http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#GeneralPartnerMember2023Q20001396878--12-31http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#GeneralPartnerMemberfalse0001396878us-gaap:CommodityContractMemberuga:OpenPositionMemberus-gaap:FutureMember2023-01-012023-06-300001396878us-gaap:CommodityContractMemberuga:OpenPositionMemberus-gaap:FutureMember2022-01-012022-06-300001396878us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember2023-06-300001396878us-gaap:GeneralPartnerMember2023-06-300001396878us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember2023-03-310001396878us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember2022-12-310001396878us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember2022-06-300001396878us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember2022-03-310001396878us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember2021-12-310001396878uga:UnitedStatesGasFundLpMember2023-01-012023-06-300001396878uga:FundTrustsMember2023-01-012023-06-300001396878us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember2023-04-012023-06-300001396878us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember2023-01-012023-06-300001396878us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember2022-04-012022-06-300001396878us-gaap:LimitedPartnerMember2022-01-012022-06-300001396878country:USus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeFutureMember2023-06-300001396878country:USus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeFutureMember2023-06-300001396878country:USus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeFutureMember2023-06-300001396878us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2023-06-300001396878us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2023-06-300001396878us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2023-06-300001396878country:USus-gaap:ForeignExchangeFutureMember2023-06-300001396878us-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2023-06-300001396878country:USus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeFutureMember2022-12-310001396878country:USus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeFutureMember2022-12-310001396878country:USus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeFutureMember2022-12-310001396878us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2022-12-310001396878us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2022-12-310001396878us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2022-12-310001396878country:USus-gaap:ForeignExchangeFutureMember2022-12-310001396878us-gaap:ShortTermInvestmentsMember2022-12-310001396878us-gaap:CommodityContractMemberuga:ClosedPositionsMemberus-gaap:FutureMember2023-01-012023-06-300001396878us-gaap:CommodityContractMemberuga:ClosedPositionsMemberus-gaap:FutureMember2022-01-012022-06-300001396878uga:MorganStanleyInstitutionalLiquidityFundsGovernmentPortfolioMemberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:CashEquivalentsMember2023-06-300001396878us-gaap:AssetsTotalMemberus-gaap:CommodityContractMemberus-gaap:FutureMember2023-06-300001396878us-gaap:AssetsTotalMemberus-gaap:CommodityContractMemberus-gaap:FutureMember2022-12-3100013968782008-11-252008-11-250001396878us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberuga:MorganStanleyInstitutionalLiquidityFundGovernmentPortfolioMemberus-gaap:CashEquivalentsMember2023-06-300001396878country:USuga:NymexRbobGasolineFuturesRbAugust2023ContractsExpiringJuly2023Memberuga:OpenFuturesContractsLongMember2023-06-300001396878uga:GroupNineMemberus-gaap:LicensingAgreementsMember2023-01-012023-06-3000013968782007-11-012007-11-300001396878uga:CreationBasketsMember2023-01-012023-06-3000013968782023-03-3100013968782022-03-3100013968782021-12-3100013968782008-11-250001396878uga:MarketingAgentAndAffiliateOfUscfMember2023-01-012023-06-3000013968782022-12-3100013968782023-04-012023-06-3000013968782022-04-012022-06-3000013968782022-01-012022-06-300001396878srt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-06-300001396878srt:MaximumMember2023-01-012023-06-3000013968782023-06-3000013968782022-06-300001396878uga:GroupThreeMemberuga:MarketingAgreementMember2023-06-300001396878uga:GroupFourMemberuga:MarketingAgreementMember2023-06-300001396878uga:GroupThreeMemberuga:MarketingAgreementMember2023-01-012023-06-300001396878uga:GroupFourMemberuga:MarketingAgreementMember2023-01-012023-06-3000013968782023-07-3100013968782023-01-012023-06-30xbrli:sharesxbrli:pureiso4217:USDiso4217:USDuga:itemiso4217:USDxbrli:sharesuga:contract

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2023.

or

Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the transition period from             to             .

Commission file number: 001-33975

United States Gasoline Fund, LP

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

20-8837263

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

1850 Mt. Diablo Boulevard, Suite 640

Walnut Creek, California 94596

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

(510) 522-9600

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

N/A

(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

Title of each class:

    

Trading Symbol(s)

    

Name of each exchange on which registered:

Shares of United States Gasoline Fund, LP

 

UGA

 

NYSE Arca, Inc.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large Accelerated Filer

 

Accelerated Filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-Accelerated Filer

 

Smaller Reporting Company

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided in Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.). Yes No

The registrant had 1,050,000 outstanding shares as of July 31, 2023.

3

United States Gasoline Fund, LP

Condensed Statements of Financial Condition

At June 30, 2023 (Unaudited) and December 31, 2022

    

June 30, 2023

    

December 31, 2022

Assets

Cash and cash equivalents (at cost $21,597,023 and $30,583,281, respectively) (Notes 2 and 5)

$

21,597,023

$

30,583,281

Equity in trading accounts:

Cash and cash equivalents (at cost $48,319,045 and $44,598,492, respectively)

 

48,319,045

 

44,598,492

Unrealized gain (loss) on open commodity futures contracts

 

(1,179,293)

 

11,615,386

Dividends receivable

 

54,830

 

103,038

Interest receivable

 

198,172

 

139,201

Prepaid license fees

3,338

2,473

Prepaid insurance*

 

16,241

 

4,804

Total Assets

$

69,009,356

$

87,046,675

Liabilities and Partners’ Capital

Payable due to Broker

$

$

196,909

General Partner management fees payable (Note 3)

34,082

41,647

Professional fees payable

 

104,220

 

150,653

Brokerage commissions payable

 

21,403

 

18,376

Directors’ fees payable*

 

1,477

 

1,910

Total Liabilities

 

161,182

 

409,495

Commitments and Contingencies (Notes 3, 4 & 5)

 

  

 

  

Partners’ Capital

 

  

 

  

General Partners

 

 

Limited Partners

 

68,848,174

 

86,637,180

Total Partners’ Capital

 

68,848,174

 

86,637,180

Total Liabilities and Partners’ Capital

$

69,009,356

$

87,046,675

Limited Partners’ shares outstanding

1,100,000

1,450,000

Net asset value per share

$

62.59

$

59.75

Market value per share

$

62.66

$

59.94

*

Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified for consistency with the current presentation.

See accompanying notes to condensed financial statements.

4

United States Gasoline Fund, LP

Condensed Schedule of Investments (Unaudited)

At June 30, 2023

    

    

    

Fair

    

Value/Unrealized

Gain (Loss) on

Open

% of

Notional

Number of

Commodity

Partners’

Amount

Contracts

Contracts

Capital

Open Commodity Futures Contracts - Long

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

United States Contracts

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

NYMEX RBOB Gasoline Futures RB August 2023 contracts, expiring July 2023*

$

70,013,748

 

644

$

(1,179,293)

 

(1.71)

    

Shares/Principal

    

Market

    

% of Partners’

Amount

Value

Capital

Cash Equivalents

United States Money Market Funds

  

 

  

 

Morgan Stanley Institutional Liquidity Funds - Government Portfolio - Institutional Shares, 5.02%#

20,850,000

$

20,850,000

30.28

Total United States Money Market Funds

$

20,850,000

 

30.28

#Reflects the 7-day yield at June 30, 2023.

*Collateral amounted to $48,319,045 on open commodity futures contracts.

See accompanying notes to condensed financial statements.

5

United States Gasoline Fund, LP

Condensed Statements of Operations (Unaudited)

For the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022

    

Three months ended

    

Three months ended

    

Six months ended

    

Six months ended

June 30, 2023

June 30, 2022

June 30, 2023

June 30, 2022

Income

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Gain (loss) on trading of commodity futures contracts:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Realized gain (loss) on closed commodity futures contracts

$

8,168,635

$

30,685,729

$

15,412,862

$

60,819,175

Change in unrealized gain (loss) on open commodity futures contracts

 

(7,027,138)

 

(10,834,845)

 

(12,794,679)

 

(15,563,058)

Dividend income

 

201,448

 

134,291

 

431,922

 

144,690

Interest income*

 

597,114

 

28,901

 

1,094,529

 

35,446

ETF transaction fees

1,400

5,600

2,800

9,450

Total Income (Loss)

$

1,941,459

$

20,019,676

$

4,147,434

$

45,445,703

Expenses

 

  

 

  

 

 

  

General Partner management fees (Note 3)

$

107,925

$

205,645

$

220,553

$

348,457

Professional fees

 

101,553

 

56,138

 

207,012

 

104,004

Brokerage commissions

 

12,739

 

22,074

 

29,442

 

40,809

Directors’ fees and insurance

 

6,948

 

7,573

13,943

 

14,448

License fees

 

2,698

 

5,142

5,513

8,712

Total Expenses

$

231,863

$

296,572

$

476,463

$

516,430

Net Income (Loss)

$

1,709,596

$

19,723,104

$

3,670,971

$

44,929,273

Net Income (Loss) per limited partner share

$

1.85

$

11.82

$

2.84

$

26.68

Net Income (Loss) per weighted average limited partner share

$

1.43

$

9.65

$

2.96

$

22.81

Weighted average limited partner shares outstanding

 

1,197,802

 

2,044,505

 

1,241,713

 

1,969,337

*

Interest income does not exceed paid in kind of 5%.

See accompanying notes to condensed financial statements.

6

United States Gasoline Fund, LP

Condensed Statements of Changes in Partners’ Capital (Unaudited)

For the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022

    

Limited Partners*

    

Three months ended

    

Three months ended

    

Six months ended

    

Six months ended

June 30, 2023

June 30, 2022

June 30, 2023

June 30, 2022

Balances at beginning of period

$

72,891,759

$

111,796,995

$

86,637,180

$

71,811,722

Addition of 50,000, 1,050,000, 100,000 and 1,650,000 partnership shares, respectively

 

3,188,498

 

73,460,648

 

6,379,614

 

106,901,197

Redemption of (150,000), (900,000), (450,000) and (1,250,000) partnership shares, respectively

 

(8,941,679)

 

(59,392,085)

 

(27,839,591)

 

(78,053,530)

Net income (loss)

 

1,709,596

 

19,723,104

 

3,670,971

 

44,929,273

Balances at end of period

$

68,848,174

$

145,588,662

$

68,848,174

$

145,588,662

*

General Partners’ shares outstanding and capital for the periods presented were zero.

See accompanying notes to condensed financial statements.

7

United States Gasoline Fund, LP

Condensed Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)

For the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022

    

Six months ended

    

Six months ended

June 30, 2023

June 30, 2022

Cash Flows from Operating Activities:

Net income (loss)

$

3,670,971

$

44,929,273

Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:

Change in unrealized (gain) loss on open commodity futures contracts

 

12,794,679

 

15,563,058

(Increase) decrease in dividends receivable

48,208

(83,468)

(Increase) decrease in interest receivable

(58,971)

147

(Increase) decrease in prepaid other

(865)

(909)

(Increase) decrease in prepaid insurance*

(11,437)

(11,017)

(Increase) decrease in ETF transaction fees receivable

350

Increase (decrease) in payable due to Broker

(196,909)

Increase (decrease) in General Partner management fees payable

 

(7,565)

 

45,304

Increase (decrease) in professional fees payable

 

(46,433)

 

(78,831)

Increase (decrease) in brokerage commissions payable

 

3,027

 

2,419

Increase (decrease) in directors’ fees payable*

(433)

622

Increase (decrease) in license fees payable

 

 

(3,527)

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

16,194,272

60,363,421

Cash Flows from Financing Activities:

 

  

 

  

Addition of partnership shares

 

6,379,614

 

106,901,197

Redemption of partnership shares

 

(27,839,591)

 

(86,507,341)

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

 

(21,459,977)

 

20,393,856

Net Increase (Decrease) in Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

(5,265,705)

 

80,757,277

Total Cash, Cash Equivalents and Equity in Trading Accounts, beginning of period

 

75,181,773

 

76,840,846

Total Cash, Cash Equivalents and Equity in Trading Accounts, end of period

$

69,916,068

$

157,598,123

Components of Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Equity in Trading Accounts

 

  

 

Cash and cash equivalents

$

21,597,023

$

84,397,916

Equity in Trading Accounts:

 

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

 

48,319,045

 

73,200,207

Total Cash, Cash Equivalents and Equity in Trading Accounts

$

69,916,068

$

157,598,123

*

Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified for consistency with the current presentation.

See accompanying notes to condensed financial statements.

8

United States Gasoline Fund, LP

Notes to Condensed Financial Statements (Unaudited)

For the period ended June 30, 2023

NOTE 1 — ORGANIZATION AND BUSINESS

The United States Gasoline Fund, LP (“UGA”) was organized as a limited partnership under the laws of the state of Delaware on April 13, 2007. UGA is a commodity pool that issues limited partnership interests (“shares”) traded on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “NYSE Arca”). UGA’s shares began trading on February 26, 2008. Prior to November 25, 2008, UGA’s shares traded on the American Stock Exchange (the “AMEX”). UGA will continue in perpetuity, unless terminated sooner upon the occurrence of one or more events as described in its Third Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership dated as of December 15, 2017 (the “LP Agreement”), which grants full management and control to its general partner, United States Commodity Funds LLC (“USCF”). The investment objective of UGA is for the daily changes in percentage terms of its shares’ NAV per share to reflect the daily changes in percentage terms of the spot price of gasoline (also known as reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygen blending, or “RBOB”), for delivery to the New York harbor), as measured by the daily changes in the price of a specified short-term futures contract on gasoline called the “Benchmark Futures Contract,” plus interest earned on UGA’s collateral holdings, less UGA’s expenses. UGA seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing so that the average daily percentage change in UGA’s NAV for any period of 30 successive valuation days will be within plus/minus ten percent (10%) of the average daily percentage change in the price of the Benchmark Futures Contract over the same period. The Benchmark Futures Contract is the futures contract on gasoline as traded on the NYMEX that is the near month contract to expire, except when the near month contract is within two weeks of expiration, in which case it will be the futures contract that is the next month contract to expire.

UGA seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing in futures contracts for gasoline, other types of gasoline, crude oil, diesel-heating oil, natural gas and other petroleum-based fuels that are traded on the NYMEX, ICE Futures Europe and ICE Futures U.S. (together, “ICE Futures”) or other U.S. and foreign exchanges (collectively, “Futures Contracts”) and to a lesser extent, in order to comply with regulatory requirements, risk mitigation measures, liquidity requirements, or in view of market conditions, other gasoline-related investments such as cash-settled options on Futures Contracts, forward contracts for gasoline, cleared swap contracts and non-exchange traded (“over-the-counter” or “OTC”) transactions that are based on the price of gasoline, crude oil and other petroleum-based fuels, Futures Contracts and indices based on the foregoing (collectively, “Other Gasoline-Related Investments”). Market conditions that USCF currently anticipates could cause UGA to invest in Other Gasoline-Related Investments, include, but are not limited to, those allowing UGA to obtain greater liquidity, or to execute transactions with more favorable pricing. For convenience and unless otherwise specified, Futures Contracts and Other Gasoline-Related Investments collectively are referred to as “Gasoline Interests” in this notes to the financial statements.

In addition, USCF believes that market arbitrage opportunities will cause the daily changes in UGA’s share price on the NYSE Arca on a percentage basis to closely track the daily changes in UGA’s per share NAV on a percentage basis. USCF further believes that the daily changes in the prices of the Benchmark Futures Contract have historically closely tracked the daily changes in the spot price of gasoline. USCF believes that the net effect of these relationships will be that the daily changes in the price of UGA’s shares on the NYSE Arca on a percentage basis will closely track the daily changes in the spot price of gasoline on a percentage basis, less UGA’s expenses.

Investors should be aware that UGA’s investment objective is not for its NAV or market price of shares to equal, in dollar terms, the spot price of gasoline or any particular futures contract based on gasoline, nor is UGA’s investment objective for the percentage change in its NAV to reflect the percentage change of the price of any particular futures contract as measured over a time period greater than one day. This is because natural market forces called contango and backwardation have impacted the total return on an investment in UGA’s shares during the past year relative to a hypothetical direct investment in gasoline and, in the future, it is likely that the relationship between the market price of UGA’s shares and changes in the spot prices of gasoline will continue to be impacted by contango and backwardation. (It is important to note that the disclosure above ignores the potential costs associated with physically owning and storing gasoline, which could be substantial).

As of June 30, 2023, UGA held 644 Futures Contracts for gasoline traded on the NYMEX and did not hold any Futures Contracts traded on the ICE Futures.

9

UGA commenced investment operations on February 26, 2008 and has a fiscal year ending on December 31. USCF is responsible for the management of UGA. USCF is a member of the National Futures Association (the “NFA”) and became registered as a commodity pool operator with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”) effective December 1, 2005 and a swaps firm on August 8, 2013. USCF is also the general partner of the United States Oil Fund, LP (“USO”), the United States 12 Month Oil Fund, LP (“USL”), the United States Natural Gas Fund, LP (“UNG”), the United States 12 Month Natural Gas Fund, LP (“UNL”) and the United States Brent Oil Fund, LP (“BNO”).

USCF is also the sponsor of the United States Commodity Index Funds Trust (“USCIFT”), a Delaware statutory trust, and each of its series: the United States Commodity Index Fund (“USCI”) and United States Copper Index Fund (“CPER”).

USO, UNG, UNL, USL, BNO, USCI and CPER are referred to collectively herein as the “Related Public Funds.”

UGA issues shares to certain authorized purchasers (“Authorized Participants”) by offering baskets consisting of 50,000 shares (“Creation Baskets”) through ALPS Distributors, Inc., as the marketing agent (the “Marketing Agent”). The purchase price for a Creation Basket is based upon the NAV of a share calculated shortly after the close of the core trading session on the NYSE Arca on the day the order to create the basket is properly received.

Authorized Participants pay a transaction fee to UGA of $350 per order placed to create one or more Creation Baskets or to redeem one or more baskets (“Redemption Baskets”), consisting of 50,000 shares. Shares may be purchased or sold on a nationally recognized securities exchange in smaller increments than a Creation Basket or Redemption Basket. Shares purchased or sold on a nationally recognized securities exchange are not purchased or sold at the per share NAV of UGA but rather at market prices quoted on such exchange.

In November 2007, UGA initially registered 30,000,000 shares on Form S-1 with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). On February 26, 2008, UGA listed its shares on the AMEX under the ticker symbol “UGA” and switched to trading on the NYSE Arca under the same ticker symbol on November 25, 2008 as a result of the acquisition of the AMEX by NYSE Euronext. On that day, UGA established its’ initial per share NAV by setting the price at $50.00 and issued 300,000 shares in exchange for $15,000,000. UGA also commenced investment operations on February 26, 2008 by purchasing Futures Contracts traded on the NYMEX based on gasoline. As of June 30, 2023, UGA had an unlimited number of shares registered. On January 27, 2023, the SEC declared effective a registration statement filed by UGA that registered an unlimited number of shares. As a result, UGA has an unlimited number of shares that can be issued in the form of creation baskets.

The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X promulgated by the SEC and, therefore, do not include all information and footnote disclosure required under generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). The financial information included herein is unaudited; however, such financial information reflects all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, which are, in the opinion of USCF, necessary for the fair presentation of the condensed financial statements for the interim period.

NOTE 2 — SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Basis of Presentation

The condensed financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP as detailed in the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification. UGA is an investment company for accounting purposes and follows the accounting and reporting guidance in FASB Topic 946.

10

Revenue Recognition

Commodity futures contracts, forward contracts, physical commodities and related options are recorded on the trade date. All such transactions are recorded on the identified cost basis and marked to market daily. Unrealized gains or losses on open contracts are reflected in the condensed statements of financial condition and represent the difference between the original contract amount and the market value (as determined by exchange settlement prices for futures contracts and related options and cash dealer prices at a predetermined time for forward contracts, physical commodities, and their related options) as of the last business day of the year or as of the last date of the condensed financial statements. Changes in the unrealized gains or losses between periods are reflected in the condensed statements of operations. UGA earns income on funds held at the custodian or futures commission merchants (“FCMs”) at prevailing market rates earned on such investments.

Brokerage Commissions

Brokerage commissions on all open commodity futures contracts are accrued on a full-turn basis.

Income Taxes

UGA is not subject to federal income taxes; each partner reports his/her allocable share of income, gain, loss, deductions or credits on his/her own income tax return.

In accordance with U.S. GAAP, UGA is required to determine whether a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by the applicable taxing authority, including resolution of any tax related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. UGA files an income tax return in the U.S. federal jurisdiction and may file income tax returns in various U.S. states. UGA is not subject to income tax return examinations by major taxing authorities for years before 2019. The tax benefit recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. De-recognition of a tax benefit previously recognized results in UGA recording a tax liability that reduces net assets. However, UGA’s conclusions regarding this policy may be subject to review and adjustment at a later date based on factors including, but not limited to, on-going analysis of and changes to tax laws, regulations and interpretations thereof. UGA recognizes interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax fees payable, if assessed. No interest expense or penalties have been recognized as of and for the period ended June 30, 2023.

Creations and Redemptions

Authorized Participants may purchase Creation Baskets or redeem Redemption Baskets only in blocks of 50,000 shares at a price equal to the NAV of the shares calculated shortly after the close of the core trading session on the NYSE Arca on the day the order is placed.

UGA receives or pays the proceeds from shares sold or redeemed within two business days after the trade date of the purchase or redemption. The amounts due from Authorized Participants are reflected in UGA’s condensed statements of financial condition as receivable for shares sold and amounts payable to Authorized Participants upon redemption are reflected as payable for shares redeemed.

Authorized Participants pay UGA a $350 transaction fee for each order placed to create one or more Creation Baskets or to redeem one or more Redemption Baskets.

Partnership Capital and Allocation of Partnership Income and Losses

Profit or loss shall be allocated among the partners of UGA in proportion to the weighted-average number of shares each partner holds as of the close of each month. USCF may revise, alter or otherwise modify this method of allocation as described in the LP Agreement.

Calculation of Per Share NAV

UGA’s per share NAV is calculated on each NYSE Arca trading day by taking the current market value of its total assets, subtracting any liabilities and dividing that amount by the total number of shares outstanding. UGA uses the closing price for the contracts on the relevant exchange on that day to determine the value of contracts held on such exchange.

11

Net Income (Loss) Per Share

Net income (loss) per share is the difference between the per share NAV at the beginning of each period and at the end of each period. The weighted average number of shares outstanding was computed for purposes of disclosing net income (loss) per weighted average share. The weighted average shares are equal to the number of shares outstanding at the end of the period, adjusted proportionately for shares added and redeemed based on the amount of time the shares were outstanding during such period. There were no shares held by USCF at June 30, 2023.

Offering Costs

Offering costs incurred in connection with the registration of additional shares after the initial registration of shares are borne by UGA. These costs include registration fees paid to regulatory agencies and all legal, accounting, printing and other expenses associated with such offerings. These costs are accounted for as a deferred charge and thereafter amortized to expense over twelve months on a straight-line basis or a shorter period if warranted.

Cash Equivalents

Cash equivalents include money market funds and overnight deposits or time deposits with original maturity dates of six months or less.

Reclassification

Certain amounts in the accompanying condensed financial statements were reclassified to conform to the current presentation.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of condensed financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires USCF to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed financial statements, and the reported amounts of the revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from those estimates and assumptions.

NOTE 3 — FEES PAID BY THE FUND AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

USCF Management Fee

Under the LP Agreement, USCF is responsible for investing the assets of UGA in accordance with the objectives and policies of UGA. In addition, USCF has arranged for one or more third parties to provide administrative, custody, accounting, transfer agency and other necessary services to UGA. For these services, UGA is contractually obligated to pay USCF a fee, which is paid monthly, equal to 0.60% per annum of average daily total net assets.

Ongoing Registration Fees and Other Offering Expenses

UGA pays all costs and expenses associated with the ongoing registration of its shares subsequent to the initial offering. These costs include registration or other fees paid to regulatory agencies in connection with the offer and sale of shares, and all legal, accounting, printing and other expenses associated with such offer and sale. For the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, UGA did not incur registration fees and other offering expenses.

Independent Directors’ and Officers’ Expenses

UGA is responsible for paying its portion of the directors’ and officers’ liability insurance for UGA and the other Related Public Funds and the fees and expenses of the independent directors who also serve as audit committee members of UGA and the Related Public Funds. UGA shares the fees and expenses on a pro rata basis with each Related Public Fund, as described above, based on the relative assets of each Related Public Fund computed on a daily basis. These fees and expenses for the year ending December 31, 2023 are estimated to be a total of $30,000 for UGA and, in the aggregate for UGA and the Related Public Funds, $1,210,000.

12

Licensing Fees  

As discussed in Note 4 below, UGA entered into a licensing agreement with the NYMEX on April 10, 2006, as amended on October 20, 2011. Pursuant to the agreement, UGA and the Related Public Funds, other than BNO, USCI and CPER, pay a licensing fee that is equal to 0.015% on all net assets. During the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, UGA incurred $5,513 and $8,712, respectively under this arrangement.

Investor Tax Reporting Cost

The fees and expenses associated with UGA’s audit expenses and tax accounting and reporting requirements are paid by UGA. These costs are estimated to be $250,000 for the year ending December 31, 2023. Tax reporting costs fluctuate between years due to the number of shareholders during any given year.

Other Expenses and Fees

In addition to the fees described above, UGA pays all brokerage fees and other expenses in connection with the operation of UGA, excluding costs and expenses paid by USCF as outlined in Note 4 – Contracts and Agreements below. USCF paid certain expenses on a discretionary basis typically borne by UGA, where expenses exceed 0.15% (15 basis points) of UGA’s NAV, on an annualized basis. USCF terminated such expense waiver as of April 30, 2021. For the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, USCF waived $0 and $0, respectively, of UGA’s expenses. This voluntary expense waiver is in addition to those amounts USCF is contractually obligated to pay as described in Note 4 – Contracts and Agreement and terminated on April 30, 2021.

NOTE 4 — CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS

Marketing Agent Agreement

UGA is party to a marketing agent agreement, dated as of February 15, 2008, as amended from time to time, with the Marketing Agent and USCF, whereby the Marketing Agent provides certain marketing services for UGA as outlined in the agreement. The fee of the Marketing Agent through June 30, 2023, which is borne by USCF, was equal to 0.06% on UGA’s assets up to $3 billion and 0.04% on UGA’s assets in excess of $3 billion. The agreement with the Marketing Agent has been amended and, commencing October 1, 2022, the fee of the Marketing Agent, which is calculated daily and payable monthly by USCF, is equal to 0.025% of UGA’s total net assets. In no event may the aggregate compensation paid to the Marketing Agent and any affiliate of USCF for distribution-related services exceed 10% of the gross proceeds of UGA’s offering.

The above fee does not include website construction and development, which are also borne by USCF.

Custody, Transfer Agency and Fund Administration and Accounting Services Agreements

USCF engaged The Bank of New York Mellon, a New York corporation authorized to conduct a banking business (“BNY Mellon”), to provide UGA and each of the Related Public Funds with certain custodial, administrative and accounting, and transfer agency services, pursuant to the following agreements with BNY Mellon dated as of March 20, 2020 (together, the “BNY Mellon Agreements”), which were effective as of April 1, 2020: (i) a Custody Agreement; (ii) a Fund Administration and Accounting Agreement; and (iii) a Transfer Agency and Service Agreement. USCF pays the fees of BNY Mellon for its services under the BNY Mellon Agreements and such fees are determined by the parties from time to time.

13

Brokerage and Futures Commission Merchant Agreements

UGA entered into a brokerage agreement with RBC Capital Markets LLC (“RBC”) to serve as UGA’s FCM effective October 10, 2013. UGA has engaged each of RCG Division of Marex Spectron (“RCG”), E D & F Man Capital Markets Inc. (“MCM”) and Macquarie Futures USA LLC (“MFUSA”) to serve as additional FCMs to UGA effective on May 28, 2020, June 5, 2020, and December 3, 2020, respectively. The agreements with UGA’s FCMs require the FCMs to provide services to UGA in connection with the purchase and sale of Gasoline Futures Contracts and Other Gasoline-Related Investments that may be purchased and sold by or through the applicable FCM for UGA’s account. In accordance with the FCM agreements, UGA pays each FCM commissions of approximately $7 to $8 per round-turn trade, including applicable exchange, clearing and NFA fees for Gasoline Futures Contracts and options on Gasoline Futures Contracts. Such fees include those incurred when purchasing Gasoline Futures Contracts and options on Gasoline Futures Contracts when UGA issues shares as a result of a Creation Basket, as well as fees incurred when selling Gasoline Futures Contracts and options on Gasoline Futures Contracts when UGA redeems shares as a result of a Redemption Basket. Such fees are also incurred when Gasoline Futures Contracts and options on Gasoline Futures Contracts are purchased or redeemed for the purpose of rebalancing the portfolio. UGA also incurs commissions to brokers for the purchase and sale of Gasoline Futures Contracts, Other Gasoline-Related Investments or short-term obligations of the United States of two years or less (“Treasuries”).

    

Six months

    

Six months

ended

ended

June 30, 

June 30, 

2023

2022

Total commissions accrued to brokers

$

29,442

$

40,809

Total commissions as annualized percentage of average total net assets

 

0.08

%  

 

0.07

%

The decrease in total commissions accrued to brokers for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, was due primarily to a lower number of gasoline futures contracts being held and traded.

NYMEX Licensing Agreement

UGA and the NYMEX entered into a licensing agreement on April 10, 2006, as amended on October 20, 2011, whereby UGA was granted a non-exclusive license to use certain of the NYMEX’s settlement prices and service marks. Under the licensing agreement, UGA and the Related Public Funds, other than BNO, USCI, and CPER, pay the NYMEX an asset-based fee for the license, the terms of which are described in Note 3. UGA expressly disclaims any association with the NYMEX or endorsement of UGA by the NYMEX and acknowledges that “NYMEX” and “New York Mercantile Exchange” are registered trademarks of the NYMEX.

NOTE 5 — FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS, OFF-BALANCE SHEET RISKS AND CONTINGENCIES

UGA may engage in the trading of futures contracts, options on futures contracts, cleared swaps and OTC swaps (collectively, “derivatives”). UGA is exposed to both market risk, which is the risk arising from changes in the market value of the contracts, and credit risk, which is the risk of failure by another party to perform according to the terms of a contract.

UGA may enter into futures contracts, options on futures contracts, cleared swaps, and OTC-swaps to gain exposure to changes in the value of an underlying commodity. A futures contract obligates the seller to deliver (and the purchaser to accept) the future delivery of a specified quantity and type of a commodity at a specified time and place. Some futures contracts may call for physical delivery of the asset, while others are settled in cash. The contractual obligations of a buyer or seller may generally be satisfied by taking or making physical delivery of the underlying commodity or by making an offsetting sale or purchase of an identical futures contract on the same or linked exchange before the designated date of delivery. Cleared swaps are agreements that are eligible to be cleared by a clearinghouse, e.g., ICE Clear Europe, and provide the efficiencies and benefits that centralized clearing on an exchange offers to traders of futures contracts, including credit risk intermediation and the ability to offset positions initiated with different counterparties. OTC swaps are entered into between two parties in private contracts. In an OTC swap, each party bears credit risk to the other party, i.e., the risk that the other party may not be able to perform its obligations under the OTC swap.

The purchase and sale of futures contracts, options on futures contracts and cleared swaps require margin deposits with an FCM. Additional deposits may be necessary for any loss on contract value. The Commodity Exchange Act requires FCMs to segregate all customer transactions and assets from the FCM’s proprietary transactions and assets. To reduce the credit risk that arises in connection with OTC swaps, UGA will generally enter into an agreement with each counterparty based on the Master Agreement published by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc., which provides for the netting of its overall exposure to its counterparty. The

14

Master Agreement is negotiated as between the parties and would address, among other things, the exchange of margin between the parties.

Futures contracts, options on futures contracts and cleared swaps involve, to varying degrees, elements of market risk (specifically commodity price risk) and exposure to loss in excess of the amount of variation margin. The face or contract amounts reflect the extent of the total exposure UGA has in the particular classes of instruments. Additional risks associated with the use of futures contracts are an imperfect correlation between movements in the price of the futures contracts and the market value of the underlying securities and the possibility of an illiquid market for a futures contract. Buying and selling options on futures contracts exposes investors to the risks of purchasing or selling futures contracts.

As to OTC swaps, valuing OTC derivatives is less certain than valuing actively traded financial instruments such as exchange-traded futures contracts and securities or cleared swaps, because the price and terms on which such OTC derivatives are entered into or can be terminated are individually negotiated, and those prices and terms may not reflect the best price or terms available from other sources. In addition, while market makers and dealers generally quote indicative prices or terms for entering into or terminating OTC contracts, they typically are not contractually obligated to do so, particularly if they are not a party to the transaction. As a result, it may be difficult to obtain an independent value for an outstanding OTC derivatives transaction.

Significant market volatility has recently occurred in the unleaded gasoline markets and the unleaded gasoline futures markets. Such volatility is attributable in part to the COVID-19 pandemic, related supply chain disruptions, war, including the war between Russia and the Ukraine, and continuing disputes among gasoline-producing countries. These and other events could cause continuing or increased volatility in the future, which may affect the value, pricing and liquidity of some investments or other assets, including those held by or invested in by UGA and the impact of which could limit UGA’s ability to have a substantial portion of its assets invested in the Benchmark Futures Contract. In such a circumstance, UGA could, if it determined it appropriate to do so in light of market conditions and regulatory requirements, invest in other Futures Contracts and/or Other Gasoline-Related Investments.

All of the futures contracts held by UGA through June 30, 2023 were exchange-traded. The risks associated with exchange-traded contracts are generally perceived to be less than those associated with OTC swaps since, in OTC swaps, a party must rely solely on the credit of its respective individual counterparties. However, in the future, if UGA were to enter into non-exchange traded contracts, it would be subject to the credit risk associated with counterparty non-performance. The credit risk from counterparty non-performance associated with such instruments is the net unrealized gain, if any, on the transaction. UGA has credit risk under its futures contracts since the sole counterparty to all domestic and foreign futures contracts is the clearinghouse for the exchange on which the relevant contracts are traded. In addition, UGA bears the risk of financial failure by the clearing broker.

UGA’s cash and other property, such as Treasuries, deposited with its FCMs are considered commingled with all other customer funds, subject to such FCM’s segregation requirements. In the event of an FCM’s insolvency, recovery may be limited to a pro rata share of segregated funds available. It is possible that the recovered amount could be less than the total of cash and other property deposited. The insolvency of an FCM could result in the complete loss of UGA’s assets posted with that FCM; however, the majority of UGA’s assets are held in investments in Treasuries, cash and/or cash equivalents with UGA’s custodian and would not be impacted by the insolvency of an FCM. The failure or insolvency of UGA’s custodian, however, could result in a substantial loss of UGA’s assets.

USCF invests a portion of UGA’s cash in money market funds that seek to maintain a stable per share NAV. UGA is exposed to any risk of loss associated with an investment in such money market funds. As of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, UGA held investments in money market funds in the amounts of $20,850,000 and $30,400,000, respectively. UGA also holds cash deposits with its custodian. As of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, UGA held cash deposits and investments in Treasuries in the amounts of $49,066,068 and $44,781,773 respectively, with the custodian and FCMs. Some or all of these amounts may be subject to loss should UGA’s custodian and/or FCMs cease operations.

For derivatives, risks arise from changes in the market value of the contracts. Theoretically, UGA is exposed to market risk equal to the value of futures contracts purchased and unlimited liability on such contracts sold short or that the value of the futures contract could fall below zero. As both a buyer and a seller of options, UGA pays or receives a premium at the outset and then bears the risk of unfavorable changes in the price of the contract underlying the option.

UGA’s policy is to continuously monitor its exposure to market and counterparty risk through the use of a variety of financial, position and credit exposure reporting controls and procedures. In addition, UGA has a policy of requiring review of the credit standing of each broker or counterparty with which it conducts business.

15

The financial instruments held by UGA are reported in its condensed statements of financial condition at market or fair value, or at carrying amounts that approximate fair value, because of their highly liquid nature and short-term maturity.

NOTE 6 — FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

The following table presents per share performance data and other supplemental financial data for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 for the shareholders. This information has been derived from information presented in the condensed financial statements.

    

Three months ended

    

Three months ended

    

Six months ended

    

Six months ended

June 30, 2023

June 30, 2022

 

June 30, 2023

June 30, 2022

(Unaudited)

    

(Unaudited)

 

(Unaudited)

(Unaudited)

Per Share Operating Performance:

Net asset value, beginning of period

$

60.74

$

55.90

$

59.75

$

41.04

Total income (loss)

 

2.04

 

11.97

3.22

26.94

Total expenses

 

(0.19)

 

(0.15)

(0.38)

(0.26)

Net increase (decrease) in net asset value

 

1.85

 

11.82

2.84

26.68

Net asset value, end of period

$

62.59

$

67.72

$

62.59

$

67.72

Total Return

 

3.05

%  

 

21.14

%

4.75

%  

65.01

%  

Ratios to Average Net Assets

 

 

Total income (loss)

 

2.69

%  

 

14.56

%

5.60

%  

38.80

%  

Management fees#

 

0.60

%  

 

0.60

%

0.60

%  

0.60

%  

Total expenses excluding management fees#

 

0.69

%  

 

0.27

%

0.70

%  

0.29

%  

Net income (loss)

 

2.37

%  

 

14.35

%

4.95

%  

38.36

%  

#Annualized.

Total returns are calculated based on the change in value during the period. An individual shareholder’s total return and ratio may vary from the above total returns and ratios based on the timing of contributions to and withdrawals from UGA.

NOTE 7 — FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

UGA values its investments in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 820 – Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures (“ASC 820”). ASC 820 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in generally accepted accounting principles, and expands disclosures about fair value measurement. The changes to past practice resulting from the application of ASC 820 relate to the definition of fair value, the methods used to measure fair value, and the expanded disclosures about fair value measurement. ASC 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy that distinguishes between: (1) market participant assumptions developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of UGA (observable inputs) and (2) UGA’s own assumptions about market participant assumptions developed based on the best information available under the circumstances (unobservable inputs). The three levels defined by the ASC 820 hierarchy are as follows:

Level I – Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the reporting entity has the ability to access at the measurement date.

Level II – Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level I assets include the following: quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, and inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means (market-corroborated inputs).

Level III – Unobservable pricing input at the measurement date for the asset or liability. Unobservable inputs shall be used to measure fair value to the extent that observable inputs are not available.

16

In some instances, the inputs used to measure fair value might fall within different levels of the fair value hierarchy. The level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement in its entirety falls shall be determined based on the lowest input level that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety.

The following table summarizes the valuation of UGA’s securities at June 30, 2023 using the fair value hierarchy:

At June 30, 2023

    

Total

    

Level I

    

Level II

    

Level III

Short-Term Investments

$

20,850,000

$

20,850,000

$

$

Exchange-Traded Futures Contracts

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

United States Contracts

 

(1,179,293)

 

(1,179,293)

 

 

The following table summarizes the valuation of UGA’s securities at December 31, 2022 using the fair value hierarchy:

At December 31, 2022

    

Total

    

Level I

    

Level II

    

Level III

Short-Term Investments

$

30,400,000

$

30,400,000

$

$

Exchange-Traded Futures Contracts

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

United States Contracts

 

11,615,386

 

11,615,386

 

 

Effective January 1, 2009, UGA adopted the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification 815 — Derivatives and Hedging, which require presentation of qualitative disclosures about objectives and strategies for using derivatives, quantitative disclosures about fair value amounts and gains and losses on derivatives.

Fair Value of Derivative Instruments

    

Condensed

    

    

Statements of

Financial

Fair Value at

Fair Value at

Condition

June 30, 

December 31, 

Derivatives not Accounted for as Hedging Instruments

Location

2023

2022

Futures - Commodity Contracts

Assets

$

(1,179,293)

$

11,615,386

The Effect of Derivative Instruments on the Condensed Statements of Operations

    

    

    

For the six months ended

    

For the six months ended

June 30, 2023

June 30, 2022

Realized Gain (Loss)

Change in Unrealized

Realized Gain (Loss)

Change in Unrealized

Location of Gain 

 on Derivatives

Gain (Loss) on

on Derivatives

Gain (Loss) on

Derivatives not Accounted for as

(Loss) on Derivatives

Recognized in

Derivatives

Recognized in

Derivatives

Hedging Instruments

    

Recognized in Income

    

Income

    

Recognized in Income

    

Income

    

Recognized in Income

Futures - Commodity Contracts

 

Realized gain (loss) on closed positions

$

15,412,862

 

$

60,819,175

 

 

Change in unrealized gain (loss) on open positions

$

(12,794,679)

$

(15,563,058)

NOTE 8 — SUBSEQUENT EVENTS

UGA has performed an evaluation of subsequent events through the date the condensed financial statements were issued. This evaluation did not result in any subsequent events that necessitated disclosures and/or adjustments.

17

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the condensed financial statements and the notes thereto of the United States Gasoline Fund, LP (“UGA”) included elsewhere in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.

Forward-Looking Information

This quarterly report on Form 10-Q, including this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” contains forward-looking statements regarding the plans and objectives of management for future operations. This information may involve known and unknown risks which generally relate to future events or future performance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. All statements (other than statements of historical fact) included in this Form-Q that address activities, events or developments that will or may occur in the future, including such matters as changes in inflation in the United States, movements in the stock market, movements in U.S. and foreign currencies, and movements in the commodities markets and indexes that track such movements, UGA’s operations, USCF’s plans and references to UGA’s future success and other similar matters, are forward-looking statements. These statements are only predictions. Actual events or results may differ materially. These statements are based upon certain assumptions and analyses USCF has made based on its perception of historical trends, current conditions and expected future developments, as well as other factors appropriate in the circumstances. Whether or not actual results and developments will conform to USCF’s expectations and predictions, however, is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including the special considerations discussed in this prospectus, general economic, market and business conditions, changes in laws or regulations, including those concerning taxes, made by governmental authorities or regulatory bodies, and other world economic and political developments.

UGA has based the forward-looking statements included in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q on information available to it on the date of this quarterly report on Form 10-Q, and UGA assumes no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements. Although UGA undertakes no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, investors are advised to consult any additional disclosures that UGA may make directly to them or through reports that UGA files in the future with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), including annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K.

Introduction

UGA, a Delaware limited partnership, is a commodity pool that issues shares that may be purchased and sold on the NYSE Arca. The investment objective of UGA is for the daily changes, in percentage terms, of its shares’ per share NAV to reflect the daily changes, in percentage terms, of the spot price of gasoline (also known as reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygen blending, or “RBOB”, for delivery to the New York harbor), as measured by the daily changes in the price of the futures contract for gasoline traded on the NYMEX that is the near month contract to expire, except when the near month contract is within two weeks of expiration, in which case it will be the futures contract that is the next month contract to expire (the “Benchmark Futures Contract”), plus interest earned on UGA’s collateral holdings, less UGA’s expenses. “Near month contract” means the next contract traded on the NYMEX due to expire. “Next month contract” means the first contract traded on the NYMEX due to expire after the near month contract. UGA seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing so that the average daily percentage change in UGA’s NAV for any period of 30 successive valuation days will be within plus/minus ten percent (10%) of the average daily percentage change in the price of the Benchmark Futures Contract over the same period.

UGA’s investment objective is not for its NAV or market price of shares to equal, in dollar terms, the spot price of gasoline or any particular futures contract based on gasoline, nor is UGA’s investment objective for the percentage change in its NAV to reflect the percentage change of the price of any particular futures contract as measured over a time period greater than one day. The general partner of UGA, United States Commodity Funds LLC (“USCF”) believes that it is not practical to manage the portfolio to achieve such an investment goal when investing in Futures Contracts (as defined below) and Other Gasoline-Related Investments (as defined below).

18

UGA invests primarily in futures contracts for gasoline, crude oil, natural gas, heating oil and other petroleum-based fuels that are traded on the NYMEX, ICE Futures or other U.S. and foreign exchanges (collectively, “Futures Contracts”) and to a lesser extent, in order to comply with regulatory requirements or in view of market conditions, other gasoline-related investments such as cash-settled options on Futures Contracts, forward contracts for gasoline, cleared swap contracts and over-the-counter (“OTC”) swaps that are based on the price of gasoline, crude oil and other petroleum-based fuels, Futures Contracts and indices based on the foregoing (collectively, “Other Gasoline-Related Investments”). For convenience and unless otherwise specified, Futures Contracts and Other Gasoline-Related Investments collectively are referred to as “Gasoline Interests” in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.

USCF believes that market arbitrage opportunities will cause daily changes in UGA’s share price on the NYSE Arca on a percentage basis to closely track daily changes in UGA’s per share NAV on a percentage basis. USCF further believes that daily changes in prices of the Benchmark Futures Contract have historically closely tracked the daily changes in spot prices of gasoline. USCF believes that the net effect of these relationships will be that the daily changes in the price of UGA’s shares on the NYSE Arca on a percentage basis will closely track, the daily changes in the spot price of gasoline on a percentage basis, plus interest earned on UGA’s collateral holdings, less UGA’s expenses.

On any valuation day, the Benchmark Futures Contract is the near month futures contract for gasoline traded on the NYMEX unless the near month contract is within two weeks of expiration in which case the Benchmark Futures Contract is the next month contract for gasoline traded on the NYMEX.

Regulatory Disclosure

The regulation of commodity interest trading in the United States and other countries is an evolving area of the law. Below are certain key regulatory requirements that are, or may be, relevant to UGA. The various statements made in this summary are subject to modification by legislative action and changes in the rules and regulations of the SEC, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”), the CFTC, the NFA, the futures exchanges, clearing organizations and other regulatory bodies. Pending final resolution of all applicable regulatory requirements, some examples of how new rules and regulations could impact UGA are discussed in “Item 1. Business” in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.

Exchange Accountability Levels, Position Limits and Price Fluctuation Limits

Designated contract markets (“DCMs”), such as the NYMEX and ICE Futures, have established accountability levels and position limits on the maximum net long or net short futures contracts in commodity interests that any person or group of persons under common trading control (other than as a hedge, which an investment by UGA is not) may hold, own or control. These levels and position limits apply to the futures contracts that UGA invests in to meet its investment objective. In addition to accountability levels and position limits, the NYMEX and ICE Futures also set daily price fluctuation limits on futures contracts. The daily price fluctuation limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day’s settlement price. Once the daily price fluctuation limit has been reached in a particular futures contract, no trades may be made at a price beyond that limit.

The accountability levels for the Benchmark Futures Contract and other Futures Contracts traded on U.S.-based futures exchanges, such as the NYMEX, are not a fixed ceiling, but rather a threshold above which the NYMEX may exercise greater scrutiny and control over an investor’s positions. The current accountability level for investments for any one month in the Benchmark Futures Contract is 5,000 contracts. In addition, the NYMEX imposes an accountability level for all months of 7,000 net futures contracts for investments in futures contracts for gasoline. In addition, the ICE Futures maintains accountability levels, position limits and monitoring authority for its unleaded gasoline futures contracts. If UGA and the Related Public Funds (as defined below) exceed these accountability levels for investments in the futures contract for gasoline, the NYMEX and ICE Futures will monitor UGA’s and the Related Public Funds’ exposure and may ask for further information on their activities including the total size of all positions, investment and trading strategy, and the extent of liquidity resources of UGA and the Related Public Funds. If deemed necessary by the NYMEX and/or ICE Futures, UGA could be ordered to reduce its aggregate net position back to the accountability level. As of June 30, 2023, UGA held 644 futures contracts for gasoline traded on the NYMEX. As of June 30, 2023, UGA did not hold any Futures Contracts traded on ICE Futures. For the six months ended June 30, 2023, UGA did not exceed any accountability levels on the NYMEX or ICE Futures.

19

Position limits differ from accountability levels in that they represent fixed limits on the maximum number of futures contracts that any person may hold and cannot allow such limits to be exceeded without express CFTC authority to do so. In addition to accountability levels and position limits that may apply at any time, the NYMEX and ICE Futures impose position limits on contracts held in the last few days of trading in the near month contract to expire. It is unlikely that UGA will run up against such position limits because UGA’s investment strategy is to close out its positions and “roll” from the near month contract to expire to the next month contract beginning two weeks from expiration of the contract. For the six months ended June 30, 2023, UGA did not exceed any position limits imposed by the NYMEX and ICE Futures.

Federal Position Limits

Part 150 of the CFTC’s regulations (the “Position Limits Rule”) establishes federal position limits for 25 core referenced futures contracts (comprised of agricultural, energy and metals futures contracts), futures and options linked to the core referenced futures contracts, and swaps that are economically equivalent to the core referenced futures contracts that all market participants must comply with, with certain exemptions. The Benchmark Futures Contract is subject to position limits under the Position Limits Rule, and UGA’s trading does not qualify for an exemption therefrom. Accordingly, the Position Limits Rule could inhibit UGA’s ability to invest in the relevant Benchmark Futures Contract and thereby could negatively impact the ability of UGA to meet its investment objective.

Margin for OTC Swaps

Rules put in place by U.S. federal banking regulators, the CFTC and the SEC require the daily exchange of variation margin and initial margin for swaps between swap dealers, major swap participants, security-based swap dealers, and major security-based swap participants (“Swap Entities”) and swaps between Swap Entities and their counterparties that are “financial end-users” (such rules, the “Margin Rules”). The Margin Rules require Swap Entities to exchange variation margin with all of their counterparties who are financial end-users. The minimum variation margin amount is the daily mark-to-market change in the value of the swap, taking into account the amount of variation margin previously posted or collected. Swap Entities are required to exchange initial margin with their financial end-users who have “material swaps exposure” (i.e., an average daily aggregate notional of $8 billion or more in non-cleared swaps calculated in accordance with the Margin Rules). The Margin Rules specify the types of collateral that may be posted or collected as initial margin or variation margin (generally cash, certain government, government-sponsored enterprise securities, certain liquid debt, certain equity securities, certain eligible publicly traded debt, and gold) and sets forth haircuts for certain collateral asset classes.

UGA is not a Swap Entity under the Margin Rules, but it is a financial end-user. Accordingly, UGA will be subject to the variation margin requirements of the Margin Rules for any swaps that it enters into. However, UGA does not have material swaps exposure under the Margin Rules and, accordingly, UGA will not be subject to the initial margin requirements of the Margin Rules.

Mandatory Trading and Clearing of Swaps

CFTC regulations require that certain swap transactions be executed on organized exchanges or “swap execution facilities” and cleared through regulated clearing organizations (“derivative clearing organizations” (“DCOs”)), if the CFTC mandates the central clearing of a particular class of swap and such swap is “made available to trade” on a swap execution facility. Currently, swap dealers, major swap participants, commodity pools, certain private funds and entities predominantly engaged in activities that are financial in nature are required to execute on a swap execution facility, and clear, certain interest rate swaps and index-based credit default swaps. As a result, if UGA enters into an interest rate or index-based credit default swap that is subject to these requirements, such swap will be required to be executed on a swap execution facility and centrally cleared. Mandatory clearing and “made available to trade” determinations with respect to additional types of swaps may be issued in the future, and, when finalized, could require UGA to electronically execute and centrally clear certain OTC instruments presently entered into and settled on a bi-lateral basis. If a swap is required to be cleared, initial and variation margin requirements are set by the relevant clearing organization, subject to certain regulatory requirements and guidelines. Additional margin may be required and held by UGA’s FCMs.

20

Other Requirements for Swaps

In addition to the margin requirements described above, swaps that are not required to be cleared and executed on a SEF but that are executed bilaterally are also subject to various requirements pursuant to CFTC regulations, including, among other things, reporting and recordkeeping requirements and, depending on the status of the counterparties, trading documentation requirements and dispute resolution requirements.

Derivatives Regulations in Non-U.S. Jurisdictions

In addition to U.S. laws and regulations, UGA may be subject to non-U.S. derivatives laws and regulations if it engages in futures and/or swap transactions with non-U.S. persons. For example, UGA may be impacted by European laws and regulations to the extent that it engages in futures transactions on European exchanges or derivatives transactions with European entities. Other jurisdictions impose requirements applicable to futures and derivatives that are similar to those imposed by the U.S., including position limits, margin, clearing and trade execution requirements.

The CFTC is generally prohibited by statute from regulating trading on non-U.S. futures exchanges and markets. The CFTC, however, has adopted regulations relating to the marketing of non-U.S. futures contracts in the United States. These regulations permit certain contracts on non-U.S. exchanges to be offered and sold in the United States.

Infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19 could negatively affect the valuation and performance of UGA’s investments.

An outbreak of infectious respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus known as COVID-19 was first detected in China in December 2019 and spread globally.

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. COVID-19 resulted in numerous deaths, travel restrictions, closed international borders, enhanced health screenings at ports of entry and elsewhere, disruption of and delays in healthcare service preparation and delivery, prolonged quarantines and the imposition of both local and more widespread “work from home” measures, cancellations, loss of employment, supply chain disruptions, and lower consumer and institutional demand for goods and services, as well as general concern and uncertainty. The spread of COVID-19 had a material adverse impact on local economies in the affected jurisdictions and also on the global economy, as cross border commercial activity and market sentiment were impacted by the outbreak and government and other measures seeking to contain its spread. COVID-19 had a material adverse impact on the gasoline markets and gasoline futures markets to the extent economic activity and the use of gasoline continues to be curtailed, which in turn had a significant adverse effect on the prices of gasoline futures contracts, including the Benchmark Futures Contract, and Other Gasoline-Related Investments.

Infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19 may arise in the future and could adversely affect individual issuers and capital markets in ways that cannot necessarily be foreseen. In addition, actions taken by government and quasi-governmental authorities and regulators throughout the world in response to the such an outbreak, including the potential for significant fiscal and monetary policy changes, may affect the value, volatility, pricing and liquidity of some investments or other assets, including those held by or invested in by UGA. Public health crises caused by infectious disease outbreaks may exacerbate other pre-existing political, social and economic risks in certain countries or globally and their duration cannot be determined with certainty.

In a rising rate environment, UGA may not be able to fully invest at prevailing rates until any current investments in Treasury Bills mature in order to avoid selling those investments at a loss.

When interest rates rise, the value of fixed income securities typically falls. In a rising interest rate environment, UGA may not be able to fully invest at prevailing rates until any current investments in Treasury Bills mature in order to avoid selling those investments at a loss. Interest rate risk is generally lower for shorter term investments and higher for longer term investments. The risk to UGA of rising interest rates may be greater in the future due to the end of a long period of historically low rates, the effect of potential monetary policy initiatives, including actions taken by the U.S. Federal Reserve and other foreign equivalents to curb inflation, and resulting market reaction to those initiatives. When interest rates fall, UGA may be required to reinvest the proceeds from the sale, redemption or early prepayment of a Treasury Bill or money market security at a lower interest rate.

21

UGA may potentially lose money on its government of money market funds.

UGA invests in government money market funds. Although such government money market funds seek to preserve the value of an investment at $1.00 per share, there is no guarantee that they will be able to do so and UGA may lose money by investing in a government money market fund. An investment in a government money market fund is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”), or any other government agency. The share price of a government money market fund can fall below the $1.00 share price. UGA cannot rely on or expect a government money market fund’s adviser or its affiliates to enter into support agreements or take other actions to maintain the government money market fund’s $1.00 share price. The credit quality of a government money market fund’s holdings can change rapidly in certain markets, and the default of a single holding could have an adverse impact on the government money market fund’s share price. Due to fluctuations in interest rates, the market value of securities held by a government money market fund may vary. A government money market fund’s share price can also be negatively affected during periods of high redemption pressures and/or illiquid markets.

Price Movements

Gasoline futures prices were volatile during the six months ended June 30, 2023. The price of the Benchmark Futures Contract started the period at $2.4783 per gallon. The high of the period was on April 12, 2023 when the price reached $2.8727 per gallon. The low for the period was on January 6, 2023, which was $2.2446 per gallon. The period ended with the Benchmark Futures Contract at $2.5449 per gallon, an increase of approximately 2.69% over the period (investors are cautioned that these represent prices for gasoline on a wholesale basis and should not be directly compared to retail prices at a gasoline service station). UGA’s per share NAV began the period at $59.75 and ended the period at $62.59 on June 30, 2023, an increase of approximately 4.75% over the period. The Benchmark Futures Contract prices listed above began with the February 2023 contracts and ended with the August 2023 contracts. An increase of approximately 2.69% on the Benchmark Futures Contract listed above is a hypothetical return only and would not actually be realized by an investor holding Futures Contracts. An investment in Futures Contracts would need to be rolled forward during the time period described in order to simulate such a result. Furthermore, the change in the nominal price of these differing Futures Contracts, measured from the start of the year to the end of the year, does not represent the actual benchmark results that UGA seeks to track, which are more fully described below in the section titled “Tracking UGA’s Benchmark.”

During the six months ended June 30, 2023, the gasoline futures market experienced states of both contango and backwardation as represented by the front month gasoline futures contract and the next to expire gasoline futures contract. During periods of contango, the price of the near month gasoline Futures Contract was lower than the price of the next month gasoline Futures Contract or contracts further away from expiration. On days when the market was in backwardation, the price of the near month gasoline Futures Contract is higher than the price of the next month gasoline Futures Contract, or contracts further away from expiration. For a discussion of the impact of backwardation and contango on total returns, see “Term Structure of Gasoline Prices and the Impact on Total Returns” below.

Valuation of Futures Contracts and the Computation of the Per Share NAV

The per share NAV of UGA’s shares is calculated once each NYSE Arca trading day. The per share NAV for a particular trading day is released after 4:00 p.m. New York time. Trading during the core trading session on the NYSE Arca typically closes at 4:00 p.m. New York time. The Administrator uses the NYMEX closing price (determined at the earlier of the close of the NYMEX or 2:30 p.m. New York time) for the contracts held on the NYMEX, but calculates or determines the value of all other UGA investments, including ICE Futures contracts or other futures contracts, as of the earlier of the close of the NYSE Arca or 4:00 p.m. New York time.

Results of Operations and the Gasoline Market

Results of Operations. On February 26, 2008, UGA listed its shares on the AMEX under the ticker symbol “UGA.” On that day, UGA established its initial offering price at $50.00 per share and issued 300,000 shares to the initial Authorized Participant in exchange for $15,001,000 in cash. As a result of the acquisition of the AMEX by NYSE Euronext, UGA’s shares ceased trading on the AMEX and commenced trading on the NYSE Arca on November 25, 2008.

As of June 30, 2023, UGA had issued 26,200,000 shares, 1,100,000 of which were outstanding. As of June 30, 2023, UGA had an unlimited number of shares registered. On January 27, 2023, the SEC declared effective a registration statement filed by UGA that registered an unlimited number of shares. As a result, UGA has an unlimited number of shares that can be issued in the form of creation baskets.

More shares may have been issued by UGA than are outstanding due to the redemption of shares.

22

As of June 30, 2023, UGA had the following Authorized Participants: Citadel Securities LLC, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Credit Suisse Securities USA LLC, Goldman Sachs & Co., JP Morgan Securities LLC, Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., Morgan Stanley & Company Inc., RBC Capital Markets LLC, SG Americas Securities LLC, and Virtu Americas LLC.

For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2023 Compared to the Six Months Ended June 30, 2022

    

Six months

    

Six months

 

ended

ended

June 30, 2023

June 30, 2022

 

Average daily total net assets

$

74,127,010

$

117,114,988

Dividend and interest income earned on Treasuries, cash and/or cash equivalents

$

1,526,451

$

180,136

Annualized yield based on average daily total net assets

 

4.15

%

 

0.31

%

Management fee

$

220,553

$

348,457

Total fees and other expenses excluding management fees

$

255,910

$

167,973

Total commissions accrued to brokers

$

29,442

$

40,809

Total commissions as annualized percentage of average total net assets

 

0.08

%

 

0.07

%

Portfolio Expenses. UGA’s expenses consist of investment management fees, brokerage fees and commissions, certain offering costs, licensing fees, registration fees, the fees and expenses of the independent directors of USCF and expenses relating to tax accounting and reporting requirements. The management fee that UGA pays to USCF is calculated as a percentage of the total net assets of UGA. The fee is accrued daily and paid monthly.

Average interest rates earned on short-term investments held by UGA, including cash, cash equivalents and Treasuries, were higher during the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022. As a result, the amount of income earned by UGA as a percentage of average daily total net assets was higher during the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022. To the degree that the aggregate yield is lower, the net expense ratio will be lower.

The increase in total fees and other expenses excluding management fees for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, was due primarily to an increase in professional fees and directors’ fees and insurance partially offset by a decrease in commissions.

The decrease in total commissions accrued to brokers for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, was due primarily to a lower number of Gasoline Futures Contracts being held and traded.

For the Three Months Ended June 30, 2023 Compared to the Three Months Ended June 30, 2022

    

Three months ended

    

Three months ended

June 30, 2023

June 30, 2022

Average daily total net assets

$

72,147,867

$

137,473,505

Dividend and interest income earned on Treasuries, cash and/or cash equivalents

$

798,562

$

163,192

Annualized yield based on average daily total net assets

 

4.44

%  

 

0.48

%

Management fee

$

107,925

$

205,645

Total fees and other expenses excluding management fees

$

123,938

$

90,927

Total commissions accrued to brokers

$

12,739

$

22,074

Total commissions as annualized percentage of average total net assets

 

0.07

%  

 

0.06

%

Portfolio Expenses. UGA’s expenses consist of investment management fees, brokerage fees and commissions, certain offering costs, licensing fees, registration fees, the fees and expenses of the independent directors of USCF and expenses relating to tax accounting and reporting requirements. The management fee that UGA pays to USCF is calculated as a percentage of the total net assets of UGA. The fee is accrued daily and paid monthly.

Average interest rates earned on short-term investments held by UGA, including cash, cash equivalents and Treasuries, were higher during the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022. As a result, the amount of income

23

earned by UGA as a percentage of average daily total net assets was higher during the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022. To the degree that the aggregate yield is higher, the net expense ratio will be lower.

The increase in total fees and other expenses excluding management fees for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022, was due primarily to an increase in professional fees, directors’ fees and insurance partially offset by a decrease in commissions.

The decrease in total commissions accrued to brokers for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022, was due primarily to a lower number of Gasoline Futures Contracts being held and traded.

Tracking UGA’s Benchmark

USCF seeks to manage UGA’s portfolio such that changes in its average daily per share NAV, on a percentage basis, closely track the daily changes in the average price of the Benchmark Futures Contract, also on a percentage basis. Specifically, USCF seeks to manage the portfolio such that over any rolling period of 30-valuation days, the average daily change in UGA’s per share NAV is within a range of 90% to 110% (0.9 to 1.1) of the average daily change in the price of the Benchmark Futures Contract. As an example, if the average daily movement of the price of the Benchmark Futures Contract for a particular 30-valuation day time period was 0.50% per day, USCF would attempt to manage the portfolio such that the average daily movement of the per share NAV during that same time period fell between 0.45% and 0.55% (i.e., between 0.9 and 1.1 of the benchmark’s results). UGA’s portfolio management goals do not include trying to make the nominal price of UGA’s per share NAV equal to the nominal price of the current Benchmark Futures Contract or the spot price for gasoline. USCF believes that it is not practical to manage the portfolio to achieve such an investment goal when investing in Futures Contracts and Other Gasoline-Related Investments.

For the 30-valuation days ended June 30, 2023, the average daily change in the Benchmark Futures Contract was 0.179%, while the average daily change in the per share NAV of UGA over the same time period was 0.192%. The average daily difference was 0.013% (or 1.3 basis points, where 1 basis point equals 1/100 of 1%), meaning that over this time period UGA’s NAV performed within the plus or minus 10% range established as its benchmark tracking goal.

Since the commencement of the offering of UGA’s shares to the public on February 26, 2008 to June 30, 2023, the average daily change in the Benchmark Futures Contract was 0.037%, while the average daily change in the per share NAV of UGA over the same time period was 0.036%. The average daily difference was (0.001)% (or (0.1) basis points, where 1 basis point equals 1/100 of 1%), meaning that over this time period UGA’s NAV performed within the plus or minus 10% range established as its benchmark tracking goal.

24

The following two charts demonstrate the correlation between the changes in UGAs NAV and the changes in the Benchmark Futures Contract. The first chart below shows the daily movement of UGA's per share NAV versus the daily movement of the Benchmark Futures Contract for the 30 valuation day period ended June 30, 2023, the last trading day in June. The second chart below shows the monthly total returns of UGA as compared to the monthly value of the Benchmark Futures Contract for the five years ended June 30, 2023.

*PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT NECESSARILY INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS

Graphic

25

*PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT NECESSARILY INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS

Graphic

An alternative tracking measurement of the return performance of UGA versus the return of its Benchmark Futures Contract can be calculated by comparing the actual return of UGA, measured by changes in its per share NAV, versus the expected changes in its per share NAV under the assumption that UGA’s returns had been exactly the same as the daily changes in its Benchmark Futures Contract.

For the six months ended June 30, 2023, the actual total return of UGA as measured by changes in its per share NAV was 4.75%. This is based on an initial per share NAV of $59.75 as of December 31, 2022 and an ending per share NAV as of June 30, 2023 of $62.59. During this time period, UGA made no distributions to its shareholders. However, if UGA’s daily changes in its per share NAV had instead exactly tracked the changes in the daily total return of the Benchmark Futures Contract, UGA would have had an estimated per share NAV of $61.71 as of June 30, 2023, for a total return over the relevant time period of 3.28%. The difference between the actual per share NAV total return of UGA of 4.75% and the expected total return based on the Benchmark Futures Contract of 3.28% was a difference over the time period of 1.47%, which is to say that UGA’s actual total return outperformed its benchmark by that percentage. UGA incurs expenses primarily composed of the management fee, brokerage commissions for the buying and selling of futures contracts, and other expenses. The impact of these expenses, offset by interest and dividend income, and net of positive or negative execution, tends to cause daily changes in the per share NAV of UGA to track slightly higher than daily changes in the price of the Benchmark Futures Contract.

26

By comparison, for the six months ended June 30, 2022, the actual total return of UGA as measured by changes in its per share NAV was 65.01%. This was based on an initial per share NAV of $41.04 as of December 31, 2021 and an ending per share NAV as of June 30, 2022 of $67.72. During this time period, UGA made no distributions to its shareholders. However, if UGA’s daily changes in its per share NAV had instead exactly tracked the changes in the daily total return of the Benchmark Futures Contract, UGA would have had an estimated per share NAV of $67.95 as of June 30, 2022, for a total return over the relevant time period of 65.57%. The difference between the actual per share NAV total return of UGA of 65.01% and the expected total return based on the Benchmark Futures Contract of 65.57% was a difference over the time period of (0.56)%, which is to say that UGA’s actual total return underperformed its benchmark by that percentage. UGA incurred expenses primarily composed of the management fee, brokerage commissions for the buying and selling of futures contracts, and other expenses. The impact of these expenses, offset by interest and dividend income, and net of positive or negative execution, tended to cause daily changes in the per share NAV of UGA to track slightly lower or higher than daily changes in the price of the Benchmark Futures Contract.

There are currently three factors that have impacted or are most likely to impact UGA’s ability to accurately track Benchmark Futures Contract.

First, UGA may buy or sell its holdings in the then current Benchmark Futures Contract at a price other than the closing settlement price of that contract on the day during which UGA executes the trade. In that case, UGA may pay a price that is higher, or lower, than that of the Benchmark Futures Contract, which could cause the changes in the daily per share NAV of UGA to either be too high or too low relative to the daily changes in the Benchmark Futures Contract. During the six months ended June 30, 2023, USCF attempted to minimize the effect of these transactions by seeking to execute its purchase or sale of the Benchmark Futures Contract at, or as close as possible to, the end of the day settlement price. However, it may not always be possible for UGA to obtain the closing settlement price and there is no assurance that failure to obtain the closing settlement price in the future will not adversely impact UGA’s attempt to track the Benchmark Futures Contract.

Second, UGA incurs expenses primarily composed of the management fee, brokerage commissions for the buying and selling of futures contracts, and other expenses. The impact of these expenses tends to cause daily changes in the per share NAV of UGA to track slightly lower than daily changes in the price of the Benchmark Futures Contract. At the same time, UGA earns dividend and interest income on its cash, cash equivalents and Treasuries. UGA is not required to distribute any portion of its income to its shareholders and did not make any distributions to shareholders during the six months ended June 30, 2023. Interest payments, and any other income, were retained within the portfolio and added to UGA’s NAV. When this income exceeds the level of UGA’s expenses for its management fee, brokerage commissions and other expenses (including ongoing registration fees, licensing fees and the fees and expenses of the independent directors of USCF), UGA will realize a net yield that will tend to cause daily changes in the per share NAV of UGA to track slightly higher than daily changes in the Benchmark Futures Contract. If short-term interest rates rise above these levels, the level of deviation created by the yield would increase. Conversely, if short-term interest rates were to decline, the amount of error created by the yield would decrease. When short-term yields drop to a level lower than the combined expenses of the management fee and the brokerage commissions, then the tracking error becomes a negative number and would tend to cause the daily returns of the per share NAV to underperform the daily returns of the Benchmark Futures Contract. USCF anticipates that interest rates may rise over the near future from historical lows. It is anticipated that fees and expenses paid by UGA may be lower than interest earned by UGA. As such, USCF anticipates that UGA could possibly outperform its benchmark so long as interest earned is higher than the fees and expenses paid by UGA.

27

Third, UGA may hold Other Gasoline-Related Investments in its portfolio that may fail to closely track the Benchmark Futures Contract’s total return movements. In that case, the error in tracking the Benchmark Futures Contract could result in daily changes in the per share NAV of UGA that are either too high, or too low, relative to the daily changes in the Benchmark Futures Contract. During the six months ended June 30, 2023, UGA did not hold any Other Gasoline-Related Investments. If UGA increases in size, and due to its obligations to comply with market conditions and regulatory limits, UGA may invest in Other Gasoline-Related Investments which may have the effect of increasing transaction related expenses and may result in increased tracking error.

Term Structure of Gasoline Futures Prices and the Impact on Total Returns. Several factors determine the total return from investing in futures contracts. One factor arises from “rolling” futures contracts that will expire at the end of the current month (the “near” or “front” month contract) forward each month prior to expiration. For a strategy that entails holding the near month contract, the price relationship between that futures contract and the next month futures contract will impact returns. For example, if the price of the near month futures contract is higher than the next futures month contract (a situation referred to as “backwardation”), then absent any other change, the price of a next month futures contract tends to rise in value as it becomes the near month futures contract and approaches expiration. Conversely, if the price of a near month futures contract is lower than the next month futures contract (a situation referred to as “contango”), then absent any other change, the price of a next month futures contract tends to decline in value as it becomes the near month futures contract and approaches expiration.

As an example, assume that the price of gasoline for immediate delivery, is $1.50 per gallon, and the value of a position in the near month futures contract is also $1.50. Over time, the price of gasoline will fluctuate based on a number of market factors, including demand for oil relative to supply. The value of the near month futures contract will likewise fluctuate in reaction to a number of market factors. If an investor seeks to maintain a position in a near month futures contract and not take delivery of physical gallons of gasoline, the investor must sell the current near month futures contract as it approaches expiration and invest in the next month futures contract. In order to continue holding a position in the current near month futures contract, this “roll” forward of the futures contract must be executed every month.

Contango and backwardation are natural market forces that have impacted the total return on an investment in UGA’s shares during the past year relative to a hypothetical direct investment in gasoline. In the future, it is likely that the relationship between the market price of UGA’s shares and changes in the spot prices of gasoline will continue to be impacted by contango and backwardation. It is important to note that this comparison ignores the potential costs associated with physically owning and storing gasoline, which could be substantial.

If the futures market is in backwardation, e.g., when the price of the near month futures contract is higher than the price of the next month futures contract, the investor would buy a next month futures contract for a lower price than the current near month futures contract. Assuming the price of the next month futures contract was $1.47 per gallon, or 2% cheaper than the $1.50 near month futures contract, then, hypothetically, and assuming no other changes (e.g., to either prevailing gasoline prices or the price relationship between the spot price, the near month contract and the next month contract, and, ignoring the impact of commission costs and the income earned on cash and/or cash equivalents), the value of the $1.47 next month futures contract would rise to $1.50 as it approaches expiration. In this example, the value of an investment in the next month futures contract would tend to outperform the spot price of gasoline. As a result, it would be possible for the new near month futures contract to rise 12% while the spot price of gasoline may have risen a lower amount, e.g., only 10%. Similarly, the spot price of gasoline could have fallen 10% while the value of an investment in the futures contract might have fallen another amount, e.g., only 8%. Over time, if backwardation remained constant, this difference between the spot price and the futures contract price would continue to increase.

If the futures market is in contango, an investor would be buying a next month futures contract for a higher price than the current near month futures contract. Again, assuming the near month futures contract is $1.50 per gallon, the price of the next month futures contract might be $1.53 per gallon, or 2% more expensive than the front month futures contract. Hypothetically, and assuming no other changes, the value of the $1.53 next month futures contract would fall to $1.50 as it approaches expiration. In this example, the value of an investment in the second month would tend to underperform the spot price of gasoline. As a result, it would be possible for the new near month futures contract to rise only 10% while the spot price of gasoline may have risen a higher amount, e.g., 12%. Similarly, the spot price of gasoline could have fallen 10% while the value of an investment in the second month futures contract might have fallen another amount, e.g., 12%. Over time, if contango remained constant, this difference between the spot price and the futures contract price would continue to increase.

The chart below compares the daily price of the near month gasoline futures contract to the price of the 13th month gasoline futures contract (i.e., a contract one year forward) over the last 10 years. When the price of the near month futures contract is higher than the

28

price of the 13th month futures contract, the market would be described as being in backwardation. When the price of the near month futures contract is lower than the 13th month futures contract, the market would be described as being in contango. Although the price of the near month futures contract and the price of the 13th month futures contract tend to move together, it can be seen that at times the near month futures contract prices are higher than the 13th month futures contract prices (backwardation) and, at other times, the near month futures contract prices are lower than the 13th month futures contract prices (contango).

*PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT NECESSARILY INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS

Graphic

An alternative way to view the same data is to subtract the dollar price of the 13th month gasoline futures contract from the dollar price of the near month gasoline futures contract, as shown in the chart below. When the difference is positive, the market is in backwardation. When the difference is negative, the market is in contango. The gasoline market spent time in both backwardation and contango during the last ten years. The chart below shows the results from subtracting the next month contract price from the price of the near month contract for the 10-year period between June 30, 2013 and June 30, 2023. Investors will note that the near month gasoline futures contract spent time in both backwardation and contango.

29

*PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT NECESSARILY INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS

Graphic

While the investment objective of UGA is not to have the market price of its shares match, dollar for dollar, changes in the spot price of gasoline, contango and backwardation have impacted the total return on an investment in UGA shares during the past year relative to a hypothetical direct investment in gasoline. For example, an investment in UGA shares made on December 31, 2022 and held until June 30, 2023 increased based upon the changes in the NAV for UGA shares on those days, by approximately 4.75%, while the spot price of gasoline for immediate delivery during the same period increased by 3.28% (note: this comparison ignores seasonal factors and the potential costs associated with physically owning and storing gasoline, which could be substantial). By comparison, an investment in UGA shares made on December 31, 2021 and held to June 30, 2022 increased based upon the changes in the NAV for UGA shares on those days, by approximately 65.01%, while the spot price of gasoline for immediate delivery during the same period increased by 65.57% (note: this comparison ignores the potential costs associated with physically owning and storing gasoline, which could be substantial).

Periods of contango or backwardation do not materially impact UGA’s investment objective of having the daily percentage changes in its per share NAV track the daily percentage changes in the price of the Benchmark Futures Contract since the impact of backwardation and contango tend to equally impact the daily percentage changes in price of both UGA’s shares and the Benchmark Futures Contract. It is impossible to predict with any degree of certainty whether backwardation or contango will occur in the future. It is likely that both conditions will occur during different periods.

30

Gasoline Market. During the six months ended June 30, 2023, the price of the front month RBOB gasoline futures contract traded in a range between $2.2446 and $2.8727. Prices increased 7.09% from the end of December 2022 through June 30, 2023, finishing the quarter at $2.6340.

USCF believes that over both the medium-term and the long-term, changes in the price of crude oil will exert the greatest influence on the price of refined petroleum products such as gasoline. At the same time, there can be other factors that, particularly in the short term, cause the price of gasoline to rise (or fall), more (or less) than the price of crude oil. For example, higher gasoline prices cause American consumers to reduce their gasoline consumption, particularly during the high demand period of the summer driving season and gasoline prices are impacted by the availability of refining capacity. Furthermore, a slowdown or recession in the U.S. economy may have a greater impact on U.S. gasoline prices than on global crude oil prices. As a result, it is possible that changes in gasoline prices may not match the changes in crude oil prices

Crude Oil Market. During the six months ended June 30, 2023, the price of the front month WTI crude oil futures contract traded in a range between $66.74 to $83.26. Prices decreased (11.99)% from the end of December 2022 through June 30, 2023, finishing the year at $70.64.

The simultaneous demand and supply shocks from the COVID-19 pandemic and Saudi-Russia price war precipitated unparalleled risk and volatility in crude oil markets during the first half of 2020. Global demand for crude oil plummeted by as much as 30% in the spring of 2020 as workers around the world stopped driving, airlines cut flight schedules, and companies suspended operations. Meanwhile, U.S. crude oil supply reached 13 million barrels per day (mbd), capping a period of almost continuous growth since 2016. To offset the seemingly unstoppable U.S. production juggernaut, OPEC+ (a loose coalition between OPEC and non-member nations such as Russia and Mexico) had maintained an uneasy series of agreements to curtail their crude oil output in order to support crude oil prices. However, in early March of 2020, Russia refused Saudi Arabia’s proposal to extend cuts in response to the COVID-19 demand shock. The kingdom retaliated with a massive production increase, launching an all-out price war in the middle of a pandemic. Although the members of OPEC+ reached a record-shattering agreement in mid-April of 2020, the implementation of new supply cuts came too late to prevent crude oil prices from plummeting to historic lows, culminating in a drop into negative territory for the May WTI crude oil futures contract on April 20, 2020.

As economies reopened and OPEC+ supply cuts were absorbed by the market, WTI crude oil prices rose from all-time lows in the spring of 2020 to an average of $68.00 per barrel during calendar year 2021. WTI crude oil inventories in the United States fell from a modern record of 541 mb in June 2020 to 418 mb by the end of the fourth quarter of 2021. Crude oil production in the United States fell below 10 mbd twice in 2020 and once in early 2021 after peaking at 13.1 mbd in March of 2020. U.S. production rose to 11.8 mbd by December 31, 2021. Similarly, OPEC production declined from over 30 mbd pre-COVID-19 to a pandemic low of 22.5 mbd before gradually recovering to 28.1 mbd by December 31, 2021. While the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic appears to have decreased, elevated risk remains in the oil markets until the current and future COVID-19 pandemic mitigation measures have fully subsided.

Bullish fundamentals for crude oil prices were in place when Russia invaded Ukraine in February of 2022, causing the United States and other countries and certain international organizations to impose broad-ranging economic sanctions on Russia and certain Russian individuals, banking entities and corporations as a response. in the oil markets, particularly in early March when WTI crude oil briefly rose to over $123.70 per barrel on March 8, 2022 then fell back to $95.04 per barrel on March 16, 2022, before rising and the falling again to end the first quarter of 2022 at $100.28 per barrel. A bullish trend for crude oil emerged from mid-April through early June 2022 when WTI crude oil again topped $120 per barrel before, once again, giving up gains to end the fourth quarter at $80.26.

During the first six months of 2023, crude oil prices were volatile through April then settled into a narrower range during May and June. U.S. production rose to a peak of 12.4 mbd, the highest level since March of 2020, at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, OPEC production declined from 29.24 mbd to 28.57 mbd, as the cartel cut production to support prices. Demand for crude oil has slowly increased since the onset of the pandemic in 2020, most recently due to China's “reopening.” Simultaneously, the U.S., Russia, and OPEC have still not returned to pre-pandemic production levels. The ongoing demand recovery for crude oil during a time when supply is lower could lead to higher prices over time. Supply constraints, worker shortages, infrastructure and manufacturing energy usage, the war in Ukraine, and other geopolitical tensions, are other factors that could contribute to future increases in crude oil prices. Bearish factors that have weighed on crude oil prices during the second quarter of 2023 include a decline in overall inflation, weaker than expected demand from China, and concerns about global economic growth. Between competing bullish and bearish factors, crude oil prices could stay range bound or could exhibit significant movement up or down over the next few quarters.

31

The war in Ukraine and the potential for further supply disruptions and sanctions could lead to further volatility. However, if a resolution to the conflict were to occur, volatility could decrease and prices could decline somewhat in a short period of time. Conversely, crude oil prices may be highly reactive to developments as global buyers and sellers of crude reposition their relationships.

Unleaded Gasoline Price Movements in Comparison to Other Energy Commodities and Investment Categories. USCF believes that investors frequently measure the degree to which prices or total returns of one investment or asset class move up or down in value in concert with another investment or asset class. Statistically, such a measure is usually done by measuring the correlation of the price movements of the two different investments or asset classes over some period of time. The correlation is scaled between 1 and -1, where 1 indicates that the two investment options move up or down in price or value together, known as “positive correlation,” and -1 indicates that they move in completely opposite directions, known as “negative correlation.” A correlation of 0 would mean that the movements of the two are neither positively nor negatively correlated, known as “non-correlation.” That is, the investment options sometimes move up and down together and other times move in opposite directions.

For the ten-year time period between June 30, 2013 and June 30, 2023, the table below compares the monthly movements of unleaded gasoline prices versus the monthly movements of the prices of several other energy commodities, such as natural gas, crude oil and diesel-heating oil, as well as several major non-commodity investment asset classes, such as large cap U.S. equities, U.S. government bonds and global equities.

*PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT NECESSARILY INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS

Gasoline - 10 Years

    

US Gov’t

    

    

    

    

    

Large Cap US 

Bonds

Global Equities 

Equities (S&P 

(BEUSG4

(FTSE World

Unleaded

Correlation Matrix 10 Years

    

500)

    

Index)

    

Index)

    

Crude Oil

    

Heating Oil

    

Natural Gas

    

Gasoline

Large Cap US Equities (S&P 500)

 

1.000

 

0.892

 

0.996

 

0.644

 

0.641

 

0.528

 

0.683

US Gov’t Bonds (BEUSG4 Index)

 

 

1.000

 

0.894

 

0.518

 

0.556

 

0.489

 

0.532

Global Equities (FTSE World Index)

 

 

 

1.000

 

0.662

 

0.657

 

0.515

 

0.698

Crude Oil

 

 

 

 

1.000

 

0.829

 

0.343

 

0.838

Heating Oil

 

 

 

 

  

 

1.000

 

0.411

 

0.777

Natural Gas

 

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

1.000

 

0.373

Unleaded Gasoline

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

1.000

Source: Bloomberg, NYMEX

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

The table below covers a more recent, but much shorter, range of dates than the above table.

32

*PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT NECESSARILY INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS

Gasoline - 1 Year

US Gov’t

Large Cap US 

Bonds

Global Equities

Equities (S&P 

(BEUSG4

(FTSE World

Unleaded

Correlation Matrix 1 Year

    

500)

    

Index)

    

Index)

    

Crude Oil

    

Heating Oil

    

Natural Gas

    

Gasoline

Large Cap US Equities (S&P 500)

 

1.000

 

0.989

 

0.999

 

0.977

 

0.927

 

0.782

 

0.946

US Gov’t Bonds (BEUSG4 Index)

 

 

1.000

 

0.992

 

0.975

 

0.911

 

0.741

 

0.943

Global Equities (FTSE World Index)

 

 

 

1.000

 

0.978

 

0.923

 

0.771

 

0.943

Crude Oil

 

 

 

 

1.000

 

0.956

 

0.713

 

0.964

Heating Oil

 

 

 

 

  

 

1.000

 

0.676

 

0.930

Natural Gas

 

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

1.000

 

0.612

Unleaded Gasoline

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

1.000

Source: Bloomberg, NYMEX

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Investors are cautioned that the historical price relationships between gasoline and various other energy commodities, as well as other investment asset classes, as measured by correlation may not be reliable predictors of future price movements and correlation results. The results pictured above would have been different if a different range of dates had been selected. USCF believes that gasoline has historically not demonstrated a strong correlation with equities or bonds over long periods of time. However, USCF also believes that in the future it is possible that gasoline could have long term correlation results that indicate prices of gasoline more closely track the movements of equities or bonds. In addition, USCF believes that, when measured over time periods shorter than ten years, there will always be some periods where the correlation of gasoline to equities and bonds will be either more strongly positively correlated or more strongly negatively correlated than the long-term historical results suggest.

The correlations between gasoline, crude oil, natural gas and diesel-heating oil are relevant because USCF endeavors to invest UGA’s assets in Futures Contracts and Other Gasoline-Related Investments so that daily changes in percentage terms in UGA’s per share NAV correlate as closely as possible with daily changes in percentage terms in the price of the Benchmark Futures Contract. If certain other fuel-based commodity futures contracts do not closely correlate with the gasoline Futures Contract, then their use could lead to greater tracking error. As noted above, USCF also believes that the changes in percentage terms in the price of the Benchmark Futures Contract will closely correlate with changes in percentage terms in the spot price of gasoline.

Critical Accounting Policies

Preparation of the condensed financial statements and related disclosures in compliance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires the application of appropriate accounting rules and guidance, as well as the use of estimates. UGA’s application of these policies involves judgments and actual results may differ from the estimates used.

USCF has evaluated the nature and types of estimates that it makes in preparing UGA’s condensed financial statements and related disclosures and has determined that the valuation of its investments, which are not traded on a United States or internationally recognized futures exchange (such as forward contracts and OTC swaps) involves a critical accounting policy. The values which are used by UGA for its Futures Contracts are provided by its commodity broker who uses market prices when available, while OTC swaps are valued based on the present value of estimated future cash flows that would be received from or paid to a third party in settlement of these derivative contracts prior to their delivery date and valued on a daily basis. In addition, UGA estimates interest and dividend income on a daily basis using prevailing rates earned on its cash and cash equivalents. These estimates are adjusted to the actual amount received on a monthly basis and the difference, if any, is not considered material.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

UGA has not made, and does not anticipate making, use of borrowings or other lines of credit to meet its obligations. UGA has met, and it is anticipated that UGA will continue to meet, its liquidity needs in the normal course of business from the proceeds of the sale of its investments, or from the Treasuries, cash and/or cash equivalents that it intends to hold at all times. UGA’s liquidity needs include: redeeming shares, providing margin deposits for its existing Futures Contracts or the purchase of additional Futures Contracts and posting collateral for its OTC swaps, if applicable, and payment of its expenses, summarized below under “Contractual Obligations.”

33

UGA currently generates cash primarily from: (i) the sale of baskets consisting of 50,000 shares (“Creation Baskets”) and (ii) income earned on Treasuries, cash and/or cash equivalents. UGA has allocated substantially all of its net assets to trading in Gasoline Interests. UGA invests in Gasoline Interests to the fullest extent possible without being leveraged or unable to satisfy its current or potential margin or collateral obligations with respect to its investments in Futures Contracts and Other Gasoline-Related Investments. A significant portion of UGA’s NAV is held in cash and cash equivalents that are used as margin and as collateral for its trading in Gasoline Interests. The balance of the assets is held in UGA’s account at its custodian bank and in investments in money market funds and Treasuries at the FCMs. Income received from UGA’s investments in money market funds and Treasuries is paid to UGA. During the six months ended June 30, 2023, UGA’s expenses did not exceed the income UGA earned and the cash earned from the sale of Creation Baskets and the redemption of Redemption Baskets. During the six months ended June 30, 2023, UGA did not use other assets to pay expenses. To the extent expenses exceed income, UGA’s NAV will be negatively impacted.

UGA’s investments in Gasoline Interests may be subject to periods of illiquidity because of market conditions, regulatory considerations and other reasons. For example, most commodity exchanges limit the fluctuations in futures contracts prices during a single day by regulations referred to as “daily limits.” During a single day, no trades may be executed at prices beyond the daily limit. Once the price of a futures contract has increased or decreased by an amount equal to the daily limit, positions in the contracts can neither be taken nor liquidated unless the traders are willing to effect trades at or within the specified daily limit. Such market conditions could prevent UGA from promptly liquidating its positions in Futures Contracts. During the six months ended June 30, 2023, UGA did not purchase or liquidate any of its positions while daily limits were in effect; however, UGA cannot predict whether such an event may occur in the future.

Since the initial offering of shares, UGA has been responsible for expenses relating to: (i) management fees, (ii) brokerage fees and commissions, (iii) licensing fees for the use of intellectual property, (iv) ongoing registration expenses in connection with offers and sales of its shares subsequent to the initial offering, (v) other expenses, including tax reporting costs, (vi) fees and expenses of the independent directors of USCF and (vii) other extraordinary expenses not in the ordinary course of business.

UGA may terminate at any time, regardless of whether UGA has incurred losses, subject to the terms of the LP Agreement. In particular, unforeseen circumstances, including, but not limited to, (i) market conditions, regulatory requirements, risk mitigation measures taken by UGA or third parties or otherwise that would lead UGA to determine that it could no longer foreseeably meet its investment objective or that UGA’s aggregate net assets in relation to its operating expenses or its margin or collateral requirements make the continued operation of UGA unreasonable or imprudent, or (ii) adjudication of incompetence, bankruptcy, dissolution, withdrawal or removal of USCF as the general partner of UGA could cause UGA, to terminate unless a majority interest of the limited partners within 90 days of the event elects to continue the partnership and appoints a successor general partner, or the affirmative vote of a majority in interest of the limited partners subject to certain conditions. UGA’s termination would cause the liquidation and potential loss of an investor’s investment. Termination could also negatively affect the overall maturity and timing of an investor’s investment portfolio.

Market Risk

Trading in Futures Contracts and Other Gasoline-Related Investments, such as forwards, involves UGA entering into contractual commitments to purchase or sell gasoline at a specified date in the future. The aggregate market value of the contracts will significantly exceed UGA’s future cash requirements since UGA intends to close out its open positions prior to settlement. As a result, UGA is generally only subject to the risk of loss arising from the change in value of the contracts. UGA considers the “fair value” of its derivative instruments to be the unrealized gain or loss on the contracts. The market risk associated with UGA’s commitments to purchase gasoline is limited to the aggregate market value of the contracts held. However, should UGA enter into a contractual commitment to sell gasoline, it would be required to make delivery of the gasoline at the contract price, repurchase the contract at prevailing prices or settle in cash. Since there are no limits on the future price of gasoline, the market risk to UGA could be unlimited.

UGA’s exposure to market risk depends on a number of factors, including the markets for gasoline, the volatility of interest rates and foreign exchange rates, the liquidity of the Futures Contracts and Other Gasoline-Related Investments markets and the relationships among the contracts held by UGA. Drastic market occurrences could ultimately lead to the loss of all or substantially all of an investor’s capital.

Credit Risk

When UGA enters into Futures Contracts and Other Gasoline-Related Investments, it is exposed to the credit risk that the counterparty will not be able to meet its obligations. The counterparty for the Futures Contracts traded on the NYMEX and on most other futures

34

exchanges is the clearinghouse associated with the particular exchange. In general, in addition to margin required to be posted by the clearinghouse in connection with cleared trades, clearinghouses are backed by their members who may be required to share in the financial burden resulting from the nonperformance of one of their members and, therefore, this additional member support should significantly reduce credit risk. UGA is not currently a member of any clearinghouse. Some foreign exchanges are not backed by their clearinghouse members but may be backed by a consortium of banks or other financial institutions. There can be no assurance that any counterparty, clearinghouse, or their members or their financial backers will satisfy their obligations to UGA in such circumstances.

USCF attempts to manage the credit risk of UGA by following various trading limitations and policies. In particular, UGA generally posts margin and/or holds liquid assets that are approximately equal to the market value of its obligations to counterparties under the Futures Contracts and Other Gasoline-Related Investments it holds. USCF has implemented procedures that include, but are not limited to, executing and clearing trades only with creditworthy parties and/or requiring the posting of collateral or margin by such parties for the benefit of UGA to limit its credit exposure. An FCM, when acting on behalf of UGA in accepting orders to purchase or sell Futures Contracts on United States exchanges, is required by CFTC regulations to separately account for and segregate as belonging to UGA, all assets of UGA relating to domestic Futures Contracts trading. These FCMs are not allowed to commingle UGA’s assets with their other assets. In addition, the CFTC requires FCMs to hold in a secure account UGA’s assets related to foreign Futures Contracts.

In the future UGA may purchase OTC swaps, see “Item 3.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q for a discussion of OTC swaps.

As of June 30, 2023, UGA held cash deposits and investments in Treasuries and money market funds in the amount of $69,916,068 with the custodian and FCMs. Some or all of these amounts held by a custodian or an FCM, as applicable, may be subject to loss should UGA’s custodian or FCMs, as applicable, cease operations.

Off Balance Sheet Financing

As of June 30, 2023, UGA had no loan guarantee, credit support or other off-balance sheet arrangements of any kind other than agreements entered into in the normal course of business, which may include indemnification provisions relating to certain risks that service providers undertake in performing services which are in the best interests of UGA. While UGA’s exposure under these indemnification provisions cannot be estimated, they are not expected to have a material impact on UGA’s financial position.

Redemption Basket Obligation

In order to meet its investment objective and pay its contractual obligations described below, UGA requires liquidity to redeem shares, which redemptions must be in blocks of 50,000 shares called “Redemption Baskets.” UGA has to date satisfied this obligation by paying from the cash or cash equivalents it holds or through the sale of its Treasuries in an amount proportionate to the number of shares being redeemed.

Contractual Obligations

UGA’s primary contractual obligations are with USCF. In return for its services, USCF is entitled to a management fee calculated daily and paid monthly as a fixed percentage of UGA’s NAV, currently 0.60% of NAV on its average daily total net assets.

USCF agreed to pay the start-up costs associated with the formation of UGA, primarily its legal, accounting and other costs in connection with USCF’s registration with the CFTC as a CPO and the registration and listing of UGA and its shares with the SEC, FINRA and NYSE Arca (formerly, AMEX), respectively. However, since UGA’s initial offering of shares, offering costs incurred in connection with registering and listing additional shares of UGA have been directly borne on an ongoing basis by UGA, and not by USCF.

35

USCF pays the fees of the Marketing Agent as well as BNY Mellon’s fees for performing administrative, custodial, and transfer agency services. BNY Mellon’s fees for performing administrative services include those in connection with the preparation of UGA’s condensed financial statements and its SEC, NFA and CFTC reports. USCF and UGA have also entered into a licensing agreement with the NYMEX pursuant to which UGA and the Related Public Funds, other than BNO, USCI and CPER, pay a licensing fee to the NYMEX. UGA also pays the fees and expenses associated with its tax accounting and reporting requirements. USCF had voluntarily agreed to pay certain expenses typically borne by UGA to the extent that such expenses exceeded 0.15% (15 basis points) of UGA’s NAV, on an annualized basis. USCF terminated such expense waiver as of April 30, 2021. This voluntary expense waiver was in addition to those amounts USCF is contractually obligated to pay as described in Note 4 to the Notes to Condensed Financial Statements (Unaudited) in Item 1 of this quarterly report on Form 10-Q and terminated on April 30, 2021.

In addition to USCF’s management fee, UGA pays its brokerage fees (including fees to an FCM), OTC dealer spreads, any licensing fees for the use of intellectual property, and, subsequent to the initial offering, registration and other fees paid to the SEC, FINRA, or other regulatory agencies in connection with the offer and sale of shares, as well as legal, printing, accounting and other expenses associated therewith, and extraordinary expenses. The latter are expenses not incurred in the ordinary course of UGA’s business, including expenses relating to the indemnification of any person against liabilities and obligations to the extent permitted by law and under the LP Agreement, the bringing or defending of actions in law or in equity or otherwise conducting litigation and incurring legal expenses and the settlement of claims and litigation. Commission payments to an FCM are on a contract-by-contract, or round turn, basis. UGA also pays a portion of the fees and expenses of the independent directors of USCF. See Note 3 to the Notes to Condensed Financial Statements (Unaudited) in Item 1 of this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.

The parties cannot anticipate the amount of payments that will be required under these arrangements for future periods, as UGA’s per share NAVs and trading levels to meet its investment objective will not be known until a future date. These agreements are effective for a specific term agreed upon by the parties with an option to renew, or, in some cases, are in effect for the duration of UGA’s existence. Either party may terminate these agreements earlier for certain reasons described in the agreements.

As of June 30, 2023, UGA’s portfolio consisted of 644 Futures Contracts traded on the NYMEX. As of June 30, 2023, UGA did not hold any Futures Contracts traded on the ICE Futures. For a list of UGA’s current holdings, please see UGA’s website at www.uscfinvestments.com.

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

Commodity Price Risk.

UGA is exposed to commodity price risk. In particular, UGA is exposed to gasoline price risk through its holdings of Futures Contracts together with any other derivatives in which it may invest, which are discussed below. As a result, fluctuations in the value of the Futures Contracts that UGA holds in its portfolio, as described in “Contractual Obligations” under “Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” above, are expected to directly affect the value of UGA’s shares.

OTC Contract Risk

UGA may purchase OTC contracts, such as forward contracts or swap or spot contracts. Unlike most exchange-traded futures contracts or exchange- traded options on such futures, each party to an OTC swap bears the credit risk that the other party may not be able to perform its obligations under its contract.

UGA may enter into certain transactions where an OTC component is exchanged for a corresponding futures contract (“Exchange for Related Position” or “EFRP” transactions). In the most common type of EFRP transaction entered into by UGA, the OTC component is the purchase or sale of one or more baskets of UGA shares. These EFRP transactions may expose UGA to counterparty risk during the interim period between the execution of the OTC component and the exchange for a corresponding futures contract. Generally, the counterparty risk from the EFRP transaction will exist only on the day of execution.

Swap transactions, like other financial transactions, involve a variety of significant risks. The specific risks presented by a particular swap transaction necessarily depend upon the terms and circumstances of the transaction. In general, however, all swap transactions involve some combination of market risk, credit risk, counterparty credit risk, funding risk, liquidity risk and operational risk.

36

Highly customized swap transactions in particular may increase liquidity risk, which may result in a suspension of redemptions. Highly leveraged transactions may experience substantial gains or losses in value as a result of relatively small changes in the value or level of an underlying or related market factor.

In evaluating the risks and contractual obligations associated with a particular swap transaction, it is important to consider that a swap transaction may be modified or terminated only by mutual consent of the original parties and subject to agreement on individually negotiated terms. Therefore, it may not be possible for USCF to modify, terminate or offset UGA’s obligations or its exposure to the risks associated with a transaction prior to its scheduled termination date.

To reduce the credit risk that arises in connection with such contracts, UGA will generally enter into an agreement with each counterparty based on the Master Agreement published by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association that provides for the netting of its overall exposure to its counterparty, if the counterparty is unable to meet its obligations to UGA due to the occurrence of a specified event, such as the insolvency of the counterparty.

USCF assesses or reviews, as appropriate, the creditworthiness of each potential or existing counterparty to an OTC swap pursuant to guidelines approved by the Board. Furthermore, USCF on behalf of UGA only enters into OTC swaps with counterparties who are, or are affiliates of, (a) banks regulated by a United States federal bank regulator, (b) broker-dealers regulated by the SEC, (c) insurance companies domiciled in the United States, or (d) producers, users or traders of energy, whether or not regulated by the CFTC. Any entity acting as a counterparty shall be regulated in either the United States or the United Kingdom unless otherwise approved by the Board after consultation with its legal counsel. Existing counterparties are also reviewed periodically by USCF. UGA will also require that the counterparty be highly rated and/or provide collateral or other credit support. Even if collateral is used to reduce counterparty credit risk, sudden changes in the value of OTC transactions may leave a party open to financial risk due to a counterparty default since the collateral held may not cover a party’s exposure on the transaction in such situations.

In general, valuing OTC derivatives is less certain than valuing actively traded financial instruments such as exchange-traded futures contracts and securities or cleared swaps because the price and terms on which such OTC derivatives are entered into or can be terminated are individually negotiated, and those prices and terms may not reflect the best price or terms available from other sources. In addition, while market makers and dealers generally quote indicative prices or terms for entering into or terminating OTC swaps, they typically are not contractually obligated to do so, particularly if they are not a party to the transaction. As a result, it may be difficult to obtain an independent value for an outstanding OTC derivatives transaction.

During the six month reporting period ended June 30, 2023, UGA limited its OTC activities to EFRP transactions.

UGA anticipates that the use of Other Gasoline-Related Investments together with its investments in Futures Contracts will produce price and total return results that closely track the investment goals of UGA. However, there can be no assurance of this. OTC swaps may result in higher transaction-related expenses than the brokerage commissions paid in connection with the purchase of Futures Contracts, which may impact UGA’s ability to successfully track the Benchmark Futures Contract.

37

Item 4. Controls and Procedures.

Disclosure Controls and Procedures.

UGA maintains disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in UGA’s periodic reports filed or submitted under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time period specified in the SEC’s rules and forms.

The duly appointed officers of USCF, including its chief executive officer and chief financial officer, who perform functions equivalent to those of a principal executive officer and principal financial officer of UGA if UGA had any officers, have evaluated the effectiveness of UGA’s disclosure controls and procedures and have concluded that the disclosure controls and procedures of UGA have been effective as of the end of the period covered by this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.

Change in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

There were no changes in UGA’s internal control over financial reporting during UGA’s last fiscal quarter that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, UGA’s internal control over financial reporting.

38

Part II. OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. Legal Proceedings.

From time to time, UGA may be involved in legal proceedings arising primarily from the ordinary course of its business. UGA is not currently party to any material legal proceedings. In addition, USCF, as the general partner of UGA and the Related Public Funds may, from time to time, be involved in litigation arising out of its operations in the ordinary course of business. Except as described herein, USCF is not currently party to any material legal proceedings.

Settlement of SEC and CFTC Investigations

On November 8, 2021, USCF and USO announced a resolution with each of the SEC and the CFTC relating to matters set forth in certain Wells Notices issued by the staffs of each of the SEC and CFTC as more fully described below. On August 17, 2020, USCF, USO, and John Love received a “Wells Notice” from the staff of the SEC (the “SEC Wells Notice”). The SEC Wells Notice stated that the SEC staff made a preliminary determination to recommend that the SEC file an enforcement action against USCF, USO, and Mr. Love alleging violations of Sections 17(a)(1) and 17(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”), and Section 10(b) of the 1934 Act, and Rule 10b-5 thereunder.

Subsequently, on August 19, 2020, USCF, USO, and Mr. Love received a Wells Notice from the staff of the CFTC (the “CFTC Wells Notice”). The CFTC Wells Notice stated that the CFTC staff made a preliminary determination to recommend that the CFTC file an enforcement action against USCF, USO, and Mr. Love alleging violations of Sections 4o(1)(A) and (B) and 6(c)(1) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936, as amended (the “CEA”), 7 U.S.C. §§ 6o(1)(A) and (B) and 9(1) (2018), and CFTC Regulations 4.26, 4.41, and 180.1(a), 17 C.F.R. §§ 4.26, 4.41, 180.1(a) (2019).

On November 8, 2021, acting pursuant to an offer of settlement submitted by USCF and USO, the SEC issued an order instituting cease-and-desist proceedings, making findings, and imposing a cease-and-desist order pursuant to Section 8A of the 1933 Act, directing USCF and USO to cease and desist from committing or causing any violations of Section 17(a)(3) of the 1933 Act, 15 U.S.C. § 77q(a)(3) (the “SEC Order”). In the SEC Order, the SEC made findings that, from April 24, 2020 to May 21, 2020, USCF and USO violated Section 17(a)(3) of 1933 Act, which provides that it is “unlawful for any person in the offer or sale of any securities to engage in any transaction, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon the purchaser.” USCF and USO consented to entry of the SEC Order without admitting or denying the findings contained therein, except as to jurisdiction.

Separately, on November 8, 2021, acting pursuant to an offer of settlement submitted by USCF, the CFTC issued an order instituting cease-and-desist proceedings, making findings, and imposing a cease-and-desist order pursuant to Section 6(c) and (d) of the CEA, directing USCF to cease and desist from committing or causing any violations of Section 4o(1)(B) of the CEA, 7 U.S.C. § 6o(1) (B), and CFTC Regulation 4.41(a)(2), 17 C.F.R. § 4.41(a)(2) (the “CFTC Order”). In the CFTC Order, the CFTC made findings that, from on or about April 22, 2020 to June 12, 2020, USCF violated Section 4o(1)(B) of the CEA and CFTC Regulation 4.41(a)(2), which make it unlawful for any commodity pool operator (“CPO”) to engage in “any transaction, practice, or course of business which operates as a fraud or deceit upon any client or participant or prospective client or participant” and prohibit a CPO from advertising in a manner which “operates as a fraud or deceit upon any client or participant or prospective client or participant,” respectively. USCF consented to entry of the CFTC Order without admitting or denying the findings contained therein, except as to jurisdiction.

Pursuant to the SEC Order and the CFTC Order, in addition to the command to cease and desist from committing or causing any violations of Section 17(a)(3) of the 1933 Act, Section 4o(1)(B) of the CEA, and CFTC Regulation 4.14(a)(2), civil monetary penalties totaling two million five hundred thousand dollars ($2,500,000) in the aggregate were required to be paid to the SEC and CFTC, of which one million two hundred fifty thousand dollars ($1,250,000) was paid by USCF to each of the SEC and the CFTC, respectively, pursuant to the offsets permitted under the orders.

In re: United States Oil Fund, LP Securities Litigation

On June 19, 2020, USCF, USO, John P. Love, and Stuart P. Crumbaugh were named as defendants in a putative class action filed by purported shareholder Robert Lucas (the “Lucas Class Action”). The Court thereafter consolidated the Lucas Class Action with two related putative class actions filed on July 31, 2020 and August 13, 2020, and appointed a lead plaintiff. The consolidated class action is pending in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York under the caption In re: United States Oil Fund, LP Securities Litigation, Civil Action No. 1:20-cv-04740.

39

On November 30, 2020, the lead plaintiff filed an amended complaint (the “Amended Lucas Class Complaint”). The Amended Lucas Class Complaint asserts claims under the 1933 Act, the 1934 Act, and Rule 10b-5. The Amended Lucas Class Complaint challenges statements in registration statements that became effective on February 25, 2020 and March 23, 2020 as well as subsequent public statements through April 2020 concerning certain extraordinary market conditions and the attendant risks that caused the demand for oil to fall precipitously, including the COVID- 19 global pandemic and the Saudi Arabia-Russia oil price war. The Amended Lucas Class Complaint purports to have been brought by an investor in USO on behalf of a class of similarly-situated shareholders who purchased USO securities between February 25, 2020 and April 28, 2020 and pursuant to the challenged registration statements. The Amended Lucas Class Complaint seeks to certify a class and to award the class compensatory damages at an amount to be determined at trial as well as costs and attorney’s fees. The Amended Lucas Class Complaint named as defendants USCF, USO, John P. Love, Stuart P. Crumbaugh, Nicholas D. Gerber, Andrew F Ngim, Robert L. Nguyen, Peter M. Robinson, Gordon L. Ellis, and Malcolm R. Fobes III, as well as the marketing agent, ALPS Distributors, Inc., and the Authorized Participants: ABN Amro, BNP Paribas Securities Corporation, Citadel Securities LLC, Citigroup Global Markets, Inc., Credit Suisse Securities USA LLC, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Goldman Sachs & Company, J.P. Morgan Securities Inc., Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corporation, Morgan Stanley & Company Inc., Nomura Securities International Inc., RBC Capital Markets LLC, SG Americas Securities LLC, UBS Securities LLC, and Virtu Financial BD LLC.

The lead plaintiff has filed a notice of voluntary dismissal of its claims against BNP Paribas Securities Corporation, Citadel Securities LLC, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Credit Suisse Securities USA LLC, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Morgan Stanley & Company, Inc., Nomura Securities International, Inc., RBC Capital Markets, LLC, SG Americas Securities LLC, and UBS Securities LLC.

USCF, USO, and the individual defendants in In re: United States Oil Fund, LP Securities Litigation intend to vigorously contest such claims and have moved for their dismissal.

Wang Class Action

On July 10, 2020, purported shareholder Momo Wang filed a putative class action complaint, individually and on behalf of others similarly situated, against defendants USO, USCF, John P. Love, Stuart P. Crumbaugh, Nicholas D. Gerber, Andrew F Ngim, Robert L. Nguyen, Peter M. Robinson, Gordon L. Ellis, Malcolm R. Fobes, III, ABN Amro, BNP Paribas Securities Corp., Citadel Securities LLC, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Credit Suisse Securities USA LLC, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Goldman Sachs & Company, JP Morgan Securities Inc., Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., Morgan Stanley & Company Inc., Nomura Securities International Inc., RBC Capital Markets LLC, SG Americas Securities LLC, UBS Securities LLC, and Virtu Financial BD LLC, in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California as Civil Action No. 3:20-cv-4596 (the “Wang Class Action”).

The Wang Class Action asserted federal securities claims under the 1933 Act, challenging disclosures in a March 19, 2020 registration statement. It alleged that the defendants failed to disclose to investors in USO certain extraordinary market conditions and the attendant risks that caused the demand for oil to fall precipitously, including the COVID-19 global pandemic and the Saudi Arabia-Russia oil price war. The Wang Class Action was voluntarily dismissed on August 4, 2020.

Mehan Action

On August 10, 2020, purported shareholder Darshan Mehan filed a derivative action on behalf of nominal defendant USO, against defendants USCF, John P. Love, Stuart P. Crumbaugh, Nicholas D. Gerber, Andrew F Ngim, Robert L. Nguyen, Peter M. Robinson, Gordon L. Ellis, and Malcolm R. Fobes, III (the “Mehan Action”). The action is pending in the Superior Court of the State of California for the County of Alameda as Case No. RG20070732.

The Mehan Action alleges that the defendants breached their fiduciary duties to USO and failed to act in good faith in connection with a March 19, 2020 registration statement and offering and disclosures regarding certain extraordinary market conditions that caused demand for oil to fall precipitously, including the COVID-19 global pandemic and the Saudi Arabia-Russia oil price war. The complaint seeks, on behalf of USO, compensatory damages, restitution, equitable relief, attorney’s fees, and costs. All proceedings in the Mehan Action are stayed pending disposition of the motion(s) to dismiss in In re: United States Oil Fund, LP Securities Litigation.

USCF, USO, and the other defendants intend to vigorously contest such claims.

40

In re United States Oil Fund, LP Derivative Litigation

On August 27, 2020, purported shareholders Michael Cantrell and AML Pharm. Inc. DBA Golden International filed two separate derivative actions on behalf of nominal defendant USO, against defendants USCF, John P. Love, Stuart P. Crumbaugh, Andrew F Ngim, Gordon L. Ellis, Malcolm R. Fobes, III, Nicholas D. Gerber, Robert L. Nguyen, and Peter M. Robinson in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York at Civil Action No. 1:20-cv-06974 (the “Cantrell Action”) and Civil Action No. 1:20-cv-06981 (the “AML Action”), respectively.

The complaints in the Cantrell and AML Actions are nearly identical. They each allege violations of Sections 10(b), 20(a) and 21D of the 1934 Act, Rule 10b-5 thereunder, and common law claims of breach of fiduciary duties, unjust enrichment, abuse of control, gross mismanagement, and waste of corporate assets. These allegations stem from USO’s disclosures and defendants’ alleged actions in light of the extraordinary market conditions in 2020 that caused demand for oil to fall precipitously, including the COVID-19 global pandemic and the Saudi Arabia-Russia oil price war. The complaints seek, on behalf of USO, compensatory damages, restitution, equitable relief, attorney’s fees, and costs. The plaintiffs in the Cantrell and AML Actions have marked their actions as related to the Lucas Class Action.

The Court consolidated the Cantrell and AML Actions under the caption In re United States Oil Fund, LP Derivative Litigation, Civil Action No. 1:20-cv-06974 and appointed co-lead counsel. All proceedings in In re United States Oil Fund, LP Derivative Litigation are stayed pending disposition of the motion(s) to dismiss in In re: United States Oil Fund, LP Securities Litigation.

USCF, USO, and the other defendants intend to vigorously contest the claims in In re United States Oil Fund, LP Derivative Litigation.

Optimum Strategies Action

On April 6, 2022, USO and USCF were named as defendants in an action filed by Optimum Strategies Fund I, LP, a purported investor in call option contracts on USO (the “Optimum Strategies Action”). The action is pending in the U.S. District Court for the District of Connecticut at Civil Action No. 3:22-cv-00511.

The Optimum Strategies A