Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)

Registration No. 333-276912

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Up to 141,019,099 Shares of Common Stock


This prospectus relates to the resale of up to 35,792,347 shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “common stock”), and 105,226,752 shares of our common stock underlying certain warrants (collectively, the “Shares”), by the selling stockholders identified in this prospectus under “Selling Stockholders.” The selling stockholders may sell all or a portion of the Shares from time to time, in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of sale. The Shares may be sold by any means described in the section of this prospectus entitled “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 72.

We are not selling any shares of our Common Stock under this prospectus and will not receive any proceeds from the sale of these Shares by the selling stockholders. We will, however, receive proceeds from any warrants that are exercised through the payment of the exercise price in cash. We will bear all other costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of the Shares covered by this prospectus. All selling and other expenses incurred by the selling stockholders will be borne by the selling stockholders.

We are registering the offer and sale of the Shares pursuant to certain registration rights granted to the selling stockholders. The registration of these Shares does not necessarily mean that any of the Shares will be offered or sold by the selling stockholders. The timing and amount of any sale is within the sole discretion of the selling stockholders.

Our common stock is quoted on the OTCQB of OTC Markets Group, Inc. under the symbol “CYDY.” On February 20, 2024, the closing price of our common stock was $0.1655 per share.


Investing in our securities involves risk. You should carefully consider the risks that we have described under the section captioned “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page 8 before buying our securities.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is February 22, 2024


TABLE OF CONTENTS

In making your investment decision, you should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus.

We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. We are not making an offer to sell or seeking an offer to buy any shares of common stock in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus is complete and accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of securities offered hereby.


ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-1 (No. 333-276912) (the “Registration Statement”) that we filed with the SEC. You should read this prospectus and the exhibits filed with or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement carefully. Such documents contain important information you should consider when making your investment decision. See “Where You Can Find More Information” in this prospectus.

This prospectus may be supplemented from time to time to add, update or change information in this prospectus. Any statement contained in this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in such prospectus supplement modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statement so modified will be deemed to constitute a part of this prospectus only as so modified, and any statement so superseded will be deemed not to constitute a part of this prospectus. You may only rely on the information contained in this prospectus or that we have referred you to. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities offered by this prospectus. This prospectus and any future prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. Neither the delivery of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement nor any sale made hereunder shall, under any circumstances, create any implication that there has been no change in our affairs since the date of this prospectus or such prospectus supplement or that the information contained by reference to this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is correct as of any time after its date.

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed or incorporated by reference as exhibits to the Registration Statement, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under “Where You Can Find More Information.”

CytoDyn Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries are referred to herein as “CytoDyn,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our,” unless the context indicates otherwise.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains certain forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Words and expressions reflecting optimism, satisfaction or disappointment with current prospects, as well as words such as “believes,” “hopes,” “intends,” “estimates,” “expects,” “projects,” “plans,” “anticipates” and variations thereof, or the use of future tense, identify forward-looking statements, but their absence does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. Our forward-looking statements are not guarantees of performance, and actual results could vary materially from those contained in or expressed by such statements. In evaluating all such statements, we urge you to specifically consider various risk factors identified in this prospectus, including the matters set forth under the heading Risk Factors, any of which could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by our forward-looking statements.

Our forward-looking statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on currently available financial, economic, scientific, and competitive data and information on current business plans.

Forward-looking statements include, among others, statements about leronlimab, its ability to have positive health outcomes, the Company’s ability to resolve the clinical hold imposed by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) in December 2023, and information regarding future operations, clinical studies and trials, availability of capital, operating and capital expenditures, and net cash flows. You should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks and uncertainties relating to, among other things: the regulatory determinations of leronlimab’s safety and effectiveness by the FDA and various drug regulatory agencies in other countries; the Company’s ability to raise additional capital to fund its operations; the Company’s ability to meet its debt and other payment obligations; the Company’s ability to enter into or maintain partnership or licensing arrangements with third parties; the Company’s ability to recruit and retain key employees and successfully integrate new employees into our operations; the timely and sufficient development, through internal resources or third-party consultants, of analyses of the data generated from the Company’s clinical trials required by the FDA or other regulatory agencies in connection with the Company’s regulatory submissions or applications for approval of the Company’s drug product; the Company’s ability to achieve approval of a marketable product; the design, implementation and conduct of clinical trials; the results of any such clinical trials, including the possibility of unfavorable clinical trial results; the market for, and marketability of, any product that is approved; the existence or development of vaccines, drugs, or other treatments that are viewed by medical professionals or patients as superior to the Company’s products; regulatory initiatives, compliance with governmental regulations and the regulatory approval process; the Company’s ability to resolve its disputes with Amarex Clinical Research LLC (“Amarex”) and Samsung Biologics (“Samsung”); other legal proceedings, investigations or inquiries affecting the Company or its products; stockholder actions or proposals with regard to the Company, its management, or its Board of Directors; and various other matters, many of which are beyond the Company’s control. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties develop, or should underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may vary materially and adversely from those anticipated, believed, estimated, or otherwise indicated by our forward-looking statements. Except as required by law, we do not undertake any responsibility to update these forward-looking statements to address events or circumstances that occur after the date of this prospectus or to update you on the occurrence of any unanticipated events that may cause actual results to differ from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference as exhibits. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our securities. To fully understand this offering and its consequences to you, you should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the information referred to under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page 8, and the financial statements and other information in this prospectus, when making an investment decision. This is only a summary and may not contain all the information that is important to you. You should carefully read both this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, and any other offering materials, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

About Us

We are a clinical stage biotechnology company focused on the clinical development of innovative treatments for multiple therapeutic indications based on our product candidate, leronlimab (also referred to as PRO 140), a novel humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (“CCR5”). Our core areas of clinical development are human immunodeficiency virus (“HIV”), Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis (“MASH”; replacing the term nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (“NASH”)), and solid tumors in oncology. The current areas of clinical focus in HIV are the lifting of the FDA clinical hold imposed in December 2023 on the Company’s proposed clinical trial, creation of a long-acting formulation of leronlimab, and HIV functional cure in using adenovirus vectors (“AAV”). The Company has been investigating leronlimab as a viral entry inhibitor for treatment of HIV, believed to competitively bind to the N-terminus and second extracellular loop of the CCR5 receptor. For immunology, the CCR5 receptor is believed to be implicated in immune-mediated illnesses such as MASH. Leronlimab is being or has been studied in MASH, MASH-HIV, solid tumors in oncology, and other HIV indications where CCR5 is believed to play an integral role.

Corporate Information

CytoDyn Inc. is a Delaware corporation with its principal executive offices at 1111 Main Street, Suite 660, Vancouver, Washington 98660, telephone (360) 980-8524. Our website can be found at www.cytodyn.com. We do not intend to incorporate any contents from our website into this prospectus. Effective August 27, 2015, we completed a reincorporation from Colorado to Delaware. Effective November 16, 2018, we implemented a holding company reorganization, as a result of which we became the successor issuer and reporting company to the former CytoDyn Inc. (now our wholly owned subsidiary, CytoDyn Operations Inc.).

Description of Transactions in which Shares of Common Stock and Warrants Held by Selling Stockholders Were Issued

The selling stockholders identified in this prospectus may sell shares of our common stock as shown under “Selling Stockholders” below. The transactions in which the shares of our common stock available for resale under this prospectus were or may be acquired by the selling stockholders, including shares underlying warrants to purchase our common stock, are described below.

Sales of Common Stock and Warrants in Private Sales through a Placement Agent. During the period from July through September 2023, we issued in a private placement to accredited investors through Paulson Investment Company, LLC, an aggregate of 21,453,125 shares of our common stock, together with warrants to purchase an aggregate of up to 21,453,125 shares of our common stock with an exercise price of $0.50 per share, for total proceeds of approximately $3.4 million. The warrants issued in these transactions have a five-year term and were immediately exercisable upon issuance. The shares of common stock, as well as the shares of common stock underlying the warrants, issued in connection with the offering are among those being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders”.

Issuance of Warrants to Placement Agent in Connection with Private Placement Offerings. In connection with the private placement through a placement agent described above, we issued to Paulson Investment Company, LLC, or its designees, warrants to purchase a total of 3,217,963 shares of our common stock. The warrants have a 10-year term and were immediately exercisable upon issuance. The warrants have an exercise price of $0.16 per share and include a cashless exercise provision. Some of the shares of common stock underlying the warrants are among those being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders”.

Sale of Placement Agent Notes and Warrants. During the period from April through June 2023, we issued secured promissory notes with an 18-month term to accredited investors through Paulson Investment Company, LLC, in an aggregate principal amount of approximately $2.3 million (“Placement Agent Notes”). The Placement Agent Notes provide for an accrual of interest at an annual

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rate of 6%. As part of the sale we issued fully exercisable warrants to purchase an aggregate of 2,271,000 shares of our common stock with an exercise price of $0.50 per share. The warrants issued in these transactions have a three-year term and were immediately exercisable upon issuance. The shares of common stock underlying the warrants, issued in connection with the Placement Agent Notes are among those being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders”.

Issuance of Warrants to Placement Agent in Connection with Sale of Placement Agent Notes. In connection with the sale of Placement Agent Notes through a placement agent described above, we issued to Paulson Investment Company, LLC, or its designees, warrants to purchase a total of 738,075 shares of our common stock. The warrants have a 10-year term and were immediately exercisable upon issuance. The warrants have an exercise price of $0.26 per share and include a cashless exercise provision. Some of the shares of common stock underlying the warrants are among those being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders”.

Conversion of Placement Agent Notes into Shares and Warrants. In July 2023, the Placement Agent Notes were converted into an aggregate of 14,339,222 shares of common stock, together with warrants to purchase an aggregate of up to 14,339,222 shares of common stock with an exercise price of $0.306 per share. The warrants issued in these transactions have a five-year term and were immediately exercisable upon issuance. The shares of common stock, as well as the shares of common stock underlying the warrants, issued in connection with the Placement Agent Notes conversion are among those being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders”.

Sales of Common Stock and Warrants in Private Sales Conducted by Us. During the period from February 2022 through April 2022, in private sale transactions with accredited investors conducted directly by the Company, certain of the selling stockholders identified in this prospectus purchased an aggregate of 12,745,096 shares of our common stock, together with warrants to purchase an aggregate of 9,558,822 shares of our common stock with an exercise price of $0.306 per share, for total proceeds of approximately $3.3 million. The warrants issued in these transactions have a five-year term and were immediately exercisable upon issuance. Some of the shares of common stock underlying the warrants are among those being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders”.

Previous Sales of Common Stock and Warrants in Private Sales through a Placement Agent. In November 2021, we issued in a private placement to accredited investors through Paulson Investment Company, LLC, an aggregate of 11,361,000 shares of our common stock, together with warrants to purchase an aggregate of up to 3,408,300 shares of our common stock with an exercise price of $1.00 per share, for total proceeds of approximately $11.4 million. The warrants issued in these transactions have a five-year term and were immediately exercisable upon issuance. Some of the shares of common stock underlying the warrants issued in connection with the offering are among those being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders”.

During the period from April 2022 through June 2022, we issued in a private placement to accredited investors through Paulson Investment Company, LLC, an aggregate of 85,378,497 shares of our common stock, together with warrants to purchase an aggregate of up to 64,033,829 shares of our common stock, with an exercise price of $0.306 per share, for total proceeds of approximately $21.8 million. The warrants issued in these transactions have a five-year term and were immediately exercisable upon issuance. Some of the shares of common stock underlying the warrants issued in connection with the offering are among those being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders”.

Previous Issuance of Warrants to Placement Agent in Connection with Private Placement Offerings. During November 2021 and the period from April through June 2022, in connection with private placements of common stock and warrants to accredited investors, we issued to Paulson Investment Company, LLC, as placement agent, or to its designees, warrants to purchase a total of 20,786,835 shares of our common stock. The warrants have a 10-year term and were immediately exercisable upon issuance. Warrants to purchase up to 1,363,320 shares have an exercise price of $1.00 per share and warrants to purchase up to 19,423,515 shares have an exercise price of $0.255 per share. The warrants include a cashless exercise provision. The shares of common stock underlying the warrants are among those being offered for resale as shown under “Selling Stockholders” beginning on page 66 of this prospectus.

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THIS OFFERING

We are registering for resale by the Selling Stockholders named herein an aggregate of 141,019,099 shares of our common stock as described below.

Issuer:

    

CytoDyn Inc.

Securities being offered:

35,792,347 shares of common stock and 105,226,752 shares underlying outstanding warrants to purchase our common stock, as listed in the table under “Selling Stockholders” below.

Common stock outstanding prior to this offering:

986,058,436 shares of common stock as of February 20, 2024

Use of proceeds:

We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale or other disposition of the Shares by the selling stockholders. The selling stockholders will bear all selling and other expenses incurred in connection with the sale or other disposition by them of the Shares covered hereby. However, if all the warrants covered by this prospectus are exercised for cash, we may receive proceeds of up to approximately $38.2 million, as further described in “Use of Proceeds.

Market for common stock:

Our common stock is quoted on the OTCQB of the OTC Market under the symbol “CYDY.” On February 20, 2024, the closing price of our common stock was $0.1655 per share.

Risk factors:

The purchase of our securities involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 8 and other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our securities.

Summary Risk Factors

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital

Our cash reserves are extremely low, requiring that we raise substantial additional financing to satisfy our current payment obligations and to fund our operations.
We are a clinical stage biotechnology company with a history of significant operating losses; we expect to continue to incur operating losses, and we may never achieve profitability.
The amount of financing we require will depend on various factors, many of which are beyond our control. Our results of operations, financial condition, and stock price are likely to be adversely affected if we are unable to obtain additional funding on improved terms compared to previous financings.
Our future cash requirements may differ significantly from our current estimates.
Our auditors have issued a going concern opinion, and we will not be able to achieve our objectives and will have to cease operations if we cannot find adequate financing.
We have written off the value of our pre-launch inventories of leronlimab and related raw materials, the costs of which were previously capitalized, and may be unable to use all or a portion of those inventories in the development of our product candidate.

Risks Related to Our Ability to Maintain Effective Operational and Internal Controls Environment

The recruitment and retention of skilled directors, executives, employees and consultants may be difficult and expensive, may result in dilution to our stockholders, and any failure to attract and retain such individuals may adversely affect our drug development and commercialization activities.

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Our current Chief Financial Officer is serving in an interim role. The loss, temporary loss, or transition of members of our senior management team or any other key employees may adversely affect our business.
If we are unable to effectively maintain a system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial results and our stock price could be adversely affected.
Our information technology systems could fail to perform adequately or experience data corruption, cyber-based attacks, or network security breaches.

Risks Related to Legal Proceedings

Our business, operating results, and financial condition could be negatively affected as a result of litigation and other demands made by stockholders.
Class-action litigation filed against us could harm our business, and insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all related costs and damages.
We are subject to oversight by the SEC, FDA, and other regulatory agencies. Investigations and proceedings by those agencies may divert management’s focus and have a material adverse effect on our reputation and financial condition.
We face risks and uncertainties related to litigation and other claims.

Risks Related to Development and Commercialization of Our Drug Candidate

We have been notified by Samsung of Samsung’s intent to terminate the Company’s agreements for manufacturing of our drug product and related services.
Certain agreements and related license agreements require us to make significant milestone, royalty, and other payments, which will require additional financing and, in the event we do commercialize leronlimab, will decrease the revenues we may ultimately receive on sales. To the extent that such milestone, royalty and other payments are not timely made, the counterparties to such agreements in certain cases have repurchase and termination rights thereunder with respect to leronlimab.
If we are unable to obtain all required regulatory approvals for leronlimab, we will not be able to commercialize our primary product candidate, which would materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and stock price.
We are substantially dependent on the success of leronlimab. If we, either alone or with collaborators, are unable to complete the clinical development of, obtain and maintain marketing approval for, or successfully commercialize leronlimab, including with respect to adequate coverage and reimbursement, or if we continue to experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be seriously harmed.
Our competitors may develop drugs that are more effective, safer, and less expensive than ours.
We may not be able to identify, negotiate, and maintain the strategic alliances necessary to develop and commercialize our products and technologies, and we will be dependent on our corporate partners if we do.
Known third-party patent rights could delay or otherwise adversely affect our planned development and sale of leronlimab. We have identified but not exhaustively analyzed other patents that could relate to our proposed products.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

We have a very limited number of internal research and development personnel, making us dependent on consulting relationships and strategic alliances with industry partners.

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We may continue to rely on third parties, such as CROs and third-party manufacturers, to conduct clinical trials for our product candidate, leronlimab, and to produce our pre-clinical and clinical product candidate supplies. Such third parties are subject to significant regulation. A failure by such third parties to properly and successfully perform their obligations to us, or failure of manufacturers on which we rely to meet regulatory requirements, may result in our inability to obtain regulatory approvals for or commercialize our product candidate.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property Rights

Our success depends substantially upon our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection relating to our product candidate and future product candidates.
If we are sued for infringing on third-party intellectual property rights, it will be costly and time-consuming, and an unfavorable outcome would have a significant adverse effect on our business. We may also undertake infringement or other legal proceedings against third parties, causing us to spend substantial resources on litigation and exposing our own intellectual property portfolio to challenge.
We may become involved in disputes with our present or future contract partners over intellectual property ownership or other matters, which could have a significant adverse effect on our business.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our common stock is classified as “penny stock” and trading of our shares may be restricted by the SEC’s penny stock regulations.
The trading price of our common stock has been and could remain volatile, and the market price of our common stock may decrease.
Since our inception, we have been insolvent and have required debt and equity financing to maintain operations. We expect our debt service obligations and our need for additional funding to finance operations will cause additional substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.
Our certificate of incorporation permits our Board to create new series of preferred stock without further approval by our stockholders, which could adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common stock.
Anti-takeover provisions of our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws, and Delaware law could make an acquisition of us, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult, and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove the current members of our Board and management.
We do not expect to pay cash dividends on our common shares for the foreseeable future.

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RISK FACTORS

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in this section, that represent challenges we face in our efforts to successfully implement our strategy. You should carefully consider the risks described below, as well as other information set forth in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this prospectus. These risks, should they occur, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations, or the trading price of our common stock. The risks described below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial, may occur or become material in the future. Therefore, historical financial and business performance, events and trends are often not a reliable indicator of future operating results, financial and business performance, events or trends.

Risks Related to Our Financial Position and Need for Additional Capital

Our cash reserves are extremely low, requiring that we raise substantial additional financing to satisfy our current payment obligations and to fund our operations, which continues to be difficult in light of the low trading price of our common stock.

As of December 31, 2023, we had an unrestricted cash balance of approximately $0.5 million and a reserved cash balance of approximately $6.6 million. We must continue to raise substantial additional funds in the near term to meet our payment obligations and fund our operations. Additional funding may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. In addition, as of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 371.0 million shares of common stock unreserved for other purposes and available for issuance in new financing transactions. We will need to use some of the additional authorized shares (or funds raised through the sale of such shares) to satisfy a portion of our outstanding accounts payable and accrued liabilities, which totaled approximately $71.5 million on November 30, 2023. If we are not able to raise additional funds on a timely basis, we may be forced to delay, reduce the scope of, or eliminate one or more of our planned operating activities, including continuing to seek removal of the clinical hold placed on us by the FDA in December 2023, analyzing clinical trial data for purposes of responding to FDA requirements, and preparing additional regulatory submissions, developing additional clinical trials for indications we plan to pursue, regulatory and compliance activities, and legal defense activities. Any delay or inability to pursue our planned activities likely will adversely affect our business, financial condition, and stock price. The continued low trading price of our common stock (with a closing price of $0.1655 per share on February 20, 2024) presents a significant challenge to our ability to raise additional funds. If we deplete our cash reserves, we may have to discontinue our operations and liquidate our assets.

We are a clinical stage biotechnology company with a history of significant operating losses; we expect to continue to incur operating losses, and we may never achieve profitability.

We have not generated significant revenue from product sales, licensing, or other income opportunities to date. Since our inception, we have incurred operating losses in each year due to costs incurred for research and development activities and general and administrative expenses related to our operations. We expect to incur losses for the foreseeable future, with no or only minimal revenues as we continue to pursue development of, and seek regulatory approvals for, leronlimab. If leronlimab fails to gain regulatory approval, or if it or other drug or biologic candidates we may acquire or license in the future do not achieve approval or market acceptance, we will not be able to generate revenue or explore other opportunities to enhance stockholder value, such as through a sale. If we fail to generate revenue or if we are unable to fund our continuing operations, our stockholders could lose a portion or all of their investments.

The amount of financing we require will depend on various factors, many of which are beyond our control. Our results of operations, financial condition, and stock price are likely to be adversely affected if we are unable to obtain additional funding on improved terms compared to previous financings.

Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:

the costs of preparing required regulatory submissions, as well as any clinical trial programs and pre-clinical studies we may pursue and other development activities conducted by us directly,
the costs involved with our chemistry, manufacturing and controls (“CMC”) activities,
the satisfaction of payment obligations we have already incurred,

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the costs and timing of obtaining regulatory approvals and making related milestone payments due to third parties with whom we have licensing or similar agreements,
the costs of filing, prosecuting, maintaining, and enforcing patents and other intellectual property rights and defending against potential claims of infringement,
the costs associated with hiring and retaining needed scientific and administrative employees, advisors, and consultants,
the cost of legal and other professional advisors needed to support our development efforts, responsibilities as a public reporting company, regulatory compliance and investigations, and legal proceedings,
the costs of compliance with laws, regulations, or judicial decisions applicable to us, and
the costs of general and administrative infrastructure required to manage our business and protect corporate assets and stockholder interests.

If any of these factors cause our funding needs to be greater than expected, our ability to continue operations, financial condition, and stock price may be adversely affected.

Our future cash requirements may differ significantly from our current estimates.

Our cash requirements may differ significantly from our estimates from time to time, depending on a number of factors, including:

our ability to attract strategic partners to pay for or share costs related to our product development efforts,
whether our outstanding convertible notes are converted into equity,
whether we receive additional cash upon the exercise of our outstanding warrants and stock options for common stock, and
our ability to obtain funding under future licensing agreements or other collaborative relationships.

If we deplete our cash reserves and are unable to obtain additional funding, we may be forced to discontinue our operations and liquidate our assets.

Our auditors have issued a going concern opinion, and we will not be able to achieve our objectives and will have to cease operations if we cannot find adequate financing.

Our auditors issued an opinion, which includes a going concern explanatory paragraph, in connection with the audit of our annual consolidated financial statements for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023. A going concern paragraph in an audit opinion means that there is substantial doubt that we can continue as an ongoing business for the 12 months from the date the consolidated financial statements are issued. If we are unable to continue as an ongoing business, we might have to liquidate our assets and the values we receive for our assets in liquidation or dissolution could be significantly lower than the values reflected in our financial statements. In addition, the inclusion of an explanatory paragraph regarding substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern and our lack of cash resources may materially adversely affect our share price and our ability to raise new capital or to enter into critical contractual relations with third parties. There is no assurance that we will be able to adequately fund our operations in the future.

We have written off the value of our pre-launch inventories of leronlimab and related raw materials, the costs of which were previously capitalized, and may be unable to use all or a portion of those inventories in the development of our product candidate.

Pre-launch inventories consist of costs of raw materials and work-in-progress related to our product candidate leronlimab. As of May 31, 2023, our inventories had been written off in full for accounting purposes. Although the inventories continue to be physically maintained and currently may be eligible for use in certain clinical contexts, we may be unable to use all or a portion of these inventories in the development of our product candidate.

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Risks Related to Our Ability to Maintain an Effective Operational and Internal Controls Environment

The recruitment and retention of skilled directors, executives, employees, and consultants may be difficult and expensive, may result in dilution to our stockholders, and any failure to attract and retain such individuals may adversely affect our drug development and commercialization activities.

Our business depends on the skills, performance, and dedication of our officers and key scientific and technical advisors, as well as our directors. All of our current scientific advisors are independent contractors and are either self-employed or employed by other organizations. As a result, they may have conflicts of interest or other commitments, such as consulting or advisory contracts with other organizations, that may affect their ability to provide services to us in a timely manner. We likely will need to recruit additional directors, executive management, employees, and advisors, particularly scientific and technical personnel. In addition, there is currently intense competition for skilled directors, executives, and employees with relevant scientific and technical expertise, and this competition is likely to continue. We compete for these qualified personnel against companies with greater financial resources than ours. These recruitment and retention efforts likely will require additional financial resources. In order to successfully recruit and retain qualified employees, we will need to offer a combination of salary, cash incentives, and equity compensation. Future issuances of our equity securities for compensatory purposes will dilute existing stockholders’ ownership interests and reduce the shares available for future funding transactions. If we are unable to attract and retain individuals with relevant scientific, technical, and managerial experience, we may be forced to limit or delay our product development activities or may experience difficulties in successfully conducting our business, which would adversely affect our operations and financial condition.

Our current Chief Financial Officer is serving in an interim role. The loss, temporary loss, or transition of members of our senior management team or any other key employees may adversely affect our business.

During the past 24 months, we have experienced significant turnover among our senior executives, and currently have only three executive officers. Dr. Jacob Lalezari, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, was appointed as the Company’s interim CEO in November 2023 and as CEO effective January 26, 2024. Effective February 1, 2024, Mitchell Cohen was appointed as interim Chief Financial Officer to replace Antonio Migliarese, who will leave the Company in mid-February. If we are successful in recruiting one or more additional individuals to executive positions, the complexity inherent in integrating a new key member of the senior management team with existing senior management may limit the effectiveness of any such successor or otherwise adversely affect our business. Leadership transitions and any disruptions that result are inherently difficult to manage and may cause uncertainty or a disruption to our business or increase the likelihood of turnover of other key officers and employees. Further, we may incur significant expenses related to any executive transitions. Finding suitable replacements for senior management and other key employees can be difficult, and there is no assurance we will be successful in attracting or retaining qualified personnel.

Our success depends significantly on the individual and collective contributions of our senior management team and key employees. The individual and collective efforts of these employees are important as we continue our efforts to develop leronlimab. The loss of the services of a member of our senior management team or the inability to hire and retain experienced management personnel likely would have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.

If we are unable to effectively maintain a system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial results and our stock price could be adversely affected.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and related regulations require us to evaluate the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of the end of each fiscal year, and to include a management report assessing the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in our Form 10-K for that fiscal year. Failure to maintain our controls or operation of these controls may harm our operations, decrease the reliability of our financial reporting, and cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could adversely affect our business and reduce our stock price.

Our information technology systems could fail to perform adequately or experience data corruption, cyber-based attacks, or network security breaches.

We rely on information technology networks and systems, including the internet, to process, transmit, and store electronic information. In particular, we depend on our information technology infrastructure to effectively manage our business data, finance, and other business processes and electronic communications between our personnel and corporate partners. If we do not allocate and effectively manage the resources necessary to build and sustain an appropriate technology infrastructure, security breaches or system failures of this infrastructure may result in system disruptions, shutdowns, or unauthorized disclosure of confidential information,

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including patient information in violation of HIPAA requirements. In addition, our employees, contractors, and other corporate partners increasingly are working from remote locations. As a result, we rely on information technology systems that are outside our direct control. These systems are potentially vulnerable to cyber-based attacks and security breaches. In addition, cyber criminals are increasing their attacks on individual employees, including scams designed to trick victims into transferring sensitive data or funds or stealing credentials that compromise information systems. If one of our employees falls victim to these attacks, or our information technology systems or those of our partners are compromised, our operations could be disrupted, or we may suffer financial loss, loss or misappropriation of intellectual property or other critical assets, reputational harm, and regulatory fines and intervention, and our business and financial condition may be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Legal Proceedings

Our business, operating results, and financial condition could be negatively affected as a result of litigation and other demands made by stockholders.

We are and have been involved in legal proceedings and other claims brought by stockholders, including class actions alleging securities law violations, derivative actions alleging waste of corporate assets, unjust enrichment, other breaches of fiduciary duties by former directors and current and former executive officers, and demands by activist investors. Similar actions may occur in the future. While the Company welcomes opinions of all stockholders, responding to demands, litigation, proxy contests, or other initiatives by stockholders or activist investors may divert the attention of our Board, management team, and employees from their regular duties in the pursuit of business opportunities to enhance stockholder value. Such actions may also cause our existing or potential employees, strategic partners, and stockholders to have questions or doubts about the future direction of the Company and may provide our competitors with an opportunity to exploit these concerns. Such circumstances could cause significant fluctuations in our stock price based on temporary or speculative market perceptions or other factors that do not necessarily reflect the underlying fundamentals and prospects of our business. Refer to Note 8, Commitments and Contingencies – Legal Proceedings in the consolidated financial statements for the quarter ended November 30, 2023 included in this prospectus for additional information.

Class-action litigation filed against us could harm our business, and insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all related costs and damages.

The securities class action lawsuits filed against the Company in March 2021 have exhausted certain coverage allowances under the Company’s D&O insurance applicable to the relevant time period. This litigation, whether or not successful, may require us to incur substantial costs, which could harm our business and financial condition. During course of litigation, negative public announcements regarding the results of hearings, motions, or other interim proceedings or developments may occur, which could have a further negative effect on the market price of our common stock. Refer to Note 8, Commitments and Contigencies – Securities Class Action Lawsuits for the quarter ended November 30, 2023 included in this prospectus for further information.

We are subject to oversight by the SEC, FDA, and other regulatory agencies. Investigations and proceedings by those agencies may divert management’s focus and have a material adverse effect on our reputation and financial condition.

We are subject to the regulation and oversight by the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and state regulatory agencies, in addition to the FDA and other federal regulatory agencies. As a result, we may face legal or administrative proceedings by these agencies. We have received subpoenas from the SEC and the U.S Department of Justice (the “DOJ”) requesting documents and information concerning, among other matters, leronlimab, our public statements regarding the use of leronlimab as a potential treatment for COVID19, HIV, and triple-negative breast cancer, related communications with the FDA, investors, and others, litigation involving former employees, our retention of investor relations consultants, and trading in our securities. On December 20, 2022, the DOJ announced the unsealing of a criminal indictment charging both our former CEO, Nader Z. Pourhassan, and Kazem Kazempour, CEO of Amarex, our former CRO. That same day, the SEC announced charges against both Mr. Pourhassan and Mr. Kazempour for alleged violations of federal securities laws. The Company is cooperating fully with the DOJ and SEC investigations. We are unable to predict the effect of any governmental investigations on our business, financial condition, or reputation. In addition, publicity surrounding any investigation, even if ultimately resolved in our favor, could have a material adverse effect on our business. Refer to Note 8, Commitments and Contingencies – Legal Proceedings in the consolidated financial statements for the quarter ended November 30, 2023 included in this prospectus for further information.

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We face risks and uncertainties related to litigation and other claims.

We are parties to a variety of litigation and other claims, in addition to the regulatory investigations and related proceedings described above. For example, two putative class action lawsuits have been filed against us and certain former officers and directors, asserting violations of federal securities laws under Section 10(b) and Section 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and alleging that the Company and certain former officers and directors made purportedly false or misleading statements and that some of the individual defendants violated Section 20A of the Exchange Act by selling shares of the Company’s common stock, purportedly while in possession of material nonpublic information. Separately, three purported stockholder derivative actions have been filed against certain former officers and directors; the Company was named as a nominal defendant. Refer to Note 8, Commitments and Contingencies – Legal Proceedings in the consolidated financial statements for the quarter ended November 30, 2023 included in this prospectus for further information.

In addition, from time to time, we may also be involved in legal proceedings and investigations arising in the ordinary course of business, including those relating to employment matters, relationships with partners, intellectual property disputes, and other business matters. Any such claims or investigations may be time-consuming, costly, divert management resources, or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. Any claims or litigation, even if fully indemnified or insured, could damage our reputation and make it more difficult to compete effectively or obtain adequate insurance in the future.

Risks Related to Development and Commercialization of Our Drug Candidate

We have been notified by Samsung of Samsung’s intent to terminate the Company’s agreements for manufacturing of our drug product and related services.

Beginning in fiscal 2022, we have received communications from Samsung regarding alleged breaches of our agreements with Samsung relating to past due balances. The Company has been pursuing negotiations with Samsung regarding potential approaches to resolve the issues short of litigation.

On November 21, 2023, Samsung informed the Company of Samsung’s intent to terminate the agreements with the Company, effective January 5, 2024. As of the date of this filing, the parties remain in communication about the outstanding issues under the agreements and potential options moving forward. There can be no assurance that we will be able to address the issues raised by Samsung or avoid being found in breach or our agreements with Samsung. Failure to resolve the issues may ultimately result in termination of our agreements with Samsung, which could jeopardize our ability to properly store our inventories of drug product and manufacture additional drug product when needed.

Certain agreements and related license agreements require us to make significant milestone, royalty, and other payments, which will require additional financing and, in the event we do commercialize leronlimab, decrease the revenues we may ultimately receive on sales. To the extent that such milestone, royalty, and other payments are not timely made, the counterparties to such agreements in certain cases have repurchase and termination rights thereunder with respect to leronlimab.

Under agreements we have with Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Progenics”) and Lonza Sales AG (“Lonza”), as well as a Development and License Agreement (the “PDL License”) between Protein Design Labs (now AbbVie Inc. (“AbbVie”)) and Progenics, we are required to pay significant milestone payments, license fees for “system know-how” technology, and royalties related to leronlimab upon the occurrence of specified events. In order to make these milestone and license payments, we will need to raise additional funds. In addition, our royalty obligations will reduce the economic benefits to us of future sales, if any. To the extent that such milestone payments and royalties are not timely made, under their respective agreements, Progenics has certain repurchase rights relating to the assets sold to us, and AbbVie has certain termination rights relating to our license of leronlimab under the PDL License. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies – PRO 140 Acquisition and Licensing Arrangements in the audited financial statements included in this prospectus for further information.

If we are unable to obtain all required regulatory approvals for leronlimab, we will not be able to commercialize our primary product candidate, which would materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and stock price.

The FDA notified the Company at the beginning of December 2023 that: (i) the FDA’s “partial hold” imposed in March 2022 had been lifted; and (ii) a new “full hold” had been applied related to the clinical trial protocol the Company submitted in November 2023 alongside the Company’s complete response to the partial clinical hold. The Company submitted a revised protocol to the FDA in January 2024, and will remain on clinical hold until the FDA clears the protocol.

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Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, may take many years to complete, and its outcome is uncertain. The research, testing, manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, approval, sale, marketing, advertising and promotion, pricing, export, import, and distribution of drug products are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA and other regulatory authorities in the United States and other countries, with regulations differing from country to country. We are not permitted to market a drug candidate as prescription pharmaceutical products in the United States until we receive approval from the FDA, or in foreign markets until we receive the requisite approval from comparable regulatory authorities in foreign countries. In the United States, the FDA generally requires the completion of clinical trials of each drug to establish its safety and efficacy, and extensive pharmaceutical development to ensure its quality before approval. Regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions impose similar requirements. Of the large number of drugs in development, only a small percentage are approved for commercialization. Receipt of necessary regulatory approval for the use of leronlimab for one or more indications is subject to a number of risks which include, among others:

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities or institutional review boards (“IRBs”) may disagree with the future design or implementation of our clinical trials,
we may not be able to provide acceptable evidence of the safety and efficacy of our drug candidate,
the results of our clinical trials may not be satisfactory or may not meet the level of statistical or clinical significance required by the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities for marketing approval,
patients in our clinical trials may suffer adverse effects for reasons that may or may not be related to our drug candidate,
the data collected from clinical trials may not be sufficient to support the submission of an application for marketing approval in the United States or elsewhere,
the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities may not approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies, and
the approval policies or regulations of the FDA or foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

We cannot guarantee that regulators will agree with our assessment of the results of our past or future clinical trials or that such trials will be considered by regulators to have shown safety or efficacy of our product candidate. In particular, there remains no guarantee that the FDA will lift the clinical hold on our recently submitted protocol. The FDA has substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may require additional clinical trials or pre-clinical or other studies. Additionally, we have limited experience in filing the applications necessary to gain regulatory approvals and expect to continue to rely on consultants and our CROs to assist us in this process. Securing FDA approval requires the submission of pre-clinical, clinical, and/or pharmacokinetic data, information about product manufacturing processes and inspection of facilities, and supporting information for each therapeutic indication to establish a product candidate’s safety and efficacy for each indication. Our drug candidate may prove to have undesirable or unintended side effects, toxicities, or other characteristics that may preclude us from obtaining regulatory approval or prevent or limit commercial use with respect to one or all intended indications. Failure to obtain regulatory approval for leronlimab will prevent us from commercializing it as a prescription product, and our ability to generate revenue will be seriously impaired.

We are substantially dependent on the success of leronlimab. If we, either alone or with collaborators, are unable to complete the clinical development of, obtain and maintain marketing approval for, or successfully commercialize leronlimab, including with respect to adequate coverage and reimbursement, or if we continue to experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be seriously harmed.

We currently have no products approved for sale and are investing a significant portion of our resources in the development of leronlimab for marketing approval in the United States and potentially other countries. Our prospects are substantially dependent on our ability to develop, obtain marketing approval for, and successfully commercialize leronlimab in the United States in one or more disease indications. The success of our Company will depend on a number of factors, including the following:

a safety, tolerability, and efficacy profile for leronlimab that is satisfactory to the FDA and potential foreign regulatory authorities,

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timely receipt of marketing approvals for leronlimab from applicable regulatory authorities, including the FDA,
the performance of third-party contractors that we engage to manage our clinical studies and the resulting data,
obtaining and maintaining patent, trade secret protection, and regulatory exclusivity, both in the United States and internationally, including our ability to maintain our license agreement with AbbVie, as successor to Progenics,
protection of our rights in our intellectual property portfolio, including our ability to maintain our license agreement with AbbVie,
a continued acceptable safety profile for leronlimab following marketing approval, if any,
commercial acceptance of leronlimab by patients, the medical community, and third-party payors, and
our ability to position leronlimab to compete with other therapies.

Many of these factors are beyond our control. If we are unable to develop, receive marketing approval for, and successfully provide for commercialization of leronlimab on our own or through third parties, or if we continue to experience delays as a result of any of these factors or otherwise, our business will be substantially harmed.

Our competitors may develop drugs that are more effective, safer and less expensive than ours.

The biopharmaceutical industry is intensely competitive, and our future success depends on our ability to demonstrate and maintain a competitive advantage with respect to the design, development, and commercialization of product candidates. For example, new or improved therapies in the oncology and immunology arenas are the subject of frequent announcements. If approved for marketing by the FDA, depending on the approved clinical indication, leronlimab may be competing with existing and future treatments. Our competitors may:

develop drug candidates and market drugs that increase the levels of safety or efficacy that our product candidate will need to show in order to obtain regulatory approval,
develop drug candidates and market drugs that are less expensive or more effective than ours,
commercialize competing drugs before we or our partners can launch any products we are working to develop,
hold or obtain proprietary rights that could prevent us from commercializing our products, and
introduce therapies or market drugs that render our product candidate obsolete.

We expect to compete against large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and smaller companies that are collaborating with larger pharmaceutical companies, new companies, academic institutions, government agencies, and other public and private research organizations. These competitors, in nearly all cases, operate research and development programs that have substantially greater financial resources than we do. Our competitors also have significantly greater experience in:

developing drug and other product candidates,
undertaking pre-clinical testing and clinical trials,
building relationships with key customers and opinion-leading physicians,
obtaining and maintaining FDA and other regulatory approvals,
formulating and manufacturing drugs,
launching, marketing, and selling drugs, and

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providing management oversight for all of the above-listed operational functions.

If we fail to achieve superiority over other existing or newly developed treatments, we may be unable to obtain regulatory approval. If our competitors market drugs that are less expensive, safer, or more effective than our product candidate, or which gain or maintain greater market acceptance, we may not be able to compete effectively.

We may not be able to identify, negotiate, and maintain the strategic alliances necessary to develop and commercialize our products and technologies, and we will be dependent on our corporate partners if we do.

We may seek to enter into a strategic alliance with a pharmaceutical company for further development and approval of our product candidate in one or more indications. Strategic alliances could potentially provide us with additional funds, expertise, access, and other resources in exchange for exclusive or non-exclusive licenses or other rights to the technologies and products that we are currently developing or may explore in the future. We cannot give any assurance we will be able to enter into strategic relationships with a pharmaceutical company or other strategic partner in the near future or at all or maintain our current relationships. In addition, we cannot assure that any agreements we may reach will achieve our goals or be on terms that prove to be economically beneficial to us. We anticipate that if we were to enter into strategic or contractual relationships, we may become dependent on the successful performance of our partners or counterparties. If they fail to perform as expected, such failure could adversely affect our financial condition, lead to increases in our capital needs, or hinder or delay our development efforts.

Known third-party patent rights could delay or otherwise adversely affect our planned development and sale of leronlimab. We have identified but not exhaustively analyzed other patents that could relate to our proposed products.

We are aware of patent rights held by a third party that may cover certain compositions within our leronlimab candidate. The patent holder has the right to prevent others from making, using, or selling a drug that incorporates the patented compositions, while the patent remains in force. While we believe that the third party’s patent rights will not affect our planned development, regulatory clearance, and eventual commercial production, marketing, and sale of leronlimab, there can be no assurance that this will be the case. We believe the relevant patent expires before we expect to commercially introduce leronlimab. In addition, the Hatch-Waxman exemption to U.S. patent law permits all uses of compounds in clinical trials and for other purposes reasonably related to obtaining the FDA clearance of drugs that will be sold only after patent expiration; we believe our use of leronlimab in those FDA-related activities would not infringe the patent holder’s rights. However, were the patent holder to assert its rights against us before expiration of the patent for activities unrelated to the FDA clearance, the development and ultimate sale of a leronlimab product could be significantly delayed, and we could incur expenses for defending a patent infringement suit and for damages that may relate to periods prior to the patent’s expiration. In connection with our acquisition of rights to leronlimab, our patent counsel conducted a freedom-to-operate search that identified other patents that could relate to our proposed leronlimab candidate. Based upon research and analysis to date, we believe leronlimab likely does not infringe those patent rights. If any of the holders of the identified patents were to assert patent rights against us, the development and sale of leronlimab could be delayed, we could be required to spend time and money defending patent litigation, and we could incur liability for infringement or be enjoined from producing our products if the patent holders prevailed in an infringement suit.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

We have a very limited number of internal research and development personnel, making us dependent on consulting relationships and strategic alliances with industry partners.

We have few employees dedicated to quality control and CMC activities. We rely and intend to continue to rely on third parties to supplement many of these critical functions. If we commence additional clinical trials, we will contract with third-party, full-service CROs to manage our trials. As a result, we are likely to be dependent on consultants and strategic partners in our development activities, and it may be administratively challenging for us to monitor and coordinate these relationships. If we do not appropriately manage our relationships with third parties, we may not be able to successfully manage development, testing, and preparation of regulatory filings for our product or commercialize any approved product, which would have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and stock price.

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We may continue to rely on third parties, such as CROs and third-party manufacturers, to conduct clinical trials for our product candidate, leronlimab, and to produce our pre-clinical and clinical product candidate supplies. Such third parties are subject to significant regulation. A failure by such third parties to properly and successfully perform their obligations to us, or failure of manufacturers on which we rely to meet regulatory requirements, may result in our inability to obtain regulatory approvals for or commercialize our product candidate.

We are dependent on third parties for important aspects of our product development strategy. We do not have the required financial and human resources to carry out independently the pre-clinical and clinical development of our current product candidate. We also do not have the capability or resources to manufacture, store, market or sell our current product candidate. As a result, we contract with and rely on third parties to perform such important functions. We compete with larger companies for the resources of these third parties. Although we plan to continue to rely on these third parties to conduct any future clinical trials and manufacturing, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials is conducted in accordance with its general investigational plan and protocol and adheres to the FDA’s regulations regarding Good Laboratory Practice and that the manufacturing of our product complies with the FDA’s current good manufacturing practices (“cGMP”) enforced through its facilities inspection program. Moreover, we are required to comply with regulations and standards, including good clinical practices, for designing, conducting, monitoring, recording, analyzing, and reporting the results of clinical trials to assure that the data and results are credible and accurate and that the rights, integrity, and confidentiality of trial participants are protected. Our reliance on third parties that we do not control does not relieve us of these responsibilities and requirements. The third parties on whom we rely generally may terminate their engagements with us at any time. If these third parties do not successfully carry out their duties under their agreements with us, if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain, process, and analyze is compromised for any reason, or if they otherwise fail to comply with clinical trial protocols or meet expected deadlines, future clinical trials that we may undertake may experience delays or may fail to meet regulatory requirements. If our clinical trials do not meet regulatory requirements or if these third parties need to be replaced, our pre-clinical development activities or clinical trials may be extended, delayed, suspended, or terminated. If any of these events occur, or if problems develop in our relationships with third parties, or if such parties fail to perform as expected, we may experience delays or lack of progress, significant cost increases, changes in our strategies, and even failure of our product initiatives, potentially resulting in our inability to obtain regulatory approval of our product candidate and harming our reputation. Refer to Note 8, Commitments and Contingencies – Commitments with Samsung BioLogics Co., Ltd. and – Amarex Dispute in the consolidated financial statements for the quarter ended November 30, 2023 included in this prospectus for further information.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property Rights

Our success depends substantially upon our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection relating to our product candidate and future product candidates.

Due to evolving legal standards relating to the patentability, validity, and enforceability of patents covering pharmaceutical inventions and the claim scope of patents, our ability to enforce our existing patents and to obtain and enforce patents that may issue from any pending or future patent applications is uncertain and involves complex legal, scientific, and factual questions. To date, no consistent policy has emerged regarding the breadth of claims allowed in biotechnology and pharmaceutical patents. We have pending patents for certain indications for our core product candidate and continue to seek patent coverage for various potential therapeutic applications for leronlimab. However, we cannot be sure that any patents will issue from any pending or future patent applications owned by or licensed to us. Even if patents do issue, we cannot be sure that the claims of these patents will be held valid or enforceable by a court of law, will provide us with any significant protection against competing products, or will afford us a commercial advantage over competitive products. If one or more products resulting from our product candidate is approved for sale by the FDA and we do not have adequate intellectual property protection for those products, competitors could duplicate them for approval and sale in the United States without repeating the extensive testing required of us or our partners to obtain FDA approval, once our data exclusivity period has expired.

If we are sued for infringing on third-party intellectual property rights, it will be costly and time-consuming, and an unfavorable outcome would have a significant adverse effect on our business. We may also undertake infringement or other legal proceedings against third parties, causing us to spend substantial resources on litigation and exposing our own intellectual property portfolio to challenge.

Our ability to commercialize our product candidate depends on our ability to use, manufacture, and sell that product without infringing on the patents or other proprietary rights of third parties. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications owned by third parties exist in the monoclonal antibody therapeutic area in which we are developing our product

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candidate and seeking new potential product candidates. There may be existing patents, unknown to us, on which our activities with our product candidate could infringe.

If a third party claims our actions or products or technologies infringe on its patents or other proprietary rights, we could face a number of issues that could seriously harm our competitive position, including, but not limited to:

infringement and other intellectual property claims that, even if meritless, can be costly and time-consuming, delay the regulatory approval process, and divert management’s attention from our core business operations,
substantial damages for infringement if a court determines that our products or technologies infringe a third party’s patent or other proprietary rights,
a court prohibiting us from selling or licensing our products or technologies unless the holder licenses the patent or other proprietary rights to us, which it is not required to do, and
even if a license is available from a holder, we may have to pay substantial royalties or grant cross-licenses to our patents or other proprietary rights.

If any of these events occur, it could significantly harm our operations and financial condition and negatively affect our stock price. Additionally, although no third party asserted a claim of infringement against us, others may hold proprietary rights that could prevent our product candidate from being marketed. Any patent-related legal action against us claiming damages and seeking to enjoin commercial activities relating to our product candidate or our processes could subject us to potential liability for damages and require us to obtain a license to continue to manufacture or market leronlimab or any other product candidates. We cannot predict whether we would prevail in any such actions or that any license required under any of these patents would be made available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. Further, we cannot be sure that we could redesign leronlimab or any other product candidates or processes to avoid infringement, if necessary. Accordingly, an adverse determination in a judicial or administrative proceeding, or the failure to obtain necessary licenses, could prevent us from developing and commercializing leronlimab or another product candidate, which could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.

We may come to believe that third parties are infringing on our patents or other proprietary rights. To prevent infringement or unauthorized use, we may need to file infringement and/or misappropriation suits, which are very expensive and time-consuming and would distract management’s attention. Also, in an infringement or misappropriation proceeding, a court may decide that one or more of our patents is invalid, unenforceable, or both, in which case third parties may be able to use our technology without paying license fees or royalties. Even if the validity of our patents is upheld, a court may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the ground that the other party’s activities are not covered by our patents.

We may become involved in disputes with our present or future contract partners over intellectual property ownership or other matters, which could have a significant adverse effect on our business.

Inventions discovered in the course of performance of contracts with third parties may become jointly owned by our strategic partners and us, in some cases, and the exclusive property of one of us, in other cases. Under some circumstances, it may be difficult to determine who owns a particular invention or whether it is jointly owned, and disputes could arise regarding ownership or use of those inventions. Other disputes may also arise relating to the performance or alleged breach of our agreements with third parties. Any disputes could be costly and time-consuming, and an unfavorable outcome could have a significant adverse effect on our business.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our common stock is classified as “penny stock” and trading of our shares may be restricted by the SEC’s penny stock regulations.

Rules 15g-1 through 15g-9 promulgated under the Exchange Act impose sales practice and disclosure requirements on certain brokers-dealers who engage in transactions involving a “penny stock.” The SEC has adopted regulations which generally define “penny stock” to be any equity security that has a market price of less than $5.00 per share or an exercise price of less than $5.00 per share, subject to certain exceptions. Our common stock is covered by the penny stock rules, which impose additional sales practice requirements on broker-dealers who sell to persons other than established customers and “accredited investors.” The penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, prior to a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from the rules, to deliver a standardized risk disclosure document in a form prepared by the SEC that provides information about penny stocks and the nature and level of risks in

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the penny stock market. The broker-dealer also must provide the prospective investor with current bid and offer quotations for the penny stock, the compensation of the broker-dealer and its salesperson in the transaction, and monthly account statements showing the market value of each penny stock held in the investor’s account. In addition, the penny stock rules require that, prior to a transaction in a penny stock that is not otherwise exempt, the broker-dealer must make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive the purchaser’s written agreement to the transaction. These disclosure requirements may have the effect of reducing the level of trading activity in the secondary market for stock that is subject to these penny stock rules. Consequently, these penny stock rules may affect the ability of broker-dealers to trade our securities. We believe that the penny stock rules may discourage investor interest in and limit the marketability of our common stock.

The trading price of our common stock has been and could remain volatile, and the market price of our common stock may decrease.

The market price of our common stock has historically experienced and may continue to experience significant volatility. From February 20, 2023 through February 20, 2024, the market price of our common stock has fluctuated from a high of $0.48 per share to a low of $0.15 per share. The volatile nature of our common share price may cause investment losses for our stockholders. In addition, the market price of stock in small capitalization biotech companies is often driven by investor sentiment, expectation, and perception, all of which may be independent of fundamental, objective, and intrinsic valuation metrics or traditional financial performance metrics, thereby exacerbating volatility. In addition, our common stock is quoted on the OTCQB of the OTC Markets marketplace, which may increase price quotation volatility and could limit liquidity, all of which may adversely affect the market price of our shares.

Since our inception, we have been insolvent and have required debt and equity financing to maintain operations. We expect our debt service obligations and our need for additional funding to finance operations will cause additional substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.

Since our inception, we have not achieved cash flows from revenues sufficient to cover basic operating costs. As a result, we have relied heavily on debt and equity financing. Equity financing, including securities convertible into equity, in particular has had a dilutive effect on our common stock, which has hampered our ability to attract reasonable financing terms.

The terms of our convertible note financings require us to make periodic debt repayments to reduce the outstanding balance of our debt. As a result, we likely will be required to use a significant portion of our available cash to repay our debt and satisfy other payment obligations, which will reduce the amount of capital available to finance our operations and other business activities. We expect to continue to seek to exchange all or part of our outstanding debt for shares of common stock. If the Company enters into any future exchange offers, they will likely be negotiated at a discount to the market price of our common stock and will cause additional dilution to our existing stockholders. If the convertible noteholders sell the common stock they receive in exchange for outstanding debt, this could result in a decline in our stock price. In addition, the exercise of our outstanding warrants and stock options, which are exercisable for or convertible into shares of our common stock, and the exercise of which we have encouraged through public or private warrant exchange offers from time to time, would dilute our existing common stockholders.

Issuances of additional equity or convertible debt securities will continue to reduce the percentage ownership of our then-existing stockholders. We may also be required to grant potential investors new securities rights, preferences, or privileges senior to those possessed by our then-existing stockholders in order to induce them to invest in our company. The issuance of these senior securities may adversely affect the holders of our common stock as a result of preferential dividend and liquidation rights over the common stock and dilution of the voting power of the common stock.

As the result of these and other factors, the issuance of additional equity or convertible debt securities may have an adverse impact on the market price of our common stock. For the foreseeable future, we will be required to continue to rely on debt and equity financing to maintain our operations.

Our certificate of incorporation permits our Board to create new series of preferred stock without further approval by our stockholders, which could adversely affect the rights of the holders of our common stock.

Our Board has the authority to fix and determine the relative rights and preferences of preferred stock. Currently, our Board has the authority to designate and issue approximately 4.9 million additional shares of our preferred stock without further stockholder approval. As a result, our Board could authorize the issuance of another series of preferred stock that would grant to holders the preferred right to our assets upon liquidation, the right to receive dividend payments before dividends are distributed to the holders of

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common stock, and the right to redemption of the shares, together with a premium, prior to the redemption of our common stock. In addition, our Board could authorize the issuance of a series of preferred stock that has greater voting power than our common stock or that is convertible into our common stock, which could decrease the relative voting power of our common stock or result in dilution to our existing stockholders.

Anti-takeover provisions of our certificate of incorporation, our bylaws, and Delaware law could make an acquisition of us, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult, and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove the current members of our Board and management.

Certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws could discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition, or other change of control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for shares of common stock. Furthermore, these provisions could frustrate attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove members of our Board. These provisions also could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for our common stock, thereby depressing the market price of our common stock. Stockholders who wish to participate in these transactions may not have the opportunity to do so. Among other things, these provisions:

allow us to designate and issue shares of preferred stock, without stockholder approval, that could adversely affect the rights, preferences, and privileges of the holders of our common stock and could make it more difficult or less economically beneficial to acquire or seek to acquire us,
provide that special meetings of stockholders may be called only by the Board acting pursuant to a resolution approved by the affirmative majority of the entire Board, and
do not include a provision for cumulative voting in the election of directors. Under cumulative voting, a minority stockholder holding a sufficient number of shares may be able to ensure the election of one or more directors. The absence of cumulative voting may have the effect of limiting the ability of minority stockholders to effect changes in the composition of our Board.

In addition, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”), which may, unless certain criteria are met, prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our voting stock, from merging or combining with us for a prescribed period of time.

We do not expect to pay cash dividends on our common shares for the foreseeable future.

We have never declared or paid a cash dividend on our common shares and we do not anticipate declaring or paying dividends on our common shares for the foreseeable future. We expect to use future financing proceeds and earnings, if any, to fund operating expenses. Consequently, common stockholders’ only opportunity to achieve a return on their investment is if the price of our stock appreciates and they sell their shares at a profit. We cannot assure common stockholders of a positive return on their investment when they sell their shares or that stockholders will not lose the entire amount of their investment.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling stockholders. A portion of the shares of common stock covered by this prospectus are issuable upon exercise of warrants issued to the selling stockholders. The exercise price of such warrants ranges from $0.16 to $1.00 per share. The exercise price and number of shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants may be adjusted in certain circumstances, including stock splits or dividends, mergers, or reclassifications or similar events. Upon any exercise of warrants for cash, the selling stockholders will pay us the exercise price. The warrants issued to our placement agent include a cashless exercise feature, while all other warrants do not. To the extent we receive proceeds from the cash exercise of outstanding warrants, we intend to use the proceeds for working capital and other general corporate purposes. We will bear all other costs, fees and expenses incurred in effecting the registration of the shares covered by this prospectus. All selling and other expenses incurred by the selling stockholders will be borne by the selling stockholders. See “Selling Stockholders” and “Plan of Distribution” below.

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MARKET FOR OUR COMMON STOCK AND DIVIDEND POLICY

Market Information

Our common stock is quoted on the OTCQB of the OTC Markets marketplace under the trading symbol CYDY. Over-the-counter market quotations reflect inter-dealer prices, without retail mark-up, mark-down or commission, and may not necessarily represent actual transactions. Historically, trading in our stock has been volatile and the trades that occurred cannot be characterized as those in a more established public trading market. As a result, the trading prices of our common stock may not reflect the price that would result if our stock was traded on a more mature market.

Holders

The number of record holders of our common stock on December 31, 2023 was approximately 1,000.

Dividends

Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends if declared by our Board. While we have no contractual restrictions or restrictions in our governing documents on our ability to pay dividends, other than the preferential rights provided to the holders of our outstanding preferred stock, we have never paid cash dividends to holders of common stock and do not anticipate paying any in the foreseeable future as we retain earnings, if any, for use in our operations.

Also, under Section 170 of the DGCL, we are permitted to pay dividends only out of capital surplus or, if none, out of net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared or net profits from the preceding fiscal year. As of November 30, 2023, the Company had an accumulated deficit of approximately $862.8 million and had net loss in each fiscal year since inception, and therefore is prohibited from paying any dividends, whether in cash, other property, or shares of capital stock.

Refer to Note 6, Convertible Instruments and Accrued Interest in the audited financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information.

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OUR BUSINESS

Corporate History/Business Overview

CytoDyn Inc. was originally incorporated under the laws of Colorado on May 2, 2002, under the name RexRay Corporation and, effective August 27, 2015, reincorporated under the laws of Delaware. The Company is a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the clinical development of innovative treatments for multiple therapeutic indications based on its product candidate, leronlimab (also referred to as PRO 140), a novel humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (“CCR5”). The pre-clinical and early clinical development of PRO 140 was led by Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Progenics”) through 2011. The Company acquired the asset from Progenics in October 2012. In November 2018, the United States Adopted Names Council adopted “leronlimab” as the official nonproprietary name for PRO 140. The Company has conducted clinical trials of leronlimab as a viral entry inhibitor for human immunodeficiency virus (“HIV”), believed to competitively bind to the N-terminus and second extracellular loop of the CCR5 receptor. For immunology, the CCR5 receptor is believed to be implicated in immune-mediated illnesses such as MASH. The CCR5 receptor may also be present on cells that undergo malignant transformation and may also be present in the tumor microenvironment. Studies of leronlimab have also been conducted in MASH and solid tumors in oncology, in addition to HIV, where CCR5 is believed to play an integral role.

Our principal business office is located at 1111 Main Street, Suite 660, Vancouver, Washington 98660. Our website can be found at www.cytodyn.com. We make available on our website, free of charge, the proxy statements and reports on Forms 8-K, 10-K, and 10-Q that we file with the SEC, as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. By making this and other references to the Company’s website, we do not intend to incorporate by reference any information posted on our website into this prospectus. The website should not be considered part of this prospectus.

The consolidated financial statements included in this prospectus include the accounts of CytoDyn Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiary CytoDyn Operations Inc.

Business Overview

CytoDyn’s core areas of development are HIV, MASH, and solid tumors in oncology. The current areas of clinical focus in HIV are the lifting of the clinical hold imposed in December 2023, creation of a new or modified long-acting formulation of leronlimab, and evaluating the impact of leronlimab on chronic immune activation and inflammation in cisgender men and women and transgender women living with HIV. Chronic immune activation and inflammation are a complicated and critical unmet need which can cause strokes, heart attacks, and other vascular events, and remains the leading cause of death in people with HIV. In MASH, we plan to focus on the general population of those affected by MASH, and the subpopulation of patients with MASH and HIV. At this time, there are no approved therapies for MASH and current highly active antiretroviral therapy (“HAART”) regimens often contribute to hepatoxicity. Additionally, even after the FDA approves therapies for MASH, because of the complexity of MASH affecting multiple systems in the body, we believe that an opportunity exists for a combination therapy. Regarding oncology, our focus remains on combination therapy for solid tumors to explore the potential of leronlimab in the tumor microenvironment and the potential benefit for decreasing angiogenesis, potential macrophage repolarization, decreasing metastasis, and the potential to mitigate regulatory T-cells (“Tregs”) infiltration of the tumor microenvironment.

Our current business strategy is to continue to pursue the development of leronlimab, utilizing the resources available to us and through additional fundraising, which may include the following:

1.Seeking the removal of the clinical hold imposed by the FDA in December 2023, and proceed toward conducting a Phase II study evaluating the effects of leronlimab on chronic immune activation and inflammation in cisgender men and women and transgender women living with HIV.
2.Continuing our work researching and developing a new or modified long-acting version of leronlimab with a third-party generative artificial intelligence (“AI”) drug discovery and development company, and pursuing proof of concept studies for HIV treatment and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (“PrEP”) using leronlimab and AAV.
3.Advancing our MASH program to a Phase 2b or Phase 2b/3 trial for steatosis and liver fibrosis associated with MASH, and/or a pre-clinical study to identify the potential for leronlimab as a combination therapy for MASH as well as exploring a study for patients with HIV and MASH.

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4.Continuing to identify the next steps in clinical development and exploring potential business opportunities to continue the investigation of leronlimab for solid tumors in oncology, based on data generated to date by the Company, including potential opportunities to continue our Phase 2 program for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer with current standard of care, as well as exploring a Phase 2 colon cancer trial with current standard of care and other cancer and immunologic indications.

We will need significant additional funding to execute the business strategy described above, including conducting additional pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, in furtherance of our efforts to obtain FDA approval to commercialize leronlimab.

As further discussed in Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies - Inventories, and Note 3, Inventories, net, in the audited financial statements included in this prospectus, the Company previously capitalized procured or produced pre-launch inventories in preparation for product launches. As of May 31, 2023, the Company had reserved for or written-off the full $99.2 million of previously capitalized pre-launch inventories. Although these inventories have been written-off from an accounting perspective, they can be used in certain clinical contexts, and could possibly be sold commercially upon regulatory approval if the shelf-lives can be extended as a result of the performance of on-going and future stability tests.

Recent Corporate Developments

On September 19, 2023, the Company received notice from the Company’s then current independent registered public accounting firm, Macias Gini & O’Connell LLP (“MGO”), that MGO declined to stand for re-election as the Company’s fiscal year 2024 registered public accounting firm. The Company’s Audit Committee had considered, but had not formally taken action regarding, a change in the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm prior to September 19, 2023. On October 6, 2023, the Audit Committee engaged BF Borgers CPA PC and appointed the firm as the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm for the Company’s fiscal year ending May 31, 2024.

On November 9, 2023, at the Company’s annual meeting, our stockholders voted in favor of an amendment to the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation to increase the total number of shares of common stock authorized for issuance from 1,350,000,000 shares to 1,750,000,000 shares. Additionally, stockholders voted in favor of the reelection of existing directors and on an advisory basis in favor of named executive officer compensation.

On January 26, 2024, the Company entered into an employment agreement with Jacob P. Lalezari, M.D., under which he is serving as the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, effective as of January 26, 2024. Dr. Lalezari previously served as the Company’s Interim CEO beginning November 17, 2023. Dr. Lalezari is responsible for leading the Company’s corporate and product development, with a focus on short-term clinical development and related fundraising.

On January 10, 2024, the Company entered into an agreement with an executive services firm to engage Mitchell Cohen to provide financial and accounting services to the Company as an independent contractor. On January 19, 2024, the Company’s Board of Directors approved the appointment of Mr. Cohen as the Company’s Interim Chief Financial Officer effective February 1, 2024. Mr. Cohen will also serve as the Company’s principal financial officer and principal accounting officer.

Antonio Migliarese, who had been serving as interim president since May 2023, in addition to serving as CFO, resumed his previous role as CFO upon Dr. Lalezari’s appointment as Interim CEO on November 17, 2023. On January 23, 2024, the Company and Mr. Migliarese agreed that he will resign from his position as CFO of the Company, effective at the close of business on January 31, 2024, and his last day of employment with the Company was February 15, 2024, following a transition period to provide for the smooth onboarding of Mr. Cohen.

On November 21, 2023, Samsung informed the Company of Samsung’s intent to terminate, effective January 5, 2024, the Master Services Agreement (the “Samsung Agreement”) entered into between Samsung and the Company in April 2019. As of the date of this filing, the parties remain in communication about the outstanding issues under the Agreement and potential options moving forward. The Samsung Agreement provides for Samsung to perform non-exclusive services relating to technology transfer, process validation, manufacturing, pre-approval inspection, vial filling, and supply and storage services for leronlimab bulk drug substance and drug product. Samsung paused manufacturing for all unfulfilled commitments under the Samsung Agreement in January 2022. The Company currently holds sufficient leronlimab to conduct its prospective clinical trial(s) in the short term. As of the date of this filing, the parties remain in communication about the outstanding issues under the Agreement and potential options moving forward.

During the quarter ended November 30, 2023, the Company concluded a private offering through a placement agent for total net proceeds of approximately $3.0 million. Additionally, the Company commenced a sale of unsecured promissory notes with a six-

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month term during the quarter that yielded net proceeds totaling approximately $0.7 million. As part of the sale, the Company issued fully exercisable warrants to purchase an aggregate of approximately 1.0 million shares of common stock with a five-year term and an exercise price of $0.35 per share. The Company also issued fully exercisable warrants to purchase approximately 0.4 million shares of common stock to the placement agent with a ten-year term and an exercise price of $0.35 per share and paid a total cash fee of approximately $0.1 million.

In December 2023, the Company commenced a private offering of common stock and warrants through a placement agent (the “December Offering”) pursuant to which the Company has received aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $2.2 million as of the date of this filing. Each unit consists of one share of common stock and one warrant to purchase one share of common stock. The purchase price per unit will be equal to 90% of the lower of (i) the intraday volume weighted average price (“VWAP”) of the common stock as of the first closing on December 29, 2023, and (ii) the intraday VWAP on the date of the final closing, which has not yet occurred. The warrants to be issued to investors in the offering will be fully exercisable and will have a five-year term and an exercise price of $0.35 per share.

The principal and accrued interest on the unsecured promissory notes referred to above were converted into units of common stock and warrants in late December 2023 on the basis of 80% of the unit pricing in the December Offering. Additional fully exercisable warrants to purchase a total of approximately 7.2 million shares of common stock at a price of $0.35 per share were issued to the investors in the unsecured promissory notes in connection with the conversion.

Background: Leronlimab as a CCR5 Antagonist

We are focused on developing leronlimab, a CCR5 receptor antagonist, to be used as a platform drug for various indications. The CCR5 receptor is a protein located on the surface of various cells including white blood cells and cancer cells. On white blood cells, it serves as a receptor for chemical attractants called chemokines. Chemokines are the key orchestrators of leukocyte trafficking by attracting immune cells to the sites of inflammation. At the site of an inflammatory reaction, chemokines are released. These chemokines are specific for CCR5 and cause the migration of T-cells to these sites promoting further inflammation. The CCR5 receptor is also the co-receptor needed for certain strains of HIV to infect healthy T-cells.

The mechanism of action (“MOA”) of leronlimab has the potential to orchestrate the movement of T-cells to inflammatory sites, which could be instrumental in diminishing the inflammatory responses. Leronlimab is a unique humanized monoclonal antibody. Leronlimab binds to the second extracellular loop and N-terminus of the CCR5 receptor, and due to its selectivity and target-specific mechanism of action, it does not appear to activate the immune function of the CCR5 receptor through agonist activity. This apparent target specificity differentiates leronlimab from other CCR5 antagonists. Leronlimab is a competitive rather than allosteric inhibitor of the CCR5 receptor. Other potential advantages of leronlimab are believed to include longer half-life and less frequent dosing requirements compared to current standard of care daily regimens.

We believe leronlimab prevents CCR5 tropic strains of HIV, which are the majority of all cases, from using the CCR5 receptor as an entry gateway for healthy cells. Pre-clinical research has shown that leronlimab blocks calcium channel signaling of the CCR5 receptor when present on the cancer cell surface. Research also suggests calcium channel signaling of the CCR5 receptor is a crucial component to the spread of metastatic cancer. We view the CCR5 receptor as more than the door for HIV to enter T-cells; it may also be a crucial component in inflammatory responses. The CCR5 receptor has been identified as a potential target in HIV, graft-versus-host disease (“GvHD”), MASH, cancer metastasis, transplantation medicine, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, stroke recovery, and a variety of inflammatory conditions, including COVID-19. This could present the potential for multiple opportunities for leronlimab, such as MASH, cancers, and transplantation rejection, among other indications.

Leronlimab and HIV

We believe that leronlimab shows promise as a powerful antiviral agent with the potential advantage of lower toxicity and less frequent dosing requirements as compared to certain daily drug therapies currently in use for the treatment of HIV. Leronlimab belongs to a class of HIV therapies known as viral entry inhibitors that block HIV from entering and infecting specific cells. Leronlimab blocks HIV from entering a cell by binding to a receptor called CCR5, a normal cell surface receptor protein to which CCR5 tropic strains of HIV, referred to as “R5” strains, attach as part of HIV’s entry into a cell. Leronlimab binds to a precise site on CCR5 that R5 strains of HIV use to enter the cell and, in doing so, inhibits the ability of these strains of HIV to infect the cell. As a result, we believe leronlimab represents a distinct class of CCR5 inhibitors with advantageous virological and immunological properties and may provide a unique tool to treat HIV-infected patients. We plan to explore the potential for leronlimab to be used in

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PrEP if a longer acting version of subcutaneous leronlimab is successfully developed. This longer acting version could also potentially be used in combination with standard of care therapies to treat HIV patients.

We continue to believe leronlimab is uniquely positioned to address the HIV market, as an alternative, or in addition to current therapies, which are failing primarily due to patient non-compliance, which causes drug resistance. Several factors give rise to patient non-compliance issues, such as toxicity and side effects, coupled with the need for a strict daily dosing regimen. In 26 clinical studies previously conducted, leronlimab was generally well tolerated. In addition, there were no dose-limiting toxicities or patterns of drug-related toxicities observed during these trials. We believe the results of these trials establish that leronlimab’s antiviral activity is potent, rapid, prolonged, dose-dependent, and statistically significant. Because leronlimab’s MOA as a monoclonal antibody in HIV is a relatively new therapeutic approach, it provides a potentially advantageous method of suppressing the virus in treatment-experienced patients who have failed a prior HIV regimen and need new treatment options.

To date, leronlimab has been tested and administered to patients predominantly as a subcutaneous injection once per week. We believe that if leronlimab is approved by the FDA for use as an injectable for HIV, it may be an attractive and marketable therapeutic option for patients, particularly in the following scenarios:

Patients experiencing difficulties with existing treatment regimens due to side effects or medical comorbidities;
Patients with difficulty adhering to daily drug regimens;
Patients who poorly tolerate existing therapies; and
Patients with compromised organ function, such as hepatoxicity or renal insufficiency.

In 2016, we initiated a pivotal Phase 2b/3 trial for leronlimab as a combination therapy with existing HAART drug regimens for highly treatment-experienced HIV patients. The trial was completed in February 2018 and achieved its primary endpoint with a p-value of 0.0032. Most of the patients who completed this trial transitioned to an FDA-cleared rollover study, as requested by the treating physicians, to enable them to have continued access to leronlimab. This pivotal trial was the basis for the Company’s Biologic License Application (“BLA”) submission to the FDA, which was subsequently withdrawn by the Company in October 2022 as further discussed below. We also conducted a rollover study for HIV, as combination therapy, designed for patients who had successfully completed the Phase 2b/3 combination therapy trial and for whom the treating physicians requested a continuation of leronlimab therapy to maintain suppressed viral load. Some of the patients reached four years of treatment in this extension arm prior to its termination.

Clinical hold on HIV program

In March 2022, the FDA placed a partial clinical hold on the Company’s HIV program. The Company was not enrolling any new patients in the trials placed on hold in the United States. In October 2022, the Company voluntarily withdrew its BLA submission due to management’s conclusion that a significant risk existed that the BLA would not receive FDA approval due to the inadequate process and performance around the monitoring and oversight of the clinical data from its clinical trials by its former CRO.

During the third quarter ended February 28, 2023, the Company submitted the documents requested by the FDA in its March 2022 clinical hold letter. Subsequently, the FDA responded through written communication to the Company, requesting additional information and clarification regarding an item that was previously submitted, the benefit-risk assessment for the HIV population, and made a supplemental request that the Company submit an investigational new drug (“IND”) amendment containing the proposed general investigational plan for the coming year, appropriate protocols, and any additional information supporting the proposed investigation under the HIV program IND.

In March 2023, the Company responded to and submitted to the FDA the additional information and clarifications requested for the items previously requested. The FDA responded with further written communication requesting information relating to the benefit-risk assessment, as well as requesting the submission of a new protocol for the HIV indication.  At the end of March 2023, the Company and the FDA held an informal meeting in which the FDA addressed certain clarifying questions with respect to the clinical hold submission and further information requests made by the FDA.

In November 2023, the Company submitted a response to the FDA’s March 2022 clinical hold letter addressing comments received through previous incomplete response communications and during the informal meeting. The Company held a series of

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advisory board meetings with key opinion leaders (“KOLs”) in the HIV space to further inform responses to the FDA’s comments with regard to the benefit-risk analysis and an appropriate population of patients for a future clinical trial in HIV who could benefit from leronlimab given the current competitive landscape.

In early December 2023, the FDA notified the Company that the partial clinical hold on the HIV program had been lifted. At the same time, the FDA notified the Company that it had issued a new full clinical hold as it relates to the newly proposed clinical trial protocol submitted alongside the Company’s complete response to the partial clinical hold. The FDA’s new hold and comments relate to the design of the trial in particular with regard to the measurement of endpoints, controls arms, dose selection, and study-stopping rules. The newly proposed HIV clinical trial is a Phase II study evaluating the effects of 24 weeks of leronlimab on chronic immune activation and inflammation in cisgender men and women and transgender women living with HIV. Chronic immune activation and inflammation is a complicated and critical unmet need which causes strokes, heart attacks, and other vascular events and remains the leading cause of death in people with HIV. In late January 2024, the Company made its responsive submission to the FDA’s December 2023 comments and guidance in relation to its proposed clinical trial protocol. The Company anticipates moving forward with the contemplated clinical trial during the 2024 calendar year in the event that its efforts to obtain lifting of the clinical hold are successful.

HIV Pre-Clinical Development of Long-Acting CCR5 Antagonist

In December 2022, researchers from Oregon Health and Sciences University (“OHSU”), an academic research collaboration partner of the Company, presented at the HIV DART Conference and the HIV Persistence During Therapy Conference results from two recently completed pre-clinical studies performed on macaque monkeys for two different potential longer-acting therapeutics targeting the CCR5 receptor. The first longer-acting potential therapeutic is a modified monoclonal antibody designed to have a longer half-life, which could lead to the development of an HIV prophylactic for humans at high risk of contracting HIV. The second longer-acting potential therapeutic is a gene therapy that could lead to the development of a functional cure for humans living with HIV. While both longer-acting therapeutics are still in the early stages of development, early data from the macaque monkey studies suggest that dosing intervals could be increased from once weekly to once every three months. Data from both potential therapeutics were also presented during the Company’s R&D Investor Update on December 7, 2022, which is available on the Company’s website.

In March 2023, the Company entered into a joint development agreement with a third-party generative AI drug discovery and development company to develop one or more longer-acting molecules. The Company believes working with a partner with AI capabilities will result in the expedited development of a modified, longer-acting therapeutic, and could lead to greater acceptance by patients due to the requirement for less frequent injections. The services provided by the third party may yield extended intellectual property protection, thereby increasing the value of the Company’s patent portfolio. In December 2023, the Company received various iterations of potential long-acting therapeutics, on which the Company will be performing assays to determine the suitability and feasibility of the long-acting therapeutic candidates for further development.

Leronlimab and MASH

We believe that the CCR5 receptor is also a crucial component in inflammatory responses. Some disease processes that could potentially benefit from CCR5 blockade include transplantation rejection, neuroinflammation, chronic inflammation, cancer, and MASH. Due to leronlimab’s MOA, we believe leronlimab may have the potential for reduced side effects over other CCR5 antagonists and may be able to prevent the progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (“NAFLD”) into MASH. NAFLD is an inflammatory disease caused by the build-up of fat in hepatocytes (steatosis). In severe cases, NAFLD progresses into MASH. MASH is a chronic liver disease characterized by the presence of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Patients with advanced fibrosis due to MASH are at significantly higher risk of liver related mortality. There is currently no approved drug for MASH. It is estimated that 30% to 40% of adults in the United States have NAFLD, while 3% to 12% of adults in the United States have MASH. If left untreated, MASH may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma and is expected to become the leading cause of liver transplantation. Further, liver disease is one of the leading causes of non-AIDS-related death in HIV patients. The Company is identifying the next steps in clinical development to continue the investigation of leronlimab in the MASH indication and in HIV patients with MASH.

In MASH, liver homeostasis is impaired due to an accumulation of toxic lipids which can activate both Kupffer cells (KCs) and tissue-resident macrophages resulting in the production of fibrogenic cytokines and chemoattractant chemokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and monocyte chemoattractant protein1 (MCP1). Not only do these cytokines/chemokines promote transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into myofibroblasts (the primary source for fibrillary collagens), but they also amplify the immune response by recruiting additional cells into the damaged area. Recruitment of extra-hepatic inflammatory cells to the site of hepatic injury is typically mediated by interactions between cytokines/chemokines and their receptors. It has also been

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shown that patients with MASH also have high levels of CCR5 and the associated ligand, CCL5, thus demonstrating a potential role of CCR5 and its ligands in liver fibrosis.

MASH Pre-Clinical Development

The potential for leronlimab in the treatment of MASH was demonstrated in a pre-clinical model of fatty liver disease. Immunodeficient, NOD-SCID Gamma (NSG) mice were fed a high fat, MASH-inducing diet, transplanted with human stem cells to repopulate the deficient immune system, and treated with leronlimab. Sixteen (16) male NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ, commonly known as the NOD scid IL-2 receptor gamma knockout mice (NSG), were first humanized by intravenous inoculation with normal human umbilical cord blood cells (105). After 5 weeks on normal mouse chow, mice were successfully humanized, demonstrating >25% human CD45 cells in peripheral blood. Mice were switched to high fat (52%) high cholesterol (1.25%) diet (FPC diet: fructose, palmitate, cholesterol, trans-fat; Envigo-Teklad TD.160785). Leronlimab and control antibody (normal human IgG, Sigma) were administered i.p. at a dose of 2mg i.p. twice weekly, n=8 mice/group. The results showed that leronlimab inhibited fatty liver development, a key characteristic of early-stage MASH, such that treatment of humanized NSG mice with leronlimab caused a three-fold reduction in hepatic steatosis compared to control in an animal model of high fructose, high palmitate, high cholesterol diet.

MASH Phase 2a Exploratory Study

The Company has reported clinical data from patients with MASH from the CDI-MASH-01 trial which was designed as a multi-center Phase 2a study and was subsequently converted into an exploratory study to evaluate the dose, efficacy, and safety of leronlimab at 350 mg and 700 mg, versus placebo. The study also included an expansive biomarker program designed to inform future clinical trials and to more fully understand leronlimab’s mechanism of action within the MASH setting. CDI-MASH-01 was conducted in two parts. Part 1 of the study was to assess the efficacy of leronlimab 700 mg (n=22) in improving NAFLD/MASH measures in adult patients diagnosed with MASH compared to placebo (n=28). Part 2 was subsequently added to assess leronlimab 350 mg in improving NAFLD/MASH measures in adult patients diagnosed with MASH (n=22). In Part 1 of the study, eligible subjects were randomized 1:1 to one of the two study arms to receive either leronlimab 700mg (Group A), or placebo (Group B), given once per week (±1day) at the study site for up to 13 weeks during the treatment period (with up to 60 participants). In Part 2 of the study, eligible subjects enrolled to receive leronlimab 350 mg open-label given once per week (±1day) at the study site for up to 13 weeks during the treatment period (with up to 28 participants). The primary efficacy objective was percent change from baseline in hepatic fat fraction, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging-derived proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) at week 14. The secondary efficacy objective was absolute change from baseline in fibro-inflammatory activity in the liver as assessed by MRI-corrected T1 imaging (MRI-cT1) at week 14. MRI-cT1 is obtained by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the liver and is a quantitative metric for assessing a composite of liver inflammation and fibrosis, expressed in milliseconds (msec). MRI-PDFF is being studied as an imaging surrogate endpoint for the fat density in the liver. MRI-cT1 is being studied as an imaging surrogate endpoint for hepatic fibro-inflammation. This is a critical unmet need in the MASH space, as many agents have been unable to show reductions in fibro-inflammation despite reductions in hepatic steatosis.

All analyses performed are being treated as exploratory. Treatment with leronlimab was well tolerated in both Part 1 and Part 2 compared to placebo. In Part 1 of the study, leronlimab 700 mg did not reduce mean change in PDFF and cT1 from baseline to week 14 vs. placebo. In Part 2, leronlimab 350 mg reduced mean change in PDFF and cT1 from baseline to week 14 vs. the placebo group from Part 1, despite increased degree of baseline fibro-inflammation. In the combined group of patients with moderate (≥ 875 msec) and severe (≥ 950 msec) cT1 values at baseline, leronlimab 350 mg reduced cT1 from baseline to week 14 vs. placebo. Based on post hoc CCR5 haplotype analysis of a small subgroup (n=5), we are considering further investigation of the 700mg dose of leronlimab for specific haplotypes.

Leronlimab and Cancer

Research indicates that the CCR5 receptor is a potential “GPS” system of a cancer cell that promotes metastatic disease. Pre-clinical studies have shown that leronlimab blocks the calcium channel signaling of the CCR5 receptor and has the potential to disable this GPS system. CCR5 inhibition may disrupt signaling and ultimately the spread of CCR5+ Circulating Tumor Cells (“CTCs”). Most current therapies are directed to the primary tumor rather than the movement or spread of cancer in the bloodstream. It is metastatic disease and not the primary tumor that is the cause of death in most cancer patients.

Research has shown that most sampled breast cancer patients in certain studies had increased CCR5 expression in their tumors. Increased CCR5 expression is an indicator of disease status in several cancers. Research has shown multiple key properties of the CCR5’s role in cancer. The first is that the CCR5 receptor on cancer cells potentially plays a role in the migration and invasion of

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cells into the bloodstream, which may lead to metastasis of breast, prostate, and colon cancer. The second is that blocking the CCR5 receptor on Tregs also turns on anti-tumor fighting properties restoring immune function. The third key finding is that blockage of the CCR5/CCL5 interaction had a synergistic effect with chemotherapy and controlled cancer progression. Chemotherapy traditionally increased expression of CCR5, so blocking CCR5 is expected to reduce the levels of invasion and metastasis. Fourth, animal studies revealed a significant decrease in angiogenesis following administration of leronlimab. Lastly, we are currently studying the effect of leronlimab on macrophage repolarization due to macrophage plasticity.

Glioblastoma Multiforme (“GBM”) Pre-Clinical Development

In December 2023, the Company entered into a partnership with Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, located in New York. The Company will be providing leronlimab to support a pre-clinical study evaluating the efficacy of leronlimab independently and in combination with temozolomide in treating glioblastoma multiforme, also known as grade IV astrocytoma (“GBM”) in infected humanized mice. The study will involve three groups of humanized mice: one control group, one group that will receive only leronlimab, and another group that will receive a combination of leronlimab and temozolomide. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of leronlimab on the primary tumor growth and occurrence of metastases on CCR5+ and CCR5- cells in humanized mice. Upon completion of the study, the academic institutions will provide the Company with a research report outlining the study results, and they will have the right to publish and present the study results. GBM is the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor and is aggressive and fast-growing. This study is expected to take place in the 2024 calendar year.

Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Pre-Clinical Development

In late November 2018, we received FDA approval of our IND submission and subsequently initiated a Phase 1b/2 clinical trial for metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (“mTNBC”) patients. We reported that our pre-clinical research with leronlimab reduced the incidence of human breast cancer metastasis in a mouse xenograft model for cancer through six weeks with leronlimab by more than 98%. The temporal equivalency of this six-week study in mice may be up to six years in humans. In May 2019, the FDA granted Fast Track designation for leronlimab for use in combination with carboplatin to treat patients with CCR5-positive mTNBC.

Metastatic Trial for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Phase 1b/2 Trial

This trial evaluated the feasibility of leronlimab in combination with carboplatin in patients with CCR5+ mTNBC. This trial advanced from a Phase 1b/2 to Phase 2. The Phase 2 trial was a single arm study with 30 patients to test the hypothesis that the combination of carboplatin intravenously and maximum tolerated dose of leronlimab subcutaneously will increase progression free survival. The change in CTCs was evaluated every 21 days during treatment and will be used as an initial prognostic marker for efficacy. The first patient was treated in September 2019. Leronlimab, in combination with carboplatin was well-tolerated at all three dose levels of 350mg, 525mg, and 700mg. Leronlimab showed early signs of anti-tumor activity in patients with CCR5+ mTNBC.

Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Compassionate Use Study

This was a single-arm, compassionate use study with 30 patients for leronlimab combined with a treatment of Physician’s Choice (“TPC”) in patients with CCR5+ mTNBC. Leronlimab was administered subcutaneously as a weekly dose of 350 mg until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Based on our success in the Phase 1b/2 mTNBC trial with 350 mg dose, we were able to transition the compassionate use patients to 525 mg dose. TPC is defined as one of the following single-agent chemotherapy drugs administrated according to local practice: eribulin, gemcitabine, capecitabine, paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel, vinorelbine, ixabepilone, or carboplatin. In this study, patients were evaluated for tumor response approximately every three (3) months or according to the institution’s standard practice by CT, PET/CT or MRI with contrast (per treating investigator’s discretion) using the same method as at baseline. This trial is no longer active.

Locally Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors for CCR5+ Phase 2 Basket Trial

This was a single arm Phase 2 study of leronlimab in patients with CCR5+ locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors. Leronlimab was administered subcutaneously as a weekly dose of 350 mg and 525 mg until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Subjects participating in this study were also allowed to receive/continue standard-of-care chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In this study, patients were evaluated for tumor response approximately every three months or according to the institution’s standard practice by CT, PET/CT or MRI with contrast using the same method as at baseline. This trial is no longer active.

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Leronlimab and Other Immunological Applications

SARS-CoV 2 was identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness first detected in Wuhan, China. The virus is highly contagious and has developed several variants. COVID-19 typically transmits person to person through respiratory droplets, commonly resulting from close personal contact. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, some causing illness in people and others that circulate among animals. For confirmed COVID-19 infections, symptoms have included fever, cough, and shortness of breath, amongst many others. The symptoms of COVID-19 may appear in as few as two days or as long as 14 days after exposure. Clinical manifestations in patients have ranged from non-symptomatic to severe and fatal.

Based upon analyses of leronlimab’s potential effect on the immune system and the results from over 60 Emergency Investigation New Drug (“EIND”) authorizations provided by the FDA, the Company conducted clinical trials in the United States for COVID-19 starting in fiscal 2020 and ending in fiscal 2022. Additionally, the Company paused two clinical trials in Brazil which commenced during fiscal 2022. Further, the Company withdrew its COVID-19 IND with the FDA, and the FDA put the COVID-19 program on a full clinical hold in March 2022. If CytoDyn were to continue to pursue the COVID-19 indication, we believe that subgroup analyses from our previous trials may inform the design of future clinical trials investigating leronlimab for the treatment of COVID-19.

Patents, Proprietary Technology and Data Exclusivity

Protection of the Company’s intellectual property rights is important to our business. We may file patent applications in the U.S., Canada, China, Japan, European countries that are party to the European Patent Convention, and other countries on a selective basis, to protect inventions we consider to be important to the development of our business.

Generally, patents issued in the U.S. are effective for 20 years from the earliest asserted filing date. A U.S. patent, to be selected by us upon receipt of FDA regulatory approval, may be subject to up to a five-year patent term extension in certain instances. While the duration of foreign patents varies in accordance with the provisions of applicable local law, most countries provide for a patent term of 20 years measured from the application filing date and some may also allow for patent term extension to compensate for regulatory approval delay.

We pursue opportunities for seeking new meaningful patent protection on an ongoing basis. Absent patent protection, others may attempt to make and use the leronlimab antibody for uses not covered by later patent filings, such as attempts to produce and sell the leronlimab antibody as a research reagent and/or as a component for use in diagnostics. However, the formulation composition patent protection remains viable, and third parties face additional regulatory hurdles together with CytoDyn’s various method patents with respect to any contemplated attempts to commercialize leronlimab for therapeutic indications. We currently anticipate, absent patent term extension, that patent protection relating to the leronlimab antibody itself started to expire in 2023, the leronlimab concentrated protein formulation will start to expire in 2031, certain methods of using leronlimab for treatment of HIV1 will start to expire on or before 2035, certain methods of using leronlimab for cancer indications if granted will start to expire in 2040, certain methods of using leronlimab for treatment of COVID-19 will start to expire in 2040, and certain methods of using leronlimab for treatment of MASH if granted will start to expire in 2043.

Patents do not enable us to preclude competitors from commercializing drugs in direct competition with our products that are not covered by granted and enforceable patent claims. Consequently, patents may not provide us with any meaningful competitive advantage. Refer to “Risk Factors” beginning on page 8 of this prospectus for the related risks. We may also rely on data exclusivity, trade secrets, and proprietary know-how to develop and attempt to achieve a competitive position with our product candidates. We require our employees, consultants, and partners who have access to our proprietary information to sign confidentiality agreements to protect our intellectual property.

Separate from and in addition to the patent rights noted above, we expect that leronlimab will be subject to market and data exclusivity period, during which period no other applications referencing leronlimab will be approved by FDA. Accordingly, this period of regulatory exclusivity is expected to provide a term of protection against competing products shown to be biosimilar or interchangeable with leronlimab. Similar data exclusivity or data protection periods may be provided in other countries. We note that data exclusivity is not an extension of patent rights, and it does not prevent the introduction of generic versions of the innovative drug during the data exclusivity period, as long as the marketing approval of the generic version does not use or rely upon the innovator’s test data.

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Patents and data exclusivity are different concepts, protect different subject matter, arise from different efforts, and have different legal effects over different time periods. Information with respect to our current patent portfolio as of January 31, 2024 is as follows:

    

    

    

    

    

    

Number of Patent

Number of Patents

Applications

U.S.

    

International

Expiration Dates(1)

U.S.

    

International

Leronlimab (PRO 140) product candidate(2)

 

3

 

16

 

2024-2032

 

3

 

3

Methods of treatment by indication (e.g., HIV-1; COVID-19; GvHD)(2)

 

3

 

 

2036-2040

 

3

 

5

Methods of treatment – Cancer, MASH (formerly, NASH)

 

 

 

 

3

 

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(1)Patent term extensions and pending patent applications may extend periods of patent protection.
(2)Leronlimab (PRO 140) patents and applications relate to the antibody and formulations.

Research, development and commercialization of a biopharmaceutical product often requires choosing between alternative development and optimization routes at various stages in the development process. Preferred routes depend upon current availability of financial resources, may also be affected by subsequent discoveries, test results and other factors, and therefore cannot be identified with certainty. There are numerous third-party patents in fields in which we work, and we may need to obtain licenses under patents of others to pursue a preferred development route of one or more of our product candidates. The need to obtain a license would decrease the ultimate value and profitability of an affected product. If we cannot negotiate such a license, we might have to pursue a less desirable development route or terminate the program altogether.

Government Regulation

The research, development, testing, manufacture, quality control, packaging, labeling, storage, record-keeping, distribution, import, export, promotion, advertising, marketing, sale, and reimbursement of pharmaceutical products are extensively regulated by governmental authorities in the United States and other countries. The processes for obtaining regulatory approvals in the United States and in foreign countries and jurisdictions, along with compliance with applicable statutes and regulations and other requirements, both pre-approval and post-approval, require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. The regulatory requirements applicable to product development, approval and marketing are subject to change, and regulations and administrative guidance often are revised or reinterpreted by the agencies in ways that may have a significant impact on our business.

Licensure and Regulation of Biological Products in the United States

In the United States, the FDA regulates human drugs under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or the FDCA, and in the case of biological products, also under the Public Health Service Act, or the PHSA, and their implementing regulations. The failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements may result in FDA refusal to approve any pending applications or delays in development and may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions, such as issuance of warning letters, or the imposition of fines, civil penalties, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, and injunctions and/or civil or criminal prosecution brought by the FDA and the U.S. Department of Justice or other governmental entities.

The FDA must approve product candidates for therapeutic indications before they may be marketed in the United States. For biological products, such as our product candidate, leronlimab, the FDA must approve a BLA. An applicant seeking approval to market and distribute a new biologic in the United States generally must satisfactorily complete each of the following steps:

completion of pre-clinical laboratory tests, animal studies, and formulation studies according to good laboratory practices, or GLP, regulations, or other applicable regulations;
submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin and must be updated when certain changes are made;
approval by an independent institutional review board, (“IRB”), or ethics committee representing each clinical trial site before each clinical trial may be initiated;

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performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with applicable IND regulations, good clinical practices, or GCPs, and other clinical-trial related regulations to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the investigational product for each proposed indication;
preparation and submission to the FDA of a BLA requesting marketing approval for one or more proposed indications, including payment of application user fees;
review of the BLA by an FDA advisory committee, where applicable;
satisfactory completion of one or more FDA inspections of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the biologic is produced to assess compliance with cGMP requirements to assure that the facilities, methods and controls are adequate to preserve the product’s identity, strength, quality and purity;
satisfactory completion of any FDA audits of clinical trial sites to assure compliance with GCPs and the integrity of the clinical data submitted in support of the BLA; and
FDA review and approval of the BLA, which may be subject to additional post-approval requirements, including the potential requirement to implement a REMS, and any post-approval studies required by the FDA.

Pre-clinical Studies

Before an applicant begins testing a product candidate with potential therapeutic value in humans, the product candidate enters the pre-clinical testing stage. Pre-clinical tests include laboratory evaluations of product chemistry, formulation, and stability, as well as other studies to evaluate, among other things, the toxicity of the product candidate. The conduct of the pre-clinical tests and formulation of the compounds for testing must comply with federal regulations and requirements, including GLP regulations and standards. The results of the pre-clinical tests, together with manufacturing information and analytical data, are submitted to the FDA as part of an IND. Some long-term pre-clinical testing, such as animal tests of reproductive adverse events and carcinogenicity, and long-term toxicity studies, may continue after the IND is submitted.

The IND and IRB Processes

An IND is an exemption from the premarket approval requirements of the FDCA allowing an unapproved product candidate to be shipped in interstate commerce for use in an investigational clinical trial. An IND must be in effect prior to interstate shipment and administration of any product candidate that is not the subject of an approved NDA or BLA. When submitting an IND to FDA, applicants must submit a protocol for each planned clinical trial, and any subsequent protocol amendments must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. The FDA requires a 30-day waiting period after the filing of each IND before clinical trials may begin. This waiting period is designed to allow the FDA to review the IND to determine whether human research subjects will be exposed to unreasonable health risks. At any time during this 30-day period, the FDA may raise concerns or questions about the conduct of the trials as outlined in the IND and impose a clinical hold or partial clinical hold. In this case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before clinical trials can begin.

At any time after the IND goes into effect, the FDA may also place a clinical hold or partial clinical hold on the IND or on any clinical trial that has commenced under the IND. A clinical hold is an order issued by the FDA to the sponsor to delay a proposed clinical investigation or to suspend an ongoing investigation. A partial clinical hold is a delay or suspension of only part of the clinical work requested under the IND. For example, a partial clinical hold might state that a specific protocol or part of a protocol may not proceed, while other parts of a protocol or other protocols may do so. No more than 30 days after the imposition of a clinical hold or partial clinical hold, the FDA will provide the sponsor a written explanation of the basis for the hold. Following the issuance of a clinical hold or partial clinical hold, a clinical investigation may only resume once the FDA has notified the sponsor that the investigation may proceed. The FDA will base that determination on information provided by the sponsor correcting the deficiencies previously cited or otherwise satisfying the FDA that the investigation can proceed or recommence.

For each foreign clinical study, a sponsor may choose, but is not required, to conduct it under an IND. When a foreign clinical study is conducted under an IND, all IND requirements must be met unless waived by the FDA. When a foreign clinical study is not conducted under an IND, the sponsor must ensure that the study complies with certain regulatory requirements of the FDA in order to use the study as support for an IND or application for marketing approval. Specifically, the studies must be conducted in accordance with GCP, including undergoing review and receiving approval by an independent ethics committee, or IEC, and seeking and

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receiving informed consent from subjects. The GCP requirements in the final rule encompass both ethical and data integrity standards for clinical studies. The FDA’s regulations are intended to help ensure the protection of human subjects enrolled in non-IND foreign clinical studies, as well as the quality and integrity of the resulting data.

In addition to the foregoing IND requirements, an IRB must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it commences at each institution participating in the clinical trial, and the IRB must conduct continuing review and reapprove the study at least annually. The IRB, which must operate in compliance with FDA regulations, must review and approve, among other things, the study protocol and informed consent information to be provided to study subjects. An IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution, or an institution it represents, if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the product candidate has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients.

Additionally, some trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board, or DSMB. This group provides authorization as to whether or not a trial may move forward at designated checkpoints based on review of available data from the study, to which only the DSMB maintains access. Suspension or termination of development during any phase of a clinical trial can occur if the DSMB determines that the participants or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. A sponsor may suspend or terminate development for other reasons, including evolving business objectives and/or a competitive climate.

Expanded Access

Expanded access, sometimes called “compassionate use,” is the use of investigational new drug products outside of clinical trials to treat patients with serious or immediately life-threatening diseases or conditions when there are no comparable or satisfactory alternative treatment options. The rules and regulations related to expanded access are intended to improve access to investigational drugs for patients who may benefit from investigational therapies. FDA regulations allow access to investigational drugs under an IND by the company or the treating physician for treatment purposes on a case-by-case basis for: individual patients (single-patient IND applications for treatment in emergency settings and non-emergency settings); intermediate-size patient populations; and larger populations for use of the drug under a treatment protocol or Treatment IND Application. FDA’s regulations also provide for emergency procedures if there is a situation that requires the patient to be treated before a written submission can be made.

When considering an IND application for expanded access to an investigational product with the purpose of treating a patient or a group of patients, the sponsor and treating physicians or investigators will determine suitability when all of the following criteria apply: patient(s) have a serious or immediately life-threatening disease or condition, and there is no comparable or satisfactory alternative therapy to diagnose, monitor, or treat the disease or condition; the potential patient benefit justifies the potential risks of the treatment and the potential risks are not unreasonable in the context or condition to be treated; and the expanded use of the investigational drug for the requested treatment will not interfere with the initiation, conduct, or completion of clinical investigations that could support marketing approval of the product or otherwise compromise the potential development of the product.

There is no obligation for a sponsor to make its drug products available for expanded access; however, as required by the 21st Century Cures Act, or Cures Act, passed in 2016, a sponsor must make its policy regarding how it evaluates and responds to expanded access requests public and readily available. Sponsors are required to make such policies publicly available upon the earlier of initiation of a Phase 2 or Phase 3 study; or 15 days after the investigational drug or biologic receives designation as a breakthrough therapy, fast track product, or regenerative medicine advanced therapy.

In addition, on May 30, 2018, the Right to Try Act was signed into law. The law, among other things, provides a federal framework for certain patients to access certain investigational new products that have completed a Phase 1 clinical trial and that are undergoing investigation for FDA approval. Under certain circumstances, eligible patients can seek treatment without enrolling in clinical trials and without obtaining FDA permission under the FDA expanded access program. There is no obligation for a manufacturer to make its products available to eligible patients as a result of the Right to Try Act, but the manufacturer must develop an internal policy and respond to patient requests according to that policy.

Human Clinical Trials in Support of an NDA or BLA

Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational product candidate to human subjects under the supervision of a qualified investigator in accordance with GCP requirements which include, among other things, the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent in writing before they participate in any clinical trial. Clinical trials are conducted under

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written clinical trial protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the study, inclusion and exclusion criteria, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated.

Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases, but the phases may overlap or be combined. Additional studies may also be required after approval. As described in FDA’s regulations at 21 CFR 312.21, the three phases are as follows:

Phase 1 includes the initial introduction of an investigational new drug into humans. Phase 1 studies are typically closely monitored and may be conducted in patients or normal volunteer subjects. These studies are designed to determine the metabolism and pharmacologic actions of the drug in humans, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and, if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness. During Phase 1, sufficient information about the drug’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects should be obtained to permit the design of well-controlled, scientifically valid, Phase 2 studies. The total number of subjects and patients included in Phase 1 studies varies with the drug but is generally in the range of 20 to 80. Phase 1 studies also include studies of drug metabolism, structure-activity relationships, and mechanism of action in humans, as well as studies in which investigational drugs are used as research tools to explore biological phenomena or disease processes.

Phase 2 includes the controlled clinical studies conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the drug for a particular indication or indications in patients with the disease or condition under study and to determine the common short-term side effects and risks associated with the drug. Phase 2 studies are typically well controlled, closely monitored, and conducted in a relatively small number of patients, usually involving no more than several hundred subjects.

Phase 3 studies are expanded controlled and uncontrolled trials. They are performed after preliminary evidence suggesting effectiveness of the drug has been obtained and are intended to gather the additional information about effectiveness and safety that is needed to evaluate the overall benefit-risk relationship of the drug and to provide an adequate basis for physician labeling. Phase 3 studies usually include from several hundred to several thousand subjects.

In some cases, the FDA may approve an NDA or BLA for a product candidate but require the sponsor to conduct additional clinical trials to further assess the product candidate’s safety and effectiveness after approval. Such post-approval trials are typically referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials. These trials are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of a larger number of patients in the intended treatment group and to further verify and describe clinical benefit in the case of products approved under FDA’s accelerated approval regulations. Failure to exhibit due diligence with regard to conducting Phase 4 clinical trials could result in withdrawal of FDA approval for products.

Progress reports detailing the results of clinical trials must be submitted annually to the FDA. In addition, IND safety reports must be submitted to the FDA for any of the following: serious and unexpected suspected adverse reactions; findings from other studies or animal or in vitro testing that suggest a significant risk in humans exposed to the product; and any clinically important increase in the occurrence of a serious suspected adverse reaction over that listed in the protocol or investigator brochure. Expedited reporting is required for unexpected fatal or life-threatening suspected adverse reactions. Phase 1, Phase 2, and Phase 3 clinical trials may not be completed successfully within any specified period, or at all. The FDA will typically inspect one or more clinical sites to assure compliance with GCP and the integrity of the clinical data submitted.

Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions

The FDA is authorized to expedite the development and review of new therapeutic products to address unmet need in the treatment of a serious or life-threatening condition. A product development program may qualify for one or more of FDA’s expedited programs for serious conditions: fast track designation, breakthrough therapy designation, accelerated approval, and priority review designation.

Any product candidate submitted to the FDA for marketing, including under a Fast Track program, may be eligible for other types of FDA programs intended to expedite development and review, such as breakthrough therapy designation, priority review, and accelerated approval.

Fast Track Designation. The sponsor of a product candidate may request the FDA to designate the product for a specific indication as a Fast Track product concurrent with or after the filing of the IND. Candidate products are eligible for Fast Track designation if they are intended to treat a serious or life-threatening condition and nonclinical or clinical data demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs for the condition. Fast Track designation applies to the combination of the product candidate and the specific indication for which it is being studied. In addition to other benefits,

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such as the ability to have greater interactions with the FDA, the FDA may initiate review of sections of a Fast Track application before the application is complete, a process known as rolling review.
Breakthrough therapy designation. To qualify for the breakthrough therapy designation, product candidates must be intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and preliminary clinical evidence must indicate that such product candidates may demonstrate substantial improvement on one or more clinically significant endpoints over existing therapies. Features of breakthrough therapy designation include intensive guidance on an efficient development program, intensive involvement of senior managers and experienced staff on a proactive, collaborative and cross-disciplinary review, and rolling review.
Priority review. A product candidate is eligible for priority review if it treats a serious condition and, if approved, it would be a significant improvement in the safety or effectiveness of the treatment, diagnosis or prevention compared to marketed products. In addition, specific statutory provisions provide for priority review for various types of applications. FDA aims to complete its review of priority review applications within six months as opposed to 10 months for standard review.
Accelerated approval. FDA may grant accelerated approval to a product that treats a serious condition, generally provides a meaningful advantage over available therapies, and has an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict a clinical benefit, or on an intermediate clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality, that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit, taking into account the severity, rarity and prevalence of the condition and the availability or lack of alternative treatments. As a condition of approval, the FDA may require that a sponsor of a drug or biological product candidate receiving accelerated approval perform adequate and well controlled post-marketing clinical trials. In addition, the FDA currently requires, as a condition for accelerated approval, pre-submission of promotional materials.

None of these expedited programs change the standards for approval but they may help expedite the development or approval process of product candidates.

Emergency Use Authorizations

The FDA has the authority to permit the use of unapproved medical products following a determination of a public health emergency (“PHE”) by the Secretary of Health and Human Services (the “Secretary”) and a declaration by the Secretary that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of emergency use of particular types of medical products to respond to the PHE. Once the Secretary has made the requisite determination and declaration, the FDA may issue Emergency Use Authorizations, or EUAs, for specific unapproved medical products if the following statutory criteria have been met: (1) the pathogen that is the subject of the PHE can cause a serious or life-threatening condition; (2) based on the totality of the scientific evidence available, it is reasonable to believe that (i) the product may be effective in preventing or treating such condition, and (ii) the known and potential benefits of the product outweigh the known and potential risks; and (3) there is no adequate, approved, and available alternative to the product.

If an EUA is granted, it generally will remain in effect until the Secretary’s declaration that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of emergency use of the type of products at issue or the product is approved under one of FDA’s traditional approval pathways. The EUA also may be revoked or revised for other reasons, including a finding that the criteria for its issuance are no longer met or other circumstances make a revision or revocation appropriate to protect public health or safety.

Review and Approval of BLAs

Assuming successful completion of the required clinical testing, the results of the pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, along with information relating to the product’s chemistry, manufacturing, and controls and proposed labeling, are submitted to the FDA as part of a BLA requesting approval to market the product for one or more indications. Data may come from company-sponsored clinical trials intended to test the safety and efficacy of a product’s use or from a number of alternative sources, including studies initiated by investigators. To support marketing approval, the data submitted must be sufficient in quality and quantity to establish the safety, potency, and purity of the investigational product to the satisfaction of the FDA. The fee required for the submission of an NDA or BLA under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, or PDUFA, is substantial (for example, for FY2023 this application fee is approximately $3.24 million), and the sponsor of an approved BLA is also subject to an annual program fee, currently more than $390,000 per program. These fees are typically adjusted annually, but exemptions and waivers may be available under certain circumstances.

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The FDA conducts a preliminary review of all BLAs within 60 days of receipt and informs the sponsor by the 74th day after the FDA’s receipt of the submission whether an application is sufficiently complete to permit substantive review. In the event that the FDA determines that a BLA does not satisfy this standard, it will issue a Refuse to File, or RTF, determination to the applicant. Typically, an RTF for a BLA will be based on administrative incompleteness, such as clear omission of information or sections of required information; scientific incompleteness, such as omission of critical data, information, or analyses needed to evaluate safety, purity, and potency or provide adequate directions for use; or inadequate content, presentation, or organization of information such that substantive and meaningful review is precluded. The FDA may request additional information rather than accept a BLA for filing. In this event, the application must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application is also subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing.

After the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth substantive review of the application. Under the goals and policies agreed to by the FDA under PDUFA, the FDA aims to review and act on 90 percent of standard submissions within ten months of the filing date and 90 percent of priority review submissions within six months of the filing date. The review process may be extended by the FDA for three additional months to consider new information or, in the case of a clarification provided by the applicant, to address an outstanding deficiency identified by the FDA following the original submission. Despite these review goals, it is not uncommon for FDA review of a BLA to extend beyond the PDUFA goal date.

Before approving a BLA, the FDA will typically conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities for the new product to determine whether the manufacturing processes and facilities comply with GMPs. The FDA will not approve the product unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. The FDA also may inspect the sponsor and one or more clinical trial sites to assure compliance with GCP requirements and the integrity of the clinical data submitted to the FDA.

Additionally, the FDA may refer a BLA, including applications for novel product candidates which present difficult questions of safety or efficacy, to an advisory committee for review, evaluation, and recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. Typically, an advisory committee is a panel of independent experts, including clinicians and other scientific experts. The FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations when making final decisions on approval. The FDA also may require submission of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, or REMS, if it determines that a REMS is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the product outweigh its risks and to assure the safe use of the biological product. If the FDA concludes a REMS is needed, the sponsor of the BLA must submit a proposed REMS and the FDA will not approve the BLA without a REMS.

The FDA reviews a BLA to determine, among other things, whether the product is safe, pure, and potent and whether the facility in which it is manufactured, processed, packed, or held meets standards designed to assure the product’s continued safety, purity, and potency. The approval process is lengthy and often difficult, and the FDA may refuse to approve a BLA if the applicable regulatory criteria are not satisfied or may require additional clinical or other data and information. After evaluating the application and all related information, including the advisory committee recommendations, if any, and inspection reports of manufacturing facilities and clinical trial sites, the FDA may issue either an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter, or CRL.

An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the product with specific prescribing information for specific indications. A CRL indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete, and the application will not be approved in its present form. A CRL generally outlines the deficiencies in the submission and may require substantial additional testing or information in order for the FDA to reconsider the application. The CRL may require additional clinical or other data, additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s) and/or other significant and time-consuming requirements related to clinical trials, pre-clinical studies, or manufacturing. If a CRL is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the BLA addressing all the deficiencies identified in the letter or withdraw the application. If and when those deficiencies have been addressed to the FDA’s satisfaction in a resubmission of the BLA, the FDA will issue an approval letter. The FDA has committed to reviewing and acting on 90 percent of such resubmissions in response to an issued CRL in either two or six months depending on the type of information included. Even with the submission of this additional information, however, the FDA ultimately may decide that the application does not satisfy the regulatory criteria for approval.

If a product receives marketing approval from the FDA, the approval is limited to the conditions of use (e.g., patient population, indication) described in the FDA-approved labeling. Further, depending on the specific risk(s) to be addressed, the FDA may require that contraindications, warnings, or precautions be included in the product labeling, require that post-approval trials, including Phase 4 clinical trials, be conducted to further assess a product’s safety after approval, require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the product after commercialization or impose other conditions, including distribution and use restrictions or other risk management mechanisms under a REMS which can materially affect the potential market and profitability of the product. The FDA may prevent or

35


limit further marketing of a product based on the results of post-marketing trials or surveillance programs. After approval, some types of changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications, manufacturing changes, and additional labeling claims, are subject to further testing requirements and FDA review and approval.

Reference Product Exclusivity for Biological Products

With approval of a BLA, a biological product is licensed for marketing by FDA, and the product may be entitled to certain types of market and data exclusivity barring FDA from approving competing products for certain periods of time. For example, in March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was enacted in the United States and included the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, or the BPCIA. The BPCIA amended the PHSA to create an abbreviated approval pathway for biological products that are biosimilar to or interchangeable with an FDA-licensed biological reference product. To date, the FDA has approved several biosimilars, and in 2021, the FDA approved the first interchangeable biologic. The FDA has also issued several guidance documents outlining its approach to reviewing and approving biosimilars and interchangeable biologics.

Under the BPCIA, a manufacturer may submit an application for a product that is “biosimilar to” or “interchangeable with” a previously approved biological product or “reference product.” For the FDA to approve a biosimilar product, it must find that there are no clinically meaningful differences between the reference product and the proposed biosimilar product in terms of safety, purity, and potency. For the FDA to approve an interchangeable biological product, the agency must find that the biological product is biosimilar to the reference product, can be expected to produce the same clinical results as the reference product, and “for a biological product that is administered more than once to an individual, the risk in terms of safety or diminished efficacy of alternating or switching between use of the biological product and the reference product is not greater than the risk of using the reference product without such alternation or switch.” Upon licensure by the FDA, an interchangeable biosimilar may be substituted for the reference product without the intervention of the healthcare provider who prescribed the reference product, although the substitutability of drug and biological products are determined at the state level.

The biosimilar applicant generally must demonstrate that the product is biosimilar based on data from analytical studies showing that the biosimilar product is highly similar to the reference product, data from animal studies (including toxicity) and data from one or more clinical studies to demonstrate safety, purity, and potency in one or more appropriate conditions of use for which the reference product is approved. The FDA, however, may waive any of these data requirements upon a finding that the data are “unnecessary.” In addition, the applicant must show that the biosimilar and reference products have the same mechanism of action for the approved conditions of use, route of administration, dosage and strength, and the production facility must meet standards designed to assure product safety, purity, and potency.

In the US, a reference biological product is granted 12 years of exclusivity from the time of first licensure of the product, and the first approved interchangeable biological product will be granted an exclusivity period of up to one year after it is first commercially marketed. The FDA will not accept an application for a biosimilar or interchangeable product until four years after the date of first licensure of the reference product.

The BPCIA is complex, and there have been various legislative proposals to change certain aspects of the BPCIA. As a result, the ultimate impact, implementation, and meaning of aspects of the BPCIA are subject to significant uncertainty.

Orphan Drug Designation and Exclusivity

Orphan drug designation in the United States is designed to encourage sponsors to develop products intended for treatment of rare diseases or conditions. In the United States, a rare disease or condition is statutorily defined as a condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States or that affects more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available the drug for the disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product in the United States.

Orphan drug designation may qualify a company for certain tax credits and market exclusivity for seven years following the date of the product’s marketing approval if granted by the FDA. An application for designation as an orphan product can be made any time prior to the filing of an application for approval to market the product. A product that has received orphan drug designation must go through the review and approval process like any other product.

A sponsor may request orphan drug designation of a previously unapproved product or new orphan indication for an already marketed product. In addition, a sponsor of a product that is otherwise the same drug as an already approved orphan drug may seek

36


and obtain orphan drug designation for the subsequent product for the same rare disease or condition if it can present a plausible hypothesis that its product may be clinically superior to the first drug. More than one sponsor may receive orphan drug designation for the same drug for the same rare disease or condition, but each sponsor seeking orphan drug designation must file a complete request for designation.

If a product with orphan drug designation receives the first FDA approval for the rare disease or condition for which it has such designation, the product generally will receive orphan drug exclusivity. Orphan drug exclusivity means that the FDA may not approve another sponsor’s marketing application for the same drug for the same disease or condition for seven years, except in certain limited circumstances.

The period of exclusivity begins on the date that the marketing application is approved by the FDA. Orphan drug exclusivity will not bar approval of another product under certain circumstances, including if the company with orphan drug exclusivity is not able to meet market demand or the subsequent product that is otherwise considered the same drug for the same disease or condition is shown to be clinically superior to the approved product based on greater efficacy or safety, or providing a major contribution to patient care. Additionally, the statute requires that a sponsor must demonstrate clinical superiority in order to receive orphan drug exclusivity for a product that is considered the same drug as a previously approved product for the same rare disease or condition.

Patent Term Restoration and Extension

In the United States, a patent claiming a new biological product, its method of use or its method of manufacture may be eligible for a limited patent term extension under the Hatch Waxman Act, which permits a patent extension of up to five years for patent term lost during product development and FDA regulatory review. Assuming grant of the patent for which the extension is sought, the restoration period for a patent covering a product is typically one half the time between the effective date of the IND involving human beings and the submission date of the BLA, plus the time between the submission date of the BLA and the ultimate approval date. Patent term restoration cannot be used to extend the remaining term of a patent past a total of 14 years from the product’s approval date in the United States. Only one patent applicable to an approved product is eligible for the extension, and the application for the extension must be submitted prior to the expiration of the patent for which extension is sought. A patent that covers multiple products for which approval is sought can only be extended in connection with one of the approvals. The USPTO reviews and approves the application for any patent term extension in consultation with the FDA.

Post-approval Requirements

Following approval of a new product, the manufacturer and the approved product are subject to pervasive and continuing regulation by the FDA, governing, among other things, monitoring and recordkeeping activities, reporting of adverse experiences with the product and product problems to the FDA, product sampling and distribution, manufacturing, and promotion and advertising. Although physicians may prescribe legally available products for unapproved uses or patient populations (i.e., “off-label uses”), manufacturers may not market or promote such uses. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant liability.

Specifically, if a company is found to have promoted off-label uses, it may become subject to adverse public relations and administrative and judicial enforcement by the FDA, the Department of Justice, or the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as state authorities. This could subject a company to a range of penalties that could have a significant commercial impact, including civil and criminal fines and agreements that materially restrict the way a company promotes or distributes drug products. The federal government has levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion and has also requested that companies enter into consent decrees or permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed.

Further, if there are any modifications to the product, including changes in indications, labeling, or manufacturing processes or facilities, the applicant may be required to submit and obtain FDA approval of a new BLA or a BLA supplement, which may require the applicant to develop additional data or conduct additional pre-clinical studies and clinical trials. The FDA may also place other conditions on approvals including the requirement for a REMS to assure the safe use of the product, which may require substantial commitment of resources post-approval to ensure compliance. A REMS could include medication guides, physician communication plans, or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries, and other risk minimization tools. Any of these limitations on approval or marketing could restrict the commercial promotion, distribution, prescription, or dispensing of

37


products. Product approvals may be withdrawn for non-compliance with regulatory standards or if problems occur following initial marketing.

In addition, FDA regulations require that biological products be manufactured in specific approved facilities and in accordance with cGMPs. The cGMP regulations include requirements relating to organization of personnel, buildings and facilities, equipment, control of components and drug product containers and closures, production and process controls, packaging and labeling controls, holding and distribution, laboratory controls, records and reports, and returned or salvaged products. The manufacturing facilities for our product candidates must meet cGMP requirements and satisfy the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities’ satisfaction before any product is approved and our commercial products can be manufactured.

We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties to produce clinical (and, in the future, commercial) supplies of our product candidate in accordance with cGMP regulations. These manufacturers must comply with cGMP regulations, including requirements for quality control and quality assurance, the maintenance of records and documentation, and the obligation to investigate and correct any deviations from cGMP. Manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacture and distribution of approved drugs or biologics are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with cGMP and other laws. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money, and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain cGMP compliance. Inspections by the FDA and other regulatory agencies may identify compliance issues at facilities that may disrupt production or distribution or require substantial resources to correct. In addition, the discovery of conditions that violate these rules, including failure to conform to cGMPs, could result in enforcement actions, and the discovery of problems with a product after approval may result in restrictions on a product, manufacturer, or holder of an approved BLA, including voluntary recall and regulatory sanctions as described below.

The FDA may withdraw approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in mandatory revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information, imposition of post-market clinical trials requirement to assess new safety risks or imposition of distribution or other restrictions under a REMS program. Other potential consequences include, among other things:

restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, complete withdrawal of the product from the market or product recalls;
safety alerts, Dear Healthcare Provider letters, press releases, or other communications containing warnings or other safety information about a product;
mandated modification of promotional materials and labeling and issuance of corrective information;
fines, warning letters, untitled letters or other enforcement-related letters, or clinical holds on post-approval clinical trials;
refusal of the FDA to approve pending NDAs/BLAs or supplements to approved NDAs/BLAs, or suspension or revocation of product approvals;
product seizure or detention or refusal to permit the import or export of products;
injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties; and
consent decrees, corporate integrity agreements, debarment, or exclusion from federal health care programs; or mandated modification of promotional materials and labeling and the issuance of corrective information.

In addition, the distribution of prescription pharmaceutical products is subject to the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, or PDMA, which regulates the distribution of samples at the federal level and sets minimum standards for the registration and regulation of drug distributors by the states. Additionally, the Drug Supply Chain Security Act, or DSCSA, imposes requirements related to identifying and tracing certain prescription products distributed in the United States, including most biological products.

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Other U.S. Healthcare Laws and Regulations

In the United States, biopharmaceutical manufacturers and their products are subject to extensive regulation at the federal and state level, such as laws intended to prevent fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry. These laws, some of which apply only to approved products, include:

federal false claims, false statements, and civil monetary penalties laws prohibiting, among other things, any person from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, a false claim for payment of government funds or knowingly making, or causing to be made, a false statement to get a false claim paid;
federal healthcare program anti-kickback law, which prohibits, among other things, persons from offering, soliciting, receiving, or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce either the referral of an individual for, or the purchasing or ordering of, a good or service for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid;
the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which, in addition to privacy protections applicable to healthcare providers and other entities, prohibits executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program or making false statements relating to healthcare matters;
FDCA, which among other things, strictly regulates marketing, prohibits manufacturers from marketing such products prior to approval or for off-label use, and regulates the distribution of samples;
federal laws that require pharmaceutical manufacturers to report certain calculated product prices to the government or provide certain discounts or rebates to government authorities or private entities, often as a condition of reimbursement under government healthcare programs;
federal transparency law, which requires pharmaceutical companies to report certain payments to healthcare providers;
state laws and regulations analogous to the above; and
laws and regulations prohibiting bribery and corruption such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), which, among other things, prohibits U.S. companies and their employees and agents from authorizing, promising, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, corrupt or improper payments or anything else of value to foreign government officials, employees of public international organizations or foreign government-owned or affiliated entities, candidates for foreign public office, and foreign political parties or officials thereof.

Violations of these laws are punishable by criminal and/or civil sanctions, including, in some instances, exclusion from participation in federal and state health care programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. Ensuring compliance is time consuming and costly.

Similar healthcare laws and regulations exist in the European Union (the “EU”) and other jurisdictions, including reporting requirements detailing interactions with and payments to healthcare providers and laws governing the privacy and security of personal information.

U.S. Privacy Law

In the U.S., there are numerous state and federal laws and regulations governing the security and privacy of personal information. Additionally, state and federal regulators have begun to pay more attention to companies’ data processing activities.

At the state level, laws require companies to safeguard personal information and take action in the event of a data breach (e.g., notifying governmental authorities and data subjects). State attorneys general have been active in using their consumer protection authority to investigate companies’ data security practices. A number of states have passed laws governing data privacy and many others have similar legislation under consideration. Although many of these laws contain exceptions for certain health data, these exceptions are not comprehensive. All of these laws give rights to residents in their states and require businesses to take certain actions with respect to those rights (similar to the General Data Protection Regulation in effect in the EU, but with notable differences).

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At the federal level, the Federal Trade Commission has been active in using its Section 5 authority to bring enforcement actions against companies for deceptive or unreasonable data processing activities.

Registrational Clinical Trials Process

Described below is the traditional registrational drug development track.

Phase 1 includes the initial introduction of an investigational new drug or biologic into humans. These studies are closely monitored and may be conducted in patients but are usually conducted in a small number of healthy volunteer patients. These studies are designed to determine the metabolic and pharmacologic actions of the investigational product in humans, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and, if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness. During Phase 1, sufficient information about the investigational product’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects are obtained to permit the design of well-controlled, scientifically valid, Phase 2 studies. Phase 1 studies of PRO 140 were conducted and completed by or on behalf of Progenics by certain principal investigators prior to our acquisition of PRO 140.

Phase 2 includes the early controlled clinical studies conducted to obtain some preliminary data on the effectiveness of the drug for a particular indication or indications in patients with the disease or condition. This phase of testing also helps determine the common short-term side effects and risks associated with the drug. Phase 2 studies are typically well-controlled, closely monitored, and conducted in a relatively small number of patients, typically no more than several hundred people. In some cases, depending upon the need for a new drug, a particular drug candidate may be licensed for sale in interstate commerce after a “pivotal” Phase 2 trial. Phase 2 is often broken into Phase 2a, which can be used to refer to “pilot trials,” or more limited trials evaluating exposure response in patients, and Phase 2b trials that are designed to evaluate dosing efficacy and ranges.

Phase 3 studies are expanded controlled clinical studies. They are performed after preliminary evidence suggesting effectiveness of the drug has been obtained in Phase 2 and are intended to gather the additional information about effectiveness and safety that is needed to evaluate the overall benefit/risk relationship of the drug. Phase 3 studies also provide an adequate basis for extrapolating the results to the general population and transmitting that information in the physician labeling. Phase 3 studies usually involve significantly larger groups of patients, and considerable additional expense. We were required to pay significant fees to third parties upon the first patient dosing in a Phase 3 trial of leronlimab, and we may be required to make additional fee payments to third parties upon the completion of additional milestones. Refer to Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies - PRO 140 Acquisition and Licensing Arrangements in the audited financial statements included in this prospectus for further information.

Manufacturing

We do not own or operate manufacturing facilities to produce leronlimab or perform CMC related activities. As such, we must depend on third-party manufacturing organizations and suppliers for all of our CMC activities. We continue to explore alternative CMC partners and sources to obtain access to adequate resources to support our CMC efforts for leronlimab in a cost-efficient manner.

We previously engaged Samsung and AGC Biologics, two global contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”), to initiate the scale-up to commercial batch quantities of product and develop the necessary controls and specifications to manufacture product on a consistent and reproducible manner. We also contracted with suitable CMOs to fill, finish, label, and package product into the final commercial package for commercial use. In order to commercialize product, this scaled-up material will need to be validated under best practices and demonstrated to meet approved specifications on an ongoing basis. GMP material will be produced as needed to support clinical trials for all therapeutic indications and until commercial product is approved by the FDA. We will rely on CMOs for all of our developmental and commercial needs.

In April 2019, the Company entered into several agreements with Samsung, pursuant to which Samsung agreed to perform technology transfer, process validation, manufacturing, pre-approval inspection, and supply services for the commercial supply of leronlimab bulk drug substance. In 2020, the Company entered into an additional agreement, pursuant to which Samsung agreed to perform technology transfer, process validation, vial filling, and storage services for clinical, pre-approval inspection, and commercial supply of leronlimab drug product. Under the agreements, Samsung is obligated to procure necessary raw materials for the Company and manufacture a specified minimum number of batches, and the Company is required to provide a rolling three-year forecast of future estimated manufacturing requirements to Samsung that are binding. We currently have sufficient drug product to support the Company’s anticipated development activities and have paused all manufacturing and CMC activities until additional drug product is needed.

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On November 21, 2023, Samsung informed the Company of Samsung’s intent to terminate the agreements, effective January 5, 2024. As of the date of this filing, the parties remain in communication about the outstanding issues under the agreements and potential options moving forward with Samsung. Under the agreements, Samsung may be entitled to terminate its services if the parties cannot agree on the past-due balance. The Company currently holds sufficient leronlimab to conduct its prospective clinical trial(s) in the short term. Management continues to be in contact with Samsung regarding potential approaches to resolve these issues. Samsung paused manufacturing for all unfulfilled commitments not needed by the Company starting in January 2022. Refer to Note 8, Commitments and Contingencies - Commitments with Samsung BioLogics Co., Ltd. (“Samsung”) in the consolidated financial statements for the quarter ended November 30, 2023, included in this prospectus for additional information.

Research and Development Costs

The Company’s research and development expenses totaled approximately $2.6 million and $27.0 million for the fiscal years ended May 31, 2023, and 2022, respectively, and approximately $3.0 million and $0.7 million for the six months ended November 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

Properties

We lease the space at which our principal executive offices are located at a monthly cost of approximately $15,400. We do not own or lease any other properties.

Employees and Human Capital Resources

As of January 31, 2024, we had nine employees, as well as a number of independent consultants, including our interim Chief Financial Officer and other individuals assisting us with the Company’s regulatory, quality, and medical matters. Our research and development team is geographically dispersed throughout the United States. CytoDyn is committed to pay equity regardless of gender or race/ethnicity. We invest in our workforce by offering competitive salaries and benefits. We may award stock options or other stock-based awards to selected employees and consultants under our equity incentive plan. We also offer various benefits to all eligible employees, including health care coverage and a 401(k) plan. None of our employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to identify or hire and retain additional employees or consultants on acceptable terms in the future.

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the other sections of this prospectus, including our financial statements and the related notes beginning on page F-1 of this prospectus. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this prospectus, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” You should review the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus for a discussion of important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis.

Overview

The Company is a clinical stage biotechnology company focused on the clinical development and potential commercialization of its product candidate, leronlimab, which is being studied for MASH, MASH-HIV, solid tumors in oncology, and other HIV indications. The Company’s focus is on implementing a therapeutic development and commercialization pathway for leronlimab through an approach that is opportunistic and minimizes the amount of Company capital needed for the creation of value by identifying strategies that are time- and cost-effective and support the creation of non-dilutive financing opportunities, such as license agreements and co-development or strategic partnerships. Our current business strategy is to seek the removal of the clinical hold imposed by the FDA in December 2023, and proceed towards conducting a Phase II study evaluating the effects of leronlimab on chronic immune activation and inflammation in cisgender men and women and transgender women living with HIV; pursuing research and development of longer-acting molecules, including for the treatment and/or prevention of HIV; evaluating whether to conduct a combination pre-clinical study or monotherapy Phase 2b/3 clinical trial in MASH; evaluating opportunities for pre-clinical studies in solid tumors in oncology and publishing data from previously conducted studies; and resolving legal, regulatory, and financial matters.

Results of Operations for the Three- and Six-Month fiscal periods ended November 30, 2023 and 2022

Fluctuations in operating results

The Company’s operating results may fluctuate significantly depending on the outcomes, number and timing of pre-clinical and clinical studies, patient enrollment and/or completion rates in the studies, and their related effect on research and development expenses, regulatory and compliance activities, activities related to seeking removal of the clinical hold and FDA approval of our drug product, general and administrative expenses, professional fees, and legal and regulatory proceedings and related consequences. We require a significant amount of capital to continue to operate; therefore, we regularly conduct financing offerings to raise capital, which may result in various forms of non-cash interest expense or other expenses. Additionally, we periodically seek to negotiate settlement of debt payment obligations in exchange for equity securities of the Company and enter into warrant exchanges or modifications that may result in non-cash charges. Our ability to continue to fund operations will depend on our ability to raise additional funds. See the Liquidity and Capital Resources and Going Concern sections in this prospectus.

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The results of operations were as follows for the periods presented:

    

Three months ended November 30,

    

Change

    

Six months ended November 30,

    

Change

 

(in thousands, except for per share data)

2023

    

2022

$

    

%

2023

    

2022

$

    

%

 

Operating expenses:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

General and administrative

$

2,311

$

5,043

$

(2,732)

 

(54)

%  

$

4,999

$

11,376

$

(6,377)

 

(56)

%

Research and development

 

1,079

 

137

 

942

 

688

 

2,993

 

713

 

2,280

 

320

Amortization and depreciation

 

8

 

54

 

(46)

 

(85)

 

18

 

153

 

(135)

 

(88)

Inventory charge

 

 

17,929

 

(17,929)

 

(100)

 

 

20,633

 

(20,633)

 

(100)

Total operating expenses

 

3,398

 

23,163

 

(19,765)

 

(85)

 

8,010

 

32,875

 

(24,865)

 

(76)

Operating loss

 

(3,398)

 

(23,163)

 

19,765

 

85

 

(8,010)

 

(32,875)

 

24,865

 

76

Interest and other expenses:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Interest on convertible notes

 

(1,164)

 

(1,159)

 

(5)

 

(0)

 

(2,361)

 

(2,305)

 

(56)

 

(2)

Amortization of discount on convertible notes

 

(142)

 

(580)

 

438

 

76

 

(542)

 

(1,156)

 

614

 

53

Amortization of debt issuance costs

 

(3)

 

(18)

 

15

 

83

 

(369)

 

(34)

 

(335)

 

(985)

Issuance costs for private placement of shares and warrants through placement agent

 

(906)

 

 

(906)

 

(100)

 

(906)

 

 

(906)

 

(100)

Loss on induced conversion

 

(636)

 

(638)

 

2

 

0

 

(2,640)

 

(638)

 

(2,002)

 

(314)

Finance charges

 

(891)

 

(937)

 

46

 

5

 

(1,803)

 

(1,877)

 

74

 

4

Loss on note extinguishment

 

(2,406)

 

 

(2,406)

 

(100)

 

(4,490)

 

 

(4,490)

 

(100)

Gain (loss) on derivatives

 

(17)

 

 

(17)

 

(100)

 

(13)

 

(8,601)

 

8,588

 

100

Total interest and other expenses

 

(6,165)

 

(3,332)

 

(2,833)

 

(85)

 

(13,124)

 

(14,611)

 

1,487

 

10

Loss before income taxes

 

(9,563)

 

(26,495)

 

16,932

 

64

 

(21,134)

 

(47,486)

 

26,352

 

55

Income tax benefit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(9,563)

$

(26,495)

$

16,932

 

64

%  

$

(21,134)

$

(47,486)

$

26,352

 

55

%

Basic and diluted:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Weighted average common shares outstanding

 

958,988

 

813,373

 

145,615

 

18

 

941,191

 

800,545

 

140,646

 

18

Loss per share

$

(0.01)

$

(0.03)

$

0.02

 

67

%  

$

(0.02)

$

(0.07)

$

0.05

 

71

%

General and administrative (“G&A”) expenses

G&A expenses consisted of the following:

    

Three months ended November 30,

    

Change

    

Six months ended November 30,

    

Change

 

(in thousands)

2023

    

2022

$

    

%

2023

    

2022

$

    

%

 

Salaries, benefits, and other compensation

$

461

$

979

$

(518)

(53)

%  

$

1,103

$

2,257

$

(1,154)

(51)

%

Stock-based compensation

 

572

 

1,777

 

(1,205)

(68)

 

1,075

 

3,118

 

(2,043)

(66)

Legal fees

 

476

 

1,044

 

(568)

(54)

 

793

 

2,497

 

(1,704)

(68)

Insurance

 

521

 

687

 

(166)

(24)

 

937

 

1,371

 

(434)

(32)

Other

 

281

 

556

 

(275)

(49)

 

1,091

 

2,133

 

(1,042)

(49)

Total general and administrative

$

2,311

$

5,043

$

(2,732)

(54)

%  

$

4,999

$

11,376

$

(6,377)

(56)

%

The decreases in G&A expenses for the three- and six-month periods ended November 30, 2023, compared to the same periods in the prior year, were primarily due to a reduction in legal fees, other, stock-based compensation, and salaries, benefits, and other compensation. The decreases in legal fees were primarily due to decreased legal fees related to the SEC and DOJ investigations, offset by a decrease in the amount of fees covered by the Company’s insurance carrier(s) and increased fees related to the Amarex litigation. Additionally, for the three-month period ended November 30, 2023, legal fees were further decreased due to a reduction in fees related to regulatory and corporate related matters. The decreases in other expenses were primarily the result of a reduction in auditor and audit-related fees. The decreases in stock-based compensation and salaries, benefits, and other compensation were primarily related to headcount reductions as an effort by the Company to preserve cash and align resources with necessary corporate priorities.

43


Research and development (“R&D”) expenses

R&D expenses consisted of the following:

Three months ended November 30,

    

Change

    

Six months ended November 30,

    

Change

 

(in thousands)

    

2023

    

2022

    

$

    

%

    

2023(1)

    

2022

    

$

    

%

Clinical

$

277

$

(712)

$

989

(139)

%  

$

1,528

$

(631)

$

2,159

(342)

%

Non-clinical

 

237

 

(22)

 

259

(1,177)

 

488

 

26

 

462

1,777

CMC

 

319

 

707

 

(388)

(55)

 

488

 

920

 

(432)

(47)

License and patent fees

 

246

 

164

 

82

50

 

489

 

398

 

91

23

Total research and development

$

1,079

$

137

$

942

688

%  

$

2,993

$

713

$

2,280

320

%


(1)Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified from CMC to Clinical and Non-clinical for consistency with the current quarter presentation. These reclassifications have no effect on the reported results of operations.

The increases in R&D expenses in the three- and six-month periods ended November 30, 2023, compared to the same periods in the prior year, were primarily related to a credit balance in prior year clinical expense related to credits received related to the Brazilian COVID-19 trials offset by decreases in costs related to activities focused on addressing the HIV program partial clinical hold and studies completed, paused, or closed in the prior year. Additionally for the six-month period ended November 30, 2023, clinical expenses were further increased by close-out costs incurred related to the Brazilian COVID-19 trials. The increase in non-clinical expenses was primarily driven by activities related to the discovery and development of a long-acting modified therapeutic. The decrease in CMC expenses was primarily driven by the reduction in necessary stability testing of previously manufactured leronlimab.

The future trend of our R&D expenses is dependent on the timing of FDA clearance of the current clinical hold and any future clinical trials, our decision-making and timing of which indications on which to focus our future efforts toward the development and study of leronlimab, which may include pre-clinical and clinical studies for MASH, MASH-HIV, oncology, and other HIV related indications, as well as efforts to develop a long-acting new or modified therapeutic, and the timing and outcomes of such efforts, and the timing of the final close-out of closed studies.

Inventory charge

The decrease in the inventory charge for the three- and six-month periods ended November 30, 2023, compared to the same periods in the prior year was attributable to the full inventory write-off in the prior year due to the pre-launch inventories no longer qualifying for inventory capitalization due to the withdrawal of the Company’s BLA submission to the FDA. See Note 3, Inventories, net, in the audited financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information.

Interest and other expense

Interest and other expense consisted of the following:

    

Three months ended November 30,

    

Change

    

Six months ended November 30,

    

Change

 

(in thousands)

    

2023

    

2022

    

$

    

%

    

2023

    

2022

    

$

    

%

Interest on convertible notes payable

$

(1,164)

$

(1,159)

$

(5)

(0)

%  

$

(2,361)

$

(2,305)

$

(56)

2

%

Amortization of discount on convertible notes

 

(142)

 

(580)

 

438

76

 

(542)

 

(1,156)

 

614

(53)

Amortization of debt issuance costs

 

(3)

 

(18)

 

15

83

 

(369)

 

(34)

 

(335)

985

Issuance costs for private placement of shares and warrants through placement agent

 

(906)

 

 

(906)

(100)

 

(906)

 

 

(906)

(100)

Loss on induced conversion

 

(636)

 

(638)

 

2

0

 

(2,640)

 

(638)

 

(2,002)

314

Finance charges

 

(891)

 

(937)

 

46

5

 

(1,803)

 

(1,877)

 

74

(4)

Loss on note extinguishment

 

(2,406)

 

 

(2,406)

(100)

 

(4,490)

 

 

(4,490)

(100)

Gain (loss) on derivatives

 

(17)

 

 

(17)

(100)

 

(13)

 

(8,601)

 

8,588

(100)

Total interest and other expenses

$

(6,165)

$

(3,332)

$

(2,833)

85

%  

$

(13,124)

$

(14,611)

$

1,487

(10)

%

The increase in interest and other expenses for the three-month period ended November 30, 2023, compared with the same period in the prior year, was primarily due to the increase in loss on note extinguishment that resulted from the Company finalizing a private placement at a lower price than the initial closing price, as described above.

44


The decrease in interest and other expenses for the six-month period ended November 30, 2023, compared to the same period in the prior year, was primarily due to a decrease in non-cash loss on derivatives, offset by increases in loss on note extinguishment and loss on induced conversion. The decrease in loss on derivatives is due to fewer liability-classified warrants in the current six-month period compared to the same period in the prior year. The increase in loss on induced conversions resulted from the Company settling a larger balance of the outstanding convertible debt with common stock during the current six-month period compared to the prior period. The increase in loss on note extinguishment resulted from the Company retiring outstanding convertible debt by converting notes outstanding to common stock and warrants and due to the final closing price of the private placement being lower than the initial closing price, which resulted in a loss on note extinguishment during the current six-month period.

Results of operations for the fiscal years ended May 31, 2023 and 2022

Fluctuations in Operating Results

The Company’s operating results may fluctuate significantly depending on the outcomes, number and timing of pre-clinical and clinical studies, patient enrollment and/or completion rates in the studies, and their related effect on research and development expenses, regulatory and compliance activities, activities related to seeking removal of the partial clinical hold and FDA approval of our drug product, general and administrative expenses, professional fees, and legal and regulatory proceedings and related consequences. We require a significant amount of capital to continue to operate; therefore, we regularly conduct financing offerings to raise capital, which may result in various forms of non-cash interest expense or other expenses. Additionally, we periodically seek to negotiate settlement of debt payment obligations in exchange for equity securities of the Company and enter into warrant exchanges or modifications that may result in non-cash charges. Our ability to continue to fund operations will depend on our ability to raise additional funds. Refer to Risk Factors, Liquidity and Capital Resources, and Going Concern sections included in this prospectus.

The results of operations were as follows for the periods presented:

Fiscal years ended May 31,

Change

 

(in thousands, except for per share data)

    

2023

    

2022

    

$

    

%

 

Revenue

$

$

266

$

(266)

(100)

%

Cost of goods sold

 

 

53

 

(53)

(100)

Gross profit

 

 

213

 

(213)

(100)

Operating expenses:

 

  

 

  

 

  

  

General and administrative

 

17,136

 

44,303

 

(27,167)

(61)

Research and development

 

2,632

 

27,043

 

(24,411)

(90)

Amortization and depreciation

 

175

 

781

 

(606)

(78)

Inventory charge

 

20,633

 

73,490

 

(52,857)

(72)

Total operating expenses

 

40,576

 

145,617

 

(105,041)

(72)

Operating loss

 

(40,576)

 

(145,404)

 

104,828

(72)

Interest and other expenses:

 

  

 

  

 

  

  

Interest on convertible notes

 

(4,624)

 

(5,417)

 

793

(15)

Amortization of discount on convertible notes

 

(2,126)

 

(2,958)

 

832

(28)

Amortization of debt issuance costs

 

(9,747)

 

(87)

 

(9,660)

11,103

Loss on induced conversion

 

(5,312)

 

(37,381)

 

32,069

(86)

Finance charges

 

(8,689)

 

(9,029)

 

340

(4)

Inducement interest expense

 

 

(6,691)

 

6,691

(100)

Legal settlement

 

 

(3,853)

 

3,853

(100)

Loss on derivatives

 

8,750

 

 

8,750

100

Total interest and other expenses

 

(39,248)

 

(65,416)

 

26,168

(40)

Loss before income taxes

 

(79,824)

 

(210,820)

 

130,996

(62)

Income tax benefit

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(79,824)

$

(210,820)

$

130,996

(62)

%

Basic and diluted:

 

  

 

  

 

  

  

Weighted average common shares outstanding

 

836,528

 

676,900

 

159,628.00

24

Loss per share

$

(0.10)

$

(0.31)

$

0.21

(67)

%

45


Product revenue, Cost of goods sold (“COGS”) and Gross margin

We had no revenue in the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023 as compared to approximately $266 thousand in the fiscal year ended May 31, 2022. Revenue was related to the fulfillment of orders under a Compassionate Special Permit (“CSP”) in the Philippines for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Sales were made under the April 2021 exclusive supply and distribution agreement granting Chiral the right to distribute and sell up to 200,000 vials of leronlimab through April 15, 2022. At the time of the sales, FDA approval had not been received for leronlimab and the product sold was previously expensed as research and development expense due to its being manufactured prior to the commencement of the manufacturing of commercial grade pre-launch inventories. Therefore, COGS consists only of the costs of packaging and shipping of the vials, including related customs and duties.

General and administrative expenses

G&A expenses consisted of the following:

Fiscal years ended May 31,

    

Change

 

(in thousands)

    

2023

    

2022

    

$

%

 

Salaries, benefits, and other compensation

$

4,114

$

6,336

$

(2,222)

(35)

%

Stock-based compensation

 

4,222

 

6,263

 

(2,041)

(33)

Legal fees

 

2,805

 

21,993

 

(19,188)

(87)

Directors and officers liability insurance

 

2,399

 

4,512

 

(2,113)

(47)

Other

 

3,596

 

5,199

 

(1,603)

(31)

Total general and administrative

$

17,136

$

44,303

$

(27,167)

(61)

%

The decreases in G&A expenses for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, compared to the prior fiscal year, were due to reductions in all categories. The decreases in legal fees were due to lower legal fees related to the SEC and DOJ investigations, Pestell employment dispute (which was resolved in May 2022), and Amarex dispute, the absence of legal fees related to the prior year proxy contest and related lawsuits, and the payment of certain legal fees by the Company’s insurance carriers. The decreases in salaries, benefits, and other compensation and stock-based compensation were the result of decreased headcount, cash compensation, and option forfeitures during the year. The decrease in directors and officers liability insurance was due to less insurance premiums due to a lower market capitalization. The decreases in other expenses were the result of a reduction in expenses related to the prior year proxy contest and recruiting and contract services, partially offset by an increase in auditor fees.

Research and development expenses

R&D expenses consisted of the following:

Fiscal years ended May 31,

Change

 

(in thousands)

    

2023

    

2022

    

$

%

 

Clinical

$

(92)

$

20,347

$

(20,439)

(100)

%

Non-clinical

 

136

 

986

 

(850)

(86)

CMC

 

1,687

 

4,995

 

(3,308)

(66)

License and patent fees

 

901

 

715

 

186

26

Total research and development

$

2,632

$

27,043

$

(24,411)

(90)

%

The decreases in R&D expenses in the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, compared to the prior fiscal year, were primarily the result of clinical trials related to COVID-19, MASH, HIV extension, and oncology studies being completed, paused, or closed that had been active in the prior year, as well as decreased activity related to the BLA resubmission, partially offset by increased costs related to activities focused on addressing the HIV program partial clinical hold. The credit balance in clinical expenses for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, is due to vendor credit memos issued related to the paused Brazilian COVID-19 trials. The decrease in non-clinical expenses from the same periods in the prior year was the result of decreased activity from non-clinical studies related to the BLA submission. The decrease in CMC-related expenses from the prior year was the result of decreased activity related to CMC manufacturing.

The future trend of our R&D expenses is dependent on the timing of the FDA’s potential lifting of the clinical hold and any future clinical trials, our decision-making and timing of the selection of which indications on which to focus our future efforts toward the

46


clinical development and study of leronlimab, which may include the treatment of MASH, MASH-HIV, oncology, and other HIV-related indications, and the timing and outcomes of such efforts.

Inventory charge

The decrease in the inventory charge for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, compared to the prior fiscal year was attributable to the majority of inventory being written-off in the prior year. The remaining inventory was written-off in the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023 due to pre-launch inventories no longer qualifying for inventory capitalization due to the withdrawal of the BLA submission. See Note 3, Inventories, net in the audited financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information.

Interest and other expense

Interest and other expenses consisted of the following:

Fiscal years ended May 31,

Change

 

(in thousands)

    

2023

    

2022

    

$

    

%

 

Interest on convertible notes payable

$

4,624

$

5,417

$

(793)

(15)

%

Amortization of discount on convertible notes

 

2,126

 

2,958

 

(832)

(28)

Amortization of debt issuance costs

 

9,747

 

87

 

9,660

11,103

Loss on induced conversion

 

5,312

 

37,381

 

(32,069)

(86)

Finance charges

 

8,689

 

9,029

 

(340)

(4)

Inducement interest expense

 

 

6,691

 

(6,691)

(100)

Legal settlement

 

 

3,853

 

(3,853)

(100)

Loss on derivatives

 

8,750

 

 

8,750

100

Total interest and other expenses

$

39,248

$

65,416

$

(26,168)

(40)

%

The decreases in interest and other expenses for the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, compared to the same period in the prior year were primarily due to a decrease in non-cash loss on induced conversion, inducement interest expense, and legal settlement, partially offset by an increase in amortization of debt issuance costs and loss on derivatives. The decreased non-cash loss on induced conversions resulted from the Company settling less outstanding convertible debt with common stock during the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023 compared to the prior year. The decrease in inducement interest expense is the result of it now being recorded in stockholders’ equity as a result of the adoption of ASU No. 2021-04. Refer to Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies – Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements in the audited financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information. The decrease in legal settlement expense is due to no legal settlements being finalized in the fiscal year ended May 31, 2023, resulting in zero expense. The increase of debt issuance cost was primarily attributable to recognition of the issuance costs of the private placement of common stock and warrants through a placement agent in the current fiscal year as an expense. See Note 7, Equity and Warrants –Private placement of common stock and warrants through placement agent in the audited financial statements included in this prospectus for additional information. The increase in loss on derivatives was primarily attributable to the change in the fair value of liability-classified warrants issued in connection with a Surety Backstop Agreement relating to the Amarex litigation proceeding and placement agent warrants issued in connection with an offering for which the related warrants subsequently became equity classified upon stockholder approval of an increase in authorized shares on August 31, 2022.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

As of November 30, 2023, we had a total of approximately $0.1 million in cash and $6.6 million in restricted cash and approximately $123.4 million in short-term liabilities. We expect to continue to incur operating losses and require a significant amount of capital in the future as we continue to develop and seek approval to commercialize leronlimab. We cannot be certain, however, that future funding will be available to us when needed on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. We sell securities and incur debt when the terms of such arrangements are deemed acceptable to both parties under then current circumstances and as necessary to fund our current and projected cash needs. As of December 31, 2023, we have approximately 371.0 million shares of common stock available for issuance in new financing transactions.

Since inception, the Company has financed its activities principally from the public and private sale of equity securities as well as with proceeds from issuance of convertible notes and related party notes payable. The Company intends to finance its future operating activities and its working capital needs largely from the sale of equity and debt securities. The sale of equity and convertible debt securities to raise additional capital is likely to result in dilution to stockholders and those securities may have rights senior to those of

47


common shares. If the Company raises funds through the issuance of additional preferred stock, convertible debt securities or other debt or equity financing, the related transaction documents could contain covenants restricting its operations.

During the 2021 fiscal year, the Company entered into long-term convertible notes that are secured by all of our assets (excluding our intellectual property), and include certain restrictive provisions, including limitations on incurring additional indebtedness and future dilutive issuances of securities, any of which could impair our ability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms.

Future third-party funding arrangements may also require the Company to relinquish valuable rights. Additional capital, if available, may not be available on reasonable or non-dilutive terms.

Cash

The Company’s cash and restricted cash position of approximately $0.1 million and $6.6 million, respectively, as of November 30, 2023, decreased by approximately $2.4 million and increased by approximately $0.1 million, respectively, when compared to the balance of $2.5 million and $6.5 million, respectively, as of May 31, 2023. This decrease was primarily the result of approximately $7.0 million in cash used in our operating activities, offset by approximately $4.7 million in cash provided by financing activities during the six months ended November 30, 2023. Refer to Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies – Going Concern in the consolidated financial statements for the quarter ended November 30, 2023 in this prospectus, and the Going Concern discussion below for information regarding concerns about the Company’s ability to continue to fund its operations and satisfy its payment obligations and commitments. A summary of cash flows and changes between the periods presented is as follows:

    

Six months ended November 30,

    

Change

(in thousands)

    

2023

    

2022

    

$

Net cash (used in) provided by:

 

  

 

  

  

Net cash used in operating activities

$

(6,997)

$

(15,480)

$

8,483

Net cash provided by/ used in investing activities

$

$

$

Net cash provided by financing activities

$

4,673

$

13,852

$

(9,179)

Cash used in operating activities

Net cash used in operating activities totaled approximately $7.0 million during the six months ended November 30, 2023, representing an improvement of approximately $8.5 million compared to the six months ended November 30, 2022. The decrease in the net amount of cash used was due primarily to a decrease in our net loss, primarily attributable to decreased G&A expense, and working capital fluctuations, all of which are highly variable.

Cash provided by financing activities

Net cash provided by financing activities totaled approximately $4.7 million during the six months ended November 30, 2023, a decrease of approximately $9.2 million compared to the six months ended November 30, 2022. The decrease in net cash provided was primarily the result of raising less funds from private placements of common stock and warrants, partially offset by an increase in funds from the issuance of convertible notes.

Pre-launch inventories

The Company previously capitalized pre-launch inventories which were subsequently charged-off in October 2022 for GAAP accounting purposes due to no longer qualifying for pre-launch inventory capitalization. Work-in-progress and finished drug product inventories continue to be physically maintained, can be used for clinical trials, and can be sold commercially upon regulatory approval if the shelf-lives can be extended as a result of the performance of on-going stability tests. Raw materials continued to be maintained so that they can be used in the future if needed.

48


The table below summarizes previously capitalized pre-launch inventories that were subsequently charged-off for GAAP accounting purposes due to no longer qualifying for pre-launch inventory capitalization due to the withdrawal of the Company’s BLA in October 2022 and estimated expiration based on remaining shelf life.

Raw Materials

Work-in-progress

    

Remaining

    

    

    

    

Total Raw

    

Bulk drug

    

Finished drug

    

Total

(in thousands, Expiration period ending November 30,)

shelf-life (mos)

Specialized

Resins

Other

Materials

product

product

inventories

2023

 

None

$

4,764

$

16,264

$

$

21,028

$

$

$

21,028

2024

 

1 to 12

 

2,511

 

 

1,589

 

4,100

 

1,661

 

29,142

 

34,903

2025

 

13 to 24

 

189