Investors and analysts following the real estate industry utilize certain financial measures as supplemental performance measures, including net operating income ("NOI"), Same Property NOI, earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization for real estate ("EBITDA"), Funds from operations (“FFO”) and Adjusted FFO (“AFFO”).
While we believe net income available to common stockholders, as defined by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP), is the most appropriate measure, we consider NOI, Same Property NOI, EBITDA, and FFO and AFFO, given their wide use by and relevance to investors and analysts, appropriate supplemental performance measures. NOI provides a measure of rental operations, and does not include depreciation and amortization, interest expense and non-property specific expenses such as corporate-wide interest expense and general and administrative expenses. As used herein, we calculate the following non-U.S. GAAP measures as follows:
• NOI from property operations is calculated as net loss, as defined by U.S. GAAP, plus preferred dividends, legal, accounting and other professional fees, corporate general and administrative expenses, depreciation, amortization of intangible assets and liabilities, net amortization of above and below market leases, interest expense, including amortization of financing costs, share based compensation expense, loss on impairment, impairment of assets held for sale, loss (gain) on disposition of investment properties, loss on extinguishment of debt, other income and other expenses. The components of NOI consist of recurring rental and reimbursement revenue, less real estate taxes and operating expenses, such as insurance, utilities, and repairs and maintenance. NOI presented in this financial supplement includes an adjustment to the Company’s net loss for amortization of above and below market leases and, as a result, varies from NOI presented in the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023.
• Same Property NOI is calculated as the NOI of all properties owned during the entire periods presented with the exclusion of any properties acquired or sold during the periods presented.
• EBITDA is net income, as defined by U.S. GAAP, plus preferred dividends, interest expense, including amortization of financing costs, depreciation and amortization, net amortization of acquired above and below market lease revenue, loss on impairment, impairment of assets held for sale, loss (gain) on disposition of investment properties, and loss on extinguishment of debt.
NOI, Same Property NOI, Same Property Revenues, and EBITDA, do not represent cash generated from operating activities in accordance with U.S. GAAP and are not necessarily indicative of cash available to fund cash needs, including the repayment of principal on debt, capital expenditures and payment of dividends and distributions. NOI, Same Property NOI, and EBITDA should not be considered as substitutes for net income applicable to common stockholders (calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP) as a measure of results of operations or cash flows (calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP) as a measure of liquidity. NOI, Same Property NOI, and Adjusted EBITDA, as currently calculated by us, may not be comparable to similarly titled, but variously calculated, measures of other REITs.
FFO and AFFO, non-GAAP measures, are an alternative measure of operating performance, specifically as it relates to results of operations and liquidity. FFO is computed in accordance with standards established by the Board of Governors of the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (“NAREIT”) in its March 1995 White Paper (as amended in November 1999, April 2002 and December 2018). As defined by NAREIT, FFO represents net income (computed in accordance with GAAP), excluding gains (or losses) from sales of property and losses on extinguishment of debt, plus real estate related depreciation and amortization (excluding amortization of loan origination costs and above and below market leases). In addition to FFO, AFFO, excludes non-cash items such as amortization of loans and above and below market leases, unbilled rent arising from applying straight line rent revenue recognition and share-based compensation expenses. Additionally, the impact of capital expenditures, including tenant improvement and leasing commissions, net of reimbursements of such expenditures by property escrow funds, is included in the calculation of AFFO.