. GB Sciences’ first foreign patent also confirms that the Company’s intellectual property strategy can work globally and validates both our plant-inspired drug discovery process and intellectual property strategy, which involves defining and protecting Minimum Essential Mixtures. GBLX/GBSGB starts its drug discovery process with plant-based therapies that are working anecdotally or in traditional medical systems, then the Company systematically reduces the number of compounds to reveal Minimum Essential Mixtures. The Company’s novel Minimum Essential Mixtures retain the increased efficacy of whole plant medicines, but they are easier to manufacture with precision at scale like single ingredient drugs. These Minimum Essential Mixtures are a viable alternative to standard single ingredient drugs or traditional whole plant medicines. The Chinese Patent was issued for GBSGB’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

On December 1, 2022, the Israeli (IL) Patent was allowed, protecting our Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). MCAS is a severe immunological condition in which mast cells inappropriately and excessively release inflammatory mediators, resulting in a range of severe chronic hyperinflammatory symptoms and life-threatening anaphylaxis attacks. On December 15, 2022, the Australian (AU) Patent was allowed, protecting the Company’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). On February 20, 2023, the Japanese (JP) Patent was allowed, protecting the Company’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). Additionally, on March 9, 2023, the Notice of Allowance was received for the Company’s U.S. Patent Application No. 16/878,295. This Notice of Allowance protects the use of the Company’s Myrcene-Containing Complex Mixtures in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy, overactive bladder, and refractory chronic cough. On April 25, 2023, the Japanese patent was also issued for the use of GBSGB’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

 

GBSGB’s intellectual property covers a range of over 65 medical conditions, from which five drug development programs are in the preclinical stage of drug development including our formulations for Parkinson’s disease ("PD"), chronic pain, COVID-related cytokine release syndrome, depression/anxiety, and cardiovascular therapeutic programs. The Company’s primary focus is on preparing its lead program for the treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease for a first-in-human clinical trial. Depending on the results of ongoing preclinical studies, the Company intends to move forward with clinical trials for its chronic pain and COVID-related cytokine release syndrome therapies after PD. The Company’s formulations for chronic pain, anxiety, and depression are currently in preclinical animal studies with researchers at the National Research Council of Canada. The Company recently received proof-of-concept data supporting its kava-inspired anxiety formulations. The Company also has positive preclinical proof-of-concept data supporting its complex mixtures for the treatment of Cytokine Release Syndrome, and its lead candidates will be optimized based on late-stage preclinical studies at Michigan State University. Proof-of-concept studies in animals that support our heart disease formulations have been successfully completed at the University of Hawaii. The Company runs a lean drug development program through GBSGB and takes effort to minimize expenses, including personnel, overhead, and fixed capital expenses through strategic partnerships with Universities and Contract Research Organizations (“CROs”). Our productive research and development network includes distinguished universities, hospitals, and Contract Research Organizations.

 

 

Recent Developments

 

Divestiture of Nevada Cannabis Operations

 

On March 24, 2020, the Company entered into the Membership Interest Purchase Agreement ("Teco MIPA") with AJE Management, LLC. Pursuant to the Teco MIPA, the Company agreed to sell 100% of its membership interests in GB Sciences Nevada, LLC, and GB Sciences Las Vegas, LLC (the "Teco Subsidiaries") for approximately $8 million, which amount includes a cash payment at closing, the extinguishment and/or repayments of certain liabilities owed to the purchaser and affiliates of the purchaser, and an 8% promissory note.

 

On August 10, 2020, the Company entered into the Membership Interest Purchase Agreement ("Nopah MIPA") and Promissory Note Modification Agreement with 483 Management, LLC. Pursuant to the Nopah MIPA, the Company agreed to sell its 100% membership interest in GB Sciences Nopah, LLC ("Nopah"), which holds a Nevada medical marijuana cultivation certificate. As consideration, the Company would receive $312,315 in consideration in the form of a $237,668 reduction to the outstanding principal and accrued interest balances of the 0% Note payable dated October 23, 2017, and extinguishment of accounts payable of $74,647, which were owed to an affiliate of the purchaser.

 

The closing of the Teco and Nopah sales was contingent upon the successful transfer of the Nevada cultivation and production licenses. On December 14, 2021, the Company received approval from the Nevada Cannabis Compliance Board for the transfer of cannabis cultivation and extraction licenses held by its subsidiaries GB Sciences Nevada, LLC, GB Sciences Las Vegas, LLC, and GB Sciences Nopah, LLC (the "Nevada Subsidiaries"). Consequently, all conditions to closing the sales of the 100% membership interests in the Nevada Subsidiaries were satisfied, and the transactions formally closed on December 31, 2021. After the closing date, the Company retains no ownership interest in the Nevada Subsidiaries.

 

As consideration for the membership interests, the Company received cash payments of $1,648,772 (including $400,000 in advance payments received during the nine months ended December 31, 2021), the extinguishment of debt and current liabilities owed to affiliates of the purchaser of $3,462,854, and a $3,025,000 8% note receivable.

 

 

Intellectual Property Portfolio

 

In the past year, GBLX/GBSGB’s foreign patents for plant-based treatments of serious disorders were allowed in different countries, expanding our patent protections as follows. On February 3, 2023, GB Sciences’ first foreign patent protecting its proprietary cannabinoid-based formulations for Parkinson’s disease was issued in China. China is an increasingly important pharmaceutical market with cultural acceptance of plant-based formulations, which is a good fit for GB Sciences’ drug candidates. The global market for treatments of Parkinson’s disease is projected to grow to $8.8 billion by the year 2026, and new therapies to address Parkinson’s disease symptoms are greatly needed. The Chinese Patent was issued for GBSGB’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. On December 1, 2022, the Israeli (IL) Patent was allowed, protecting our Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). MCAS is a severe immunological condition in which mast cells inappropriately and excessively release inflammatory mediators, resulting in a range of severe chronic hyperinflammatory symptoms and life-threatening anaphylaxis attacks. On December 15, 2022, the Australian (AU) Patent was allowed, protecting the Company’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). On February 20, 2023, the Japanese (JP) Patent was allowed, protecting the Company’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). Additionally, on March 9, 2023, the Notice of Allowance was received for the Company’s U.S. Patent Application No. 16/878,295. This Notice of Allowance protects the use of the Company’s Myrcene-Containing Complex Mixtures in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy, overactive bladder, and refractory chronic cough. On April 25, 2023, the Japanese patent was also issued for the use of GBSGB’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

 

In 2021, our growing intellectual property portfolio was augmented with additional patent-protections for our PhAROS™ drug discovery platform that were filed in July of 2021 and in October of 2021. The Company, through GBSGB, also filed for protection of new PhAROS™ discovered, non-cannabis formulations in July of 2021. In September of 2021, the Company filed a patent application for the Company’s improved DCR-MEM formulations for our PD therapeutic program. These new patent applications expanded upon the solid foundation of intellectual property developed over the past six years.

 

In 2020, the three patents which protect formulations for the Company’s lead therapeutic programs were issued by the USPTO. The issuance of U.S. Patent No. 10,653,640 entitled "Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases" on May 19, 2020 protects methods of using GBSGB’s proprietary cannabinoid-containing complex mixtures (CCCM™) for treating Parkinson’s Disease. This was an important milestone in the development of these vitally important therapies and validates GBSGB’s drug discovery platform. In the US alone, the combined direct and indirect costs associated with Parkinson’s disease are estimated at $52 billion, and new therapies to address Parkinson’s disease symptoms are greatly needed. This was also the first time that a US patent has been awarded for a cannabis-based complex mixture defined using this type of drug discovery method. The first US patent for PD therapies validated our drug discovery platform and strengthened our intellectual property portfolio of unique CCCM’s™, each targeting one of up to 60 specific clinical applications.

 

The issuance of the Company’s second and third US patents for active pharmaceutical ingredients that are complex mixtures identified by our biotech platform further confirmed that the Company’s pharmaceutical compositions can be patent protected for use as biopharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The US Patent entitled “Myrcene-Containing Complex Mixtures Targeting TRPV1” protects methods of using our proprietary MEMs for the treatment of pain disorders related to arthritis, shingles, irritable bowel syndrome, sickle cell disease, and endometriosis. In the US alone, chronic pain represents an estimated health burden of between $560 and $650 billion dollars, and an estimated 20.4% of U.S. adults suffer from chronic pain that significantly decreases their quality of life. Despite the widespread rates of addiction and death, opioids remain the standard of care treatment for most people with chronic pain. The Company believes that it is important to create safer, less addictive alternatives to opioids for the treatment of chronic pain disorders, like GBSGB’s myrcene-containing MEMs.

 

The Company's third issued US Patent entitled "Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the Treatment of Mast-Cell-Associated or Basophil-Mediated Inflammatory Disorders" protects methods of using the Company’s proprietary MEMs for treating Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). MCAS is a severe immunological condition in which mast cells inappropriately and excessively release inflammatory mediators, resulting in a range of severe chronic hyperinflammatory symptoms and life-threatening anaphylaxis attacks. Receiving this patent for the treatment of MCAS using our MEMs is an important milestone in the development of this urgently needed medicine. There is no single recommended treatment for MCAS patients. Instead, they attempt to manage MCAS symptoms primarily by avoiding ‘triggers’ and using rescue medicines for their severe hyperinflammatory attacks. Therefore, MCAS patients need new therapeutic options to control their mast cell related symptoms, and our MEMs were designed to simultaneously control multiple inflammatory pathways within mast cells as a comprehensive treatment option. The Company is strategically targeting MCAS for two additional reasons. By focusing on a rare disease with no known cure, our company can apply for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s expedited approval process, which allows clinically successful treatments to get to market both quicker and more cost effectively. Gaining approval from the US FDA for the entire anti-inflammatory market would be extremely time consuming and cost prohibitive. Demonstrating that our MEMs are safe for the treatment of MCAS would favorably position our Company for clinical testing of these MEMs as potential treatments for other related inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, thereby widening the target market and drastically shortening the development cycle and costs.

 

The Company’s fourth US Patent was issued on March 1, 2022 for a cannabinoid-containing mixture designed to treat cardiac hypertrophy, often present in advanced heart disease. Gb Sciences’ newly issued patent also covers the use of these receptor-targeted formulations for the treatment of TRPV1-receptor associated hearing loss and urinary cystitis. Despite multiple categories of prescription heart medications on the market, heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States for people of most racial and ethnic groups. Alternative therapeutic approaches are still needed, especially for the treatment of advanced heart disease. The market for prescription heart disease medications is predicted to rise to $64 billion dollars in the US by 2026, with future market growth fueled by innovative new therapeutic approaches. 

 

 

Results of Operations

 

The following table sets forth certain of our Statement of Operations data:  

 

   

For the Years Ended

 
   

March 31,

 
   

2023

   

2022

 
                 

SALES REVENUE

  $ -     $ -  

COST OF GOODS SOLD

    -       -  

GROSS PROFIT (LOSS)

    -       -  

GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES

    1,672,281       1,868,734  

LOSS FROM OPERATIONS

    (1,672,281

)

    (1,868,734

)

OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE)

               

Gain on extinguishment of debt

    -       22,405  

Gain on deconsolidation

    -       5,206,208  

Interest expense

    (178,652

)

    (474,768

)

Loss on impairment of note receivable

    -       (3,025,000

)

Loss on impairment of capitalized patent costs

    (2,374,261

)

    -  

Loss on disposal

    -       (15,639

)

Other income

    100,000       9,000  

Total other income/(expense)

    (2,452,913

)

    1,722,206  

LOSS BEFORE INCOME TAXES

    (4,125,194

)

    (146,528

)

Income tax expense

    -       -  

LOSS FROM CONTINUING OPERATIONS

    (4,125,194

)

    (146,528

)

Net loss from discontinued operations

    -       (384,345

)

NET LOSS

  $ (4,125,194

)

  $ (530,873

)

 

General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expense decreased $196,453 to $1,672,281 for the year ended March 31, 2023 as compared to $1,868,734 for the same period last year. The decrease is attributable primarily to reduced compensation paid to executives and board members. The Company is continuing its efforts to maintain administrative costs at a minimum and to make the best use of its limited resources in advancing research & development of the Company’s intellectual property portfolio.

 

Gain on extinguishment of debt. The Company recorded a gain on extinguishment for the years ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, of $0 and $22,405, respectively. The gain in the 2022 period was recorded in connection with the Second Promissory Note Modification agreement with 483 Management, LLC while no comparable expense was recorded in the 2023 period.

 

Gain on deconsolidation. During the year ended March 31, 2023, the Company recorded no gain on deconsolidation. The Company recorded a gain on deconsolidation of $5,206,208 related to the sale of its membership interests in the Nevada Subsidiaries during the year ended March 31, 2022.

 

Interest Expense. Interest for the year ended March 31, 2023 was $178,652, compared to $474,768 for the year ended March 31, 2022 a decrease of $296,116. The decrease is primarily attributable to decreased amortization of debt discount and beneficial conversion feature in the 2023 period of $63,769 as compared to $356,340 in the 2022 period a decrease of $292,571.

 

Loss on impairment of note receivable. During the year ended March 31, 2023, the Company did not record an impairment of note receivable. During the year ended March 31, 2022, the Company recorded an impairment charge of $3,025,000 related to the $3,025,000 note receivable from AJE Management LLC received from the sale of the Nevada Subsidiaries. The impairment charge was deemed necessary due to the note maker's failure to pay the interest payment due on April 1, 2022 and anticipated failure to make the payment due July 1, 2022, under a contractual provision that allows the deferral of payments to the next quarterly payment date in the event that cash flow from the Teco Facility is insufficient to make that quarter's payment.

 

Loss on impairment of capitalized patent costs. During the year ended March 31, 2023, the Company recorded an impairment charge of $2,374,261 as compared to no impairment being recorded in the 2022 period. Impairment recorded in the 2023 period relates to impairment recorded against capitalized costs resulting from managements analysis of patent costs in connection with ASC 350-30-35.

 

Other income (loss). During the year ended March 31, 2023, the Company recorded other income of $100,000 vs $9,000 in the 2022 period. The Income in the 2023 period relates to the receipt of $100,000 from the makers of a note receivable due and payable to the Company. The note receivable was fully allowed for as of March 31, 2022 and therefore the receipt of cash from the payor has been classified as other income.

 

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Current Liquidity

 

The Company will need additional capital to implement its strategies. There is no assurance that it will be able to raise the amount of capital needed for future growth plans. Even if financing is available, it may not be on terms that are acceptable. If unable to raise the necessary capital at the times required, the Company may have to materially change the business plan, including delaying implementation of aspects of the business plan or curtailing or abandoning the business plan. The Company represents a speculative investment and investors may lose all of their investment. In order to be able to achieve the strategic goals, the Company needs to further expand its business and financing activities. Based upon the cash position, it is necessary to raise additional capital by the end of the next quarter in order to continue to fund current operations. These factors raise substantial doubt about the ability to continue as a going concern. The Company is pursuing several alternatives to address this situation, including the raising of additional funding through equity or debt financings. In order to finance existing operations and pay current liabilities over the next twelve months, the Company will need to raise additional capital. No assurance can be given that the Company will be able to operate profitably on a consistent basis, or at all, in the future.

 

The principal sources of liquidity to date have been cash generated from sales of debt and equity securities.

 

At March 31, 2023, the Company had a cash balance of $109,912, other current assets excluding cash were $199,592, and our working capital deficit was $4,450,202. Current liabilities were $4,759,706, which consisted principally of $935,000 in notes and convertible notes payable, $1,982,740 in accounts payable, $422,434 in accrued liabilities, and $958,455 income taxes payable from discontinued operations. At March 31, 2022, the Company had a cash balance of $233,893, other current assets excluding cash were $93,933, and our working capital deficit was $3,607,638. Current liabilities were $3,935,464, which consisted principally of $987,565 in notes and convertible notes payable, $1,657,008 in accounts payable, $394,396 in accrued liabilities, and $896,495 of income taxes payable from discontinued operations.

 

Sources and Uses of Cash

 

Operating Activities

 

Cash used in operations was $1,526,861 for the year ended March 31, 2023, compared to cash used of $1,866,154 including $87,772 used in discontinued operations for the year ended March 31, 2022. We anticipate that cash flows from operations will be insufficient to fund business operations for the next twelve-month period. Accordingly, we will have to generate additional liquidity or cash flow to fund our current and anticipated operations. This will likely require the sale of additional common stock or other securities. There is no assurance that we will be able to realize any significant proceeds from such sales, if at all.

 

Investing Activities

 

Cash flows used in investing activities were $31,650 for the year ended March 31, 2023, compared to cash flows provided by investing activities of $1,450,339, including $1,567 provided by discontinued operations for the year ended March 31, 2022.  Cash used in investing activities for the year ended March 31, 2023 consists of $31,650 paid to our attorneys to file patent applications.  Cash provided by investing activities consists of $1,648,772 proceeds from the sale of the Nevada Subsidiaries, offset by $200,000 paid to our attorneys to file patent applications.

 

Financing Activities

 

Cash provided by financing activities of continuing operations for the year ended March 31, 2023 of $1,434,530 was due to proceeds received from the sale of common stock of $1,705,000, offset by financing fees for the issuance of convertible notes of $221,651, and principal payments on notes payable of $52,565.  For the year ended March 31, 2022, cash used in financing activities was $495,925, including $103,387 used in discontinued operations. Cash used in financing activities of continuing operations for the year ended March 31, 2022 consisted of $575,000 used for principal payments on notes payable and $6,266 paid for brokerage fees from warrant exercises, offset by  $138,728 proceeds from warrant exercises and $50,000 proceeds from a convertible note payable.

 

0% Note Payable dated October 23, 2017

 

On October 23, 2017, the Company amended the existing Nevada Medical Marijuana Production License Agreement (“Amended Production License Agreement”). Per the terms of the Amended Production License Agreement, GB Sciences purchased the remaining percentage of the production license resulting in 100% ownership of the license. GB Sciences also received 100% ownership of the cultivation license included in the original Nevada Medical Marijuana Production License Agreement. In exchange, GB Sciences made one-time payment of $500,000 and issued a 0% Promissory Note in the amount of $700,000 payable in equal monthly payments over a three-year period commencing on January 1, 2018. The present value of the note was $521,067 on the date of its issuance based on an imputed interest rate of 20.3% and the Company recorded a discount on notes payable of $178,933 related to the difference between the face value and present value of the note.

 

 

On August 10, 2020, the Company entered into the Membership Interest Purchase Agreement ("Nopah MIPA") for the sale of its interest in GB Sciences Nopah, LLC. The Nopah sale was closed December 31, 2021 after successful transfer of the Nevada Medical Marijuana Cultivation Facility Registration Certificate on December 14, 2021. At close, the principal balance of the note was reduced from $369,445 to $190,272 and accounts payable totaling $74,647 to an affiliate of the purchaser were extinguished.

 

On March 4, 2022, the Company entered into the Second Promissory Note Modification Agreement, which reduced the total outstanding balance of principal and interest from $201,532 (at the time of the agreement) to $179,127 and modified the terms of the note to provide that the Company would make an immediate payment of $75,000, with $5,000 monthly payments thereafter until the note is repaid in full. The modification also provided that the note would bear interest at 8.0% per annum. The Company made a $75,000 payment pursuant to the terms of the modification on March 4, 2022.

 

We evaluated the modification under the guidance in ASC 470-50 and determined that the modification represents an extinguishment because the change in the fair value of the note exceeded 10% of the carrying value of the note immediately prior to the modification. As a result, the Company recorded a gain on extinguishment of $22,405 equal to the change in the carrying value of the note resulting from the modification.

 

During the year ended March 31, 2023, the Company made payments totaling $48,820. At March 31, 2023, the outstanding balance of the note was $55,307 and accrued interest was $691.

 

March 2017 and July 2017 Convertible Note Offerings

 

In March 2017, the Company entered into a Placement Agent’s Agreement with a third-party brokerage firm to offer units consisting of a $1,000 6% promissory note convertible into 4,000 shares of the Company’s common stock at $0.25 per share and 4,000 warrants to purchase shares of the Company’s’ common stock at an exercise price of $0.60 per share for the period of three years. Between March 2017 and May 2017, the Company issued short-term Promissory Notes (“Notes”) to various holders with combined face value of $2,000,000. The Notes are payable within three years of issuance and are convertible into 8,000,000 shares of the Company’s common stock. The Company also issued 8,000,000 common stock warrants to the Noteholders. The warrants are exercisable at any time and from time to time before maturity at the option of the holder. Each warrant gives the Noteholder the right to purchase one share of common stock of the Company at an exercise price of $0.60 per share for a period of three years. The Company recorded an aggregate discount on convertible notes of $1,933,693, which included $904,690 related to the relative fair value of beneficial conversion features and $1,029,003 for the relative fair value of the warrants issued with each note. The fair value of warrants was derived using the Black-Scholes valuation model.

 

In July 2017, the Company entered into a Placement Agent’s Agreement with a third-party brokerage firm to offer units consisting of a $1,000 6% promissory note convertible into 4,000 shares of the Company’s common stock at $0.25 per share and 4,000 warrants to purchase shares of the Company’s’ common stock at an exercise price of $0.65 per share for the period of three years. Between July 2017 and December 2017, the Company issued short-term Promissory Notes (“Notes”) to various holders with combined face value of $7,201,000. The Notes are payable within three years of issuance and are convertible into 28,804,000 shares of the Company’s common stock. The Company also issued 28,804,000 common stock warrants to the Note holders. The warrants are exercisable at any time and from time to time before maturity at the option of the holder. Each warrant gives the Noteholder the right to purchase one share of common stock of the Company at an exercise price of $0.60 per share for a period of three years. The Company recorded an aggregate discount on convertible notes of $7,092,796, which included $3,142,605 related to the relative fair value of beneficial conversion features and $3,950,191 for the relative fair value of the warrants issued with each note. The fair value of warrants was derived using the Black-Scholes valuation model.

 

All notes from the March and July 2017 offerings have passed their maturity dates. During the year ended March 31, 2022, the Company agreed to extensions with the holders of a total of $197,000 of the $1,257,000 that remains outstanding. For the $197,000 of extended notes, the Company agreed to reduce the conversion price to $0.10 per share and issued a total of 788,000 additional warrants to the holders of the notes with a term of three years and an exercise price of $0.10 per share. In exchange, the maturity date of the notes was extended to September 30, 2023. Using the Black-Scholes model, the Company valued the warrants at $13,396 and the change in the fair value of the conversion feature at $33,490. Because the change in the fair value of the conversion feature exceeded 10% of the carrying amount of the notes, the Company accounted for the modification of the notes as an extinguishment and recorded a discount on the new convertible notes of $46,886 related to the fair value of the new warrants issued and the change in the fair value of the conversion feature. The Company recorded interest expense of $28,599 on the notes during the year ended March 31, 2023, of which $16,779 represented amortization of the note discounts. Accrued interest on the $197,000 extended notes is $67,972 at March 31, 2023.

 

 

Three convertible notes totaling $1,060,000 held by the same investor are past maturity and are currently in default. On January 20, 2022, the Company repaid $500,000 of the principal balances owed to the investor, and one convertible note in the amount of $560,000 remains outstanding plus accrued interest on all three notes totaling $195,770. The Company intends to negotiate the terms of an extension of the remaining note and accrued interest with the noteholder. The notes do not provide for a default penalty or penalty interest rate. Interest expense for the notes was $39,185 during the year ended March 31, 2023.

 

December 2020 $625,000 6% Convertible Notes

 

On December 18, 2020, the Company began an offering of 6.0% convertible notes for the purpose of funding a pre-clinical study of the Company's patent-pending Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Cytokine Release Syndromes, including Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, in COVID-19 patients. The Company pledged the related intellectual property as security for the notes. The notes are convertible at a rate of $0.05 per share at the lender's request. To date, the Company has issued $625,000 in convertible notes under the offering to three investors. $375,000 of the notes mature between July 1, 2022 and October 1, 2023, and $250,000 mature in December 2023. Payment of accrued interest and principal is due at maturity. The Company received cash of $543,750, net of brokerage fees, and recorded discounts on the convertible notes totaling $81,250 related to the issuance costs. Notes totaling $425,000 were issued with in-the-money conversion features, and the Company recorded beneficial conversion feature discounts totaling $347,000 on the related notes. During the year ended March 31, 2023, the Company did not receive funds related to this note offering. During the year ended March 31, 2022, the Company received $50,000 related to the note offering and recorded a discount on convertible notes payable of $6,500 related to issuance costs.

 

At March 31, 2023, notes with a carrying amount of $1,396,077 were included in short term notes and convertible notes payable, net of unamortized discounts of $41,230. Interest expense related to the notes was $83,737 for the year ended March 31, 2023, which includes $43,245 from amortization of the note discounts.

 

 

Variables and Trends

 

We have limited operating history with respect to the current business plan. In the event we are able to obtain the necessary financing to move forward with the business plan, we expect business expenses to increase significantly as we go operational. Accordingly, the comparison of the financial data for the periods presented may not be a meaningful indicator of future performance and must be considered in light these circumstances.

 

Off Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

We have no off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on the financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that are material to investors.

 

Critical Accounting Policies

 

Use of Estimates

 

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company regularly evaluates estimates and assumptions related to allowances for doubtful accounts, collectability of notes receivable, inventory valuation and standard cost allocations, valuation of initial right-of-use assets and corresponding lease liabilities, valuation of beneficial conversion features in convertible debt, valuation of the assets and liabilities of discontinued operations, stock-based compensation expense, purchased intangible asset valuations, deferred income tax asset valuation allowances, uncertain tax positions, litigation, other loss contingencies, and impairment of long lived assets.  These estimates and assumptions are based on current facts, historical experience and various other factors that the Company believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the recording of costs and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. The actual results the Company experiences may differ materially and adversely from these estimates.

 

Discontinued Operations

 

Discontinued operations comprise those activities that were disposed of during the period or which were classified as held for sale at the end of the period and represent a separate major line of business or geographical area that can be clearly distinguished for operational and financial reporting purposes. The Company has included its former subsidiaries GB Sciences Nevada, LLC, GB Sciences Las Vegas, LLC, and GB Sciences Nopah, LLC in discontinued operations due to the sale of the Company's Nevada Subsidiaries.

 

Inventory

 

We value our inventory at the lower of the actual cost of our inventory, as determined using the first-in, first-out method, or its current estimated market value. We periodically review our physical inventory for excess, obsolete, and potentially impaired items and reserve accordingly. Our reserve estimate for excess and obsolete inventory is based on expected future use. Indirect costs, which primarily relate to the lease and operation costs of the Teco Facility, are allocated based on square footage of the facility used in the production of inventory.

 

Indefinite and Definite-Lived Intangible Assets

 

Our indefinite-lived intangible assets primarily represent the value of our patents pending and includes the costs paid to draft and file patent applications. Upon issuance of the patents, the indefinite-lived intangible assets will have finite lives. Intangible assets also included the acquisition cost of a cannabis production license with an indefinite life (in prior periods).

 

We amortize our finite-lived intangible assets, which consist of granted patents, over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method, and we periodically evaluate the remaining useful lives of our finite-lived intangible assets to determine whether events or circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining period of amortization.

 

We review all of our intangible assets for impairment indicators throughout the year. Impairment testing for indefinite-lived intangible assets is performed at least annually and we perform testing for definite-lived intangible assets whenever impairment indicators are present. If we determine that the fair value is less than the carrying value of these assets during testing, we record impairment losses equal to the difference between the carrying value of the asset and the fair market value of the asset.

 

 

Long-Lived Assets

 

Property and equipment comprised a significant portion of our total assets from discontinued operations as of March 31, 2021. We evaluate the carrying value of property and equipment if impairment indicators are present or if other circumstances indicate that impairment may exist under authoritative guidance. The annual testing date is March 31. When management believes impairment indicators may exist, projections of the undiscounted future cash flows associated with the use of and eventual disposition of property and equipment are prepared. If the projections indicate that the carrying value of the property and equipment are not recoverable, we reduce the carrying values to fair value. These impairment tests are heavily influenced by assumptions and estimates that are subject to change as additional information becomes available.

 

Beneficial Conversion Feature of Convertible Notes Payable

 

The Company accounts for convertible notes payable in accordance with the guidelines established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options and Emerging Issues Task Force (“EITF”) 00-27, “Application of Issue No. 98-5 to Certain Convertible Instruments”.  A beneficial conversion feature (“BCF”) exists on the date a convertible note is issued when the fair value of the underlying common stock to which the note is convertible into is in excess of the remaining unallocated proceeds of the note after first considering the allocation of a portion of the note proceeds to the fair value of any attached equity instruments, if any related equity instruments were granted with the debt. In accordance with this guidance, the BCF of a convertible note is measured by allocating a portion of the note's proceeds to the warrants, if applicable, and as a reduction of the carrying amount of the convertible note equal to the intrinsic value of the conversion feature, both of which are credited to additional paid-in-capital. The Company calculates the fair value of warrants issued with the convertible notes using the Black-Scholes valuation model and uses the same assumptions for valuing any employee options in accordance with ASC Topic 718 Compensation – Stock Compensation. The only difference is that the contractual life of the warrants is used.

 

The value of the proceeds received from a convertible note is then allocated between the conversion features and warrants on a relative fair value basis. The allocated fair value is recorded in the financial statements as a debt discount (premium) from the face amount of the note and such discount is amortized over the expected term of the convertible note (or to the conversion date of the note, if sooner) and is charged to interest expense.

 

Equity-Based Compensation

 

The Company accounts for equity instruments issued to employees in accordance with the provisions of ASC 718 Stock Compensation (ASC 718) and Equity-Based Payments to Non-employees pursuant to ASC 505-50 (ASC 505-50). The computation of the expense associated with stock-based compensation requires the use of a valuation model. The FASB-issued accounting guidance requires significant judgment and the use of estimates, particularly surrounding Black-Scholes assumptions such as stock price volatility, expected option lives, and expected option forfeiture rates, to value equity-based compensation. We currently use a Black-Scholes option pricing model to calculate the fair value of our stock options. We primarily use historical data to determine the assumptions to be used in the Black-Scholes model and have no reason to believe that future data is likely to differ materially from historical data. However, changes in the assumptions to reflect future stock price volatility and future stock award exercise experience could result in a change in the assumptions used to value awards in the future and may result in a material change to the fair value calculation of stock-based awards. This accounting guidance requires the recognition of the fair value of stock compensation in net income. Although every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of our estimates and assumptions, significant unanticipated changes in those estimates, interpretations and assumptions may result in recording stock option expense that may materially impact our financial statements for each respective reporting period.

 

Income Taxes

 

The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax items are reflected at the enacted tax laws and statutory tax rates applicable to the periods in which the differences are expected reverse. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. Due to the uncertainty regarding the success of future operations, management has valued the deferred tax asset allowance at 100% of the related deferred tax assets.

 

Because the Company operated in the State-licensed cannabis industry until the December 31, 2021 disposition of the Nevada Subsidiaries, revenue from those activities were subject to the limitations of Internal Revenue Code Section 280E (“280E”) for U.S. income tax purposes. Under 280E, the Company is allowed to deduct expenses that are directly related to the production of its products, i.e. cost of goods sold, but is allowed no further deductions for ordinary and necessary business expenses from its gross profit. The Company believes that the deductions disallowed include the deduction of net operating loss carryforwards ("NOLs"). The unused NOLs will continue to carry forward and those that do not expire or become subject to other limitations may be used by the Company to offset future taxable income that is not subject to the limitations of 280E.

 

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

Standards Recently Adopted

 

In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-04, Issuer's Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options. This guidance clarifies and reduces diversity in an issuer’s accounting for modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity-classified written call options due to a lack of explicit guidance in the FASB Codification. The ASU 2021-04 is effective for The Company's fiscal year beginning April 1, 2022. The Company adopted the standard on April 1, 2022 and it did not have a material impact on its financial statements.

 

Standards Not Yet Adopted

 

On June 16, 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The standard requires the use of an “expected loss” model on certain types of financial instruments. The standard also amends the impairment model for available-for-sale debt securities and requires estimated credit losses to be recorded as allowances instead of reductions to amortized cost of the securities. The amendments in this ASU are effective for the Company's fiscal year beginning April 1, 2023. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2016-13 on its financial statements.

 

In June 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity's Own Equity. The guidance simplifies the current guidance for convertible instruments and the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity. Additionally, the amendments affect the diluted EPS calculation for instruments that may be settled in cash or shares and for convertible instruments. This ASU will be effective for the Company's fiscal year beginning April 1, 2023. Early adoption is permitted. The amendments in this update must be applied on either full retrospective basis or modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings/(deficit) in the period of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2020-06 on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, as well as the timing of adoption.

 

All other newly issued accounting pronouncements have been deemed either immaterial or not applicable.

 

ITEM 7A QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

As a "smaller reporting company" as defined by Item 10 of Regulation S-K, the Company is not required to provide information required by this Item.

 

 

 

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

 

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

 

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM (PCAOB #5036)

38

  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS:

 
  

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS AS OF MARCH 31, 2023 AND 2022

40

  

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS - YEARS ENDED MARCH 31, 2023 AND 2022

41

  

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS DEFICIT - YEARS ENDED MARCH 31, 2023 AND 2022

42

  

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS - YEARS ENDED MARCH 31, 2023 AND 2022

43

  

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

45

 

 

gbsciences01.jpg

 

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 

 

 

To the Stockholders’ and Board of Directors
GB Sciences, Inc.

 

Opinion on the Financial Statements

 

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of GB Sciences, Inc. (the Company) as of March 31, 2023 and 2022, and the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholders’ deficit and cash flows for each of the years in the two-year period ended March 31, 2023 and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of March 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the two-year period ended March 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

Explanatory Paragraph- Going Concern

 

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company incurred a net loss of $4,125,194 and cash used in operations of $1,526,861 for the year ended March 31, 2023. In addition, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $108,705,315 and working capital deficit of $4,450,202 at March 31, 2023. These factors raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note 2. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

 

Basis for Opinion

 

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

 

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

 

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

 

Critical Audit Matters

 

The critical audit matters are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

 

Impairment of Intangible Assets

 

Description of the matter and considerations leading to the matter:

The Company is required to test the carrying amount of its indefinite-lived intangible assets at least annually, or more frequently upon the occurrence of certain events. The Company is also required to assess the recovery of its long-lived intangible assets, whenever certain events occur or circumstances change that may be indicators of impairment. For the year ended March 31, 2023, the Company recorded an impairment expense of $2,374,261 related to its intangible assets specifically capitalized patent costs.

 

Description of how the matter was addressed:

The primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter included obtaining and evaluating management’s assessment of impairment and validating the key considerations noted in the analysis such as declining cash flows from financing activities, changes in key management and postponing research and development activities.  In addition, we performed inquiries with management to gain an understanding of the changes that have occurred in the entity which lead to the impairment conclusion.

 

Conclusion:

Based on the procedures performed, we concluded management’s assessment of impairment was reasonable and the related expense recorded was appropriate for the year ended March 31, 2023.

 

 

adsig.jpg
  

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2020.

  

Margate, Florida

July 14, 2023

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ASSURANCE DIMENSIONS CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS & ASSOCIATES

also d/b/a McNAMARA and ASSOCIATES, PLLC

TAMPA BAY: 4920 W Cypress Street, Suite 102 | Tampa, FL 33607 | Office: 813.443.5048 | Fax: 813.443.5053

JACKSONVILLE: 4720 Salisbury Road, Suite 223 | Jacksonville, FL 32256 | Office: 888.410.2323 | Fax: 813.443.5053

ORLANDO:  1800 Pembrook Drive, Suite 300 | Orlando, FL 32810 | Office: 888.410.2323 | Fax: 813.443.5053

SOUTH FLORIDA:  2000 Banks Road, Suite 218 | Margate,  FL 33063 | Office: 754.800.3400 | Fax: 813.443.5053

www.assurancedimensions.com

 

 

 

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

 

  

As of March 31,

 
  

2023

  

2022

 

CURRENT ASSETS:

        

Cash and cash equivalents

 $109,912  $233,893 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

  199,592   93,933 

TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS

  309,504   327,826 
         

Intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization and impairment of $2,390,297 and $104,201 at March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively

  42,819   2,222,074 

TOTAL ASSETS

 $352,323  $2,549,900 
         

CURRENT LIABILITIES:

        

Accounts payable

 $1,861,829  $1,657,008 
Accounts payable related party  120,911   - 

Accrued interest

  346,806   384,769 

Accrued liabilities

  75,628   9,627 

Notes and convertible notes payable, net of unamortized discount of $41,230 and $1,765 at March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively

  1,396,077   987,565 

Income tax payable

  958,455   896,495 

TOTAL CURRENT LIABILITIES

  4,759,706   3,935,464 
         

Convertible notes payable, net of unamortized discount of $0 and $99,489 at March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively

  -   397,308 

TOTAL LIABILITIES

  4,759,706   4,332,772 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 11)

          
         

STOCKHOLDERS' DEFICIT:

        

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value, 950,000,000 shares authorized, 381,872,561 and 325,037,557 outstanding at March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively

  38,187   32,504 

Additional paid-in capital

  104,259,745   102,764,746 

Accumulated deficit

  (108,705,315

)

  (104,580,122

)

TOTAL STOCKHOLDERS' DEFICIT

  (4,407,383

)

  (1,782,872

)

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' DEFICIT

 $352,323  $2,549,900 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements

 

 

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

 

   

For the Years Ended

 
   

March 31,

 
   

2023

   

2022

 
                 

Sales revenue

  $ -     $ -  

Cost of goods sold

    -       -  

Gross profit (loss)

    -       -  

General and administrative expenses

    1,672,281       1,868,734  

LOSS FROM OPERATIONS

    (1,672,281

)

    (1,868,734

)

OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE)

               

Gain on extinguishment of debt

    -       22,405  

Gain on deconsolidation

    -       5,206,208  

Interest expense

    (178,652

)

    (474,768

)

Loss on impairment of note receivable

    -       (3,025,000

)

Loss on impairment of capitalized patent costs

    (2,374,261

)

    -  

Loss on disposal

    -       (15,639

)

Other income

    100,000       9,000  

Total other income/(expense)

    (2,452,913

)

    1,722,206  

LOSS BEFORE INCOME TAXES

    (4,125,194

)

    (146,528

)

Income tax expense (Note 8)

    -       -  

LOSS FROM CONTINUING OPERATIONS

    (4,125,194

)

    (146,528

)

Net loss from discontinued operations (Note 4)

    -       (384,345

)

NET LOSS

  $ (4,125,194

)

  $ (530,873

)

                 

Net loss attributable to common stockholders of GB Sciences, Inc. - basic and diluted

               

Continuing operations

  $ (4,125,194

)

  $ (146,528

)

Discontinued operations

    -       (384,345

)

Net loss

  $ (4,125,194

)

  $ (530,873

)

                 

Net loss per common share – basic and diluted

               

Continuing operations

  $ (0.01

)

  $ (0.00

)

Discontinued operations

  $ -     $ (0.00

)

Net loss

  $ (0.01

)

  $ (0.00

)

Weighted average common shares outstanding - basic and diluted

    357,721,189       317,621,942  

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements

 

 

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS' DEFICIT

 

For the Years Ended March 31, 2023 and 2022

 

                   

Additional

Paid-

   

Accumulated

         
   

Shares

   

Amount

   

In Capital

   

Deficit

   

Total

 

Balance at March 31, 2021

    315,340,411     $ 31,534     $ 102,380,770     $ (103,886,232

)

  $ (1,473,928

)

                                         

Stock issued for warrant exercises, net of brokerage fees

    2,095,333       210       56,184       -       56,394  

Issuance of shares upon exercise of compensation warrants

    7,601,813       760       75,308       -       76,068  

Inducement dividend from warrant exercises

    -       -       163,017       (163,017

)

    -  

Share-based compensation expense

    -       -       60,667       -       60,667  

Stock options issued as compensation for drafting and filing patents

    -       -       28,800       -       28,800  

Net loss

    -       -       -       (530,873

)

    (530,873

)

Balance at March 31, 2022

    325,037,557     $ 32,504     $ 102,764,746     $ (104,580,122

)

  $ (1,782,872

)

                                         

Share-based compensation expense

    -       -       17,333       -       17,333  
Stock issued in private placement, net of brokerage fees     56,835,004       5,683       1,477,666       -       1,483,350  

Net loss

    -       -       -       (4,125,194

)

    (4,125,194

)

Balance at March 31, 2023

    381,872,561     $ 38,187     $ 104,259,745     $ (108,705,315

)

  $ (4,407,383

)

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements

 

 

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

 

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

 

   

Year Ended March 31,

 
   

2023

   

2022

 

OPERATING ACTIVITIES:

               

Net loss

  $ (4,125,194

)

  $ (530,873

)

Loss from discontinued operations

    -       (384,345

)

Net loss from continuing operations

    (4,125,194

)

    (146,528

)

                 

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

               

Depreciation and amortization

    61,660       70,488  

Stock-based compensation

    17,333       60,667  

Amortization of debt discount and beneficial conversion feature

    60,024       356,340  

Gain on extinguishment

    -       (22,405

)

Loss on disposal of assets

    -       15,639  

Loss on impairment of note receivable

    -       3,025,000  

Loss on impairment of capitalized patent costs

    2,374,261       -  

Gain on deconsolidation

    -       (5,206,208

)

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

               

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

    (105,659

)

    162,318  

Accounts payable

    (20,195 )     821,253  

Accrued liabilities

    66,001       (948,319

)

Accrued interest

    (37,963

)

    118,286  

Accrued income taxes

    61,960       -  

Indebtedness to related parties

    120,911       (84,913

)

Net cash used in operating activities of continuing operations

    (1,526,861

)

    (1,778,382

)

Net cash used in operating activities of discontinued operations

    -       (87,772

)

Net cash used in operating activities

    (1,526,861

)

    (1,866,154

)

INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

               

Proceeds from sale of Nevada Subsidiaries

    -       1,648,772  

Cash paid for capitalized patent costs

    (31,650

)

    (200,000

)

Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities of continuing operations     (31,650

)

    1,448,772  

Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities of discontinued operations

    -       1,567  

Net cash provided by/(used in) investing activities

    (31,650

)

    1,450,339  

FINANCING ACTIVITIES:

               

Proceeds from warrant exercises

    -       138,728  

Proceeds from convertible notes payable

    -       50,000  

Gross proceeds from sale of common stock, net of brokerage fees

    1,483,350       -  

Principal payment on notes payable

    (48,820

)

    (575,000

)

Net cash provided by/(used in) financing activities of continuing operations

    1,434,530       (392,538

)

Net cash used in financing activities of discontinued operations

    -       (103,387

)

Net cash provided by/(used in) financing activities

    1,434,530       (495,925

)

NET CHANGE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS

    (123,981

)

    (911,740

)

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AT BEGINNING OF YEAR

    233,893       1,145,633  

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AT END OF YEAR

    109,912       233,893  

Less: cash and cash equivalents classified as discontinued operations

    -       -  

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AT END OF YEAR FROM CONTINUING OPERATIONS

  $ 109,912     $ 233,893  

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements

 

 

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION

 

   

Year Ended March 31,

 
   

2023

   

2022

 
                 

Cash paid for interest

  $ -     $ -  

Cash paid for income tax

  $ -     $ -  
                 

Noncash investing and financing transactions:

               

Noncash additions for capitalized patent costs

  $ 246,132     $ -  

Note receivable from sale of Nevada Subsidiaries

  $ -     $ 3,025,000  

Extinguishment of debt and accrued interest owed to purchasers of Nevada Subsidiaries and purchasers' affiliates

  $ -     $ 2,612,854  

Extinguishment of accrued management fees payable to purchaser of Nevada Subsidiaries

  $ -     $ 850,000  

Depreciation capitalized in inventory (discontinued operations)

  $ -     $ 349,015  

Patent acquisition costs capitalized in intangible assets

  $ -     $ 347,617  

Stock options issued for preparing capitalized patent applications

  $ -     $ 28,800  

Inducement dividend from warrant exercises

  $ -     $ 163,017  

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements

 

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

March 31, 2023 and 2022

 

 

 

Note 1 - Background and Nature of Operations

 

Business

 

GB Sciences, Inc. (“the Company”, “GB Sciences”, “we”, “us”, or “our”) is a phytomedical research and biopharmaceutical drug development company engaged in creating patented formulations of plant-inspired, complex therapeutic mixtures for the prescription drug market that target a variety of medical conditions. The Company is engaged in the research and development of plant-based medicines and plans to produce plant-inspired, complex therapeutic mixtures based on its portfolio of intellectual property.

 

The Company is engaged in the research and development of plant-based medicines, primarily cannabinoid-inspired medicines, with virtual operations in North America and Europe. GBSGB’s assets include a portfolio of intellectual property containing both proprietary cannabinoid-containing formulations and our AI-enabled drug discovery platform, as well as critical research contracts and key supplier arrangements. GBSGB’s intellectual property covers a range of medical conditions and several programs are in the pre-clinical animal stage of development including Parkinson’s disease, neuropathic pain, and cardiovascular therapeutic programs. GBSGB runs a lean drug development program and takes effort to minimize expenses, including personnel, overhead, and fixed capital expenses through strategic partnerships with Universities and Contract Research Organizations (“CROs”). GBSGB’s intellectual property portfolio includes six USPTO issued patents, 18 USPTO nonprovisional patent applications pending in the US, and one provisional patent application in the US. In addition to the USPTO patents and patent applications, the company has filed 55 patent applications internationally to protect its proprietary technology. We recently filed a provisional USPTO patent application to further protect aspects of our proprietary drug discovery engine, “Phytomedical Analytics for Research Optimization at Scale," or PhAROS™.

 

We were incorporated in the State of Delaware on April 4, 2001, under the name “Flagstick Venture, Inc.” On March 28, 2008, stockholders owning a majority of our outstanding common stock approved changing our then name “Signature Exploration and Production Corp.” as our business model had changed.

 

On April 4, 2014, we changed our name from Signature Exploration and Production Corporation to Growblox Sciences, Inc. Effective December 12, 2016, the Company amended its Certificate of Corporation pursuant to shareholder approval, and the Company’s name was changed from Growblox Sciences, Inc. to GB Sciences, Inc.

 

Effective April 8, 2018, Shareholders of the Company approved the change in corporate domicile from the State of Delaware to the State of Nevada and increase in the number of authorized capital shares from 250,000,000 to 400,000,000. Effective August 15, 2019, Shareholders of the Company approved an increase in authorized capital shares from 400,000,000 to 600,000,000. Effective March 09, 2023, Shareholders of the Company approved an increase in authorized capital shares from 600,000,000 to 950,000,000.

 

45

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

March 31, 2023 and 2022

 

Recent Developments

 

Intellectual Property Portfolio

 

In the past year GBLX/GBSGB’s foreign patents for plant-based treatments of serious disorders were allowed in different countries, expanding our patent protections as follows. On February 3, 2023, GB Sciences’ first foreign patent protecting its proprietary cannabinoid-based formulations for Parkinson’s disease was issued in China. China is an increasingly important pharmaceutical market with cultural acceptance of plant-based formulations, which is a good fit for GB Sciences’ drug candidates. The global market for treatments of Parkinson’s disease is projected to grow to $8.8 billion by the year 2026, and new therapies to address Parkinson’s disease symptoms are greatly needed. The Chinese Patent was issued for GBSGB’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. On December 1, 2022, the Israeli (IL) Patent was allowed, protecting our Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). MCAS is a severe immunological condition in which mast cells inappropriately and excessively release inflammatory mediators, resulting in a range of severe chronic hyperinflammatory symptoms and life-threatening anaphylaxis attacks. On December 15, 2022, the Australian (AU) Patent was allowed, protecting the Company’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). On February 20, 2023, the Japanese (JP) Patent was allowed, protecting the Company’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures for the treatment of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome (MCAS). Additionally, on March 9, 2023, the Notice of Allowance was received for the Company’s U.S. Patent Application No. 16/878,295. This Notice of Allowance protects the use of the Company’s Myrcene-Containing Complex Mixtures in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy, overactive bladder, and refractory chronic cough. On April 25, 2023, the Japanese patent was also issued for the use of GBSGB’s Cannabinoid-Containing Complex Mixtures in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

 

In 2021, our growing intellectual property portfolio was augmented with additional patent-protections for our PhAROS™ drug discovery platform that were filed in October of 2021. The Company, through GBSGB, also filed for protection of new PhAROS™ discovered, non-cannabis formulations in July of 2021. In September of 2021, the Company filed a patent application for the Company’s improved DCR-MEM formulations for our PD therapeutic program. These new patent applications expanded upon the solid foundation of intellectual property developed over the Company’s history.

 

Divestiture of Nevada Cannabis Operations

 

On March 24, 2020, the Company entered into the Membership Interest Purchase Agreement ("Teco MIPA") with AJE Management, LLC. Pursuant to the Teco MIPA, the Company agreed to sell 100% of its membership interests in GB Sciences Nevada, LLC, and GB Sciences Las Vegas, LLC (the "Teco Subsidiaries") for approximately $8 million, which amount includes a cash payment at closing, the extinguishment and/or repayments of certain liabilities owed to the purchaser and affiliates of the purchaser, and an 8% promissory note.

 

On August 10, 2020, the Company entered into the Membership Interest Purchase Agreement ("Nopah MIPA") and Promissory Note Modification Agreement with 483 Management, LLC. Pursuant to the Nopah MIPA, the Company agreed to sell its 100% membership interest in GB Sciences Nopah, LLC ("Nopah"), which holds a Nevada medical marijuana cultivation certificate. As consideration, the Company would receive $312,315 in consideration in the form of a $237,668 reduction to the outstanding principal and accrued interest balances of the 0% Note payable dated October 23, 2017 (Note 5), and extinguishment of accounts payable of $74,647, which were owed to an affiliate of the purchaser.

 

The closing of the Teco and Nopah sales was contingent upon the successful transfer of the Nevada cultivation and production licenses. On December 14, 2021, the Company received approval from the Nevada Cannabis Compliance Board for the transfer of cannabis cultivation and extraction licenses held by its subsidiaries GB Sciences Nevada, LLC, GB Sciences Las Vegas, LLC, and GB Sciences Nopah, LLC (the "Nevada Subsidiaries"). Consequently, all conditions to closing the sales of the 100% membership interests in the Nevada Subsidiaries were satisfied, and the transactions formally closed on December 31, 2021. After the closing date, the Company retains no ownership interest in the Nevada Subsidiaries.

 

As consideration for the membership interests, the Company received cash payments of $1,648,772 (including $400,000 in advance payments received during the nine months ended December 31, 2021), the extinguishment $3,462,854 of debt and current liabilities owed to affiliates of the purchaser, and a $3,025,000 8% note receivable (Note 13).

 

46

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

March 31, 2023 and 2022

 

 

 

Note 2 - Going Concern

 

The Company’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming the Company will continue as a going concern. The Company has sustained net losses since inception, which have caused an accumulated deficit of $108,705,315 at March 31, 2023. The Company had a working capital deficit of $4,450,202 as of March 31, 2023, compared to a working capital deficit of $3,607,638 at March 31, 2022. In addition, the Company has consumed cash in its operating activities of $1,526,861 for the year ended March 31, 2023, compared to $1,866,154 including $87,772 used in discontinued operations for the year ended March 31, 2022. These factors, among others, raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for one year from the issuance of the consolidated financial statements.

 

Management has been able, thus far, to finance the losses through a public offering, private placements of debt and equity, and obtaining operating funds from stockholders. The Company is continuing to seek sources of financing.  There are no assurances that the Company will be successful in achieving its goals.

 

In view of these conditions, the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern is dependent upon its ability to obtain additional financing or capital sources, to meet its financing requirements, and ultimately to achieve profitable operations. Management believes that its current and future plans provide an opportunity to continue as a going concern. The accompanying consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded assets, or the amounts and classification of liabilities that may be necessary in the event the Company is unable to continue as a going concern.

 

47

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

March 31, 2023 and 2022

 

 

 

Note 3 - Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

 

Principles of Consolidation

 

We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for the United States of America.

 

The subsidiaries of the Company are:

 

Continuing Operations:

GBS Global Biopharma, Inc.

ECRX, Inc.

The PhAROS Institute, LLC

 

Discontinued Operations:

GB Sciences Nevada, LLC

GB Sciences Las Vegas, LLC

GB Sciences Nopah, LLC

 

Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

 

Use of Estimates

 

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company regularly evaluates estimates and assumptions related to allowances for doubtful accounts, collectability of notes receivable, inventory valuation and standard cost allocations, valuation of initial right-of-use assets and corresponding lease liabilities, valuation of beneficial conversion features in convertible debt, valuation of the assets and liabilities of discontinued operations, stock-based compensation expense, purchased intangible asset valuations, deferred income tax asset valuation allowances, uncertain tax positions, litigation, other loss contingencies, and impairment of long lived assets.  These estimates and assumptions are based on current facts, historical experience and various other factors that the Company believes to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the recording of costs and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. The actual results the Company experiences may differ materially and adversely from these estimates.

 

48

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

March 31, 2023 and 2022

 

Discontinued Operations

 

See Note 4.

 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

 

The Company adopted ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures (ASC 820). ASC 820 defines fair value, establishes a three-level valuation hierarchy for disclosures of fair value measurement and enhances disclosure requirements for fair value measures. The three levels are defined as follows:

 

-

Level 1 inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets.

-

Level 2 inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, and inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.

-

Level 3 inputs to valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair measurement.

 

The carrying value of cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses are estimated by management to approximate fair value, primarily due to the short-term nature of the instruments.

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

The Company considers all short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. The Company had no short-term investments classified as cash equivalents at March 31, 2023 and 2022.

 

Indefinite and Definite-Lived Intangible Assets

 

Capitalized costs related to our indefinite-lived intangible assets consisted primarily of the value of our patents pending and includes the costs paid to draft and file patent applications. Upon issuance of the patents, the indefinite-lived intangible assets will have finite lives. Intangible assets also historically included the acquisition cost of a cannabis production license with an indefinite life.

 

We historically amortized our finite-lived intangible assets, which consisted of granted patents, over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method, and we periodically evaluate the remaining useful lives of our finite-lived intangible assets to determine whether events or circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining period of amortization.

 

We review all of our intangible assets for impairment indicators throughout the year. Impairment testing for indefinite-lived intangible assets is performed at least annually and we perform testing for definite-lived intangible assets whenever impairment indicators are present. If we determine that the fair value is less than the carrying value of these assets during testing, we record impairment losses equal to the difference between the carrying value of the asset and the fair market value of the asset.

 

As of March 31, 2023, we recorded a loss on impairment related to the capitalized patent costs of $2,374,261. The Company has recorded an impairment of it’s capitalized patent costs based on the relevant facts and circumstances that existed as of March 31, 2023 in accordance with ASC 350-30-35. Due to liquidity constraints the Company deemed that the likelihood of realizing value from previously capitalized patent costs was questionable, as a result the associated patents were impaired.

 

At March 31, 2023, the Company had six patents that have been granted in the United States, including two licensed patents and four patents assigned to the Company's subsidiary, GBS Global Biopharma, Inc. The patents owned by the Company expire between January 2038 and May 2039. Amortization expense for the years ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, was $61,660 and $70,488, respectively. The carrying amount of definite-lived intangible assets was $42,819 at March 31, 2023.

 

There were 10 United States patent applications that are pending as of March 31, 2023, and the corresponding patent assets are treated as indefinite-lived intangible assets. There were 35 international patents pending at March 31, 2023. The carrying amount of the indefinite-lived patent assets was $0 at March 31, 2023.

 

49

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

March 31, 2023 and 2022

 

Operating Lease Right-of-Use Asset and Liability

 

The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception and had lease agreements for office facilities, equipment, and other space and assets with non-cancelable lease terms which were primarily components of discontinued operations. Certain real estate and property leases, and various other operating leases are measured on the balance sheet with a lease liability and right-of-use asset ("ROU").

 

ROU assets represent the Company's right to use an underlying asset for the lease term, and lease liabilities represent the obligation to make scheduled lease payments. ROU assets and liabilities are recognized on the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The present value of lease payments is calculated using the incremental borrowing rate at lease commencement, which takes into consideration recent debt issuances as well as other applicable market data available.

 

Lease payments include fixed payments, variable payments based on an index or rate, reasonably certain purchase options, termination penalties, and others as required by the New Lease Standard. Lease payments do not include variable lease payments other than those that depend on an index or rate, any guarantee by the lessee of the lessor’s debt, or any amount allocated to non-lease components.

 

Lease terms include options to extend when it is reasonably certain that the option will be exercised. Leases with a term of twelve months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet. Additionally, lease and non-lease components are accounted for as a single lease component for real estate agreements.

 

At March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022, the Company had no lease agreements in effect, pursuant to the discontinued operations recorded during the year ended March 31, 2022.

 

Property and Equipment

 

Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets: 3-8 years for machinery and equipment, and leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the estimated useful lives or the underlying lease term. Property under finance leases and related obligations are initially recorded at an amount equal to the present value of future minimum lease payments computed on the basis of the Company’s incremental borrowing rate, and depreciation is recorded on a straight-line basis and is included within depreciation and amortization expense. Repairs and maintenance expenditures which do not extend the useful lives of related assets are expensed as incurred.

 

At March 31, 2023 and March 31, 2022, the Company had no Property and Equipment, pursuant to the discontinued operations recorded during the year ended March 31, 2022.

 

Long-Lived Assets

 

Property and equipment comprised a significant portion of our total assets from discontinued operations. We evaluate the carrying value of property and equipment if impairment indicators are present or if other circumstances indicate that impairment may exist under authoritative guidance. The annual testing date is March 31. When management believes impairment indicators may exist, projections of the undiscounted future cash flows associated with the use of and eventual disposition of property and equipment are prepared. If the projections indicate that the carrying value of the property and equipment are not recoverable, we reduce the carrying values to fair value. These impairment tests are heavily influenced by assumptions and estimates that are subject to change as additional information becomes available.

 

50

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

March 31, 2023 and 2022

 

Beneficial Conversion Feature of Convertible Notes Payable

 

The Company accounts for convertible notes payable in accordance with the guidelines established by the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options and Emerging Issues Task Force (“EITF”) 00-27, “Application of Issue No. 98-5 to Certain Convertible Instruments”.  A beneficial conversion feature (“BCF”) exists on the date a convertible note is issued when the fair value of the underlying common stock to which the note is convertible into is in excess of the remaining unallocated proceeds of the note after first considering the allocation of a portion of the note proceeds to the fair value of any attached equity instruments, if any related equity instruments were granted with the debt. In accordance with this guidance, the BCF of a convertible note is measured by allocating a portion of the note's proceeds to the warrants, if applicable, and as a reduction of the carrying amount of the convertible note equal to the intrinsic value of the conversion feature, both of which are credited to additional paid-in-capital. The Company calculates the fair value of warrants issued with the convertible notes using the Black-Scholes valuation model and uses the same assumptions for valuing any employee options in accordance with ASC Topic 718 Compensation – Stock Compensation. The only difference is that the contractual life of the warrants is used.

 

The value of the proceeds received from a convertible note is then allocated between the conversion features and warrants on a relative fair value basis. The allocated fair value is recorded in the financial statements as a debt discount (premium) from the face amount of the note and such discount is amortized over the expected term of the convertible note (or to the conversion date of the note, if sooner) and is charged to interest expense.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

The FASB issued Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606 as guidance on the recognition of revenue from contracts with customers. Revenue recognition depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance also requires disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. The guidance permits two methods of adoption: retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented, or retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying the guidance recognized at the date of initial application (the cumulative catch-up transition method). The Company adopted the guidance on April 1, 2018 and applied the cumulative catch-up transition method.

 

The Company’s only material revenue source is part of discontinued operations and derives from sales of cannabis and cannabis products, distinct physical goods. Under ASC 606, the Company is required to separately identify each performance obligation resulting from its contracts from customers, which may be a good or a service. A contract may contain one or more performance obligations. All of the Company’s contracts with customers, past and present, contain only a single performance obligation, the delivery of distinct physical goods. Because fulfillment of the company’s performance obligation to the customer under ASC 606 results in the same timing of revenue recognition as under the previous guidance (i.e. revenue is recognized upon delivery of physical goods), the Company did not record any material adjustment to report the cumulative effect of initial application of the guidance.

 

Research and Development Costs

 

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. During the years ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company recorded $490,291 and $821,321, respectively, in research and development expense, which is included in general and administrative expense in the Company's consolidated financial statements.

 

Equity-Based Compensation

 

The Company accounts for equity instruments issued to employees and non-employees in accordance with the provisions of ASC 718 Stock Compensation (ASC 718). The computation of the expense associated with stock-based compensation requires the use of a valuation model. The FASB-issued accounting guidance requires significant judgment and the use of estimates, particularly surrounding Black-Scholes assumptions such as stock price volatility, expected option lives, and expected option forfeiture rates, to value equity-based compensation. We currently use a Black-Scholes option pricing model to calculate the fair value of our stock options. We primarily use historical data to determine the assumptions to be used in the Black-Scholes model and have no reason to believe that future data is likely to differ materially from historical data. However, changes in the assumptions to reflect future stock price volatility and future stock award exercise experience could result in a change in the assumptions used to value awards in the future and may result in a material change to the fair value calculation of stock-based awards. This accounting guidance requires the recognition of the fair value of stock compensation in net income. Although every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of our estimates and assumptions, significant unanticipated changes in those estimates, interpretations and assumptions may result in recording stock option expense that may materially impact our financial statements for each respective reporting period.

 

51

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

March 31, 2023 and 2022

 

Income Taxes

 

The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax items are reflected at the enacted tax laws and statutory tax rates applicable to the periods in which the differences are expected reverse. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. Due to the uncertainty regarding the success of future operations, management has valued the deferred tax asset allowance at 100% of the related deferred tax assets.

 

Because the Company operated in the State-licensed cannabis industry until the December 31, 2021 disposition of the Nevada Subsidiaries (Note 13), revenue from those activities were subject to the limitations of Internal Revenue Code Section 280E (“280E”) for U.S. income tax purposes. Under 280E, the Company is allowed to deduct expenses that are directly related to the production of its products, i.e. cost of goods sold, but is allowed no further deductions for ordinary and necessary business expenses from its gross profit. The Company believes that the deductions disallowed include the deduction of net operating loss carryforwards ("NOLs"). The unused NOLs will continue to carry forward and those that do not expire or become subject to other limitations may be used by the Company to offset future taxable income that is not subject to the limitations of 280E.

 

Loss per Share

 

The Company’s basic loss per share has been calculated using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year. The Company had 167,252,135 and 118,594,624 potentially dilutive common shares at March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Such common stock equivalents were not included in the computation of diluted net loss per share, as their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

Standards Recently Adopted

 

In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-04, Issuer's Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options. This guidance clarifies and reduces diversity in an issuer’s accounting for modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity-classified written call options due to a lack of explicit guidance in the FASB Codification. The ASU 2021-04 is effective for The Company's fiscal year beginning April 1, 2022. The Company adopted the standard on April 1, 2022 and it did not have a material impact on its financial statements.

 

Standards Not Yet Adopted

 

On June 16, 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The standard requires the use of an “expected loss” model on certain types of financial instruments. The standard also amends the impairment model for available-for-sale debt securities and requires estimated credit losses to be recorded as allowances instead of reductions to amortized cost of the securities. The amendments in this ASU are effective for the Company's fiscal year beginning April 1, 2023. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2016-13 on its financial statements.

 

In June 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity's Own Equity. The guidance simplifies the current guidance for convertible instruments and the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity. Additionally, the amendments affect the diluted EPS calculation for instruments that may be settled in cash or shares and for convertible instruments. This ASU will be effective for the Company's fiscal year beginning April 1, 2023. Early adoption is permitted. The amendments in this update must be applied on either full retrospective basis or modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings/(deficit) in the period of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2020-06 on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, as well as the timing of adoption.

 

All other newly issued accounting pronouncements have been deemed either immaterial or not applicable.

 

52

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

March 31, 2023 and 2022

 

 

 

Note 4 - Discontinued Operations

 

Discontinued Operations

 

Discontinued operations comprise those activities that were disposed of during the period, or which were classified as held for sale at the end of the period and represent a separate major line of business or geographical area that can be clearly distinguished for operational and financial reporting purposes. The Company has included its subsidiaries GB Sciences Nevada, LLC, GB Sciences Las Vegas, LLC, and GB Sciences Nopah, LLC in discontinued operations due to the sale of the Company's Nevada Subsidiaries (Note 13).

 

The assets and liabilities associated with discontinued operations included in our consolidated balance sheets as of  March 31, 2023 and 2022 were as follows:

 

  

March 31, 2023

  

March 31, 2022

 
  

Continuing

  

Discontinued

Nevada

Subsidiaries

  

Total

  

Continuing

  

Discontinued

Nevada

Subsidiaries

  

Total

 

ASSETS

                        

CURRENT ASSETS

                        

Cash

 $109,912  $-  $109,912  $233,893  $-  $233,893 

Prepaid and other current assets

  199,592   -   199,592   93,933   -   93,933 

TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS

  309,504   -   309,504   327,826   -   327,826 
                         

Intangible assets, net

  42,819   -   42,819   2,222,074   -   2,222,074 
                         

TOTAL ASSETS

 $352,323  $-  $352,323  $2,549,900  $-  $2,549,900 
                         

LIABILITIES

                        

CURRENT LIABILITIES

                        

Accounts payable

 $1,982,740  $-  $1,982,740  $1,657,008  $-  $1,657,008 

Accrued interest

  346,806   -   346,806   384,769   -   384,769 

Accrued liabilities

  75,628   -   75,628   9,627   -   9,627 

Notes and convertible notes payable, net

  935,000   -   935,000   987,565   -   987,565 

Convertible notes payable, net

  461,077   -   461,077   -   -   - 

Income tax payable

  958,455   -   958,455   896,495   -   896,495 

TOTAL CURRENT LIABILITIES

  4,759,706   -   4,759,706   3,935,464   -   3,935,464 
                         

Convertible notes payable, net

  -   -   -   397,308   -   397,308 
                         

TOTAL LIABILITIES

 $4,759,706  $-  $4,759,706  $4,332,772  $-  $4,332,772 

 

53

 

GB SCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

March 31, 2023 and 2022

 

The revenues and expenses associated with discontinued operations included in our consolidated statements of operations for the years ended  March 31, 2023 and 2022, were as follows:

 

  

2023

  

2022

 
  

Continuing

  

Discontinued

- Nevada

  

Total

  

Continuing

  

Discontinued

- Nevada

  

Total

 

Sales revenue

 $-  $-  $-  $-  $3,369,812  $3,369,812 

Cost of goods sold

  -   -   -   -   (3,072,622

)

  (3,072,622

)

Gross profit (loss)

  -   -   -   -   297,190   297,190 

General and administrative expenses

  1,672,281   -   1,672,281   1,868,734   264,515   2,133,249 

LOSS FROM OPERATIONS

  (1,672,281

)

  -   (1,672,281

)

  (1,868,734

)

  32,675   (1,836,059

)

OTHER INCOME/(EXPENSE)

                        

Gain on extinguishment

  -   -   -   22,405   -   22,405 

Gain on deconsolidation

  -   -   -   5,206,208   -   5,206,208 

Interest expense

  (178,652

)

  -   (178,652

)

  (474,768

)

  (302,923

)

  (777,691

)

Loss on impairment of note receivable

  -   -   -   (3,025,000

)

  -   (3,025,000

)

Loss on impairment of capitalized patent costs

  (2,374,261

)

  -   (2,374,261

)

  -   -   - 

Loss on disposal

  -   -   -   (15,639

)

  -   (15,639