1A. Risk Factors.
Summary of Risk Factors The following summarizes
the principal factors that make an investment in our company speculative or risky, all of which are more fully described in the Risk Factors
section below. This summary should be read in conjunction with the Risk Factors section and should not be relied upon as an exhaustive
summary of the material risks facing our business. The following factors could result in harm to our business, reputation, revenue, financial
results, and prospects, among other impacts:
Related to Nukkleus’s Business
have a limited operating history in an evolving and highly volatile industry, which makes
it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and may increase the risk that we will not
we do not effectively manage our growth and the associated demands on our operational, risk
management, sales and marketing, technology, compliance and finance and accounting resources,
our business may be adversely impacted.
face intense and increasing competition and, if we do not compete effectively, our competitive
positioning and our operating results will be harmed.
currently compete at multiple levels with a variety of competitors.
and security breaches of our systems, or those impacting our customers or third parties,
could adversely impact our brand and reputation and our business, operating results and financial
may incur significant liability as a result of ongoing disputes.
significant disruption in our technology could adversely impact our brand and reputation
and our business, operating results, and financial condition.
rely on third parties in critical aspects of our business, which creates additional risk.
Our ability to offer our services depends on relationships with other financial services
institutions and entities, and our inability to maintain existing relationships or to enter
into new such relationships could impact our ability to offer services to customers.
banking relationships for transaction processing are concentrated in a small number of partners.
large customers provide a significant share of our revenue and the termination of such agreements
or reduction in business with such customers could harm our business. If we lose or are unable
to renew these and other marketplace and enterprise client contracts at favorable terms,
our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.
products and services may be exploited to facilitate illegal activity such as fraud, money
laundering, gambling, tax evasion, and scams. If any of our customers use our products or
services to further such illegal activities, we could be subject to liability and our business
could be adversely affected. Our efforts to detect and monitor such transactions for compliance
with law may require significant costs, and our failure to effectively deal with bad, fraudulent
or fictitious transactions and material internal or external fraud could negatively impact
compliance and risk management methods might not be effective and may result in outcomes
that could adversely affect our reputation, operating results, and financial condition. We
rely on third parties for some of our KYC and other compliance obligations.
rely on connectivity with blockchain networks for our Platforms.
we fail to develop, maintain, and enhance our brand and reputation, our business, operating
results, and financial condition may be adversely affected. Moreover, unfavorable media coverage
could negatively affect our business.
future growth depends significantly on our marketing efforts, and if our marketing efforts
are not successful, our business and results of operations will be harmed.|
about the environmental impacts of blockchain technology could adversely impact usage and
perceptions of Nukkleus, its subsidiaries and our Platforms.|
COVID-19 pandemic could have unpredictable, including adverse, effects on our business, operating
results, and financial condition.|
a remote-first company, we are subject to heightened operational and cybersecurity risks.|
Related to Nukkleus’s Platforms
product offerings are centered on WebTrader, MetaTrader, XWare, Forexware and certain other
platforms and product offerings (together, our “Platforms”). The regulatory landscape
as it relates to processing payment transactions, including through our Platforms, continues
to evolve. Such evolution may create additional regulatory burden and expense and could materially
impact the use and adoption of our Platforms.|
future development and growth of our Platforms is subject to a variety of factors that are
difficult to predict and evaluate and may be in the hands of third parties to a substantial
extent. If our Platforms do not grow as we expect, our business, operating results, and financial
condition could be adversely affected.|
to unfamiliarity and some negative publicity associated with blockchain technology, our customer
base may lose confidence in products and services that utilize blockchain technology.|
Platforms and blockchain-enabled payment processing services are innovative and are difficult
to analyze vis-à-vis existing financial services laws and regulations around the world.
Our platforms involve certain risks, including reliance on third parties, which could limit
or restrict our ability to offer the product in certain jurisdictions.|
Related to Nukkleus’s Financial Condition
is no assurance that we will maintain profitability or that our revenue and business models
will be successful.|
may experience fluctuations in our quarterly operating results.|
financial forecasts, which were presented to Nukkleus’s Board and are included in this
proxy statement/prospectus, may not prove to be accurate.|
in U.S. and foreign tax laws, as well as the application of such laws, could adversely
impact our financial position and operating results.|
our estimates or judgment relating to our critical accounting policies prove to be incorrect,
our operating results could be adversely affected.|
nature of our business requires the application of complex financial accounting rules, and
there is limited guidance from accounting standard setting bodies. If financial accounting
standards undergo significant changes, our operating results could be adversely affected.|
metrics and other estimates are subject to inherent challenges in measurement, and our business,
operating results, and financial condition could be adversely affected by real or perceived
inaccuracies in those metrics.|
are subject to changes in financial reporting standards or policies, including as a result
of choices made by us, which could materially adversely affect our reported results of operations
and financial condition and may have a corresponding material adverse impact on capital ratios.|
a public company, we are required to develop and maintain proper and effective internal controls
over financial reporting, and any failure to maintain the adequacy of these internal controls
may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our
might require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be
available or may require stockholder approval to obtain.|
may be affected by fluctuations in currency exchange rates|
Related to Nukkleus’s Employees and Other Service Providers
the event of employee or service provider misconduct or error, our business may be adversely
loss of one or more of our key personnel, or our failure to attract and retain other highly
qualified personnel in the future, could adversely impact our business, operating results,
and financial condition.|
culture emphasizes innovation, and if we cannot maintain this culture as we grow, our business
and operating results could be adversely impacted.|
officers, directors, employees, and large stockholders may encounter potential conflicts
of interests with respect to their positions or interests in certain entities, and other
initiatives, which could adversely affect our business and reputation.|
Related to Government Regulation
are subject to various laws and regulations, and any adverse changes to, or our failure to
comply with, any laws and regulations could adversely affect our brand, reputation, business,
operating results, and financial condition.|
and regulatory actions taken now or in the future may increase our costs and impact our business,
governance structure, financial condition or results of operations.|
regulatory environment to which we are subject gives rise to various licensing requirements,
legal and financial compliance costs and management time, and non-compliance could result
in monetary and reputational damages, all of which could have a material adverse effect on
our business, financial position and results of operations.|
financial services industry is subject to intensive regulation. Major changes in laws and
regulations, as well as enforcement actions, could adversely affect our business, financial
position, results of operations and prospects.|
are subject to laws, regulations, and executive orders regarding economic and trade sanctions,
anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, and counter-terror financing that could impair our ability
to compete in international markets or subject us to criminal or civil liability if we violate
them. As we continue to expand and localize our international activities, our obligations
to comply with the laws, rules, regulations, and policies of a variety of jurisdictions will
increase and we may be subject to investigations and enforcement actions by U.S. and
non-U.S. regulators and governmental authorities.|
consolidated balance sheets may not contain sufficient amounts or types of regulatory capital
to meet the changing requirements of our various regulators worldwide, which could adversely
affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.|
obtain and process a large amount of sensitive customer data. Any real or perceived improper
use of, disclosure of, or access to such data could harm our reputation, as well as have
an adverse effect on our business.|
are subject to complex and evolving laws, regulations, and industry requirements related
to data privacy, data protection and information security across different markets where
we conduct our business, including in the EEA, such laws, regulations, and industry requirements
are constantly evolving and changing. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such
laws, regulations, and industry requirements, or our privacy policies/notices could harm
our business by impairing customer trust and could subject us to fines and reputational harm.|
are and may continue to be subject to litigation, including individual and class action lawsuits,
as well as regulatory audits, disputes, inquiries, investigations and enforcement actions
by regulators and governmental authorities.|
Related to Nukkleus’s Intellectual Property
intellectual property rights are valuable, and any inability to protect them could adversely
impact our business, operating results, and financial condition.|
the future we may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary
SEC has adopted amendments to Rule 15c2-11 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which
could adversely affect our common stock. |
economic conditions may adversely affect our business.|
may be adversely affected by natural disasters, pandemics, and other catastrophic events,
and by man-made problems such as war or terrorism, that could disrupt our business operations,
and our business continuity and disaster recovery plans may not adequately protect us from
a serious disaster.|
joint ventures or other strategic transactions create certain risks and may adversely affect
our business, financial condition or results of operations.|
law and our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws will contain certain provisions, including
anti-takeover provisions that limit the ability of stockholders to take certain actions and
could delay or discourage takeover attempts that stockholders may consider favorable.|
Related to Nukkleus’s Business
have a limited operating history in an evolving and highly volatile industry, which makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects
and may increase the risk that we will not be successful.
was formed in 2013 and since then our business model has continued to evolve. In 2021, we acquired a controlling interest in Match. In
2019, our Digital RFQ indirect subsidiary, and wholly owned subsidiary of Match, began to operate a payment processing business partly
using blockchain technology. The comparability of our results in prior quarterly or annual periods should not be viewed as an indication
of future performance. The “blockchain technology” used by Digital RFQ in its payment processing business and referred to
throughout this proxy statement/prospectus is intended to refer to stablecoins operated on the Bitcoin, Ethereum and Tron networks, or
such other blockchain networks as Digital RFQ may determine to be reliable and well established in the financial services industry, at
an advanced stage and fully tested and collaterialized based on certain criteria summarized below. The blockchain networks used by Digital
RFQ in its payment processing business are maintained and operated by third parties.
Digital RFQ makes use of blockchain technology only to process payments and does not hold digital assets, the criteria for the adoption
and use of any blockchain network may differ from those of investors in stablecoins. Digital RFQ evaluates each blockchain and/or stablecoin
on a daily and transaction-by-transaction basis, to minimize any risk associated with the blockchain or stablecoin and to ensure
that Digital RFQ can reliably complete the transaction in and out of the stablecoin quickly to minimize such risk. Digital RFQ determines
that a blockchain or stablecoin is suitable for use in its payment processing services by assessing the following criteria:
how widely supported is the blockchain stablecoin combination by Digital RFQ’s trading partners, including the banks and financial
institutions Digital RFQ uses to support its business. Having sufficient trading partners that support the blockchain or stablecoin means
there may be multiple choices of blockchain to use for any given trade.
whether there is sufficient liquidity in those partners’ holdings of the stablecoin
to ensure Digital RFQ is able to trade in or out without exposure to volatility and price
determine whether any blockchain technology meets Digital RFQ’s requirements and is a suitable candidate for use in Digital RFQ’s
payment processing business, we assess the following criteria. We monitor these criteria for each blockchain or stablecoin we use regularly
on an ongoing basis:
share. Digital RFQ assesses a blockchain or stablecoin’s
share of the stablecoin market as a whole and market capitalization from publicly available
information. Some stablecoins have been in existence longer than others and may have a larger
market share and market capitalization. These factors also have an influence on the market
perception of such stablecoins. For example, USDT ‘Tether’ is the most prominent
stablecoin measured by market capitalization but has faced auditing issues, while newer products
such as GBPT have had professional Big Four auditors from inception but do not have material
market share to date and thus would not be perceived or assessed as at an advanced stage
or well established.
and Collateralization. Auditing is paramount to the security and
stability of stablecoins and for this reason Digital RFQ will only work with firms that adhere
to full collateralization that is independently verified by an outside auditor. Digital RFQ
believes that collateralization is key in maturing stablecoins. For example, the UST Terra
Luna ‘collapse’ showed that algorithmically-backed stability creates vulnerability
to counterparty mismanagement and influence, driven by the difficulty and lack of auditing
and intrinsic connection to the Terra network itself. In contrast, collateralized stablecoins
such as USDT and USDC are fully backed by reserve fiat currency holdings and can be redeemed
by holders for such fiat currency. Digital RFQ also views traditional markets, while much
more established, as not completely free of risk since they rely substantially on fractional
reserve banking to maintain the market.
Risk. Digital RFQ assesses counterparty risk in its stablecoin
and blockchain selection in the issuer of the stablecoin and its governance and in the banks
and financial institutions it uses to source liquidity. Digital RFQ assesses the degree of
governance decentralization that may give direct control over funds (as backing, for example)
or attack vectors to the governance architecture that could expose control over funds, and
determines the degree of counterparty risk from the level of centralization. To assess the
degree of centralization, Digital RFQ examines the number of parties controlling the blockchain
protocol, the number of holders and the level of founder backing (demonstrated by founders
holding a significant amount of the stablecoin). Digital RFQ is able to remain operationally
stable throughout any given payment processing transaction due primarily to a robust counterparty
infrastructure and minimal exposure to these ‘transit’ legs of the transaction
(for more information on the third parties involved in Digital RFQ’s payment processing
business, please refer to the section titled “We rely on connectivity to blockchain
networks for our Platforms”.
Contract Risk. Smart contract risk relates to the technical security
of a blockchain or stablecoin based on its underlying code. If one of the supported stablecoins
or other digital currencies is compromised, collateral will be affected, thus threatening
the solvency of the blockchain protocol. Projects must have undergone audits to be considered.
We assess maturity based on the number of days and the number of transactions of the smart
contract as a representation of use, community and development. These proxies show how strong
the code is.
because Digital RFQ makes use of blockchain technology only to process payments, and does not hold digital assets, we are able to constantly
monitor the status of any blockchain network or stablecoin before, during and after a payment is processed, and determine which of the
available blockchain networks is suitable for a particular transaction. We therefore do not believe we are exposed to material risks
associated with holding stablecoins or other digital assets. Furthermore, we do not use stablecoins of an algorithmic nature, and in
the event that we determine any particular stablecoin presents a threat or risk to the security of our business, customers or the transactions
we process, we promptly move to another stablecoin network. We do not accept payment in digital assets and do not hold digital assets
for investment or offer digital wallet services.
we have a limited history operating our business at its current scale and scope, it is difficult to evaluate our current business and
future prospects, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. For example, recently launched services require substantial
resources and there is no guarantee that such expenditures will result in profit or growth of our business. The rapidly evolving nature
of the market in which we operate, substantial uncertainty concerning how these markets may develop, and other economic factors beyond
our control, reduces our ability to accurately forecast quarterly or annual revenue. Failure to manage our current and future growth
effectively could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
we do not effectively manage our growth and the associated demands on our operational, risk management, sales and marketing, technology,
compliance and finance and accounting resources, our business may be adversely impacted.
have experienced recent significant growth through our acquisition of Match. In our recent acquisitions, including our acquisition of
Match, our business has become increasingly complex by expanding the services we offer to include financial services and payment processing
services. To effectively manage and capitalize on our growth, we must continue to expand our information technology and financial, operating,
and administrative systems and controls, and continue to manage headcount, capital, and processes efficiently. Our continued growth could
strain our existing resources, and we could experience ongoing operating difficulties in managing our business as it expands across numerous
jurisdictions, including difficulties in hiring, training, and managing an employee base. Failure to scale and preserve our company culture
with growth could harm our future success, including our ability to retain and recruit personnel and to effectively focus on and pursue
our corporate objectives. If we do not adapt to meet these evolving challenges, or if our management team does not effectively scale
with our growth, we may experience erosion to our brand, the quality of our products and services may suffer, and our company culture
may be harmed. Moreover, the failure of our systems and processes could undermine our ability to provide accurate, timely, and reliable
reports on our financial and operating results, including the financial statements provided herein, and could impact the effectiveness
of our internal controls over financial reporting. In addition, our systems and processes may not prevent or detect all errors, omissions,
or fraud, though we have experienced no such material errors, omissions or fraud in the past. For example, our employees may fail to
identify transaction errors or fraudulent information provided by our customers. Any of the foregoing operational failures could lead
to noncompliance with laws, loss of operating licenses or other authorizations, or loss of bank relationships that could substantially
impair or even suspend company operations.
intend to continue to develop our technology, in particular our blockchain-enabled payment processing offering. Successful implementation
of this strategy may require significant expenditures before any substantial associated revenue is generated and we cannot guarantee
that these increased investments will result in corresponding and offsetting revenue growth. Our growth may not be sustainable and depends
on our ability to retain existing customers, attract new customers, expand product offerings, and increase processed volumes and revenue
from both new and existing customers.
future growth of our business depends on its ability to retain existing customers, attract new customers as well as getting existing
customers and new customers to increase the volumes processed through our payments platform and therefore grow revenue. Our customers
are not subject to any minimum volume commitments and they have no obligation to continue to use our services, and we cannot be sure
that customers will continue to use our services or that we will be able to continue to attract new volumes at the same rate as we have
in the past.
customer’s use of our services may decrease for a variety of reasons, including the customer’s level of satisfaction with
our products and services, the expansion of business to offer new products and services, the effectiveness of our support services, the
pricing of our products and services, the pricing, range and quality of competing products or services, the effects of global economic
conditions, regulatory or financial institution limitations, trust, perception and interest in foreign exchange and payment processing
services and in our products and services, or reductions in the customer’s payment and transfer activity. Furthermore, the complexity
and costs associated with switching to a competitor may not be significant enough to prevent a customer from switching service providers,
especially for larger customers who commonly engage more than one payment service provider at any one time.
failure by us to retain existing customers, attract new customers, and increase revenue from both new and existing customers could materially
and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. These efforts may require substantial financial
expenditures, commitments of resources, developments of our processes, and other investments and innovations.
face intense and increasing competition and, if we do not compete effectively, our competitive positioning and our operating results
will be harmed.
operate in a rapidly changing and highly competitive industry, and our results of operations and future prospects depend on, among other
growth of our customer base,
ability to monetize our customer base,
ability to acquire customers at a lower cost, and
ability to increase the overall value to us of each of our customers while they use our products
the regulatory barriers to enter the markets we serve, we expect our competition to continue to increase. In addition to established
enterprises, we may also face competition from early-stage companies attempting to capitalize on the same, or similar, opportunities
as we are. Some of our current and potential competitors have longer operating histories, particularly with respect to our digital financial
services products, significantly greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources, and a larger customer base than we do.
This allows them, among others, to potentially offer more competitive pricing or other terms or features, a broader range of digital
financial products, or a more specialized set of specific products or services, as well as respond more quickly than we can to new or
emerging technologies and changes in customer preferences.
existing or future competitors may develop products or services that are similar to our products and services or that achieve greater
market acceptance than our products and services. This could attract new customers away from our services and reduce our market share
in the future. Additionally, when new competitors seek to enter our markets, or when existing market participants seek to increase their
market share, these competitors sometimes undercut, or otherwise exert pressure on, the pricing terms prevalent in that market, which
could adversely affect our market share and/or ability to capitalize on new market opportunities.
currently compete at multiple levels with a variety of competitors, including:
and non-bank financial institutions (including without limitation those using the Society
for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) payment system); and
exchange and derivative, including contract for difference (“CFD”), transfer
we do not currently control a bank or a bank holding company, we may be subject to regulation by a variety of state, federal and international
regulators across our products and services and we rely on third-party banks to provide payment-processing services to our
customers. This regulation by federal, state and international authorities increases our compliance costs, as we navigate multiple regimes
with different examination schedules and processes and varying disclosure requirements.
believe that our ability to compete depends upon many factors, both within and beyond our control, including the following:
size, diversity and activity levels of our customer base;
timing and market acceptance of products and services, including developments and enhancements
to those products and services offered by us and our competitors;
service and support efforts;
and marketing efforts;
ease of use, performance, price and reliability of solutions developed either by us or our
in economic conditions, regulatory and policy developments;
ability to successfully execute on our business plans;
ability to enter new markets;
digital payments, capital markets, blockchain and stablecoin market conditions;
ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; and
brand strength relative to our competitors.
current and future business prospects demand that we act to meet these competitive challenges but, in doing so, our revenue and results
of operations could be adversely affected if we, for example, increase marketing expenditures or make other expenditures. All of the
foregoing factors and events could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and future prospects.
and security breaches of our systems, or those impacting our customers or third parties, could adversely impact our brand and reputation
and our business, operating results and financial condition.
business involves the collection, storage, processing and transmission of confidential information, customer, employee, service provider
and other personal data, as well as information required to access customer assets. We have built our reputation on the premise that
our products and services offer customers a secure way to accept and make payments and store value. As a result, any actual or perceived
security breach of us or our third-party partners may:
our reputation and brand;
in our systems or services being unavailable and interrupt our operations;
in improper disclosure of data and violations of applicable privacy and other laws;
in significant regulatory scrutiny, investigations, fines, penalties, and other legal, regulatory
and financial exposure;
us to incur significant remediation costs;
to theft or irretrievable loss of our or our customers’ assets;
customer confidence in, or decreased use of, our products and services;
the attention of management from the operation of our business;
in significant compensation or contractual penalties from us to our customers or third parties
as a result of losses to them or claims by them; and
affect our business and operating results.
any actual or perceived breach or cybersecurity attack directed at other financial institutions or blockchain companies, whether or not
we are directly impacted, could lead to a general loss of customer confidence in the use of technology to conduct financial transactions,
which could negatively impact us including the market perception of the effectiveness of our security measures and technology infrastructure.
increasing number of organizations, including large businesses, technology companies and financial institutions, as well as government
institutions, have disclosed breaches of their information security systems, some of which have involved sophisticated and highly targeted
attacks, including on their websites, mobile applications, and infrastructure. Attacks upon systems across a variety of industries, including
the payment processing, forex and CFD industry, are increasing in their frequency, persistence, and sophistication, and, in many cases,
are being conducted by sophisticated, well-funded, and organized groups and individuals, including state actors. The techniques used
to obtain unauthorized, improper, or illegal access to systems and information (including customers’ personal data and digital
assets), disable or degrade services, or sabotage systems are constantly evolving, may be difficult to detect quickly, and often are
not recognized or detected until after they have been launched against a target. These attacks may occur on our systems or those of our
third-party service providers or partners. Certain types of cyberattacks could harm us even if our systems are left undisturbed.
For example, attacks may be designed to deceive employees and service providers into releasing control of our systems to a hacker, while
others may aim to introduce computer viruses or malware into our systems with a view to stealing confidential or proprietary data. Additionally,
certain threats are designed to remain dormant or undetectable until launched against a target and we may not be able to implement adequate
we do not have a past history of material security breaches or cyberattacks, and do not believe we are a target of such breaches or attacks,
we have developed systems and processes designed to protect the data we manage, prevent data loss and other security breaches, effectively
respond to known and potential risks. We expect to continue to expend significant resources to bolster these protections, but there can
be no assurance that these security measures will provide absolute security or prevent breaches or attacks. Threats can come from a variety
of sources, including criminal hackers, hacktivists, state-sponsored intrusions, industrial espionage, and insiders. Certain threat
actors may be supported by significant financial and technological resources, making them even more sophisticated and difficult to detect.
As a result, our costs and the resources we devote to protecting against these advanced threats and their consequences may increase over
we maintain insurance coverage that we believe is adequate for our business, it may be insufficient to protect us against all losses
and costs stemming from security breaches, cyberattacks, and other types of unlawful activity, or any resulting disruptions from such
events. Outages and disruptions of our systems, including any caused by cyberattacks, may harm our reputation and our business, operating
results, and financial condition.
may incur significant liability as a result of ongoing disputes.
were party to the BT Prime Litigation, and the case against us has now been dismissed with prejudice with no material liability to us.
We may be subject to various other legal proceedings, consumer arbitrations, and regulatory investigation matters. If any of these matters
are resolved unfavorably to us, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
significant disruption in our technology could adversely impact our brand and reputation and our business, operating results, and financial
reputation and ability to grow our business depends on our ability to operate our service at high levels of reliability, scalability,
and performance, including the ability to process and monitor, on a daily basis, a large number of transactions that occur at high volume
and frequencies across multiple systems. The proper functioning of our products and services, the ability of our customers to make and
receive payments, and our ability to operate at a high level, are dependent on our ability to access the blockchain networks underlying
our Platforms and other supported blockchain-based products and technology, for which access is dependent on our systems’
ability to access the internet. Further, the successful and continued operations of such blockchain networks will depend on a network
of computers, miners, or validators, and their continued operations, all of which may be impacted by service interruptions.
systems, the systems of our third-party service providers and partners, and certain blockchain networks, have experienced from time
to time and may experience in the future service interruptions or degradation because of hardware and software defects or malfunctions,
distributed denial-of-service and other cyberattacks, insider threats, break-ins, sabotage, human error, vandalism, earthquakes,
hurricanes, floods, fires, and other natural disasters, power losses, disruptions in telecommunications services, fraud, military or
political conflicts, terrorist attacks, computer viruses or other malware, or other events. In addition, extraordinary site usage could
cause our computer systems to operate at an unacceptably slow speed or even fail. Some of our systems, including systems of companies
we have acquired, or the systems of our third-party service providers and partners are not fully redundant, and our or their disaster
recovery planning may not be sufficient for all possible outcomes or events.
any of our systems, or those of our third-party service providers, are disrupted for any reason, our products and services may fail,
resulting in unanticipated disruptions, slower response times and delays in our services, including our customers’ payments through
our Platforms. This could lead to failed or unauthorized payments, incomplete or inaccurate accounting, loss of customer information,
increased demand on limited customer support resources, customer claims, and complaints with regulatory organizations, lawsuits, or enforcement
prolonged interruption in the availability or reduction in the availability, speed, or functionality of our products and services could
harm our business. Frequent or persistent interruptions in our services could cause current or potential customers or partners to believe
that our systems are unreliable, leading them to switch to our competitors or to avoid or reduce the use of our products and services,
and could permanently harm our reputation and brands.
to the extent that any system failure or similar event results in damages to our customers or their business partners, these customers
or partners could seek significant compensation or contractual penalties from us for their losses, and those claims, even if unsuccessful,
are likely to be time-consuming and costly for us to address. Problems with the reliability or security of our systems would harm
our reputation, and damage to our reputation and the cost of remedying these problems could negatively affect our business, operating
results, and financial condition.
addition, we are continually improving and upgrading our information systems and technologies. Implementation of new systems and technologies
is complex, expensive, time-consuming, and may not be successful. If we fail to timely and successfully implement new information systems
and technologies, or improvements or upgrades to existing information systems and technologies, or if such systems and technologies do
not operate as intended, it could have an adverse impact on our business, internal controls (including internal controls over financial
reporting), operating results, and financial condition.
we are subject to regulation in certain jurisdictions, frequent or persistent interruptions could also lead to regulatory scrutiny, significant
fines and penalties, and mandatory and costly changes to our business practices, and ultimately could cause us to lose existing licenses
or banking relationships that we need to operate, or prevent or delay us from obtaining additional licenses that may be required for
rely on third parties in critical aspects of our business, which creates additional risk. Our ability to offer our services depends on
relationships with other financial services institutions and entities, and our inability to maintain existing relationships or to enter
into new such relationships could impact our ability to offer services to customers.
depend on various third-party partners and payment systems. More specifically, our offering of payments and transfer services depends
on our ability to offer blockchain transaction processing, Automated Clearing House network (“ACH”) transaction processing,
wire transfer and other payment processing services to our customers.
order to provide such transaction processing services, we have established relationships with financial institutions whereby such financial
institutions provide us with access into the relevant payment networks (e.g., the card networks and the ACH). Our ability to offer our
core services depends on our ability to maintain existing relationships with financial institutions and to seek out and obtain new such
critical aspects of our technology rely on third-party technologies, including blockchain networks. Our regulatory status, the status
of our Platforms and of blockchain technologies more generally, may be an impediment to our ability to receive or obtain services from
financial institutions. Should our partners cease providing access to such technologies and networks, we would be at risk of being unable
to provide the payment processing services that are core to our customer offering.
parties upon which we rely to process transactions may refuse to process transactions adequately, may breach their agreements with us,
refuse to renew agreements on commercially reasonable terms, take actions that degrade the functionality of our services, impose additional
costs or requirements on us, or give preferential treatment to competitive services or suffer outages in their systems, any of which
could disrupt our operations and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
third parties that provide services to us may have or gain market power and be able to increase their prices to us without competitive
constraint. In addition, there can be no assurance that third parties that provide services directly to us will continue to do so on
acceptable terms, or at all, or will not suffer from outages to their systems. If any third parties were to stop providing services to
us on acceptable terms, we may be unable to procure alternatives from other third parties in a timely and efficient manner and on acceptable
terms, or at all, which may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
are subject to credit risks in respect of counterparties, including financial institutions.
are and will continue to be subject to the risk of actual or perceived deterioration of the commercial and financial soundness, or perceived
soundness, of other financial institutions, in particular in relation to receivables from financial institutions regarding settled payment
transactions, and cash and cash-equivalents held at financial institutions. One institution defaulting, failing a stress test or
requiring mail-in by its shareholders and/or creditors and/or bail-out by a government could lead to significant liquidity
problems and losses or defaults by other institutions. Even the perceived lack of creditworthiness of, or questions about, a counterparty
or major financial institution may lead to market-wide liquidity problems and losses or defaults by financial institutions on which
we have an exposure. This risk resulting from the interdependence on financial institutions is sometimes referred to as “systemic
risk” and may adversely affect financial intermediaries, such as industry payment systems and banks, with whom we interact on a
daily basis. Systemic risk, particularly within the United States, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise
new funding and on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
banking relationships for transaction processing are concentrated in a small number of partners.
use a small number of banks and financial institutions as banking services providers. Should our relationships with such banks and financial
institutions deteriorate, we may be limited in our ability to offer the payment processing services that are core to our offerings. While
we have multiple such banking partners and are working to diversify these relationships further, we do not have written agreements with
such banks and financial institutions and there remains some risk that, in the short term, our ability to provide payment processing
services may be affected by any interruption in the banking services we receive. As such, should our relationships with our existing
banking and financial institution partners deteriorate or if such banks and financial institutions make a decision to discontinue the
services they provide us, we could lose our ability to process payments, financial transfers and other transactions. In such an
event, the value of our services would be negatively impacted and our institutional investor clients could be forced to process smaller
transaction volume with us or to cease transaction processing through us entirely.
large customers provide a significant share of our revenue and the termination of such agreements or reduction in business with such
customers could harm our business. If we lose or are unable to renew these and other marketplace and enterprise client contracts at favorable
terms, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.
largest customer provides significant contribution to our revenue. For the year ended September 30, 2022, our largest customer, TCM,
represented 89.2% of our revenue. Failure to retain this and other customers could negatively impact our business and could lead to significant
fluctuations in our performance. Customers may seek price reductions when renewing, expanding or changing their services with us and/or
when their need for payment, asset storage, investing or capital raise services experiences significant volume changes.
the rate of growth of our customers’ business slow or decline, this could have an adverse effect on volumes processed and therefore
an adverse effect on our results of operations. If our contracts are terminated by our large customers or if our large customers shift
business away, or if we are unsuccessful in retaining contract terms that are favorable to us, our business, financial condition, results
of operations and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
products and services may be exploited to facilitate illegal activity such as fraud, money laundering, gambling, tax evasion, and scams.
If any of our customers use our products or services to further such illegal activities, we could be subject to liability and our business
could be adversely affected. Our efforts to detect and monitor such transactions for compliance with law may require significant costs,
and our failure to effectively deal with bad, fraudulent or fictitious transactions and material internal or external fraud could negatively
impact our business.
may in the future be subject to liability for illegal transactions, including fraudulent payments initiated by our customers, money laundering,
gambling, tax evasion, and scams. Examples of fraud include when a party knowingly uses stolen or otherwise illicitly acquired access
information to a transaction. In addition, we are subject to the risk that our employees, counterparties or third-party service
providers commit fraudulent activity against us or our customers.
are using increasingly sophisticated methods to engage in illegal activities such as counterfeiting, account takeover and fraud. It is
possible that incidents of fraud could increase in the future. The use of our products or services for illegal or improper purposes could
subject us to claims, individual and class action lawsuits, and government and regulatory investigations, prosecutions, enforcement actions,
inquiries, or requests that could result in liability and reputational harm for us. In addition, our efforts to detect and monitor such
transactions for compliance with law may require significant costs.
certain activities that may be legal in one jurisdiction may be illegal in another jurisdiction, and certain activities that are at one
time legal may in the future be deemed illegal in the same jurisdiction. As a result, there is significant uncertainty and cost associated
with detecting and monitoring transactions for compliance with local laws. In the event that a customer is found responsible for intentionally
or inadvertently violating the laws in any jurisdiction, we may be subject to governmental inquiries, enforcement actions, prosecuted,
or otherwise held secondarily liable for aiding or facilitating such activities. Changes in law have also increased the penalties for
money transmitters, e-money issuers, broker-dealers and alternative trading systems for certain illegal activities, and government
authorities may consider increased or additional penalties from time to time. Owners of intellectual property rights or government authorities
may seek to bring legal action against us for involvement in the sale of infringing or allegedly infringing items. Any threatened or
resulting claims could result in reputational harm, and any resulting liabilities, loss of transaction volume, or increased costs could
harm our business.
while fiat currencies can be used to facilitate illegal activities, blockchain technologies, such those used in our Platforms are relatively
new and, in many jurisdictions, may be lightly regulated or largely unregulated. Many blockchains have characteristics such as the speed
with which digital asset transactions can be conducted, the ability to conduct transactions without the involvement of regulated intermediaries,
the ability to engage in transactions across multiple jurisdictions, the irreversible nature of certain blockchain transactions, and
encryption technology that anonymizes these transactions, which may make blockchain technology susceptible to use in illegal activity.
and state and foreign regulatory authorities and law enforcement agencies, such as the Department of Justice, the SEC, the Commodity
Futures Trading Commission, The Federal Trade Commission, the IRS and various state securities and financial regulators investigate,
issue subpoenas and civil investigative demands, and take legal action against persons and entities alleged to be engaged in fraudulent
schemes or other illicit activity involving blockchain technologies.
we believe that our risk management and compliance framework is designed to detect significant illicit activities conducted by our potential
or existing customers, we cannot ensure that we will be able to detect all illegal activity on our systems. If any of our customers use
our products and services to further such illegal activities, our business could be adversely affected. We have not detected any material
illicit activities in the past.
risk management and compliance framework is key to our operations and is designed to address Anti Money Laundering (“AML”)
and Counter Terrorist Finance (“CTF”) considerations consistent with our authorization by the Financial Conduct Authority
as an Electronic Money Directive Agent, among others. The key elements of the regulatory framework that impact us include, but are not
limited to, the following U.K. legislation:
European Union 5th and 6th Money Laundering Directives. The main components of the 5th Money
Laundering Directive was to (i) grant access to the general public to beneficial ownership information of EU based companies; (ii) requires
regulated entities to consult the beneficial ownership register when performing AML due diligence; (iii) obliges EU member states to
create a list of national public offices and functions that qualify as politically exposed persons (PEP); and (iv) introduces strict
enhanced due diligence measures for financial flows from high risk third countries. The 6th Money Laundering Directive
introduced a harmonised list of 22 predicate offences that constitute money laundering and expanded its regulatory scope and criminal
definition to include “aiding and abetting”. Regulated entities such as Digital RFQ are required to ensure that their AML/CFT
programs address those offences. Criminal liability for those laundering money has been extended to legal persons, which means that organisations
can be punished for offences committed by the people that work for them. The change means that responsibility for corporate criminal
conduct falls on management personnel in addition to individual employees.
Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing and Transfer of Funds (Information on the Payer), Regulation 2017.
of Crime Act 2002. Digital RFQ is required to ensure sufficient controls are in place to enable its employees to recognise money laundering.
Act 2000 and Counter Terrorism Act 2008. Digital RFQ is required to ensure sufficient controls are in place so that the firm can
recognise terrorist financing.
Act 2006. Digital RFQ is required to ensure controls are in place to identify the risk of both internal and external fraud and the
necessary controls are implemented
Act 2010. Digital RFQ is required to ensure controls are in place to identify the risk of bribery and corruption and the necessary
controls are implemented
primary objectives in establishing our AML/CTF policy are to:
regular assessments to continually understand the money laundering and terrorist financing (“ML/TF”) risks associated with
our business activities;
Digital RFQ’s services from being used for tax evasion purposes;
Digital RFQ has appropriate controls to mitigate the ML/TF and tax evasion risks faced by the business;
minimum standards of customer due diligence to be obtained for all entities we conduct business with, including to:
and verify legal existence;
who are the natural persons that ultimately own or control the entity;
the risks posed by higher risks clients, business relationships or transactions; and
standards to allow us to identify unusual or potential suspicious behavior and report suspicions of ML/TF or other financial crime, as
advised by law.
risk-based approach to AML/CTF is driven by the clients risk rating. DigitalRFQ operates a three-tiered classification of a
potential client relationship:
Risk — applying simplified due diligence of customers
Risk — applying standard client due diligence
Risk — applying enhanced due diligence
customer due diligence is conducted on the majority of customers, who present a normal level of risk. Where enough low risk factors from
the customer are identified, Digital RFQ employs simplified due diligence, which is a light touch approach involving less stringent checks.
Conversely, if high risk factors are identified, then the firm employs enhanced due diligence, which involves a thorough ‘deep
dive’ review of the customer. These customers, if approved, are then subject to ongoing monitoring.
due diligence is for customers who present a very low risk:
— the general rule is to verify identity before the establishment of a business relationship. However, there is now an exemption
to this if there is little risk of money laundering. With simplified due diligence, the verification can take place later, so we do not
interrupt the normal flow of business, provided that the verification is completed as soon as practicable after contact is first established.
— a customer’s identification can be based purely on electronic identification if the verification software used is of sufficient,
accredited standard and that they can corroborate some of the information obtained with the customer. This could even be the case in
some non-face-to-face relationships, if there are sufficient low risk factors in place.
— this can be done with one document only and need not be independently certified.
due diligence is followed in all circumstances where a customer is identified as high-risk, and this involves seven specific tasks:
enhanced monitoring of the business relationship by increasing the number and timing of controls applied, and selecting patterns of transactions
that need further examination.
additional information about the customer.
additional information about the intended nature of the business relationship.
out about the source of the funds or wealth of the customer.
the reasons for the intended or performed transactions.
the approval of senior management for continuing the business relationship.
the first payment to be carried out through an account in the customer’s name with a bank subject to similar customer due diligence
RFQ performs a customer risk assessment to determine whether a specific customer is high, medium or low risk and will take into consideration
the customer type, their geographic location and the product or service being provided. When assessing the risk, Digital RFQ considers
the following risk factors:
business relationship is conducted in unusual circumstances
that are resident in jurisdictions considered to present a ‘higher’ risk
persons or arrangements that are personal asset-holding vehicles
that have nominee shareholders or shares in bearer form
that are cash-intensive
ownership structure of the company appears unusual or excessively complex given the nature of the company’s business
companies listed on a stock exchange and subject to disclosure requirements (either by stock
exchange rules or through law or enforceable means), which impose requirements to ensure
adequate transparency of beneficial ownership
administrations or enterprises Customers that are resident in jurisdictions considered to present a ‘lower’ risk
identified by credible sources as not having effective anti-money laundering (AML) or
Combating the Financing of Terrorism (CFT) systems (such as mutual evaluations, detailed
assessment reports or published follow-up reports)
identified by credible sources as having significant levels of corruption or other criminal activity
subject to sanctions, embargos or similar measures issued by, for example, the European Union or the United Nations
providing funding or support for terrorist activities, or that have designated terrorist organisations operating within their country
leg countries having effective AML/CFT systems
leg countries identified by credible sources as having a low level of corruption or other criminal activity
leg countries which, on the basis of credible sources such as mutual evaluations, detailed assessment reports or published follow-up reports,
have requirements to combat money laundering and terrorist financing consistent with the revised FATF recommendations and effectively
implement those requirements
or transactions that might favour anonymity
relationships or transactions, without certain safeguards, such as electronic signatures
received from unknown or un-associated third parties
products and new business practices
insurance policies for which the premium is low
policies for pension schemes, if there is no early surrender option and the policy cannot be used as collateral
products or services that provide appropriately defined and limited services to certain types of customers, so as to increase access
for financial inclusion purposes
RFQ undertakes ongoing monitoring regardless of the customer risk level and whether the onboarding process involved simple, standard
or enhanced due diligence. This is carried out using a risk-based approach that focuses on reviewing customer data and monitoring
Due Diligence at onboarding, with ongoing DD monitoring conducted on a real-time suspicion basis only.
checks with regards to Peps, Sanctions and adverse media take place and are refreshed every 6 months.
monitoring on a daily basis
verification and analysis when we whitelist the wallet
refresh every 12 months for updated KYC for Directors, Shareholders, UBO’s
review of client and transactions
Due Diligence at onboarding and then real time transaction checks as well as full customer review every couple of years.
checks with regards to Peps, Sanctions and adverse media take place and are refreshed every 3 months or every transaction in
monitoring on a daily basis
verification and analysis every transaction
refresh every 6 months for updated KYC for Directors, Shareholders, UBO’s
review of client and transactions
Due Diligence at onboarding and then real time transaction checks as well as retrospective transaction checks on a monthly basis.
A full customer review every 6 months.
checks with regards to Peps, Sanctions and adverse media take place and are reviewed every transaction that takes place.
monitoring on a daily basis
verification and analysis on a regular basis
refresh every 3 months for updated KYC for Directors, Shareholders, UBO’s
review of client and transactions
Digital RFQ identifies suspicious activity, a designated officer notifies the UK National Crime Agency via a Suspicious Activity Report
by employee to the nominated officer
activity is irrespective of amount and derives from red flags that have been identified by the employee throughout the course of
their working life
official Internal SAR form should be completed
officer decides to authorise or raise an external SAR
by nominated officer to the National Crime Agency (NCA)
contain details identified in internal SAR or from risk assessments
wait for approval from NCA to continue
of all SARs (internal and external) must be recorded
must have documented procedures
client risk rating reflects DigitalRFQ’s assessment of the money laundering and terrorist financing risk the client poses and is
determined by a combination of factors including:
risk — Jurisdictions involved with respect to the domicile, operation and control of the client entity and personal links to the
beneficial owners and controllers;
risk — Links to sectors associated with higher risk corruption or links to sectors that involve significant amounts of cash as
certain businesses are considered to present a higher risk of potential financial crime;
risk — the legal form of the entity and its level of transparency including ownership and source of wealth;
or service risk — the nature of the client’s business and the products or services that the client will require as far as
can be assessed throughout the relationship and the risk classifications that Digital RFQ has attributed to them;
— any adverse media such as allegations or criminality, frozen assets or concerns of beneficial owner/director integrity; and
risk — all client relationships that have one or more PEPs either as their ultimate beneficial owner or a controller will be classified
as a PEP relationship or may be designated as high risk.
risk — individuals and related organisations may have sanctions imposed.
above factors have a cumulative effect on risk rating; multiple adverse factors will increase the risk rating of the client and must
be referred to compliance for assessment. The client risk rating drives the frequency of periodic reviews. All due diligence is completed
inline with our AML policy and procedures and is documented and stored for five years.
RFQ performs an annual risk assessment covering the following risk categories:
||The inherent financial crime risks presented by the product(s) and services that we are offering — being in financial services we are subject to be a target for money laundering or helping to facilitate money laundering.
||UK National Risk Assessment|
||Separate to the Customer Risk Assessment, this is an integral part of the business wide risk assessment, which considers the customer base that is being targeted and the risks that they will bring due to Peps/sanctions lists and adverse media.
||Financial Actions Task Force (FATF)FCA Thematic Reviews|
||The inherent organisational risks in relation to financial crime and convoluted organisational structures in relation to shareholdings and establishing the UBO’s.
||National Crime Agency|
||The inherent geographical risks our company faces by medium or high risk jurisdictions. This also includes sanctioned countries and those listed on OFAC or FAFT in relation to their risk for money laundering
||The European Commission|
RFQ follows internal controls that are proportionate to its businesses size and nature and consist of a number of controls including
senior management oversight, training and record keeping.
compliance and risk management methods might not be effective and may result in outcomes that could adversely affect our reputation,
operating results, and financial condition. We rely on third parties for some of our KYC and other compliance obligations.
ability to comply with applicable complex and evolving laws, regulations, and rules is largely dependent on the establishment and maintenance
of our compliance, audit, and reporting systems, as well as our ability to attract and retain qualified compliance and other risk management
personnel. While we have devoted significant resources to develop policies and procedures to identify, monitor, and manage our risks,
and expect to continue to do so in the future, we cannot assure that our policies and procedures will always be effective or that we
will always be successful in monitoring or evaluating the risks to which we are or may be exposed in all market environments or against
all types of risks, including unidentified or unanticipated risks. Our risk management policies and procedures rely on a combination
of technical and human controls and supervision that are subject to error and failure.
of our methods for managing risk are discretionary by nature and are based on internally developed controls, observed historical market
behavior, and standard industry practices. These methods may not adequately prevent losses, particularly as they relate to extreme market
movements which may be significantly greater than historical fluctuations in the market. Our risk management policies and procedures
also may not adequately prevent losses due to technical errors if our testing and quality control practices are not effective in preventing
failures. In addition, we may elect to adjust our risk management policies and procedures to allow for an increased risk tolerance, which
could expose us
to the risk of greater losses.
periodically review our compliance with our own policies and procedures and with a variety of laws and regulations. Though we believe
we have robust risk management and compliance procedures, and have received no findings from any applicable regulator of any violations
of applicable laws and regulations, if we fail to comply with these in future, or do not adequately remediate certain findings, regulators
could take a variety of actions that could impair our ability to conduct our business, including delaying, denying, withdrawing, or conditioning
approval of our licenses, or certain products and services. In addition, regulators have broad enforcement powers to censure, fine, issue
cease-and-desist orders or prohibit us from engaging in some of our business activities. In the case of non-compliance or alleged
non-compliance, we could be subject to investigations and proceedings that may result in substantial penalties or civil lawsuits, including
by customers, for damages, which can be significant. Any of these outcomes would adversely affect our reputation and brand and our business,
operating results, and financial condition. Some of these outcomes could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business.
we rely on third parties for some of our KYC and other compliance obligations. If these third parties fail to effectively provide these
services, we may be subject to adverse consequences as described above.
rely on connectivity with blockchain networks for our Platforms.
connectivity with existing blockchain networks, including the Bitcoin, Ethereum, Tron and other stablecoin networks, will enable our
customers to derive the benefit such networks may provide them in facilitating our payment processing services. Providing such connectivity
presents a risk that we may, under derivative theories of liability, be held responsible for the bad acts, failures or violations of
law of the blockchain networks.
we seek to minimize risks associated with any one blockchain network by electing which network to use for a given transaction and by
determining which network is appropriate for such transaction, based on our assessment of whether such blockchain technology is at an
advanced-stage, is fully tested, well-established and fully collateralized, we may be exposed to risks that affect blockchain networks
generally, or we may not be aware of or be able to identify risks associated with any individual network (for a summary of Digital RFQ’s
considerations in assessing which blockchain networks to use in its payment processing business. Each blockchain network has only been
in existence for a limited number of years, and digital assets markets have a limited performance record, making them part of a
new and rapidly evolving industry that is subject to a variety of factors that are difficult to evaluate. For example, the following
are some of the risks could materially adversely affect Digital RFQ’s financial performance and results of operations:
a blockchain network continues to develop and grow, certain technical issues might be uncovered and the trouble-shooting and resolution
of such issues requires the attention and efforts of blockchains’ global development community. Like all software, blockchain networks
are at risk of vulnerabilities and bugs that can potentially be exploited by malicious actors. For example, in 2010, the Bitcoin network
underwent a fork to reverse the effects of a hack in which an unknown attacker took advantage of a software vulnerability in the early
source code of the Bitcoin network to fraudulently mint a large amount of digital assets.
blockchain networks are subject to material changes in their structure as technology and markets for digital assets evolve, and such
changes may lead to adverse consequences. As an example, the Ethereum network expects to complete, by the end of 2021, a change from
the “proof-of-work” consensus method to a “proof-of-stake” consensus method. The consequences of such change
cannot be entirely foreseen, and flaws resulting from that transition could negatively affect the Ethereum network.
privacy-preserving features have been or are expected to be introduced to blockchain networks, such as the Ethereum network. This
could damage the public perception of blockchain networks generally or any one blockchain network in particular, and their or its utility
in Digital RFQ’s payment processing system.
rely on the internet. A significant disruption of internet connectivity (i.e., one that affects large numbers of users or geographic
regions) could disrupt blockchain networks’ functionality and operations until the disruption in the internet is resolved.
governance of decentralized networks, such as certain blockchain networks, is by voluntary consensus and open competition. In other words,
a typical network has no central decision- making body or clear manner in which participants can come to an agreement other than through
voluntary, widespread consensus. As a result, a lack of widespread consensus in the governance of a network may adversely affect the
network’s utility and ability to adapt and face challenges, including technical and scaling challenges. The decentralized governance
of a network may make it difficult to find or implement solutions or marshal sufficient effort to overcome existing or future problems,
especially protracted ones requiring substantial directed effort and resource commitment over a long period of time, such as scaling
challenges. A network’s failure to overcome governance challenges could exacerbate problems experienced by the network or cause
the network to fail to meet the needs of its users, and could cause users, miners, and developer talent to abandon the network or lead
to a drop in speculative interest, which could cause the value of a digital currency to decline.
network may use a cryptographic protocol to govern the interactions within it. In the case of Bitcoin, a loose community known as the
“core developers” has evolved to informally manage the source code for the protocol. The core developers can propose amendments
to the network’s source code that, if accepted by users, could alter the protocols and software of the network. These alterations
would occur through software upgrades, and could potentially include changes to the irreversibility of transactions. Alternatively, software
upgrades and other changes to the protocols of the network could fail to work as intended or could introduce bugs, security risks, or
otherwise adversely affect, the network. Similar dynamics occur in other blockchain networks.
that operate based on an open-source protocol are often maintained by the core developers and other contributor. As blockchain network
protocols generally are not sold or made available subject to licensing or subscription fees and their use does not generate revenues
for their development team, the core developers are generally not compensated for maintaining and updating the source code for the network
protocol. Consequently, there is a lack of financial incentive for developers to maintain or develop a blockchain network and the core
developers may lack the resources to adequately address emerging issues with the network protocol. Although blockchain networks are typically
supported by core developers, there can be no guarantee that such support will continue or be sufficient in the future. Alternatively,
some developers may be funded by entities, such as foundations or corporations, whose interests are at odds with other participants in
the network. In addition, a bad actor could also attempt to interfere with the operation of a network by attempting to exercise a malign
influence over a core developer. To the extent that material issues arise with a network protocol and the core developers and open-source contributors
are unable to address the issues adequately or in a timely manner, a blockchain network may be adversely affected.
technologies are premised on theoretical conjectures as to the impossibility, in practice, of solving certain mathematical problems quickly.
Those conjectures remain unproven, however, and mathematical or technological advances could conceivably prove them to be incorrect.
Blockchain technology may also be negatively affected by cryptography or other technological or mathematical advances, such as the development
of quantum computers with significantly more power than computers presently available, that undermine or vitiate the cryptographic consensus
mechanism underpinning the blockchain and other distributed ledger protocols. If either of these events were to happen, markets and processes
that rely on blockchain technologies, such as Digital RFQ’s blockchain-enabled payment processing operations, could be adversely
we fail to develop, maintain, and enhance our brand and reputation, our business, operating results, and financial condition may be adversely
affected. Moreover, unfavorable media coverage could negatively affect our business.
brand and reputation are key assets and a competitive advantage. Maintaining, protecting, and enhancing our brand depends largely on
the success of our marketing efforts, ability to provide consistent, high-quality, and secure products, services, features, and support,
and our ability to successfully secure, maintain, and defend our rights to use the “Nukkleus”, “Forexware”, “XWare”,
“MetaTrader” and other related marks and other trademarks important to our brand. We believe that the importance of our brand
will increase as competition further intensifies. Our brand and reputation could be harmed if we fail to achieve these objectives or
if our public image were to be tarnished by negative publicity, unexpected events, or actions by third parties.
receive a high degree of media coverage. Unfavorable publicity regarding, for example, our product changes, product quality, litigation
or regulatory activity, privacy practices, terms of service, employment matters, the use of our products, services, or supported blockchain
technologies for illicit or objectionable ends, the actions of our customers, or the actions of other companies that provide similar
services to ours, has in the past, and could in the future, adversely affect our reputation.
addition, actions by, or unfavorable publicity about, Emil Assentato, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Jamal Khurshid, our Chief
Operating Officer, or other officers and managers of Nukkleus and its subsidiaries may adversely impact our brand and reputation. Such
negative publicity also could have an adverse effect on the size and engagement of our customers and could result in decreased revenue,
which could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Further may be the target of social-media campaigns
criticizing actual or perceived actions or inactions that are disfavored by our customers, employees, or society at-large, which campaigns
could materially impact our customers’ decisions to use our products and services. Any such negative publicity could have an adverse
effect on the size, activity, and loyalty of our customers and result in a decrease in net revenue, which could adversely affect our
business, operating results, and financial condition.
future growth depends significantly on our marketing efforts, and if our marketing efforts are not successful, our business and results
of operations will be harmed.
have dedicated some, and intend to significantly increase, resources to marketing efforts. Our ability to attract and retain customers
depends in large part on the success of these marketing efforts and the success of the marketing channels we use to promote our products.
Our marketing channels include, but are not limited to, social media, traditional media such as the press, online affiliations, search
engine optimization, search engine marketing, and offline partnerships.
our goal remains to increase the strength, recognition and trust in our brand by increasing our customer base and expanding our products
and services, if any of our current marketing channels becomes less effective, if we are unable to continue to use any of these channels,
if the cost of using these channels was to significantly increase or if we are not successful in generating new channels, we may not
be able to attract new customers in a cost-effective manner or increase the use of our products and services. If we are unable to
recover our marketing costs through increases in the size, value or other product selection and utilization, it could have a material
adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and future prospects.
about the environmental impacts of blockchain technology could adversely impact usage and perceptions of Nukkleus, its subsidiaries and
energy usage and environmental impact of blockchain technology, particularly in relation to proof of work mining, has attracted considerable
recent attention. Government scrutiny related to restrictions on such energy consumption may increase, resulting in additional regulation
that could adversely impact usage of our Platforms and harm our business. The considerable consumption of electricity by mining operators
may also have a negative environmental impact, including contribution to climate change, which could create a negative consumer sentiment
and perception of blockchain technology generally and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, and operating results.
COVID-19 pandemic could have unpredictable, including adverse, effects on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
global spread and unprecedented impact of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to create significant volatility, uncertainty and economic
disruption. The future effect on our operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including the duration,
spread and intensity of the pandemic (including any resurgences), impact of the new COVID-19 variants and the rollout of COVID-19 vaccines,
and the level of social and economic restrictions imposed in the United States and abroad in an effort to curb the spread of the
virus, all of which are uncertain and difficult to predict considering the rapidly evolving landscape. The continued impact of COVID-19 and
the imposition of related public health measures have resulted in, and are expected to continue to result in, increased volatility and
uncertainty in the broader economy. As a result, it is not currently possible to ascertain the overall impact of COVID-19 on our
business, results of operations, financial condition or liquidity.
a remote-first company, we are subject to heightened operational and cybersecurity risks.
a remote-first company, we are subject to heightened operational and cybersecurity risks. We are a remote-first company, meaning
that for all existing roles many of our employees work from their homes or other non-company dwellings. For example, technologies
in our employees’ and service providers’ homes and shared office spaces may not be as robust and could cause the networks,
information systems, applications, and other tools available to employees and service providers to be more limited or less reliable.
Further, the security systems in place at our employees’ and service providers’ homes and shared office spaces may be less
secure than those used in corporate offices, and while we have implemented technical and administrative safeguards to help protect our
systems as our employees and service providers work from home, we may be subject to increased cybersecurity risk which could expose us
to risks of data or financial loss, and could disrupt our business operations. There is no guarantee that the data security and privacy
safeguards we have put in place will be completely effective or that we will not encounter risks associated with employees and service
providers accessing company data and systems remotely. We also face challenges due to the need to operate with a remote workforce and
are addressing so to minimize the impact on our ability to operate.
Related to Nukkleus’s Platforms
product offerings are centered on WebTrader, MetaTrader, XWare, Forexware and certain other platforms and product offerings (together,
our “Platforms”). The regulatory landscape as it relates to processing payment transactions, including through our Platforms,
continues to evolve. Such evolution may create additional regulatory burden and expense and could materially impact the use and adoption
of our Platforms.
entirety of our product offering is today built on the ability of our customers to transfer funds and otherwise transact using our Platforms.
The blockchain technologies underlying our Platforms represent a relatively new development in the payments and financial services industry.
As such, the regulatory status of the use of our Platforms and other blockchain-enabled transfer processing technologies remains
somewhat uncertain in the United States and other jurisdictions. As regulatory interpretations develop throughout the world, we
may be required to obtain registrations and/or licenses in various jurisdictions that we do not currently hold. We may also be required
to take on new and additional compliance obligations in certain jurisdictions, or we could be directed to cease operations involving
certain Platforms or other Nukkleus or Digital RFQ products or services in one or more jurisdictions. Any of these scenarios could have
a detrimental impact on our business given that our Platforms and such other services are central to our Digital RFQ business, which
comprises a significant portion of our overall business.
regulatory treatment of our Platforms and other blockchain-enabled transfer processing technologies is highly uncertain and has
drawn significant attention from legislative and regulatory bodies around the world. The use of such technologies may implicate a variety
of banking, deposit, money transmission, prepaid access and stored value, anti-money laundering, commodities, securities, sanctions,
and other laws and regulations in the United States and in other jurisdictions.
our business model relies on our ability to market and sell the utility of our Platforms to existing and potential customers. Our core
services involve offering fund transfer and payment functionalities to our customers utilizing our Platforms. The use of such services
by our customers, as well as the integration of such technologies into the product offerings that our customers make available to their
end customers, raises numerous regulatory questions. Financial services regulators in the United States or in other jurisdictions
around the world may not agree with our legal positions. In addition, should financial services regulators make changes to or alter interpretations
of applicable laws and regulations as they relate to our Platforms, we may be unable to continue offering our transfer and payment, services
to customers in certain jurisdictions or we may have to alter the services in a manner that may be materially detrimental to our financial
future development and growth of our Platforms is subject to a variety of factors that are difficult to predict and evaluate and may
be in the hands of third parties to a substantial extent. If our Platforms do not grow as we expect, our business, operating results,
and financial condition could be adversely affected.
introduced fund transfer and payment processing using blockchain technologies only in 2019, and such technology remains in the early
stages of development while continuing to evolve. The further growth and development of any such technology and the underlying networks
and other cryptographic and algorithmic protocols governing such technology and products represent a new and evolving paradigm that is
subject to a variety of factors that are difficult to evaluate, including:
blockchain-enabled process or product, like our Platforms, rely on third parties, including financial institutions and counterparties,
to hold funds, cash equivalents, and other assets. Those third parties have their own policies and may change their view and acceptance
of any blockchain or stablecoin at any time. This may result in delays and other barriers to payment processing through our Platforms.
blockchain networks have limited operating histories, have not been validated in production, and are still in the process of developing
and making significant decisions that will affect the underlying blockchain, any of which could adversely affect the blockchain technologies
on which our Platforms rely.
governance of many blockchain networks is by voluntary consensus and open competition, and many developers are not directly compensated
for their contributions. As a result, there may be a lack of consensus or clarity on the governance of any particular blockchain network,
a lack of incentives for developers to maintain or develop the network, and other unforeseen issues, any of which could result in unexpected
or undesirable errors, bugs, or changes, or stymie such network’s utility and ability to respond to challenges and grow.
risks are fundamentally beyond our control and could materially and adversely affect our Platforms and our business, financial condition
and operating results.
to unfamiliarity and some negative publicity associated with blockchain technology, our customer base may lose confidence in products
and services that utilize blockchain technology.
and services that are based on blockchain technologies are relatively new. Many of our competitors are unlicensed, unregulated, operate
without supervision by any governmental authorities, and do not provide the public with significant information regarding their ownership
structure, management team, corporate practices, cybersecurity, and regulatory compliance. As a result, customers and the general public
may lose confidence in blockchain technology, including regulated products and services like ours.
the inception of blockchain technologies, numerous blockchain-enabled businesses and platforms have been sued, investigated, or
shut down due to fraud, illegal activities, the sale or issuance of unregistered securities, manipulative practices, business failure,
and security breaches. In many of these instances, customers of these platforms, products and services were not compensated or made whole
for their losses. We may be a target of hackers and malware and may also be more likely to be targets of regulatory enforcement actions.
perception, a lack of stability and standardized regulation, and the closure or temporary shutdown of blockchain-enabled platforms,
including our Platforms, due to fraud, business failure, hackers or malware, or government mandated regulation, and associated losses
suffered by customers may reduce confidence in blockchain technologies and result in greater volatility of the prices of assets, including
significant depreciation in value. Any of these events could have a material and adverse impact on our business.
Platforms and blockchain-enabled payment processing services are innovative and are difficult to analyze vis-à-vis existing financial
services laws and regulations around the world. Our platforms involve certain risks, including reliance on third parties, which could
limit or restrict our ability to offer the product in certain jurisdictions.
ability to offer our Platforms in jurisdictions around the world is unclear from a regulatory perspective. Further, our Platforms are
dependent on certain partners who will provide liquidity and the regulatory requirements with respect to those partners are uncertain.
Our dependency on the performance of those partners raises risk that turns upon their performance. If our partners fail to perform, both
we and our customers could be subject to losses, and we may be required to cease offering such Platform.
Related to Nukkleus’s Financial Condition
is no assurance that we will maintain profitability or that our revenue and business models will be successful.
ability to achieve and maintain profitability is based on numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control. We may not be able
to generate sufficient revenue to maintain profitability in the short or long-term. Our revenue growth may slow, or our revenue may decline
for a number of other reasons, including reduced demand for our offerings, increased competition, a decrease in the growth or size of
the forex and CFD industry, in the usage of blockchain technologies generally, or any failure to capitalize on growth opportunities.
are continually refining our revenue and business model and have shifted our focus to the development and commercialization of our Platforms.
There is no assurance that these efforts will be successful or that we will generate revenues commensurate with our efforts and expectations
or become or stay profitable. We may be forced to make significant changes to our revenue and business model to compete with our competitors’
offerings, and even if such changes are undertaken, there is no guarantee that they will be successful or profitable. Additionally, we
will need to hire, train, and integrate qualified personnel to meet and further such changes to our business objectives at potentially
significant additional expense. Failure to successfully implement revenue and business models or manage related expenses could cause
us to be unprofitable and have an adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
may experience fluctuations in our quarterly operating results.
could experience significant fluctuations in our quarterly operating results due to a number of factors, many of which are beyond our
control. You should not rely on period-to-period comparisons of our operating results as an indication of our future performance.
Factors that may cause fluctuations in our quarterly operating results include, but are not limited to, the following:
change in the transaction volume of TCM and our core forex and CFD transactions business generally;
change in the transaction volume of our customers and use of our Platforms;
and unplanned increases in marketing, sales and other operating expenses that it may incur to grow and expand our customer base and operations,
and to remain competitive;
success, or lack of success, in new marketing approaches we have recently undertaken or plan to undertake, which have not been previously
or fully tested;
continued market acceptance of our Platforms in a highly competitive environment;
disruptions, outages and other performance problems or interruptions on our Platforms, or breaches of data or system security, including
ransomware or other major cyber-attacks, which, if extended or severe, may harm our credibility and reputation in the market;
failure to provide adequate customer service;
ability to successfully, and in a timely manner, continue development, improvement and feature-enhancement of its products and services,
including its intellectual property, data analytics, proprietary technology and customer support functions;
timing and success of new product and service introductions, and new product and service features or enhancements, by Nukkleus and its
subsidiaries, or our competitors, or other changes in the competitive landscape of the markets in which we operate;
success of our expansion into new markets, products and services, or ones in which it is in the early stages;
in the adoption and use of blockchain technologies and the public perception of them, including changes in perceptions and demands regarding
such technologies as trading vehicles;
in the legislative or regulatory environment, scope or focus of regulatory investigations and inquiries, or interpretations of regulatory
requirements, or outright prohibition of certain activities;
with our customers, adverse litigation and regulatory judgments, enforcement actions, settlements or other related costs and the reputational
impact and public perception of such occurrences, including in emerging industries, or emerging components of industries;
timing and amount of non-cash expenses, such as stock-based compensation and asset impairment;
unlawful or otherwise inappropriate customer behavior;
of features or services that may be the subject of regulatory criticism or form the basis for regulatory enforcement action, including
regulatory actions to prohibit certain practices or features;
overall tax rate for our business, which may be affected by new laws affecting the taxation or tax treatment of transactional taxes or
other tax treatment for trading in financial markets generally or for unrealized gains in financial services accounts;
in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles; and
economic conditions in either domestic or international markets, including the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
operating results may fall below the expectations of market analysts and investors in some future periods, which could cause the market
price of our Common Stock to decline substantially.
financial forecasts, which were presented to Nukkleus’s Board and are included in this proxy statement/prospectus, may not prove
to be accurate.
connection with the proposed Merger, Nukkleus’s management presented certain forecasted financial information for Nukkleus and
the Combined Company to its Board, which information was internally prepared and provided by us. The forecasts were based on numerous
variables and assumptions known to us at the time of preparation. Such variables and assumptions are inherently uncertain and many are
beyond our control. Important factors that may affect actual results and cause the forecasts to not be achieved include, but are not
limited to, risks and uncertainties relating to our business, industry performance, the competitive environment, changes in technology,
and general business and economic conditions. Various assumptions underlying the forecasts may prove to not have been, or may no longer
be, accurate. The forecasts may not be realized, and actual results may be significantly higher or lower than projected in the forecasts.
The forecasts also reflect assumptions as to certain business strategies or plans that are subject to change. As a result, the inclusion
of such forecasts in this proxy statement/prospectus should not be relied on as “guidance” or otherwise predictive of actual
future events, and actual results may differ materially from the forecasts.
in U.S. and foreign tax laws, as well as the application of such laws, could adversely impact our financial position and operating
are subject to complex income and non-income tax laws and regulations in the United States and a variety of foreign jurisdictions.
Both the United States and foreign jurisdictions may revise corporate income tax and other non-income tax laws which could
impact the amount of tax due in such jurisdiction.
determination of our corporate income tax liability is subject to review and may be challenged by applicable U.S. and foreign tax
authorities. Any adverse outcome of such challenge could harm our operating results and financial condition. The determination of our
worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities requires significant judgment and, in the ordinary course of business,
there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is complex and uncertain. Moreover, as a multinational
business, we have subsidiaries that engage in many intercompany transactions in a variety of tax jurisdictions where the ultimate tax
determination is complex and uncertain. Our existing corporate structure and intercompany arrangements have been implemented in a manner
we believe is in compliance with current prevailing tax laws. Furthermore, as we operate in multiple taxing jurisdictions, the application
of tax laws can be subject to diverging and sometimes conflicting interpretations by tax authorities of these jurisdictions. It is not
uncommon for taxing authorities in different countries to have conflicting views with respect to, among other things, the characterization
and source of income or other tax items, the manner in which the arm’s-length standard is applied for transfer pricing purposes,
or with respect to the valuation of intellectual property. The taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge
our tax treatment of certain items or the methodologies we use for valuing developed technology or intercompany arrangements, which could
impact our worldwide effective tax rate and harm our financial position and operating results.
are also subject to non-income taxes, such as payroll, sales, use, value-added, net worth, property, and goods and services taxes
in the United States and various foreign jurisdictions. A change in the tax law could impact tax positions which could result in
an increased exposure related to such tax liabilities. Such changes could have an adverse effect on our operating results and financial
addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), a corporation that undergoes
an “ownership change” (as defined under Sections 382 and 383 of the Code and applicable Treasury Regulations) is subject
to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change NOLs and certain other tax attributes to offset post-change taxable
income or taxes.
have not performed a study to determine whether our NOLs are currently subject to Section 382 limitations. We may also experience
a future ownership change under Section 382 of the Code that could affect our ability to utilize our NOLs to offset our income.
our estimates or judgment relating to our critical accounting policies prove to be incorrect, our operating results could be adversely
preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts
reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various
other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in the section titled “Management’s
Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of Nukkleus — Critical Accounting Policies”.
The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, and equity, and
the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Significant estimates and judgments involve the
identification of performance obligations in revenue recognition, evaluation of tax positions, inter-company transactions, and the
valuation of stock-based awards and the fiat reserves we hold, among others. Our operating results may be adversely affected if
our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our operating results to fall
below the expectations of analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the trading price of Nukkleus Common Stock.
nature of our business requires the application of complex financial accounting rules, and there is limited guidance from accounting
standard setting bodies. If financial accounting standards undergo significant changes, our operating results could be adversely affected.
accounting rules and regulations that we must comply with are complex and subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards
Board, the SEC, and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles
or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results and may even affect the reporting of transactions
completed before the announcement or effectiveness of a change. Recent actions and public comments from the FASB and the SEC have focused
on the integrity of financial reporting and internal controls. In addition, many companies’ accounting policies are being subject
to heightened scrutiny by regulators and the public.
example, on March 31, 2022, the staff of the SEC issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 121, or SAB 121, which represents a significant
change regarding how a company safeguarding digital assets held for its platform users reports such digital assets on its balance sheet
and requires retrospective application as of January 1, 2022. Moreover, recent actions and public comments from the FASB and the SEC
have focused on the integrity of financial reporting and internal controls. In addition, many companies’ accounting policies are
being subjected to heightened scrutiny by regulators and the public. Further, there has been limited precedent for the financial accounting
of digital assets and related valuation and revenue recognition, and no official guidance has been provided by the FASB or the SEC, with
the exception of SAB 121. In May 2022, the FASB added a project to its technical agenda to improve the accounting for and disclosure
of certain digital assets. In October 2022, the FASB decided to require fair value measurement of digital assets that fall within the
scope of this project. While the FASB has begun deliberating on the scope of this project, there has been no formal proposal or guidance
issued related to the project and no timeline has been publicly communicated for the issuance of such guidance.
certain times, the funds of customers of Digital RFQ that we use to make payments on behalf of our customers, remain in the form of digital
assets in our customers’ wallets at our licensed trust companies awaiting final conversion and/or transfer to the customer’s
payment final destination. These indirectly held digital assets, may consist of USDT (Stablecoin), Bitcoin, and Ethereum (collectively, “our
customers’ digital assets”). We engage third parties, which are licensed trust companies, to provide certain custodial services,
including holding our customers’ digital token identifiers, securing our customers’ digital assets, and protecting them from
loss or theft, including indemnification against certain types of losses such as theft. Our third-party custodian holds the digital assets
in a custodial account in Digital RFQ’s name for the benefit of Digital RFQ’s customers. We maintain the internal recordkeeping
of our customers’ digital assets, including the amount and type of digital asset owned by each of our customers and digital token
identifiers in that custodial account. Given that we currently utilize one third-party custodian, there is concentration risk in the
event the custodian is not able to perform in accordance with our agreement.
remains uncertainty on how companies can account for blockchain transactions, value, and related revenue. Uncertainties in or changes
to regulatory or financial accounting standards could result in the need to change our accounting methods, restate our financial statements
or impair our ability to provide timely and accurate financial information, which could adversely affect our financial statements, result
in a loss of investor confidence, and more generally impact our business, operating results, and financial condition.
metrics and other estimates are subject to inherent challenges in measurement, and our business, operating results, and financial condition
could be adversely affected by real or perceived inaccuracies in those metrics.
regularly review business metrics and other measures to evaluate growth trends, measure our performance, and make strategic decisions.
For example, we measure transaction volumes and concentration. These metrics are calculated using internal company data and have not
been validated by an independent third party. While these numbers are based on what we currently believe to be reasonable estimates for
the applicable period of measurement, there are inherent challenges in such measurements. If we fail to maintain an effective analytics
platform, our calculations may be inaccurate, and we may not be able to identify those inaccuracies.
business metrics may also be impacted by compliance or fraud-related bans, technical incidents, or false or spam accounts in existence
on our platform. Our customers are primarily institutional and, though we believe there is no reason for them to establish multiple accounts
with us unless such accounts serve a different business purpose for them, we permit our customers to hold and access multiple accounts,
which could overstate the number of customers we serve. Though we rely predominantly on transaction volumes to make projections about
our business, such customer metrics may also be used in our models. If our metrics provide us with incorrect or incomplete information
about customers and their behavior, we may make inaccurate conclusions about our business.
are subject to changes in financial reporting standards or policies, including as a result of choices made by us, which could materially
adversely affect our reported results of operations and financial condition and may have a corresponding material adverse impact on capital
consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP, which are periodically revised or expanded. Accordingly, from
time to time we are required to adopt new or revised accounting standards issued by recognized bodies. It is possible that future accounting
standards and financial reporting standards or policies, including as a result of choices made by us, which we are required to adopt,
could change the current accounting treatment that applies to our consolidated financial statements and that such changes could have
a material adverse effect on our reported results of operations and financial condition, and may have a corresponding material adverse
effect on capital ratios.
As a public company,
we are required to develop and maintain proper and effective internal controls over financial reporting, and the fact that we are currently
unable to conclude that our internal controls are effective as of September 30, 2022 or any future failure to maintain the adequacy of
these internal controls may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our stock.
are required to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.
This assessment includes disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting.
During the evaluation and testing process of our internal controls, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control
over financial reporting, we will be unable to certify that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. As of September
30, 2022, management assessed the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on the criteria
set forth in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway
Commission. Based on this assessment, management has concluded that, because of the Company’s
small size and limited resources, internal controls over financial reporting were not effective as of September 30, 2022. Further, we
cannot assure that there will not be material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting
in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting in addition to that which has been identified in this
report could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition or results of operations. The conclusion that our
internal controls as of September 30, 2022 were not effective, if we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting
are effective in future filings, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness or significant
deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our
financial reports, the market price of our stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the exchange
on which shares of our stock are listed, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal
control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also
restrict our future access to the capital markets.
might require additional capital to support business growth, and this capital might not be available or may require stockholder approval
have funded our operations since inception primarily through equity financings, convertible notes, and revenue generated by our products
and services. We intend to continue to make investments in our business to respond to business challenges, including developing new products
and services, enhancing our operating infrastructure, expanding our international operations, and acquiring complementary businesses
and technologies, all of which may require us to secure additional funds.
financing may not be available on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we incur additional debt, the debt holders would have rights senior
to holders of Nukkleus’s commons stock to make claims on our assets, and the terms of any debt could restrict our operations.
may be affected by fluctuations in currency exchange rates
are potentially exposed to adverse as well as beneficial movements in currency exchange rates. An increase in the value of the dollar
could increase the real cost to our customers of our products in those markets outside the U.S. where we sell in dollars, and a
weakened dollar could increase the cost of local operating expenses from sources outside the United States, and overseas capital
expenditures. We also conduct certain investing and financing activities in local currencies. Therefore, changes in exchange rates could
harm our financial condition and results of operations.
Related to Nukkleus’s Employees and Other Service Providers
the event of employee or service provider misconduct or error, our business may be adversely impacted.
or service provider misconduct or error could subject us to legal liability, financial losses, and regulatory sanctions, and could seriously
harm our reputation and negatively affect our business. Such misconduct could include engaging in improper or unauthorized transactions
or activities, misappropriation of customer funds, and misappropriation of information, failing to supervise other employees or service
providers, or improperly using confidential information.
or service provider errors, including mistakes in executing, recording, or processing transactions for customers, could expose us to
the risk of material losses even if the errors are detected. Although we have implemented processes and procedures and provide trainings
to our employees and service providers to reduce the likelihood of misconduct and error, these efforts may not be successful. Moreover,
the risk of employee or service provider error or misconduct may be even greater for novel products and services, and is compounded by
the fact that many of our employees and service providers are accustomed to working at tech companies which generally do not maintain
the same compliance customs and rules as financial services firms.
can lead to high risk of confusion among employees and service providers, particularly in a fast growth company like ours, with respect
to compliance obligations particularly including confidentiality, data access, trading, and conflicts. It is not always possible to deter
misconduct and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity may not be effective in all cases. If we were found not to
have met our regulatory oversight and compliance and other obligations, we could be subject to regulatory sanctions, financial penalties
and restrictions on our activities for failure to properly identify, monitor and respond to potentially problematic activity, which could
seriously damage our reputation. Our employees, contractors, and agents could also commit errors that subject us to financial claims
for negligence, as well as regulatory actions, or result in financial liability. Further, allegations by regulatory or criminal authorities
of improper transactions could affect our brand and reputation.
loss of one or more of our key personnel, or our failure to attract and retain other highly qualified personnel in the future, could
adversely impact our business, operating results, and financial condition.
operate in a relatively new industry that is not widely understood and requires highly skilled and technical personnel. We believe that
our future success is highly dependent on the talents and contributions of our senior management team, including Jamal Khurshid, our
Chief Operating Officer, members of our executive leadership team, and other key service providers across finance, compliance, legal,
talent and marketing.
future success depends on our ability to attract, develop, motivate, and retain highly qualified and skilled employees and service providers.
The pool of qualified talent is extremely limited, particularly with respect to executive talent, engineering, risk management, and financial
regulatory expertise. We face intense competition for qualified individuals from numerous software and other technology companies. To
attract and retain key personnel, we incur significant costs, including salaries and benefits and equity incentives. Even so, these measures
may not be enough to attract and retain the personnel we require to operate our business effectively. The loss of even a few qualified
employees, or an inability to attract, retain and motivate additional highly skilled employees required for the planned expansion of
our business, could adversely impact our operating results and impair our ability to grow.
culture emphasizes innovation, and if we cannot maintain this culture as we grow, our business and operating results could be adversely
believe that our entrepreneurial and innovative corporate culture has been a key contributor to our success. We encourage and empower
our employees and service providers to develop and launch new and innovative products and services, which we believe is essential to
attracting high quality talent, partners, and developers, as well as serving the best, long-term interests of our company. If we
cannot maintain this culture as we grow, we could lose the innovation, creativity and teamwork that has been integral to our business,
in which case our products and services may suffer and our business, operating results, and financial condition could be adversely impacted.
officers, directors, employees, and large stockholders may encounter potential conflicts of interests with respect to their positions
or interests in certain entities, and other initiatives, which could adversely affect our business and reputation.
frequently engage with a wide variety of foreign exchange, CFD, payment processing and blockchain industry participants, as well as startups
and growth companies. These transactions could create potential conflicts of interests in management decisions that we make. For instance,
certain of our officers, directors, and employees are active investors in other growth companies themselves, and may make investment
decisions that favor projects that they have personally invested in. Many of our large stockholders also make investments in such businesses.
For more information, see the section titled “Certain Relationships and Related Transactions”. Our Chairman and Chief Executive
Officer, Emil Assentato, and our Chief Operating Officer, Jamal Khurshid, are involved in a number of initiatives related to such businesses
and more broadly, which could divert their time and attention from overseeing our business operations and have a negative impact on our
Related to Government Regulation
are subject to various laws and regulations, and any adverse changes to, or our failure to comply with, any laws and regulations could
adversely affect our brand, reputation, business, operating results, and financial condition.
business is subject to laws, rules, regulations, policies, orders, determinations, directives, treaties, and legal and regulatory interpretations
and guidance in the markets in which we operate, which may include those governing financial services and banking, securities, broker-dealers,
cross-border and domestic money transmission, foreign currency exchange, CFD exchange, blockchain technologies, privacy, data governance,
data protection, cybersecurity, fraud detection, payment services, escheatment, antitrust and competition, bankruptcy, tax, anti-bribery,
economic and trade sanctions, anti-money laundering, and counter-terrorist financing.
key elements of the regulatory framework that impact us include, but are not limited to, the following U.K. legislation:
European Union 5th and 6th Money Laundering Directives,
Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing and Transfer of Funds (Information on the Payer), Regulation 2017,
of Crime Act 2002,
Terrorism Act 2008,
legal and regulatory regimes, including the laws, rules, and regulations thereunder, evolve frequently and may be modified, interpreted,
and applied in an inconsistent manner from one jurisdiction to another, and may conflict with one another. For a discussion of our risk
management framework and more detailed descriptions of the legislation and regulations applicable to Digital RFQ’s business.
are currently regulated in the United Kingdom by the Financial Conduct Authority. We plan to expand our operations to other countries
in future, including Dubai and Lithuania, in which case we would be subject to regulation in those jurisdictions. From our UK operations,
we currently offer cross-border payment processing services, in numerous countries in Europe, Dubai, Sub-Saharan Africa and
Asia. We offer payment processing services using blockchain technologies in the United Kingdom, the United States and Sub-Saharan Africa,
and intend to develop such products and services across other regions. As a business, we do not differentiate between cross-border and
domestic payment processing, so generally offer cross-border services in the countries in which we operate. While we believe our
risk management and compliance frameworks are sufficient to ensure we remain in material compliance with the applicable laws, and regulations
of the jurisdictions in which we operate, to the extent we do not comply with such laws, rules, and regulations, we could be subject
to fines, revocation of licenses, limitations on our products and services, reputational harm, and other regulatory consequences, each
of which may be significant and could adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.
addition to existing laws and regulations, various governmental and regulatory bodies, including legislative and executive bodies in
the United States, United Kingdom and in other countries, may adopt new laws and regulations, or new interpretations of existing
laws and regulations may be issued by such bodies or the judiciary, which may adversely impact the development of blockchain as a whole
and our legal and regulatory status in particular by changing how we operate our business, how our products and services are regulated,
and what products or services we and our competitors can offer, requiring changes to our compliance and risk mitigation measures, imposing
new licensing requirements, or imposing a total ban on transactions using blockchain technologies.
and regulatory actions taken now or in the future may increase our costs and impact our business, governance structure, financial condition
or results of operations.
state and international regulatory agencies frequently adopt changes to their regulations or change the way existing regulations are
applied. Regulatory or legislative changes to laws applicable to the financial industry, if enacted or adopted, may impact the profitability
of our business activities, require more oversight or change certain of our business practices, including the ability to offer new products
and to continue offering our current products, and could expose us to additional costs, including increased compliance costs. These changes
also may require us to invest significant management attention and resources to make any necessary changes to operations to comply and
could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
U.S. federal, state, and local and foreign governmental organizations and public advocacy groups have been examining the operations
of businesses using blockchain technologies and networks, and the safety and soundness of platforms and other service providers that
hold use such networks and technologies on behalf of users. Many of these entities have called for heightened regulatory oversight and
have issued advisories describing the risks posed by blockchain technologies to users and investors. Use of blockchain technologies is
novel and there is limited access to policymakers and lobbying organizations in many jurisdictions. Competitors from other, more established
industries, including traditional financial services, may have greater access to lobbyists or governmental officials, and regulators
that are concerned about the potential for stablecoins for illicit usage may affect statutory and regulatory changes. As a result, new
laws and regulations may be proposed and adopted in the United States and internationally, or existing laws and regulations may
be interpreted in new ways that harm the stablecoin and blockchain industry, which could adversely impact our business.
regulatory environment to which we are subject gives rise to various licensing requirements, legal and financial compliance costs and
management time, and non-compliance could result in monetary and reputational damages, all of which could have a material adverse effect
on our business, financial position and results of operations.
can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain our existing, or obtain additional, required regulatory licenses, certifications
and regulatory approvals in the countries where we provide services or want to expand to. Furthermore, where we have obtained such regulatory
licenses, certifications and regulatory approvals, there are costs and potential product changes involved in maintaining such regulatory
licenses, certifications, and approvals, and we could be subject to fines or other enforcement action if we are found to violate disclosure,
reporting, anti-money laundering, capitalization, corporate governance or other requirements of such licenses. These factors could
impose substantial additional costs and involve considerable delay to the development or provision of our products or services, or could
require significant and costly operational changes or prevent us from providing any products or services in a given market.
laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity or unclear application
to the business of non-traditional financial services. As a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance
is provided by supervisory authorities and the interpretation of requirements by supervisory authorities and courts may be further clarified
over time. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory bodies
or supervisory authorities due to ambiguities related to their interpretation, application and practice, supervisory authorities may
initiate legal and regulatory proceedings against us and our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations and cash
flow could be materially and adversely affected.
certain countries, it may not be clear whether we are required to be licensed as a money transmitter, payment services provider, bank,
financial institution, custodian, broker-dealer, exchange, or otherwise. Local regulators may use their power to slow or halt payments
or otherwise prohibit us from doing business in a country. We and our local businesses do not only need to comply with the local laws
and regulations, but also with certain laws and regulations with worldwide application. Further, because our services are accessible
worldwide, one or more jurisdictions may claim that we or our customers or partners are required to comply with their laws. Laws regulating
the internet, mobile and related technologies outside the United States may impose different, more specific, or even conflicting
obligations on us, as well as broader liability.
we are unable to commit sufficient resources to regulatory compliance, this could lead to delays and errors and may force us to choose
between prioritizing compliance matters over administrative support for business activities, or may ultimately force us to cease offering
certain products or services globally or in certain jurisdictions. Any delays or errors in implementing regulatory compliance could lead
to substantial monetary damages and fines, public reprimands, a material adverse effect on our reputation, regulatory measures in the
form of cease and desists orders, increased regulatory compliance requirements or other potential regulatory restrictions on our business,
enforced suspension of operations and in extreme cases, withdrawal of regulatory licenses or authorizations to operate particular businesses,
or criminal prosecution in certain circumstances.
addition to non-compliance by us ourselves, we may in the future suffer negative consequences of non-compliance by third parties
that use our payments and transfer infrastructure. We may also suffer negative consequences of customers operating businesses or schemes
in violation of applicable rules and regulations whose activities we could be held responsible for monitoring and, where applicable,
to denounce, interrupt or terminate the extension of services to such customers. We may be required to incur greater expenditures and
devote additional resources and management time to addressing these liabilities and requirements, which could have an adverse effect
on our business, financial position and results of operations.
financial services industry is subject to intensive regulation. Major changes in laws and regulations, as well as enforcement actions,
could adversely affect our business, financial position, results of operations and prospects.
pursuit of a broad reform and restructuring of financial services regulation, national and supra-national legislatures and supervisory
authorities, predominantly in the United States and Europe but also elsewhere, continue to introduce and implement a wide range
of proposals that could result in major changes to the way our global operations are regulated and could have adverse consequences for
our business, business model, financial position, results of operations, reputation and prospects. These changes could materially impact
the profitability of our businesses or the value of our assets, require changes to business practices or force us to discontinue businesses
and expose us to additional costs, taxes, liabilities, enforcement actions and reputational risk and are likely to have a material impact
timing and full impact of new laws and regulations cannot be determined and are beyond our control. The introduction of these and other
new rules and requirements could significantly impact the manner in which we operate, particularly in situations where regulatory legislation
can interfere with or even set aside national private law. New requirements may adversely affect our business, capital and risk
management strategies and may result in us deciding to modify our legal entity structure, capital and funding structures and business
mix or exit certain business activities altogether, or determine not to expand in certain business areas despite their otherwise attractive
large number of legislative initiatives, in particular with respect to the financial services industry, requires constant attention from
our senior management and consumes significant levels of resources to identify and analyze the implications of these initiatives. We
may have to adapt our strategy, operations and businesses, including policies, procedures and documentation, to comply with these new
legal requirements. Based on the volume of existing initiatives, it cannot be excluded that certain new requirements will not be implemented
in a timely fashion or implemented without errors, or in a manner satisfactory to the applicable supervisory authority, resulting in
non-compliance and possible associated negative consequences such as administrative fine or public reprimands. Additionally, we
may be forced to cease to serve certain types of customers or cease to offer certain services or products as a result of new requirements.
Any of the other above factors, events or developments may materially adversely affect our businesses, financial position and results
of operations and prospects.
are subject to laws, regulations, and executive orders regarding economic and trade sanctions, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, and
counter-terror financing that could impair our ability to compete in international markets or subject us to criminal or civil liability
if we violate them. As we continue to expand and localize our international activities, our obligations to comply with the laws, rules,
regulations, and policies of a variety of jurisdictions will increase and we may be subject to investigations and enforcement actions
by U.S. and non-U.S. regulators and governmental authorities.
we expand and localize our international activities, we have and will become increasingly obligated to comply with the laws, rules, regulations,
policies, and legal interpretations both of the jurisdictions in which we operate and those into which we offer services on a cross-border basis.
Laws regulating financial services, the internet, mobile technologies, blockchain technologies, and related technologies outside the
United States often impose different, more specific, or even conflicting obligations on us, as well as broader liability.
are subject to various anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing laws and regulations around the world that prohibit,
among other things, our involvement in transferring the proceeds of criminal activities. In the United States, most of our services
are subject to anti-money laundering laws and regulations, including the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970, as amended by the USA
PATRIOT Act of 2001, and its implementing regulations (collectively, the “BSA”) and other similar laws and regulations.
The BSA, among other things, requires money transmitters to develop and implement risk-based anti-money laundering programs,
to report large cash transactions and suspicious activity, and, in some cases, to collect and maintain information about customers who
use their services and maintain other transaction records. Regulators in the United States and globally continue to increase their
scrutiny of compliance with these obligations, which may require us to further revise or expand our compliance program including the
procedures we use to verify the identity of our customers and to monitor transactions on our system, including payments to persons outside
of the United States. Regulators regularly re-examine the transaction volume thresholds at which we must obtain and keep applicable
records or verify identities of customers, and any change in such thresholds could result in greater costs for compliance. We could be
subject to potentially significant fines, penalties, inquiries, audits, investigations, enforcement actions, and criminal and civil liability
if regulators or third-party auditors identify gaps in our anti-money laundering program and such gaps are not sufficiently
remediated, or if our anti-money laundering program is found to violate the BSA by a regulator.
our efforts to comply with the applicable laws, rules, and regulations, there can be no guarantee that these measures will be viewed
as compliant. If we were to be found to have violated sanctions, or become involved in government investigations, that could result in
negative consequences for us, including costs related to government investigations, financial penalties, and harm to our reputation.
The impact on us related to these matters could be substantial. Although we have implemented controls and screening tools designed to
prevent similar activity, there is no guarantee that we will not inadvertently provide our products and services to individuals, entities,
or governments prohibited by U.S. sanctions or those of another jurisdiction to whose laws and regulations we may be subject.
worldwide frequently study each other’s approaches to the regulation of any novel or developing industry, including those using
blockchain-enabled technologies. Consequently, developments in any jurisdiction may influence other jurisdictions. New developments
in one jurisdiction may be extended to additional services and other jurisdictions. The European Commission, for example, has proposed
revisions to the Anti-Money Laundering Directives, which could make compliance more costly and operationally difficult to manage.
As a result, the risks created by any new law or regulation in one jurisdiction are magnified by the potential that they may be replicated,
affecting our business in another place or involving another service. Conversely, if regulations diverge worldwide, we may face difficulty
adjusting our products, services, and other aspects of our business with the same effect. These risks are heightened as we face increased
competitive pressure from other similarly situated businesses that engage in regulatory arbitrage to avoid the compliance costs associated
with regulatory changes.
may operate our business in foreign countries where companies often engage in business practices that are prohibited by regulations applicable
to us. We are subject to anti-corruption laws and regulations, including the FCPA and other laws that prohibit the making or offering
of improper payments to foreign government officials and political figures. We have implemented policies, procedures, systems, and controls
designed to identify and address potentially impermissible transactions under such laws and regulations; however, there can be no assurance
that all of our employees, consultants and agents, including those that may be based in or from countries where practices that violate
U.S. or other laws may be customary, will not take actions in violation of our policies, for which we may be ultimately responsible.
consolidated balance sheets may not contain sufficient amounts or types of regulatory capital to meet the changing requirements of our
various regulators worldwide, which could adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.
management of our capital and liquidity is critical to our ability to operate our businesses, to grow organically and to pursue our strategy.
As a regulated and licensed entity in various jurisdictions, we may be required to possess sufficient financial soundness and strength
to adequately support our regulated affiliate entities. The maintenance of adequate capital and liquidity is also necessary for our financial
flexibility in the face of turbulence and uncertainty in the global economy. We may from time to time incur indebtedness and other obligations
which could make it more difficult to meet applicable regulatory requirements.
addition, although we are not a bank holding company for purposes of United States law or the law of any other jurisdiction, as
a global provider of financial services and in light of the changing regulatory environment in various jurisdictions, we could become
subject to new capital requirements introduced or imposed by U.S. federal, state or international regulators. The changes to applicable
current or future capital and liquidity requirements may require us to raise additional regulatory capital or hold additional liquidity
buffers, for example because of different interpretations of or methods for calculating risk exposure amounts or liquidity outflows or
inflows, or because we do not comply with ratios and levels, or instruments and collateral requirements that currently qualify as capital
or capital risk mitigating techniques no longer do so in the future because of changes to the requirements or interpretations thereof.
Any change or increase in these regulatory requirements could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial
we are unable to raise the requisite regulatory capital, we may be required to reduce the amount of our risk exposure amount or business
levels, restrict certain activities or engage in the disposition of core and other non-core businesses, which may not occur on a
timely basis or at prices which would otherwise be attractive to us, and such inability to raise sufficient regulatory capital could
have an adverse effect on the market’s trust in respect of the long-term viability of our products and services, which could,
for example, result in customers transferring to use our competitors’ platforms for financial transfer and payment infrastructure.
As a result of stricter liquidity requirements or higher liquidity buffers, we may be required to optimize our funding composition which
may result in higher funding costs for us, and in having to maintain buffers of liquid assets which may result in lower returns than
less liquid assets. Furthermore, if we are unable to adequately manage our liquidity position, this may prevent us from meeting our short-term financial
obligations. It is possible we may experience errors in currency handling, accounting, and regulatory reporting that leads us to be out
of compliance with those requirements.
above changes and any other changes that limit our ability to manage effectively our balance sheet, liquidity position and capital resources
going forward, or to access funding sources, could have a material adverse impact on our financial position, regulatory capital position
and liquidity provision.
obtain and process a large amount of sensitive customer data. Any real or perceived improper use of, disclosure of, or access to such
data could harm our reputation, as well as have an adverse effect on our business.
operations involve the storage and/or transmission of sensitive information, including highly personal data of our customers. Consequently,
we are subject to complex and evolving UK, European, and other jurisdictions’ laws, rules, regulations, orders and directives (referred
to as “privacy laws”) relating to the collection, use, retention, security, processing and transfer (referred to as “process”)
of personally identifiable information (referred to as “personal data”) in the countries where we operate. Much of the personal
data that we process, especially financial information, is regulated by multiple privacy laws and, in some cases, the privacy laws of
multiple jurisdictions. In many cases, these laws apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information
between or among us and our subsidiaries. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with our privacy policies or with any applicable
privacy laws in one or more jurisdictions could result in proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others, including
class action privacy litigation in certain jurisdictions, significant fines, penalties, judgments and reputational damages to us, requiring
us to change our business practices, increasing the costs and complexity of compliance, any of which could materially and adversely affect
its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
protection, privacy and information security have become the subject of increasing public, media and legislative concern. If our customers
were to reduce their use of our products and services as a result of these concerns, our business could be materially harmed. In addition,
we are also subject to the possibility of security breaches, which themselves may result in a violation of these privacy laws. Any failure
of us or our partners or others who use our services to adequately protect sensitive data could have a material and adverse effect on
its reputation, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
are subject to complex and evolving laws, regulations, and industry requirements related to data privacy, data protection and information
security across different markets where we conduct our business, including in the EEA, such laws, regulations, and industry requirements
are constantly evolving and changing. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such laws, regulations, and industry requirements,
or our privacy policies/notices could harm our business by impairing customer trust and could subject us to fines and reputational harm.
local, state, federal, and international laws, directives, and regulations apply to our collection, use, retention, protection, disclosure,
transfer, and any other processing of personal data. There is uncertainty and inconsistency in how these data protection and privacy
laws and regulations are interpreted and applied, and they continue to evolve in ways that could adversely impact our business. These
laws have a substantial impact on our operations directly as a data controller/business and as a data processor/service provider and
handler for various offshore entities.
the United States, state and federal lawmakers and regulatory authorities have increased their attention on the collection and use
of consumer data. While our current product offering does not target retail consumers, some of our prior products have been offered to
retail consumers. In the United States, non-sensitive consumer data generally may be used under current rules and regulations,
subject to certain restrictions, so long as the consumer does not affirmatively “opt out” of the collection or use of such
data. If an “opt-in” model or additional required “opt-outs” were to be adopted in the United States, less
data could be available, and the cost of data would be higher.
has enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act, or the CCPA, along with related regulations, in 2020 and the California Privacy Rights
Act, or the CPRA, which has been passed and will become effective on January 1, 2023. The CCPA gives California residents new rights
to access and request deletion of their personal data, opt out of the sale of personal data, and receive detailed information about how
their personal data is processed. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data
breaches that involving the loss of personal data. This private right of action may increase the likelihood of, and risks associated
with, data breach litigation. The CPRA significantly modifies the CCPA, including by expanding consumers’ rights with respect to
certain personal data and creating a new state agency to oversee implementation and enforcement efforts. While the CCPA currently has
exemptions for business-to-business and human resources data, these exemptions are set to expire on January 1, 2023. It is
unclear if they will be extended. The CCPA and CPRA may increase our compliance costs and potential liability, particularly in the event
of a data breach, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, including how we use personal data, our financial condition,
and our operating results.
the CCPA has prompted a number of proposals for new federal and state-level privacy legislation, such as in Nevada, Virginia, Colorado,
and others. Virginia’s legislation, the Consumer Data Protection Act, or CDPA, passed and becomes effective January 1, 2023.
On June 8, 2021, the state of Colorado passed its bill, which is pending signature by the state governor. As of June 11, 2021,
five states have proposed legislation under consideration in the local legislatures. As each new state law is passed, it could add increasing
complexity to and significantly expand the scope of our compliance efforts, impact our business strategies, increase our potential liability,
increase our compliance costs, and adversely affect our business.
a result of our presence in Europe and our service offering in the European Union, we are subject to the European General Data Protection
Regulation, which imposes stringent EU data protection requirements, and could increase the risk of non-compliance and the costs
of providing our products and services in a compliant manner. A breach of the GDPR could result in regulatory investigations, reputational
damage, fines and sanctions, orders to cease or change our processing of our data, enforcement notices, or assessment notices (for a
compulsory audit). We may also face civil claims including representative actions and other class action type litigation (where individuals
have suffered harm), potentially amounting to significant compensation or damages liabilities, as well as associated costs, diversion
of internal resources, and reputational harm.
the UK Data Protection Act contains provisions, including its own derogations, for how GDPR is applied in the UK. We have to continue
to comply with the GDPR and also the Data Protection Act, with each regime having the ability to fine up to the greater of €20 million
(£17 million) or 4% of annual global turnover. The relationship between the UK and the EU remains uncertain, for example how
data transfers between the UK and the EU and other jurisdictions will be treated and the role of the UK’s supervisory authority.
On June 28, 2021, the European Commission issued the UK with an “adequacy decision” to facilitate the continued free
flow of personal data from EU member states to the UK. However, this adequacy decision has a limited duration of four years
in case there is a future divergence between EU and UK data protection laws. In the event that the UK maintains an equivalent standard.at
the end of the four year period, it is open to the European Commission to renew its finding. In the event that the adequacy decisions
is not renewed after this time, the adjustments required to facilitate data transfers from EU member states to the UK will lead to additional
costs as we try to ensure compliance with new privacy legislation and will increase our overall risk exposure.
addition, the GDPR imposes strict rules on the transfer of personal data out of the EU to a “third country”, including the
United Kingdom or the United States. These obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one
jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other requirements or our practices. On July 16, 2020, the Court of Justice of the
European Union invalidated the European Union-United States “Privacy Shield” (under which personal data could be transferred
from the EU to U.S. entities that had self-certified under the Privacy Shield scheme) on the grounds that the Privacy Shield
failed to offer adequate protections to EU personal data transferred to the United States. In addition, while the ECJ upheld the
adequacy of the standard contractual clauses (a standard form of contract approved by the European Commission as an adequate personal
data transfer mechanism, and potential alternative to the Privacy Shield), it made clear that reliance on them alone may not necessarily
be sufficient in all circumstances.
of the standard contractual clauses must now be assessed on a case by case basis taking into account the legal regime applicable in the
destination country, in particular applicable surveillance laws and rights of individuals. The use of standard contractual clauses for
the transfer of personal data specifically to the United States remains under review by a number of European data protection supervisory
authorities, along with those of some other E.U. member states.
and Irish supervisory authorities have indicated, and enforced in recent rulings, that the standard contractual clauses alone provide
inadequate protection for E.U.-U.S. data transfers. As supervisory authorities continue to issue further guidance on personal data,
we could suffer additional costs, complaints, or regulatory investigations or fines, and if we are otherwise unable to transfer personal
data between and among countries and regions in which we operate, it could affect the manner in which we provide our services, the geographical
location or segregation of our relevant systems and operations, and could adversely affect our financial results.
are also subject to evolving EU privacy laws on cookies and e-marketing. In the European Union, regulators are increasingly focusing
on compliance with requirements in the online behavioral advertising ecosystem, and an EU regulation known as the ePrivacy Regulation
will significantly increase fines for non-compliance once in effect. In the European Union informed consent, including a prohibition
on pre-checked consents and a requirement to ensure separate consents for each cookie, is required for the placement of a cookie
or similar technologies on a user’s device and for direct electronic marketing. As regulators start to enforce the strict approach
in recent guidance, this could lead to substantial costs, require significant systems changes, limit the effectiveness of our marketing
activities, divert the attention of our technology personnel, negatively impact our efforts to understand customers, adversely affect
our margins, increase costs, and subject us to additional liabilities.
these and other laws and regulations may continue to evolve and be enacted, or new interpretations of existing laws and regulations apply,
it may require us to modify our data-processing practices, agreements and policies and to incur substantial costs in order to comply
with this evolving regulatory landscape. Restrictions on the collection, use, sharing or disclosure of personal information or additional
requirements and liability for security and data integrity could require us to materially modify our solutions and features, could limit
our ability to develop new services and features and could subject us to increased compliance obligations and regulatory scrutiny. We
use a variety of technical and organizational security measures and other measures to protect the data we process, in particular personal
data pertaining to our customers, employees and business partners. Despite measures we put in place, we may be unable to anticipate or
prevent unauthorized access to such personal data.
is a risk that as we expand, we may assume liabilities for breaches experienced by the companies we acquire. Despite our efforts to comply
with applicable laws, regulations and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection, and information security, it is possible
that our practices or technology could fail, or be alleged to fail to meet applicable requirements. For instance, the overall regulatory
framework governing the application of privacy laws to blockchain technology is still highly undeveloped and likely to evolve. Despite
our efforts to choose vendors that meet applicable laws, regulations and other obligations relating to privacy, data protection, and
information security and maintain robust security controls, it is possible that a vendor could fail to comply or experience a data breach
impacting our data and our business. Our failure, or the failure by our third-party providers or partners, to comply with applicable
laws or regulations and to prevent unauthorized access to, or use or release of personal data, or the perception that any of the foregoing
types of failure has occurred, could damage our reputation or result in fines or proceedings by governmental agencies and private claims
and litigation, any of which could adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.
are and may continue to be subject to litigation, including individual and class action lawsuits, as well as regulatory audits, disputes,
inquiries, investigations and enforcement actions by regulators and governmental authorities.
have been and may from time to time become subject to material claims, arbitrations, individual and class action lawsuits, government
and regulatory investigations, inquiries, actions or requests and other proceedings alleging violations of laws, rules, and regulations,
both foreign and domestic, involving competition and antitrust law, intellectual property, privacy, data protection, information security,
anti-money laundering, counter terrorist financing, sanctions, anti-corruption, accessibility claims, securities, tax, labor and
employment, payment network rules, commercial disputes, services, and other matters.
laws, rules and regulations affecting our business, including those pertaining to blockchain technologies, payment processing and financial
transaction services, and other financial services, are subject to ongoing interpretation by the courts and governmental and supervisory
authorities, and the resulting uncertainty in the scope and application of these laws, rules and regulations increases the risk that
we will be subject to private claims, governmental and regulatory actions alleging violations of those laws, rules, and regulations.
scope, determination, and impact of claims, lawsuits, government and regulatory investigations, enforcement actions, disputes, and proceedings
to which we are subject cannot be predicted with certainty, and may result in:
payments to satisfy judgments, fines, or penalties;
outside counsel legal fees and costs;
compliance and licensure requirements;
or non-renewal of existing licenses or authorizations, or prohibition from or delays in obtaining additional licenses or authorizations,
required for our business;
of productivity and high demands on employee time;
or criminal sanctions or consent decrees;
of certain employees, including members of our executive team;
of certain employees from participating in our business in whole or in part;
that restrict our business or prevent us from offering certain products or services;
to our business model and practices;
to planned transactions, product launches or improvements; and
to our brand and reputation.
such matters can have an adverse impact, which may be material, on our business, operating results, or financial condition because of
legal costs, diversion of management resources, reputational damage, and other factors.
Related to Nukkleus’s Intellectual Property
intellectual property rights are valuable, and any inability to protect them could adversely impact our business, operating results,
and financial condition.
business depends in large part on our proprietary technology and our brand. We rely on, and expect to continue to rely on, a combination
of trademark, trade dress, domain name, copyright, and trade secret and laws, as well as confidentiality and license agreements with
our employees, contractors, consultants, and third parties with whom we have relationships, to establish and protect our brand and other
intellectual property rights. As of April 7, 2023, we held four registered trademarks in the United States, including “Forexware”,
“XW”, “Total Broker Solution” and “Swordfish”, and also held one registered trademark in various
efforts to protect our intellectual property rights may not be sufficient or effective. Our proprietary technology and trade secrets
could be lost through misappropriation or breach of our confidentiality and license agreements, and any of our intellectual property
rights may be challenged, which could result in them being narrowed in scope or declared invalid or unenforceable. There can be no assurance
that our intellectual property rights will be sufficient to protect against others offering products, services, or technologies that
are substantially similar to ours and that compete with our business.
we have grown, we have sought to obtain and protect our intellectual property rights in an increasing number of countries, a process
that can be expensive and may not always be successful. For example, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and various foreign governmental
intellectual property agencies require compliance with a number of procedural requirements to complete the trademark application process
and to maintain issued trademarks, and noncompliance or non-payment could result in abandonment or lapse of a trademark or trademark
application, resulting in partial or complete loss of trademark rights in a relevant jurisdiction. Further, intellectual property protection
may not be available to us in every country in which our products and services are available. We may also agree to license our intellectual
property to third parties as part of various agreements. Those licenses may diminish our ability, though, to counter-assert our
intellectual property rights against certain parties that may bring claims against us.
the future we may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights.
recent years, there has been considerable patent, copyright, trademark, domain name, trade secret and other intellectual property
development activity, as well as litigation, based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property, including
by large financial institutions. Furthermore, individuals and groups can purchase patents and other intellectual property assets for
the purpose of making claims of infringement to extract settlements from companies like ours. Our use of third-party intellectual
property rights also may be subject to claims of infringement or misappropriation.
cannot guarantee that our internally developed or acquired technologies and content do not or will not infringe the intellectual property
rights of others. From time to time, our competitors or other third parties may claim that we are infringing upon or misappropriating
their intellectual property rights, and we may be found to be infringing upon such rights. Any claims or litigation could cause us to
incur significant expenses and, if successfully asserted against us, could require that we pay substantial damages or ongoing royalty
payments, prevent us from offering our products or services or using certain technologies, force us to implement expensive work-arounds,
or impose other unfavorable terms. Our exposure to damages resulting from infringement claims could increase and this could further exhaust
our financial and management resources. Further, during the course of any litigation, we may make announcements regarding the results
of hearings and motions, and other interim developments. If securities analysts and investors regard these announcements as negative,
the market price of Nukkleus Common Stock may decline. Even if intellectual property claims do not result in litigation or are resolved
in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and require
significant expenditures. Any of the foregoing could prevent us from competing effectively and could have an adverse effect on our business,
operating results, and financial condition.
and our ecosystem partners’ products and services, including the blockchain technologies on which our Platforms are built, contain
third-party open source software components, and failure to comply with the terms of the underlying open source software licenses
could harm our business.
products and services contains software modules licensed to us by third-party authors under “open source” licenses.
Also, the blockchain technologies on which our Platforms are built rely on open source licenses to operate. We also make certain of our
own software available to customers for free under various open source licenses. Use and distribution of open source software may entail
greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide support, warranties,
indemnification or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. In addition, the public availability
of such software may make it easier for others to compromise our products and services.
open-source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based
upon the type of open source software we use, or grant other licenses to our intellectual property. If we combine our proprietary software
with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release the source code of
our proprietary software to the public. This would allow our competitors to create similar offerings with lower development effort and
time and ultimately could result in a loss of our competitive advantages. Alternatively, to avoid the public release of the affected
portions of our source code, we could be required to expend substantial time and resources to re-engineer some or all of our software.
we monitor our use of open-source software to avoid subjecting our products and services to conditions we do not intend, we have
not recently conducted an extensive audit of our use of open source software and, as a result, we cannot assure you that our processes
for controlling our use of open source software in our products and services are, or will be, effective. If we are held to have breached
or failed to fully comply with all the terms and conditions of an open source software license, we could face litigation or infringement
or other liability, or be required to seek costly licenses from third parties to continue providing our offerings on terms that are not
economically feasible, to re-engineer our products or services, to discontinue or delay the provision of our offerings if re-engineering could
not be accomplished on a timely basis or to make generally available, in source code form, our proprietary code, any of which could adversely
affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.
the terms of many open-source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. or foreign courts. As a result, there is a risk that
these licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to provide or distribute
our products and services. From time to time, there have been claims challenging the ownership of open source software against companies
that incorporate open source software into their solutions. As a result, we could be subject to lawsuits by parties claiming ownership
of what we believe to be open-source software.
SEC has adopted amendments to Rule 15c2-11 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, which could adversely affect our common stock.
15c2-11 (the “Rule”) became effective on September 28, 2021 and will have an impact on the over-the-counter (“OTC”)
market regulatory structure. The amended Rule is ostensibly to enhance disclosure and investor protection in the OTC market by ensuring
that broker-dealers in the OTC market do not publish quotations for an issuer’s security when current issuer information is not publicly
available. Therefore, under the new Amendments to Rule 15c2-11, now, all OTC quoted companies must file at least current annual financial
statements or companies will not be publicly quoted on the OTC Markets and risk being downgraded to the Expert Market. Our Company is
currently listed on the OTC markets “Pink – Limited Information” Tier. Currently, we have not filed all of our annual
and quarterly reports which are required to be filed by us with the SEC. We are striving to achieve this goal. Even so, it is possible
that our common stock may be downgraded to the Expert Market, if it determined that we failed to file our appropriate annual and quarterly
reports in a timely manner as required by the SEC. As of the date hereof, the Company has filed its annual report on Form 10K for the
year ended September 30, 2022 late and is presently required to file its quarterly report on Form 10Q for the quarter ended December
31, 2022, which is currently late. If it is determined that we did not comply with these new requirements, it is highly likely that it
may make it more difficult for investors in our stock to resell their shares to third parties or to alternatively dispose of them in
the open market or otherwise.
economic conditions may adversely affect our business.
performance is subject to general economic conditions, and their impact on the foreign exchange transfer and payments markets, as well
as our customers. The United States and other key European and other international economies have experienced cyclical downturns
from time to time in which economic activity declined resulting in lower consumption rates, restricted credit, reduced profitability,
weaknesses in financial markets, bankruptcies, and overall uncertainty with respect to the economy. The impact of general economic conditions
on our business is highly uncertain and dependent on a variety of factors, including market activity, global trends in the blockchain
economy, central bank monetary policies, and other events beyond our control. Geopolitical developments, such as trade wars and foreign
exchange limitations can also increase the severity and levels of unpredictability globally and increase the volatility of global financial
markets. To the extent that conditions in the general economic and digital asset markets materially deteriorate, our ability to attract
and retain customers may suffer.
may be adversely affected by natural disasters, pandemics, and other catastrophic events, and by man-made problems such as war or terrorism,
that could disrupt our business operations, and our business continuity and disaster recovery plans may not adequately protect us from
a serious disaster.
disasters or other catastrophic events may also cause damage or disruption to our operations, international commerce, and the global
economy, and could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Our business operations are subject
to interruption by natural disasters, fire, power shortages, and other events beyond our control.
addition, our global operations expose us to risks associated with public health crises, such as pandemics and epidemics, which could
harm our business and cause our operating results to suffer. For example, the ongoing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and/or the
precautionary measures that we have adopted have resulted, and could continue to result, in difficulties or changes to our customer support,
or create operational or other challenges, any of which could adversely impact our business and operating results.
war, acts of terrorism, labor activism and other geopolitical unrest could cause disruptions in our business or the businesses of our
partners or the economy as a whole. In the event of a natural disaster, including a major earthquake, blizzard, or hurricane, or a catastrophic
event such as a fire, power loss, or telecommunications failure, we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure system interruptions,
reputational harm, delays in development of our products and services, lengthy interruptions in service, breaches of data security, and
loss of critical data, all of which could have an adverse effect on our future operating results.
joint ventures or other strategic transactions create certain risks and may adversely affect our business, financial condition or results
partnerships and joint ventures are part of our growth strategy. We evaluate and expect in the future to evaluate potential strategic
acquisitions of, and partnerships or joint ventures with, complementary businesses, services or technologies. We may not be successful
in identifying acquisition, partnership and joint venture targets. In addition, we may not be able to successfully finance or integrate
any businesses, services or technologies that we acquire or with which we form a partnership or joint venture.
may not be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates or complete acquisitions in the future, which could adversely affect our
future growth; or businesses that we acquire may not perform as well as expected or may be more difficult or expensive to integrate and
manage than expected, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. In addition, the process of integrating these
acquisitions may disrupt our business and divert our resources.
addition, acquisitions outside our current operating jurisdictions often involve additional or increased risks including, for example:
geographically separated organizations, systems and facilities;
personnel with diverse business backgrounds and organizational cultures;
with foreign regulatory requirements;
in exchange rates;
and protection of intellectual property in some foreign countries;
entering new foreign markets due to, among other things, customer acceptance and business knowledge of these new markets; and
economic and political conditions.
risks may arise for a number of reasons: we may not be able to find suitable businesses to acquire at affordable valuations or on other
acceptable terms; we may face competition for acquisitions from other potential acquirers; we may need to borrow money or sell equity
or debt securities to the public to finance acquisitions and the terms of these financings may be adverse to us; changes in accounting,
tax, securities or other regulations could increase the difficulty or cost for us to complete acquisitions; we may incur unforeseen obligations
or liabilities in connection with acquisitions; we may need to devote unanticipated financial and management resources to an acquired
business; we may not realize expected operating efficiencies or product integration benefits from an acquisition; we could enter markets
where we have minimal prior experience; and we may experience decreases in earnings as a result of non-cash impairment charges.
cannot ensure that any acquisition, partnership or joint venture we make will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial
condition and results of operations.
law and our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws will contain certain provisions, including anti-takeover provisions that limit the
ability of stockholders to take certain actions and could delay or discourage takeover attempts that stockholders may consider favorable.
Certificate of Incorporation and bylaws contains provisions that could have the effect of rendering more difficult, delaying, or preventing
an acquisition deemed undesirable by the Nukkleus Board and therefore depress the trading price of Nukkleus Common Stock. In addition,
as a Delaware corporation, the Company will generally be subject to provisions of Delaware law, including the DGCL. These provisions
could also make it difficult for stockholders to take certain actions, including electing directors who are not nominated by the current
members of the Nukkleus Board or taking other corporate actions, including effecting changes in management.
provisions, alone or together, could delay or prevent hostile takeovers and changes in control or changes in the Nukkleus Board or management.
provision of Nukkleus’s Certificate of Incorporation or bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or preventing a
change in control could limit the opportunity for stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of the Company’s capital stock
and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for Nukkleus Common Stock.