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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-244401

 

The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, relating to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, is not complete and may be changed. A registration statement relating to these securities has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission. This preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED AUGUST 11, 2020

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus dated August 11, 2020)

8,000,000 Shares

 

LOGO

Common Stock

We are offering 8,000,000 shares of our common stock. Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “MCRB.” On August 10, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $22.70 per share.

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and, as such, we have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and future filings.

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Please read “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

     Per share      Total  

Public offering price

   $                    $                

Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)

   $        $    

Proceeds to Seres Therapeutics, Inc. before expenses

   $        $    

 

(1)

We have agreed to reimburse the underwriters for certain expenses. See “Underwriting.”

We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of 30 days to purchase up to an additional 1,200,000 shares of our common stock at the public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions. Delivery of the shares of common stock is expected to be made on or about                , 2020.

 

Cowen

   Piper Sandler

Canaccord Genuity

   Oppenheimer & Co.

The date of this prospectus supplement is                 , 2020.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-ii  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-1  

RISK FACTORS

     S-4  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-7  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     S-8  

DILUTION

     S-9  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES TO NON-U.S. HOLDERS OF OUR COMMON STOCK

     S-10  

UNDERWRITING

     S-14  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-25  

EXPERTS

     S-25  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     S-26  

ACCOMPANYING PROSPECTUS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     2  

THE COMPANY

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES

     18  

GLOBAL SECURITIES

     19  

SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

     23  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     24  

LEGAL MATTERS

     25  

EXPERTS

     25  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document is in two parts. The first part is the prospectus supplement, including the documents incorporated by reference, which describes the specific terms of this offering. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference, provides more general information. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. Before you invest, you should carefully read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, all information incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as the additional information described under “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference” on page S-26 of this prospectus supplement. These documents contain information you should consider when making your investment decision. This prospectus supplement may add, update or change information contained in the accompanying prospectus. To the extent that any statement that we make in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with statements made in the accompanying prospectus or any documents incorporated by reference, the statements made in this prospectus supplement will be deemed to modify or supersede those made in the accompanying prospectus and such documents incorporated by reference.

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in any free writing prospectuses we may provide to you in connection with this offering. Neither we nor any of the underwriters have authorized any other person to provide you with any information that is different. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement outside the United States. This prospectus supplement does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or the documents incorporated by reference, concerning our industry and the markets in which we operate, including our general expectations and market position, market opportunity and market share, is based on information from our own management estimates and research, as well as from industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Management estimates are derived from publicly available information, our knowledge of our industry and assumptions based on such information and knowledge, which we believe to be reasonable. In addition, assumptions and estimates of our and our industry’s future performance are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended June 30, 2020, which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. These and other important factors could cause our future performance to differ materially from our assumptions and estimates. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

SERES THERAPEUTICS, Ecobiotic and our logo are three of our trademarks that are used in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference. This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference also include trademarks, tradenames and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference appear without the ® and symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights, to these trademarks and tradenames.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information about us, this offering and information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, in the accompanying prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference. This summary is not complete and does not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our common stock pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Before making an investment decision, to fully understand this offering and its consequences to you, you should carefully read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement, the financial statements and related notes, and the other information that we incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement, including the risks discussed under “Risk Factors” in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the period ended June 30, 2020.

Seres Therapeutics, Inc.

Our Company

We are a microbiome therapeutics platform company developing a novel class of biological drugs, which are designed to treat disease by modulating the microbiome to restore health by repairing the function of a dysbiotic microbiome to a non-disease state. Our Phase 3 ECOSPOR III study evaluating SER-109 resulted in statistically significant reduction of recurrences of Clostridioides difficile infection (formerly Clostridium difficile infection), or CDI, a debilitating infection of the colon, in patients who have received antibiotic therapy for recurrent CDI. If approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, we believe SER-109 will be a first-in-field oral microbiome drug. There are approximately 170,000 U.S. patients annually with recurrent CDI. We are also developing SER-287 and SER-301 to treat ulcerative colitis, or UC. In addition, using our microbiome therapeutics platform, we are developing SER-401, a microbiome therapeutic candidate for use with checkpoint inhibitors in patients with metastatic melanoma and SER-155 to prevent mortality due to gastrointestinal infections, bacteremia and graft versus host disease (GvHD) in immunocompromised patients, including in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Supporting our R&D efforts are our deep capabilities related to microbiome therapeutic drug discovery, manufacturing, quality and clinical development. We believe that these capabilities provide us with important competitive advantages related to the advancement of this novel treatment modality.

Recent Developments

On August 10, 2020, we announced positive topline results from the pivotal Phase 3 ECOSPOR III study evaluating SER-109 for recurrent CDI. The study showed that SER-109 administration resulted in a statistically significant absolute decrease of 30.2% in the proportion of patients who experienced a recurrence in CDI within eight weeks of administration versus placebo, the study’s primary endpoint. 11.1% of patients administered SER-109 experienced a CDI recurrence, versus 41.3% of placebo patients. The study’s efficacy results exceeded the statistical threshold previously provided in consultation with the FDA that could allow this single clinical study to fulfill efficacy requirements for a biologics license application, or BLA. The SER-109 safety results were favorable, with an adverse event profile comparable to placebo.

The ECOSPOR III study is a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study that enrolled 182 patients with multiply recurrent CDI. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either SER-109 or placebo, after standard of care antibiotic treatment. SER-109 or placebo was administered orally for three consecutive days. All patients were required to have a positive C. difficile toxin diagnostic test both at study entry and in the case of suspected recurrence to ensure the selection of individuals with true disease and to confirm the accuracy of the primary endpoint. The primary efficacy endpoint of ECOSPOR III was the proportion of patients with recurrent CDI at up to



 

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eight weeks following administration of SER-109 or placebo. As a secondary endpoint, patients are evaluated for CDI recurrence through 24 weeks post-treatment, and we plan to present those results at a future date.

SER-109 met the study’s primary endpoint with a significantly lower recurrence rate of 11.1% in SER-109 patients versus 41.3% in placebo patients at 8 weeks (p<0.001). Patients administered SER-109 experienced a 30.2% lower rate of recurrence, on an absolute basis, compared to placebo. The SER-109 treatment arm relative risk was 0.27 (95% CI=0.15 to 0.51) versus placebo. The ECOSPOR III recurrence rates translate into a sustained clinical response rate of 88.9% versus 58.7% with SER-109 and placebo, respectively. The SER-109 Number Needed to Treat was approximately 3.

In prior discussions, the FDA communicated that demonstration of a statistically very persuasive efficacy finding in the ECOSPOR III primary endpoint, defined as demonstrating a 95% upper confidence level of relative risk lower than 0.833, could support a BLA submission on the basis of this single study. The results of ECOSPOR III demonstrated a SER-109 relative risk of 0.27 (95% CI=0.15 to 0.51) compared to placebo. As a result, we believe that this study should support the efficacy basis for a BLA submission. SER-109 has obtained FDA Breakthrough Drug and Orphan Drug Designations.

SER-109 was well-tolerated, with no treatment-related serious adverse events observed in the active arm, and an adverse event, or AE, profile similar to placebo. The overall incidence of patients who experienced AEs during the 8-week study period was similar between SER-109 and placebo arms. The most commonly observed treatment-related AEs were flatulence, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain, which were generally mild to moderate in nature, and these were observed at a similar rate in both the SER-109 and placebo arms.

A SER-109 open-label study is ongoing at selected clinical sites that participated in the ECOSPOR III study and we may initiate the program at additional clinical sites. The FDA has previously indicated that SER-109 administration to at least 300 patients, consistent with standard FDA guidance, would be required to support a BLA submission. The ongoing SER-109 open label study is continuing to contribute to the SER-109 safety database.

We plan to immediately request a Breakthrough Therapy Designation meeting with the FDA to discuss the requirements to submit a BLA seeking regulatory approval of SER-109. As of August 10, 2020, we have a safety database with the SER-109 Phase 3 dose of approximately 105 subjects. We anticipate adding additional subjects in the open label portion of the study and we expect to include data from these subjects in the safety data portion of the BLA. Subject to discussions with the FDA, we expect to submit a BLA next year. We believe that enrollment in the open label portion of the study going forward will accelerate given the strength of the Phase 3 data, and the limited availability of alternative treatment options. We plan to discuss with the FDA at our upcoming Breakthrough Therapy Designation meeting whether any additional safety data may be required in the context of the favorable safety profile we have observed in clinical studies. Based on what we learn in this meeting, we will further refine our anticipated timing for a BLA filing.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in the State of Delaware in 2010 under the name Newco LS21, Inc. In October 2011, we changed our name to Seres Health, Inc., and in May 2015, we changed our name to Seres Therapeutics, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 200 Sidney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 and our telephone number is (617) 945-9626. Our website address is www.serestherapeutics.com. The information contained in, or accessible through, our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus supplement.



 

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The Offering

 

Common stock offered by us

8,000,000 shares

 

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

                shares (or             shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares)

 

Underwriters’ option

We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to 1,200,000 additional shares of our common stock. This option is exercisable, in whole or in part, for a period of 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement.

 

Use of proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering to advance the clinical development of our product candidates, for commercialization and manufacturing activities and for other general corporate and working capital purposes. Please see “Use of Proceeds” on page S-7.

 

Risk factors

See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-4 of this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, for a discussion of factors that you should read and consider before investing in our common stock.

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol

“MCRB”

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 76,258,531 shares of our common stock outstanding as of July 31, 2020 and excludes:

 

   

11,608,482 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of July 31, 2020, at a weighted average exercise price of $7.87 per share;

 

   

15,000 shares of common stock issuable upon vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of July 31, 2020;

 

   

1,526,110 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2015 Incentive Award Plan, or the 2015 Plan, as of July 31, 2020, as well as shares that become available pursuant to provisions in our 2015 Plan that automatically increase the share reserve under the plan on January 1 of each calendar year; and

 

   

2,171,157 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2015 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or the 2015 ESPP, as of July 31, 2020, as well as shares that become available pursuant to provisions in our 2015 ESPP that automatically increase the share reserve under the plan on January 1 of each calendar year.

Unless otherwise indicated, this prospectus supplement reflects and assumes the following:

 

   

no exercise of the outstanding options and no vesting of the outstanding restricted stock units described above; and

 

   

no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before investing in our common stock, you should consider carefully the risks described below, together with the other information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or incorporated by reference herein or therein, including the risks and uncertainties discussed under “Risk Factors” in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended June 30, 2020, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. If any of the risks incorporated by reference or set forth below occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In these circumstances, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to this Offering

Purchasers in this offering will experience immediate and substantial dilution in the book value of their investment.

The public offering price of our common stock is substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock before giving effect to this offering. Accordingly, if you purchase our common stock in this offering, you will incur immediate substantial dilution of approximately $                per share, representing the difference between the public offering price and our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2020. Furthermore, if outstanding options are exercised or outstanding restricted stock units vest, you could experience further dilution. For a further description of the dilution that you will experience immediately after this offering, see the section in this prospectus supplement entitled “Dilution.”

A substantial number of shares of common stock may be sold in the market following this offering, which may depress the market price for our common stock.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market following this offering could cause the market price of our common stock to decline. A substantial number of the outstanding shares of our common stock are, and the shares of common stock sold in this offering upon issuance will be, freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

We have broad discretion to determine how to use the funds raised in this offering, and may use them in ways that may not enhance our operating results or the price of our common stock.

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering, and we could spend the proceeds from this offering in ways our stockholders may not agree with or that do not yield a favorable return, if at all. We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering to advance the development of our product candidates, for commercialization and manufacturing activities and for other general corporate and working capital purposes. Our use of these proceeds may differ substantially from our current plans. If we do not invest or apply the proceeds of this offering in ways that improve our operating results, we may fail to achieve expected financial results, which could cause our stock price to decline.

Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and research and development credits to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

As of December 31, 2019, we had net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, of $266.5 million for federal income tax purposes and $265.7 million for state income tax purposes, which may be available to offset our future taxable income, if any. Our federal and state NOLs begin to expire in various amounts in 2035, provided that federal NOLs generated after December 31, 2017 will not be subject to expiration. As of December 31, 2019, we also had federal and state research and development and other tax credit carryforwards of

 

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approximately $31.8 million and $6 million, respectively, available to reduce future tax liabilities. Our federal and state tax credit carryforwards begin to expire in various amounts in 2031 and 2028, respectively. The federal research and development tax credit carryforwards include an orphan drug credit carryforward of $18.8 million. These NOLs and tax credit carryforwards could expire unused, to the extent subject to expiration, and be unavailable to offset future taxable income or income tax liabilities. In addition, in general, under Sections 382 and 383 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” is subject to limitations on its ability to use its pre-change NOLs and tax credit carryforwards to offset future taxable income and income taxes. For these purposes, an ownership change generally occurs where the aggregate change in stock ownership of one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders owning at least 5% of a corporation’s stock exceeds 50 percentage points over a three year period. We believe we have experienced an ownership change in the past and may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of future transactions in our stock, some of which may be outside our control. If we undergo an ownership change, our ability to use our NOLs and tax credit carryforwards could be further limited. For these reasons, we may not be able to use a material portion of our NOLs or tax credit carryforwards, even if we attain profitability. If finalized, Treasury Regulations currently proposed under Section 382 of the Code may further limit our ability to utilize our pre-change NOLs or tax credit carryforwards if we undergo a future ownership change. We have recorded a full valuation allowance related to our NOLs and other deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future tax benefits of such assets.

Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, as modified by the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act enacted on March 27, 2020, NOLs generated on or after January 1, 2021 will generally only be able to offset 80% of taxable income. This may require us to pay federal income taxes in future years despite generating a loss for federal income tax purposes in prior years.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, and the SEC filings that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus contain or incorporate by reference “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. You can generally identify these forward-looking statements by forward-looking words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “expects,” “intends,” “future,” “could,” “estimates,” “plans,” “would,” “should,” “potential,” “continues” and similar words or expressions (as well as other words or expressions referencing future events, conditions or circumstances). The forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, and the SEC filings that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus include, but are not limited to, statements related to:

 

   

our status as a clinical-stage company and our expectation to incur losses in the future;

 

   

our ability to continue as a going concern, our future capital needs and our need to raise additional funds;

 

   

our ability to build a pipeline of product candidates and develop and commercialize drugs;

 

   

our unproven approach to therapeutic intervention;

 

   

the unexpected impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations, the continuity of our business, including our preclinical studies and clinical trials, general economic conditions and ability to raise additional capital;

 

   

our ability to enroll patients in clinical trials, timely and successfully complete those trials and receive necessary regulatory approvals;

 

   

the timing of completion of enrollment and availability of data from our ongoing clinical trials;

 

   

the expected timing of filings and interactions with regulatory authorities related to our product candidates, including that the FDA may not agree that the data from our ECOSPOR III Phase 3 clinical study is sufficient to support a BLA submission;

 

   

our ability to maintain our manufacturing facilities and to receive or manufacture sufficient quantities of our product candidates;

 

   

our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights;

 

   

federal, state, and foreign regulatory requirements, including U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulation of our product candidates;

 

   

our ability to obtain and retain key executives and attract and retain qualified personnel;

 

   

our ability to successfully manage our growth; and

 

   

our intended use of proceeds from this offering.

These forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements contained herein are expressly qualified in their entirety by this cautionary statement, the risk factors set forth under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and elsewhere, the accompanying prospectus and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus supplement. Except to the extent required by applicable laws and regulations, we undertake no obligation to update these forward-looking statements to reflect new information, events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus supplement or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. In light of these risks and uncertainties, the forward-looking events and circumstances described in this prospectus supplement may not occur and actual results could differ materially from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. Accordingly, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds from this offering, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, will be approximately $                 million, or approximately $                 million, if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full.

We intend to use the net proceeds we receive in this offering to advance the development of our product candidates, for commercialization and manufacturing activities and for other general corporate and working capital purposes. We believe that our cash, cash equivalents and investments, together with the net proceeds from this offering, will fund our operations into the first half of 2022.

We have not determined the amounts we plan to spend in any of the areas identified above or the timing of these expenditures. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds to us from this offering, and investors will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the proceeds from this offering. We reserve the right to change the use of these proceeds as a result of certain contingencies such as competitive developments, the results of our commercialization efforts, acquisition and investment opportunities and other factors. Pending use of the proceeds as described above, we intend to invest the net proceeds of this offering in short-term, interest-bearing, investment-grade securities or certificates of deposit.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. We do not anticipate paying any dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination related to dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors after considering our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors the Board of Directors deems relevant, and subject to the restrictions contained in any future financing instruments.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be immediately diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering.

As of June 30, 2020, we had a net tangible book value of approximately $(65.6) million, or $(0.87) per share of common stock. Our net tangible book value per share represents total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding at June 30, 2020.

After giving effect to the issuance and sale by us of                shares of common stock in this offering, and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions, and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2020 would have been approximately $                million, or approximately $                per share. This amount represents an immediate increase in as adjusted net tangible book value of $                per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value of approximately $                per share to new investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering.

Dilution per share to new investors is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the public offering price per share paid by new investors. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Public offering price per share

     $                

Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2020

   $ (0.87  

Increase in as adjusted net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering

    
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering

     $    
    

 

 

 

The information above assumes that the underwriters do not exercise their option to purchase additional shares. If the underwriters exercise their option in full, our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2020 after giving effect to this offering would have been $     per share, and the dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value per share to investors in this offering would have been $                per share.

The above discussion and table are based on 75,131,834 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2020, and excludes the following:

 

   

11,578,482 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2020, at a weighted average exercise price of $7.88 per share;

 

   

15,000 shares of common stock issuable upon vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of June 30, 2020;

 

   

1,556,110 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2015 Plan as of June 30, 2020, as well as shares that become available pursuant to provisions in our 2015 Plan that automatically increase the share reserve under the plan on January 1 of each calendar year; and

 

   

2,171,157 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2015 ESPP as of June 30, 2020, as well as shares that become available pursuant to provisions in our 2015 ESPP that automatically increase the share reserve under the plan on January 1 of each calendar year.

To the extent any of the outstanding options described above are exercised or outstanding restricted stock units described above vest, there may be further dilution to new investors.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES TO

NON-U.S. HOLDERS OF OUR COMMON STOCK

The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to non-U.S. holders (as defined below) of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock issued pursuant to this offering, but does not purport to be a complete analysis of all potential tax effects. The effects of other U.S. federal tax laws, such as estate and gift tax laws, and any applicable state, local or foreign tax laws are not discussed. This discussion is based on the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, judicial decisions, and published rulings and administrative pronouncements of the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, in each case, as in effect as of the date of this offering. These authorities may change or be subject to differing interpretations. Any such change or differing interpretation may be applied retroactively in a manner that could adversely affect a non-U.S. holder of our common stock. We have not sought and do not currently intend to seek any rulings from the IRS regarding the matters discussed below. There can be no assurance the IRS or a court will not take a contrary position to the discussion below regarding the tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock.

This discussion is limited to non-U.S. holders that hold our common stock as a “capital asset” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a non-U.S. holder’s particular circumstances, including the impact of the alternative minimum tax, the Medicare contribution tax on net investment income, or any item of gross income with respect to our common stock being taken into account in an “applicable financial statement” (as defined in the Code). In addition, it does not address consequences relevant to non-U.S. holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

 

   

U.S. expatriates and certain former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

   

persons holding our common stock as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

 

   

banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

 

   

real estate investment trusts or regulated investment companies;

 

   

brokers, dealers or traders in securities or currencies;

 

   

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

   

S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

 

   

tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

 

   

persons deemed to sell our common stock under the constructive sale provisions of the Code;

 

   

persons for whom our common stock constitutes “qualified small business stock” under Section 1202 of the Code;

 

   

“qualified foreign pension funds” as defined in Section 897(I)(2) of the Code and entities all of the interests of which are held by qualified foreign pension funds;

 

   

persons who hold or receive our common stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation; and

 

   

tax-qualified retirement plans.

 

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If a partnership (or other entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds our common stock, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our common stock and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.

THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS LEGAL OR TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR COMMON STOCK ARISING UNDER THE U.S. FEDERAL ESTATE OR GIFT TAX LAWS OR UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE INCOME TAX TREATY.

Definition of a Non-U.S. Holder

For purposes of this discussion, a “non-U.S. holder” is any beneficial owner of our common stock that is neither a “U.S. person” nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A U.S. person is any person that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as any of the following:

 

   

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more United States persons (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code), or (2) has made a valid election under applicable Treasury Regulations to continue to be treated as a United States person.

Distributions

As described in the section entitled “Dividend Policy,” we do not anticipate paying any dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future. However, if we do make distributions of cash or property on our common stock, such distributions will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. Amounts not treated as dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes will constitute a return of capital and first be applied against and reduce a non-U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in our common stock, but not below zero. Any excess will be treated as capital gain and will be treated as described below under “Sale or Other Taxable Disposition.” Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of the withholding rules discussed below we or the applicable withholding agent may treat the entire distribution as a dividend.

Subject to the discussion below on effectively connected income, dividends paid to a non-U.S. holder of our common stock will be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at a rate of 30% of the gross amount of the dividends (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty, provided the non-U.S. holder furnishes a valid IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) certifying qualification for such lower rate under an income tax treaty between the United States and the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established. This certification must be provided to the applicable withholding agent prior to the payment of dividends and must be updated periodically. A non-U.S. holder that does not timely furnish the required documentation, but that qualifies for a reduced treaty rate may obtain a refund of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim for refund with the IRS. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.

 

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If dividends paid to a non-U.S. holder are effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), then the non-U.S. holder will be exempt from the U.S. federal withholding tax described above. To claim the exemption, the non-U.S. holder must furnish to the applicable withholding agent a valid IRS Form W-8ECI, certifying that the dividends are effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States. This certification must be provided to the applicable withholding agent prior to the payment of dividends and must be updated periodically. Any such effectively connected dividends will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular rates. In addition, a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on its effectively connected dividends, as adjusted for certain items. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under any applicable income tax treaty.

Sale or Other Taxable Disposition

Subject to the discussion below on backup withholding, a non-U.S. holder will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on any gain realized upon the sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock unless:

 

   

the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable);

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met; or

 

   

our common stock constitutes a U.S. real property interest, or USRPI, by reason of our status as a U.S. real property holding corporation, or USRPHC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Gain described in the first bullet point above will generally be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis at the regular rates. A non-U.S. holder that is a corporation also may be subject to a branch profits tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such effectively connected gain, as adjusted for certain items.

A non-U.S. holder described in the second bullet point above will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on any gain derived from the disposition, which may be offset by certain U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States) provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. With respect to the third bullet point above, we believe we are not currently and do not anticipate becoming a USRPHC. Because the determination of whether we are a USRPHC depends on the fair market value of our USRPIs relative to the fair market value of our other business assets and our non-U.S. real property interests, however, there can be no assurance we are not a USRPHC or will not become one in the future. Even if we are or were to become a USRPHC, gain arising from the sale or other taxable disposition by a non-U.S. holder of our common stock will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax if such class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market, and such non-U.S. holder owned, actually and constructively, 5% or less of such class of our stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other disposition or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period for such stock.

Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding potentially applicable income tax treaties that may provide for different rules.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

A non-U.S. holder will not be subject to backup withholding with respect to payments of dividends on our common stock we make to the non-U.S. holder, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual

 

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knowledge or reason to know such holder is a United States person and the holder certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by providing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns will be filed with the IRS in connection with any distributions on our common stock paid to the non-U.S. holder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. Copies of these information returns may also be made available under the provisions of a specific treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.

Information reporting and backup withholding may apply to the proceeds of a sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock within the United States, and information reporting may (although backup withholding generally will not) apply to the proceeds of a sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock outside the United States conducted through certain U.S.-related financial intermediaries, in each case, unless the beneficial owner certifies under penalty of perjury that it is a non-U.S. holder on IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E, or other applicable form (and the payor does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that the beneficial owner is a United States person) or such owner otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of our common stock conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts

Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471-1474 of the Code (such Sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA) on certain types of payments made to non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on, or (subject to the proposed Treasury Regulations discussed below) gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, our common stock paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.

Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our common stock. While withholding under FATCA would have applied also to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of stock on or after January 1, 2019, proposed Treasury Regulations eliminate FATCA withholding on payments of gross proceeds entirely. Taxpayers generally may rely on these proposed Treasury Regulations until final Treasury Regulations are issued. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules we or the applicable withholding agent may treat the entire distribution as a dividend.

Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our common stock.

 

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UNDERWRITING

We are offering the shares of common stock described in this prospectus supplement through the underwriters named below. We have entered into an underwriting agreement with the underwriters Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, and Piper Sandler & Co. are acting as the representatives of the underwriters, or together the representatives. Subject to the terms and conditions of the underwriting agreement, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each underwriter has severally agreed to purchase, at the public offering price less the underwriting discounts and commissions set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement, the number of shares of common stock listed next to its name in the following table:

 

Name

   Number of shares  

Cowen and Company, LLC

  

Piper Sandler & Co.

  

Canaccord Genuity LLC

  

Oppenheimer & Co. Inc.

  

Total

     8,000,000  

The underwriters are committed to purchase all the common stock offered by us if they purchase any shares. The underwriting agreement also provides that if an underwriter defaults, the purchase commitments of non-defaulting underwriters may also be increased or the offering may be terminated. The offering of the shares by the underwriters is subject to receipt and acceptance and subject to the underwriters’ right to reject any order in whole or in part.

The underwriters propose to offer the shares of common stock directly to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement. After the public offering of the shares, the offering price and other selling terms may be changed by the underwriters.

The underwriters have a 30 day option to buy up to an additional 1,200,000 shares of common stock from us. If any shares are purchased with this option, the underwriters will purchase shares in approximately the same proportion as shown in the table above. If any additional shares of common stock are purchased, the underwriters will offer the additional shares on the same terms as those on which the shares are being offered.

The underwriting fee is equal to the public offering price per share of common stock less the amount paid by the underwriters to us per share of common stock. The underwriting fee is $                per share for the offering. The underwriters have advised us that they propose to offer the shares of common stock to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus and to certain dealers, which may include the underwriters, at that price less a concession not in excess of $                per share of common stock. The following table shows the per share and total underwriting discounts and commissions we will pay to the underwriters assuming both no exercise and full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares.

 

     No Exercise      Full Exercise  

Per share

   $                    $                

Total

   $        $    

We estimate that the total expenses of this offering, including registration, filing and listing fees, printing fees and legal and accounting expenses, but excluding the underwriting discounts and commissions, will be approximately $375,000. We have agreed to reimburse the underwriters up to $                for fees incurred by them in connection with any required filings with the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.

 

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We, our officers and directors and some of our stockholders have agreed, subject to specified exceptions, not to directly or indirectly:

 

   

offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge, grant any option to purchase, lend, engage in any hedging or other transaction or arrangement (including any short sale, put or call option, forward, swap, or other derivative transaction), transfer any of the economic consequences of ownership, or otherwise dispose of, or publicly disclose an intention to take any such actions with respect to, any shares of our common stock, or any options or warrants to purchase any shares of our common stock, or any securities convertible into, exchangeable for or that represent the right to receive shares of our common stock, whether now owned or hereinafter acquired, owned directly or indirectly; or

 

   

request, make any demand for or exercise any right with respect to, the registration of any of our common stock or any security convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for our common stock for a period of 90 days after the date of this prospectus supplement without the prior written consent of the representatives.

Subject to limited exceptions described below, the lock-up restrictions terminate after the close of trading of the common stock on and including the 90th day after the date of this prospectus supplement. The representatives may, in their sole discretion and at any time or from time to time before the termination of the 90-day period release all or any portion of the securities subject to lock-up agreements.

In the case of our officers, directors and stockholders, these lock-up restrictions are subject to certain exceptions, including transfers (i) made as bona fide gifts; (ii) to any immediate family member or a trust or other legal entity for the direct or indirect benefit of the lock-up party or the immediate family of the lock-up party; (iii) by will or intestacy; (iv) to us upon the vesting or exercise of an option, other award granted under our stock incentive plans or stock purchase plan or the conversion or exercise of warrants, in each case due to the net exercise of such option, award or warrant and/or to cover withholding tax obligations; (v) pursuant to our equity incentive plans existing as of the date of this offering, to family members through gifts or domestic relations orders or to an executor or guardian upon death or disability; (vi) acquired in open market transactions; (vii) as part of a distribution, transfer or disposition without consideration to a holder’s limited or general partners; (viii) due to repurchases by us in connection with the termination of employment or other service relationship or the failure to meet certain conditions; (ix) in connection with the conversion of any convertible security into, or the exercise of any option or warrant for, our common stock in connection with the consummation of this offering; (x) pursuant to a bona fide third-party tender offer, merger, consolidation or other similar transaction involving a change of control; and (xi) in connection with the establishment of a trading plan pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

In our case, these lock-up restrictions are subject to certain exceptions, including (i) the shares to be sold in this offering, (ii) grants of awards pursuant to equity incentive plans existing as of the date of this offering, (iii) the issuance of any shares of our common stock upon the exercise of options or equity-based awards granted under our equity incentive plans existing as of the date of this offering, (iv) the issuance of securities pursuant to employee stock purchase plans existing as of the date of this offering and (v) the issuance of stock or securities convertible into or exercisable for shares of common stock in connection with a joint venture, marketing or distribution arrangement, collaboration agreement, intellectual property license agreement, or any acquisition of assets or not less than a majority or controlling portion of the equity of another entity; provided that the issuance is not, in the aggregate, greater than 5% of our total outstanding shares of common stock immediately following the completion of this offering. In the case of issuances as described in (ii), and (iii) above, each recipient in the issuance must execute and deliver a lock-up agreement in connection with the securities received and we must enter stop transfer instructions with our transfer agent and registrar regarding the securities received.

We have agreed to indemnify the several underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

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Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “MCRB.”

In connection with this offering, the underwriters may engage in stabilizing transactions, which involves making bids for, purchasing and selling shares of common stock in the open market for the purpose of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the common stock while this offering is in progress. These stabilizing transactions may include making short sales of the common stock, which involves the sale by the underwriters of a greater number of shares of common stock than they are required to purchase in this offering, and purchasing shares of common stock on the open market to cover positions created by short sales. Short sales may be “covered” shorts, which are short positions in an amount not greater than the underwriters’ option referred to above, or may be “naked” shorts, which are short positions in excess of that amount. The underwriters may close out any covered short position either by exercising their option, in whole or in part, or by purchasing shares in the open market. In making this determination, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market compared to the price at which the underwriters may purchase shares through the option. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of the common stock in the open market that could adversely affect investors who purchase in this offering. To the extent that the underwriters create a naked short position, they will purchase shares in the open market to cover the position.

The underwriters have advised us that, pursuant to Regulation M of the Securities Act, they may also engage in other activities that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the common stock, including the imposition of penalty bids. This means that if the representatives of the underwriters purchase common stock in the open market in stabilizing transactions or to cover short sales, the representatives can require the underwriters that sold those shares as part of this offering to repay the underwriting discount received by them.

These activities may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of the common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the common stock, and, as a result, the price of the common stock may be higher than the price that otherwise might exist in the open market. If the underwriters commence these activities, they may discontinue them at any time. The underwriters may carry out these transactions on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, in the over-the-counter market or otherwise.

In addition, in connection with this offering certain of the underwriters (and selling group members) may engage in passive market making transactions in our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market prior to the pricing and completion of this offering. Passive market making consists of displaying bids on The Nasdaq Global Select Market no higher than the bid prices of independent market makers and making purchases at prices no higher than these independent bids and effected in response to order flow. Net purchases by a passive market maker on each day are generally limited to a specified percentage of the passive market maker’s average daily trading volume in the common stock during a specified period and must be discontinued when such limit is reached. Passive market making may cause the price of our common stock to be higher than the price that otherwise would exist in the open market in the absence of these transactions. If passive market making is commenced, it may be discontinued at any time.

A prospectus in electronic format may be made available on the web sites maintained by one or more underwriters, or selling group members, if any, participating in the offering. The underwriters may agree to allocate a number of shares to underwriters and selling group members for sale to their online brokerage account holders. Internet distributions will be allocated by the representatives to underwriters and selling group members that may make Internet distributions on the same basis as other allocations.

Other Relationships

The underwriters and their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include sales and trading, commercial and investment banking, advisory, investment management,

 

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investment research, principal investment, hedging, market making, brokerage and other financial and non-financial activities and services. Certain of the underwriters and their respective affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, a variety of these services to the Company and to persons and entities with relationships with the Company, for which they received or will receive customary fees and expenses. In November 2019, we entered into a sales agreement, or the 2019 Sales Agreement, with Cowen to sell shares of our common stock with aggregate gross sales proceeds of up to $25.0 million, from time to time, through an at-the-market program under which Cowen acted as sales agent. In March 2020, we entered into a sales agreement, or the 2020 Sales Agreement, with Cowen on substantially the same terms as the 2019 Sales Agreement and terminated the 2019 Sales Agreement. From January 1, 2020 to July 8, 2020, we sold approximately 5,787,681 shares of common stock under the 2019 Sales Agreement and 2020 Sales Agreement, raising aggregate net proceeds of approximately $24.7 million after deducting commissions and expenses. In connection with this offering, we and Cowen terminated the 2020 Sales Agreement by mutual agreement.

In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriters and their respective affiliates, officers, directors and employees may purchase, sell or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade securities, derivatives, loans, commodities, currencies, credit default swaps and other financial instruments for their own account and for the accounts of their customers, and such investment and trading activities may involve or relate to assets, securities and/or instruments of the Company (directly, as collateral securing other obligations or otherwise) and/or persons and entities with relationships with the Company. The underwriters and their respective affiliates may also communicate independent investment recommendations, market color or trading ideas and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such assets, securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they should acquire, long and/or short positions in such assets, securities and instruments.

Selling restrictions

Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or the underwriters that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus supplement, accompanying prospectus, or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus supplement or accompanying prospectus come are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus. This prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities offered by this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.

European Economic Area and United Kingdom

In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area and the United Kingdom (each, a “Relevant State”), none of our common stock has been offered or will be offered pursuant to the offering to the public in that Relevant State prior to the publication of a prospectus in relation to our common stock which has been approved by the competent authority in that Relevant State or, where appropriate, approved in another Relevant State and notified to the competent authority in that Relevant State, all in accordance with the Prospectus Regulation), except that offers of our common stock may be made to the public in that Relevant State at any time under the following exemptions under the Prospectus Regulation:

 

   

to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Regulation;

 

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to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Regulation), subject to obtaining the prior consent of the representatives for any such offer; or

 

   

in any other circumstances falling within Article 1(4) of the Prospectus Regulation,

provided that no such offer of our common stock shall require the Company or the underwriters to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Regulation, or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the Prospectus Regulation and each person who initially acquires any of our common stock or to whom any offer is made will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed to and with each of the underwriters and the Company that it is a “qualified investor” within the meaning of Article 2(e) of the Prospectus Regulation.

In the case of any common stock being offered to a financial intermediary as that term is used in the Prospectus Regulation, each such financial intermediary will be deemed to have represented, acknowledged and agreed that our common stock acquired by it in the offer have not been acquired on a non-discretionary basis on behalf of, nor have they been acquired with a view to their offer or resale to, persons in circumstances which may give rise to an offer of any common stock to the public other than their offer or resale in a Relevant State to qualified investors as so defined or in circumstances in which the prior consent of the underwriters have been obtained to each such proposed offer or resale.

For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to our common stock in any Relevant State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and our common stock to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase our common stock, or subscribe for any of our common stock, and the expression “Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129. References to the Prospectus Regulation includes, in relation to the United Kingdom, the Prospectus Regulation as it forms part of the United Kingdom domestic law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act of 2018. This European Economic Area and United Kingdom selling restriction is in addition to any other selling restrictions set out below.

United Kingdom

Each underwriter has represented and agreed that:

 

  (a)

it has only communicated or caused to be communicated and will only communicate or cause to be communicated an invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity (within the meaning of Section 21 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (as amended, the “FSMA”)) received by it in connection with the issue or sale of the shares in circumstances in which Section 21(1) of the FSMA does not apply to the Company; and

 

  (b)

it has complied and will comply with all applicable provisions of the FSMA with respect to anything done by it in relation to the shares in, from or otherwise involving the United Kingdom.

Canada

The securities may be sold in Canada only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions, and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the securities must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus (including any amendment thereto) contain a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the

 

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purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

Pursuant to section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (NI 33-105), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.

Switzerland

The securities offered by this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus may not be publicly offered in Switzerland and will not be listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange (“SIX”) or on any other exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. This document does not constitute a prospectus within the meaning of, and has been prepared without regard to the disclosure standards for issuance prospectuses under art. 652a or art. 1156 of the Swiss Code of Obligations or the disclosure standards for listing prospectuses under art. 27 ff. of the SIX Listing Rules or the listing rules of any other exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. Neither this document nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the securities or the offering may be publicly distributed or otherwise made publicly available in Switzerland.

Neither this document nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the offering, us, the securities have been or will be filed with or approved by any Swiss regulatory authority. In particular, this document will not be filed with, and the offer of securities will not be supervised by, the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority FINMA, and the offer of securities has not been and will not be authorized under the Swiss Federal Act on Collective Investment Schemes (the “CISA”). The investor protection afforded to acquirers of interests in collective investment schemes under the CISA does not extend to acquirers of securities.

Dubai International Financial Centre (“DIFC”)

This document relates to an Exempt Offer in accordance with the Markets Rules 2012 of the Dubai Financial Services Authority (“DFSA”). This document is intended for distribution only to persons of a type specified in the Markets Rules 2012 of the DFSA. It must not be delivered to, or relied on by, any other person. The DFSA has no responsibility for reviewing or verifying any documents in connection with Exempt Offers. The DFSA has not approved this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus nor taken steps to verify the information set forth herein and has no responsibility for this document. The securities to which this document relates may be illiquid and/or subject to restrictions on their resale. Prospective purchasers of the securities offered should conduct their own due diligence on the securities. If you do not understand the contents of this document you should consult an authorized financial advisor.

In relation to its use in the DIFC, this document is strictly private and confidential and is being distributed to a limited number of investors and must not be provided to any person other than the original recipient, and may not be reproduced or used for any other purpose. The interests in the securities may not be offered or sold directly or indirectly to the public in the DIFC.

United Arab Emirates

The securities offered by this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus have not been, and are not being, publicly offered, sold, promoted or advertised in the United Arab Emirates (including the Abu Dhabi Global Market and the Dubai International Financial Centre) other than in compliance with the laws, regulations and rules of the United Arab Emirates, the Abu Dhabi Global Market and the Dubai International Financial Centre governing the issue, offering and sale of securities. Further, this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any other offering or marketing material relating to the securities or the offering do not constitute a public offer of securities in the United Arab Emirates (including the Abu Dhabi Global

 

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Market and the Dubai International Financial Centre) and are not intended to be a public offer. This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any other offering or marketing material relating to the securities or the offering have not been approved by or filed with the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates, the Securities and Commodities Authority, the Financial Services Regulatory Authority or the Dubai Financial Services Authority.

Australia

This prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus:

 

   

does not constitute a disclosure document under Chapter 6D.2 of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) (the “Corporations Act”);

 

   

has not been, and will not be, lodged with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (“ASIC”), as a disclosure document for the purposes of the Corporations Act and does not purport to include the information required of a disclosure document under Chapter 6D.2 of the Corporations Act;

 

   

does not constitute or involve a recommendation to acquire, an offer or invitation for issue or sale, an offer or invitation to arrange the issue or sale, or an issue or sale, of interests to a “retail client” (as defined in section 761G of the Corporations Act and applicable regulations) in Australia; and

 

   

may only be provided in Australia to select investors who are able to demonstrate that they fall within one or more of the categories of investors, or Exempt Investors, available under section 708 of the Corporations Act.

The securities offered by this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus may not be directly or indirectly offered for subscription or purchased or sold, and no invitations to subscribe for or buy the securities may be issued, and no draft or definitive offering memorandum, advertisement or other offering material relating to any securities may be distributed in Australia, except where disclosure to investors is not required under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act or is otherwise in compliance with all applicable Australian laws and regulations. By submitting an application for the securities, you represent and warrant to us that you are an Exempt Investor.

As any offer of securities under this document will be made without disclosure in Australia under Chapter 6D.2 of the Corporations Act, the offer of those securities for resale in Australia within 12 months may, under section 707 of the Corporations Act, require disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D.2 if none of the exemptions in section 708 applies to that resale. By applying for the securities you undertake to us that you will not, for a period of 12 months from the date of issue of the securities, offer, transfer, assign or otherwise alienate those securities to investors in Australia except in circumstances where disclosure to investors is not required under Chapter 6D.2 of the Corporations Act or where a compliant disclosure document is prepared and lodged with ASIC.

Japan

The securities offered by this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus have not been and will not be registered under the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act of Japan (Act No. 25 of 1948, as amended), or the FIEA. The securities may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to or for the benefit of any resident of Japan (including any person resident in Japan or any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan) or to others for reoffering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to or for the benefit of any resident of Japan, except pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of the FIEA and otherwise in compliance with any relevant laws and regulations of Japan.

Hong Kong

The securities offered by this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus have not been offered or sold and may not be offered or sold in Hong Kong by means of any document other than (i) in circumstances which

 

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do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 32 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (“Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance”) or which do not constitute an invitation to the public within the meaning of the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571 of the Laws of Hong Kong) (“Securities and Futures Ordinance”), or (ii) to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance and any rules made thereunder, or (iii) in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance, and no advertisement, invitation or document relating to the securities may be issued or may be in the possession of any person for the purpose of issue (in each case whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere), which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public in Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to securities which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” in Hong Kong as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance and any rules made thereunder.

Singapore

This prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus have not been registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement, accompanying prospectus and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the securities may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the securities be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor (as defined under Section 4A of the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore (the “SFA”)) under Section 274 of the SFA, (ii) to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA) pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA, in each case subject to conditions set forth in the SFA.

Where the securities are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor, the securities (as defined in Section 239(1) of the SFA) of that corporation shall not be transferable for six months after that corporation has acquired the securities under Section 275 of the SFA except: (1) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the SFA or to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA), (2) where such transfer arises from an offer in that corporation’s securities pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, (3) where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer, (4) where the transfer is by operation of law, (5) as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA, or (6) as specified in Regulation 32 of the Securities and Futures (Offers of Investments) (Shares and Debentures) Regulations 2005 of Singapore (“Regulation 32”).

Where the securities are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an accredited investor, the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferable for 6 months after that trust has acquired the securities under Section 275 of the SFA except: (1) to an institutional investor under Section 274 of the SFA or to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA), (2) where such transfer arises from an offer that is made on terms that such rights or interest are acquired at a consideration of not less than S$200,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency) for each transaction (whether such amount is to be paid for in cash or by exchange of securities or other assets), (3) where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer, (4) where the transfer is by operation of law, (5) as specified in Section 276 (7) of the SFA, or (6) as specified in Regulation 32.

 

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Bermuda

The securities offered by this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus may be offered or sold in Bermuda only in compliance with the provisions of the Investment Business Act of 2003 of Bermuda which regulates the sale of securities in Bermuda. Additionally, non-Bermudian persons (including companies) may not carry on or engage in any trade or business in Bermuda unless such persons are permitted to do so under applicable Bermuda legislation.

Saudi Arabia

This prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus may not be distributed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia except to such persons as are permitted under the Offers of Securities Regulations as issued by the board of the Saudi Arabian Capital Market Authority (“CMA”) pursuant to resolution number 2-11-2004 dated 4 October 2004 as amended by resolution number 1-28-2008, as amended (the “CMA Regulations”). The CMA does not make any representation as to the accuracy or completeness of this document and expressly disclaims any liability whatsoever for any loss arising from, or incurred in reliance upon, any part of this document. Prospective purchasers of the securities offered hereby should conduct their own due diligence on the accuracy of the information relating to the securities. If you do not understand the contents of this document, you should consult an authorized financial adviser.

British Virgin Islands

The securities may be offered to persons located in the British Virgin Islands who are “qualified investors” for the purposes of the Securities and Investment Business Act, 2010 (“SIBA”). Qualified investors include (i) certain entities which are regulated by the Financial Services Commission in the British Virgin Islands, including banks, insurance companies, licensees under SIBA and public, professional and private mutual funds; (ii) a company, any securities of which are listed on a recognized exchange; and (iii) persons defined as “professional investors” under SIBA, which is any person (a) whose ordinary business involves, whether for that person’s own account or the account of others, the acquisition or disposal of property of the same kind as the property, or a substantial part of the property of the Company; or (b) who has signed a declaration that he or she, whether individually or jointly with his or her spouse, has net worth in excess of US$1 million and that he or she consents to being treated as a professional investor.

China

This prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus do not constitute a public offer of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus, whether by sale or subscription, in the People’s Republic of China (the “PRC”). The securities are not being offered or sold directly or indirectly in the PRC to or for the benefit of, legal or natural persons of the PRC.

Further, no legal or natural persons of the PRC may directly or indirectly purchase any of the securities or any beneficial interest therein without obtaining all prior PRC’s governmental approvals that are required, whether statutorily or otherwise. Persons who come into possession of this document are required by the issuer and its representatives to observe these restrictions.

Korea

The securities have not been and will not be registered under the Financial Investments Services and Capital Markets Act of Korea and the decrees and regulations thereunder (the “FSCMA”), and the securities have been and will be offered in Korea as a private placement under the FSCMA. None of the securities may be offered, sold or delivered directly or indirectly, or offered or sold to any person for re-offering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Korea or to any resident of Korea except pursuant to the applicable laws and regulations of Korea,

 

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including the FSCMA and the Foreign Exchange Transaction Law of Korea and the decrees and regulations thereunder (the “FETL”). The securities have not been listed on any of securities exchanges in the world including, without limitation, the Korea Exchange in Korea. Furthermore, the purchaser of the securities shall comply with all applicable regulatory requirements (including but not limited to requirements under the FETL) in connection with the purchase of the securities. By the purchase of the securities, the relevant holder thereof will be deemed to represent and warrant that if it is in Korea or is a resident of Korea, it purchased the securities pursuant to the applicable laws and regulations of Korea.

Malaysia

No prospectus or other offering material or document in connection with the offer and sale of the securities has been or will be registered with the Securities Commission of Malaysia (“Commission”) for the Commission’s approval pursuant to the Capital Markets and Services Act 2007. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement, accompanying prospectus and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the securities may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the securities be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Malaysia other than (i) a closed end fund approved by the Commission; (ii) a holder of a Capital Markets Services Licence; (iii) a person who acquires the securities, as principal, if the offer is on terms that the securities may only be acquired at a consideration of not less than RM250,000 (or its equivalent in foreign currencies) for each transaction; (iv) an individual whose total net personal assets or total net joint assets with his or her spouse exceeds RM3 million (or its equivalent in foreign currencies), excluding the value of the primary residence of the individual; (v) an individual who has a gross annual income exceeding RM300,000 (or its equivalent in foreign currencies) per annum in the preceding twelve months; (vi) an individual who, jointly with his or her spouse, has a gross annual income of RM400,000 (or its equivalent in foreign currencies), per annum in the preceding twelve months; (vii) a corporation with total net assets exceeding RM10 million (or its equivalent in a foreign currencies) based on the last audited accounts; (viii) a partnership with total net assets exceeding RM10 million (or its equivalent in foreign currencies); (ix) a bank licensee or insurance licensee as defined in the Labuan Financial Services and Securities Act 2010; (x) an Islamic bank licensee or takaful licensee as defined in the Labuan Financial Services and Securities Act 2010; and (xi) any other person as may be specified by the Commission; provided that, in the each of the preceding categories (i) to (xi), the distribution of the securities is made by a holder of a Capital Markets Services Licence who carries on the business of dealing in securities. The distribution in Malaysia of this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus is subject to Malaysian laws. This prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus do not constitute and may not be used for the purpose of public offering or an issue, offer for subscription or purchase, invitation to subscribe for or purchase any securities requiring the registration of a prospectus with the Commission under the Capital Markets and Services Act 2007.

Taiwan

The securities have not been and will not be registered with the Financial Supervisory Commission of Taiwan pursuant to relevant securities laws and regulations and may not be sold, issued or offered within Taiwan through a public offering or in circumstances which constitutes an offer within the meaning of the Securities and Exchange Act of Taiwan that requires a registration or approval of the Financial Supervisory Commission of Taiwan. No person or entity in Taiwan has been authorized to offer, sell, give advice regarding or otherwise intermediate the offering and sale of the securities in Taiwan.

South Africa

Due to restrictions under the securities laws of South Africa, the securities are not offered, and the Offer shall not be transferred, sold, renounced or delivered, in South Africa or to a person with an address in South Africa, unless one or other of the following exemptions applies:

 

  (i)

the offer, transfer, sale, renunciation or delivery is to:

 

  (a)

persons whose ordinary business is to deal in securities, as principal or agent;

 

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  (b)

the South African Public Investment Corporation;

 

  (c)

persons or entities regulated by the Reserve Bank of South Africa;

 

  (d)

authorized financial service providers under South African law;

 

  (e)

financial institutions recognized as such under South African law;

 

  (f)

a wholly owned subsidiary of any person or entity contemplated in (c), (d) or (e), acting as agent in the capacity of an authorized portfolio manager for a pension fund or collective investment scheme (in each case duly registered as such under South African law); or

 

  (g)

any combination of the person in (a) to (f); or

 

  (ii)

the total contemplated acquisition cost of the securities, for any single addressee acting as principal is equal to or greater than ZAR 1 million.

No “offer to the public” (as such term is defined in the South African Companies Act, No. 71 of 2008 (as amended or re-enacted) (the “South African Companies Act”)) in South Africa is being made in connection with the issue of the securities. Accordingly, this document does not, nor is it intended to, constitute a “registered prospectus” (as that term is defined in the South African Companies Act) prepared and registered under the South African Companies Act and has not been approved by, and/or filed with, the South African Companies and Intellectual Property Commission or any other regulatory authority in South Africa. Any issue or offering of the securities in South Africa constitutes an offer of the securities in South Africa for subscription or sale in South Africa only to persons who fall within the exemption from “offers to the public” set out in section 96(1)(a) of the South African Companies Act. Accordingly, this document must not be acted on or relied on by persons in South Africa who do not fall within section 96(1)(a) of the South African Companies Act (such persons being referred to as “SA Relevant Persons”). Any investment or investment activity to which this document relates is available in South Africa only to SA Relevant Persons and will be engaged in South Africa only with SA relevant persons.

No South African residents or offshore subsidiary of a South African resident may subscribe for or purchase any of the securities or beneficially own or hold any of the securities unless specific approval has been obtained from the financial surveillance department of the South African Reserve Bank (the “SARB”) by such persons or such subscription, purchase or beneficial holding or ownership is otherwise permitted under the South African Exchange Control Regulations or the rulings promulgated thereunder (including, without limitation, the rulings issued by the SARB providing for foreign investment allowances applicable to persons who are residents of South Africa under the applicable exchange control laws of South Africa).

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the shares of common stock offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP. Ropes & Gray LLP is counsel to the underwriters in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an explanatory paragraph relating to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the financial statements) of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file electronically reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

Our web site address is www.serestherapeutics.com. The information on our web site, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus supplement.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided above. Other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus modifies or replaces that statement.

We incorporate by reference the following information or documents that we have filed with the SEC:

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on March 18, 2020, March 23, 2020 June  22, 2020 and August 10, 2020.

 

   

Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on May 7, 2020 and July 28, 2020.

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 2, 2020.

 

   

The description of our Common Stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, dated and filed with the SEC on June 22, 2015, and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description.

We incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus all reports and other documents we subsequently file with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, between the date of this prospectus supplement and the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus supplement. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed above or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K. The reports and documents specifically listed above or filed in the future (excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC) are deemed to be part of this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

 

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You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement (other than exhibits, unless they are specifically incorporated by reference in the documents) by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

Seres Therapeutics, Inc.

200 Sidney Street–4th Floor

Cambridge, MA 02139

(617) 945-9626

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

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PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

Seres Therapeutics, Inc.

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

Common Stock

Offered by the Selling Securityholders

 

 

We may offer and sell the securities identified above, and the selling securityholders may offer and sell the common stock identified above, in each case from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our common stock by the selling securityholders.

Each time we or any of the selling securityholders offer and sell securities, we or such selling securityholders will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and, if applicable, the selling securityholders, as well as the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. In addition, the selling securityholders may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time, together or separately. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

 

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “MCRB.” On August 10, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market was $22.70 per share.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is August 11, 2020.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     2  

THE COMPANY

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES

     18  

GLOBAL SECURITIES

     19  

SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

     23  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     24  

LEGAL MATTERS

     25  

EXPERTS

     25  

 


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings and the selling securityholders to be named in a supplement to this prospectus may, from time to time, sell shares of common stock from time to time in one or more offerings as described in this prospectus. Each time that we or the selling securityholders offer and sell securities, we or the selling securityholders will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as applicable. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement (and any applicable free writing prospectuses), together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

Neither we, nor the selling securityholders, have authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and the selling securityholders take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We and the selling securityholders will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover, that the information appearing in any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date of that free writing prospectus, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. In addition, the market and industry data and forecasts that may be included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus may involve estimates, assumptions and other risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

When we refer to “Seres,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean Seres Therapeutics, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the potential holders of the applicable series of securities.

SERES THERAPEUTICS, Ecobiotic and our logo are three of our trademarks that are used in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference. This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference also include trademarks, tradenames and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference appear without the ® and symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights, to these trademarks and tradenames.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

Our web site address is www.serestherapeutics.com. The information on our web site, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Forms of the indenture and other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC, excluding in each case any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC:

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on March 18, 2020, March 23, 2020, June  22, 2020 and August 10, 2020.

 

   

Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on May 7, 2020 and July 28, 2020.

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 2, 2020.

 

   

The description of our Common Stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, dated and filed with the SEC on June 22, 2015, and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description.

All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the “Exchange Act” in this prospectus, prior to the termination of this offering but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

 

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You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

Seres Therapeutics, Inc.

200 Sidney Street–4th Floor

Cambridge, MA 02139

(617) 945-9626

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

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THE COMPANY

We are a microbiome therapeutics platform company developing a novel class of biological drugs, which are designed to treat disease by modulating the microbiome to restore health by repairing the function of a dysbiotic microbiome to a non-disease state. Our Phase 3 ECOSPOR III study evaluating SER-109 resulted in statistically significant reduction of recurrences of Clostridioides difficile infection (formerly Clostridium difficile infection), or CDI, a debilitating infection of the colon, in patients who have received antibiotic therapy for recurrent CDI. We are also developing SER-287 and SER-301 to treat ulcerative colitis. In addition, using our microbiome therapeutics platform, we are developing SER-401, a microbiome therapeutic candidate for use with checkpoint inhibitors in patients with metastatic melanoma and SER-155 to prevent mortality due to gastrointestinal infections, bacteremia and graft versus host disease (GvHD) in immunocompromised patients, including in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Supporting our R&D efforts are our deep capabilities related to microbiome therapeutic drug discovery, manufacturing, quality and clinical development. We believe that these capabilities provide us with important competitive advantages related to the advancement of this novel treatment modality.

We were incorporated in the State of Delaware in 2010 under the name Newco LS21, Inc. In October 2011, we changed our name to Seres Health, Inc., and in May 2015, we changed our name to Seres Therapeutics, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 200 Sidney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 and our telephone number is (617) 945-9626. Our website address is www.serestherapeutics.com. The information contained in, or accessible through, our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and our recently filed Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as any subsequent Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of common stock being offered by any of the selling securityholders.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock and certain provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws are summaries and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the applicable provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, which have been publicly filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. We encourage you to read our restated certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated bylaws and the applicable provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware for more information.

Our authorized capital stock consists of:

 

   

200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share; and

 

   

10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share.

Common Stock

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “MCRB.”

Voting Rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Subject to the supermajority votes for some matters, other matters shall be decided by the affirmative vote of our stockholders having a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the stockholders present or represented and voting on such matter. Our restated certificate of incorporation and amended restated bylaws also provide that our directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds in voting power of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote thereon. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds in voting power of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote thereon is required to amend or repeal, or to adopt any provision inconsistent with, several of the provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Rights Upon Liquidation. In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately our net assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock.

Other Rights. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Dividend

Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock. We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We do not intend to pay cash dividends for the foreseeable future. We currently expect to retain all future earnings, if any, for use in the development, operation and expansion of our business. Any determination to pay cash dividends in the future will depend upon, among other things, our results of operations, plans for expansion, tax considerations, available net profits and reserves, limitations under law, financial condition, capital requirements and other factors that our board of directors considers to be relevant.

 

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Preferred Stock

Under the terms of our restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to direct us to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.

The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock and determine its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions, future financings and other corporate purposes, could have the effect of making it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, a majority of our outstanding voting stock. There are no shares of preferred stock outstanding, and we have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Some provisions of Delaware law, our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could make the following transactions more difficult: an acquisition of us by means of a tender offer; an acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or the removal of our incumbent officers and directors. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish or could deter transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interest or in our best interest, including transactions which provide for payment of a premium over the market price for our shares.

These provisions, summarized below, are intended to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of the increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging these proposals because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Undesignated Preferred Stock. The ability of our board of directors, without action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences as designated by our board of directors could impede the success of any attempt to effect a change in control of us. These and other provisions may have the effect of deferring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control or management of our company.

Stockholder Meetings. Our amended and restated bylaws provide that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by our chairman of the board, chief executive officer or president (in the absence of a chief executive officer), or by a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.

Requirements for Advance Notification of Stockholder Nominations and Proposals. Our amended and restated bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals to be brought before a stockholder meeting and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors.

Elimination of Stockholder Action by Written Consent. Our restated certificate of incorporation eliminates the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting.

Staggered Board. Our board of directors is divided into three classes. The directors in each class will serve for a three-year term, one class being elected each year by our stockholders. This system of electing and removing directors may tend to discourage a third party from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us, because it generally makes it more difficult for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors.

 

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Removal of Directors. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that no member of our board of directors may be removed from office by our stockholders except for cause and, in addition to any other vote required by law, upon the approval of the holders of at least two-thirds in voting power of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote in the election of directors.

Stockholders Not Entitled to Cumulative Voting. Our restated certificate of incorporation does not permit stockholders to cumulate their votes in the election of directors. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they choose, other than any directors that holders of our preferred stock may be entitled to elect.

Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute. We are subject to Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, which prohibits persons deemed to be “interested stockholders” from engaging in a “business combination” with a publicly held Delaware corporation for three years following the date these persons become interested stockholders unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. Generally, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. The existence of this law may have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by the board of directors.

Choice of Forum. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative form, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for: (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty or other wrongdoing by any of our directors, officers, employees or agents to us or our stockholders; (3) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or our restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws; or (4) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our restated certificate of incorporation also provides that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to this choice of forum provision. It is possible that a court of law could rule that the choice of forum provision contained in our restated certificate of incorporation is inapplicable or unenforceable if it is challenged in a proceeding or otherwise.

Amendment of Restated Certificate of Incorporation. The amendment of any of the above provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation, except for the provision making it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock and the provision prohibiting cumulative voting, would require approval by holders of at least two-thirds in voting power of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote thereon.

The provisions of Delaware law, our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in the composition of our board and management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interest.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities.

We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a trustee to be named in the applicable indenture. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. In the summary below, we have included references to the section numbers of the indenture so that you can easily locate these provisions. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.

As used in this section only, “Seres,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer to Seres Therapeutics, Inc., excluding our subsidiaries, unless expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.

General

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. (Section 2.2) The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).

We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. (Section 2.1) We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:

 

   

the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);

 

   

the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

   

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

the date or dates on which the principal of the securities of the series is payable;

 

   

the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

   

the place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment), where the securities of such series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, and where notices and demands to us in respect of the debt securities may be delivered;

 

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the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;

 

   

any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and in the terms and conditions upon which securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

   

the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;

 

   

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;

 

   

the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;

 

   

the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be United States Dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

   

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium and interest on the debt securities will be made;

 

   

if payments of principal of, premium or interest on the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;

 

   

the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

   

any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;

 

   

any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and

 

   

whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees. (Section 2.2)

 

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We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Transfer and Exchange

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. (Section 2.4) No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange. (Section 2.7)

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. Please see “Global Securities.”

Covenants

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities. (Article IV)

No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

 

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Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person (a “successor person”) unless:

 

   

we are the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than Seres) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us. (Section 5.1)

Events of Default

“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

 

   

default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);

 

   

default in the payment of principal of any security of that series at its maturity;

 

   

default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or Seres and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;

 

   

certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of Seres;

 

   

any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement. (Section 6.1)

No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. (Section 6.1) The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.

We will provide the trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action we are taking or propose to take in respect thereof. (Section 6.1)

If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of

 

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bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. (Section 6.2) We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.

The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. (Section 7.1(e)) Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series. (Section 6.12)

No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

   

that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and

 

   

the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days. (Section 6.7)

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, premium and any interest on that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment. (Section 6.8)

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. (Section 4.3) If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities. (Section 7.5)

Modification and Waiver

We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

 

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to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;

 

   

to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;

 

   

to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of any series or secure debt securities of any series;

 

   

to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;

 

   

to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;

 

   

to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

 

   

to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee; or

 

   

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act. (Section 9.1)

We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

 

   

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

   

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;

 

   

reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;

 

   

reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

   

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or interest on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

   

make the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;

 

   

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, premium and interest on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; or

 

   

waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security. (Section 9.3)

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. (Section 9.2) The holders of a majority in principal amount of

 

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the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration. (Section 6.13)

Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred. (Section 8.3)

Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

 

   

we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and

 

   

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).

The conditions include:

 

   

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and

 

   

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred. (Section 8.4)

 

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No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Securityholders

None of our past, present or future directors, officers, employees or securityholders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.

The indenture will provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.

The indenture will provide that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture will further provide that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture will further provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum. (Section 10.10)

 

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DESCRIPTION OF OTHER SECURITIES

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement a description of any warrants or units issued by us that may be offered and sold pursuant to this prospectus.

 

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GLOBAL SECURITIES

Book-Entry, Delivery and Form

Unless we indicate differently in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary, or DTC, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.

DTC has advised us that it is:

 

   

a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;

 

   

a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;

 

   

a member of the Federal Reserve System;

 

   

a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and

 

   

a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.

DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or DTCC. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.

Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.

To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

 

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So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.

Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.

Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.

Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.

So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below and unless if otherwise provided in the description of the applicable securities herein or in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.

Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.

Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.

The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.

DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.

 

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As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:

 

   

DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;

 

   

we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or

 

   

an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities,

we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.

Euroclear and Clearstream

If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, you may hold interests in a global security through Clearstream Banking S.A., which we refer to as “Clearstream,” or Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of the Euroclear System, which we refer to as “Euroclear,” either directly if you are a participant in Clearstream or Euroclear or indirectly through organizations which are participants in Clearstream or Euroclear. Clearstream and Euroclear will hold interests on behalf of their respective participants through customers’ securities accounts in the names of Clearstream and Euroclear, respectively, on the books of their respective U.S. depositaries, which in turn will hold such interests in customers’ securities accounts in such depositaries’ names on DTC’s books.

Clearstream and Euroclear are securities clearance systems in Europe. Clearstream and Euroclear hold securities for their respective participating organizations and facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between those participants through electronic book-entry changes in their accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of certificates.

Payments, deliveries, transfers, exchanges, notices and other matters relating to beneficial interests in global securities owned through Euroclear or Clearstream must comply with the rules and procedures of those systems. Transactions between participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on one hand, and other participants in DTC, on the other hand, are also subject to DTC’s rules and procedures.

Investors will be able to make and receive through Euroclear and Clearstream payments, deliveries, transfers and other transactions involving any beneficial interests in global securities held through those systems only on days when those systems are open for business. Those systems may not be open for business on days when banks, brokers and other institutions are open for business in the United States.

Cross-market transfers between participants in DTC, on the one hand, and participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on the other hand, will be effected through DTC in accordance with the DTC’s rules on behalf of Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by their respective U.S. depositaries; however, such cross-market transactions will require delivery of instructions to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by the counterparty in such system in accordance with the rules and procedures and within the established deadlines (European time) of such system. Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, deliver instructions to its U.S. depositary to take action to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving interests in the global securities through DTC, and making or receiving

 

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payment in accordance with normal procedures for same-day fund settlement. Participants in Euroclear or Clearstream may not deliver instructions directly to their respective U.S. depositaries.

Due to time zone differences, the securities accounts of a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream purchasing an interest in a global security from a direct participant in DTC will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant participant in Euroclear or Clearstream, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear or Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. Cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of interests in a global security by or through a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream to a direct participant in DTC will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following DTC’s settlement date.

Other

The information in this section of this prospectus concerning DTC, Clearstream, Euroclear and their respective book-entry systems has been obtained from sources that we believe to be reliable, but we do not take responsibility for this information. This information has been provided solely as a matter of convenience. The rules and procedures of DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear are solely within the control of those organizations and could change at any time. Neither we nor the trustee nor any agent of ours or of the trustee has any control over those entities and none of us takes any responsibility for their activities. You are urged to contact DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants directly to discuss those matters. In addition, although we expect that DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear will perform the foregoing procedures, none of them is under any obligation to perform or continue to perform such procedures and such procedures may be discontinued at any time. Neither we nor any agent of ours will have any responsibility for the performance or nonperformance by DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants of these or any other rules or procedures governing their respective operations.

 

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SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

Information about selling securityholders, where applicable, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement, in a post-effective amendment or in filings we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We or any of the selling securityholders may sell the offered securities from time to time:

 

   

through underwriters or dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to one or more purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

We will identify the specific plan of distribution, including any underwriters, dealers, agents or direct purchasers and their compensation in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Latham & Watkins LLP will pass upon certain legal matters relating to the issuance and sale of the securities offered hereby on behalf of Seres Therapeutics, Inc. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us, the selling securityholders or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an explanatory paragraph relating to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the financial statements) of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

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8,000,000 Shares

 

LOGO

Common Stock

Prospectus Supplement

 

Cowen

   Piper Sandler

Canaccord Genuity

   Oppenheimer & Co.

                , 2020

Seres Therapeutics (NASDAQ:MCRB)
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