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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
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FORM 10-Q
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 ☒
QUARTERLY QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2021
OR
 ☐
QUARTERLY TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
for the transition period from ________ to ________

STEM, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 333-251397 85-1972187
(State or Other Jurisdiction
of Incorporation)
(Commission File Number) (IRS Employer
Identification No.)
100 California St., 14th Fl, San Francisco, California 94111
(Address of principal executive offices including zip code)
1-877-374-7836
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code

Not Applicable

(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001
STEM
New York Stock Exchange

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act
Large accelerated filer  ☐ Accelerated filer  ☐
Non-accelerated filer  ☒ Smaller reporting company  ☒
Emerging growth company  ☒
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒

Class
Outstanding as of November 8, 2021
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share
144,489,164






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The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
2


Part I. Financial Information

STEM, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(UNAUDITED)
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
September 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents $ 405,189  $ 6,942 
Short-term investments 170,795  — 
Accounts receivable, net 34,997  13,572 
Inventory, net 24,200  20,843 
Other current assets (includes $379 and $123 due from related parties as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively)
16,496  7,920 
Total current assets 651,677  49,277 
Energy storage systems, net 114,149  123,703 
Contract origination costs, net 11,665  10,404 
Goodwill 1,741  1,739 
Intangible assets, net 13,125  12,087 
Operating leases right-of-use assets 13,894  358 
Other noncurrent assets 18,716  8,282 
Total assets $ 824,967  $ 205,850 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable $ 14,962  $ 13,749 
Accrued liabilities 14,024  16,072 
Accrued payroll 5,524  5,976 
Notes payable, current portion —  33,683 
Convertible promissory notes (includes $— and $45,271 due to related parties as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively)
—  67,590 
Financing obligation, current 14,315  14,914 
Deferred revenue, current 27,129  36,942 
Other current liabilities (includes $692 and $399 due to related parties as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively)
2,465  1,589 
Total current liabilities 78,419  190,515 
Deferred revenue, noncurrent 21,743  15,468 
Asset retirement obligation 4,149  4,137 
Notes payable, noncurrent 1,675  4,612 
Financing obligation, noncurrent 75,384  73,128 
Warrant liabilities —  95,342 
Lease liability, noncurrent 12,678  57 
Total liabilities 194,048  383,259 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 14)
Stockholders’ equity (deficit):
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 1,000,000 shares authorized as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively; 0 shares issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively
—  — 
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 500,000,000 shares authorized as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020; 144,285,959 and 40,202,785 issued and outstanding as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively
14 
Additional paid-in capital 1,106,220  230,620 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss (317) (192)
Accumulated deficit (474,998) (407,841)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit) 630,919  (177,409)
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity (deficit) $ 824,967  $ 205,850 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
3


STEM, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(UNAUDITED)
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020
Revenue
Services revenue $ 4,947 $ 3,649 $ 14,982  $ 10,711 
Hardware revenue 34,886 5,523 59,609  6,950 
Total revenue 39,833 9,172 74,591  17,661 
Cost of revenue
Cost of service revenue 6,639  5,828  19,354  16,083 
Cost of hardware revenue 30,057  5,074  52,343  6,439 
Total cost of revenue 36,696  10,902  71,697  22,522 
Gross margin 3,137  (1,730) 2,894  (4,861)
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing 4,975  3,053  11,555  11,699 
Research and development 6,268  5,052  15,502  12,084 
General and administrative 11,024  2,635  28,730  8,018 
Total operating expenses 22,267  10,740  55,787  31,801 
Loss from operations (19,130) (12,470) (52,893) (36,662)
Other income (expense), net:
Interest expense (2,674) (4,265) (12,835) (13,826)
Loss on extinguishment of debt —  —  (5,064) — 
Change in fair value of warrants and embedded derivative 137,001  (2,096) 3,424  (3,005)
Other income (expenses), net 415  188  211  (1,602)
Total other income (expense) 134,742  (6,173) (14,264) (18,433)
Income (loss) before income taxes 115,612  (18,643) (67,157) (55,095)
Income tax expense —  (142) —  (142)
Net income (loss) $ 115,612  $ (18,785) $ (67,157) $ (55,237)
Net income (loss) per share attributable to common shareholders, basic $ 0.85  $ (0.47) $ (0.73) $ (1.61)
Net loss per share attributable to common shareholders, diluted $ (0.15) $ (0.47) $ (0.73) $ (1.61)
Weighted-average shares used in computing net income (loss) per share, basic 135,231,146  39,844,652  92,436,649  40,087,247 
Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share, diluted 140,285,165  39,844,652  92,436,649  40,087,247 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
4


STEM, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(UNAUDITED)
(in thousands)
Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020
Net income (loss) $ 115,612  $ (18,785) $ (67,157) $ (55,237)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Unrealized loss on available-for-sale securities (19) —  (19) — 
Foreign currency translation adjustment 245  (283) (106) (41)
Total comprehensive income (loss) $ 115,838  $ (19,068) $ (67,282) $ (55,278)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
5


STEM, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
(UNAUDITED)
(in thousands, except share amounts)
Convertible Preferred Stock Series 1 Convertible Preferred Stock Common Stock Additional Paid-In Capital Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) Accumulated Deficit Total Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
Shares Amount Shares Amount Shares Amount
Balance as of December 31, 2020 175,437,783  $ 220,563  2,961  $ —  11,228,371  $ —  $ 10,061  $ (192) $ (407,841) $ (397,972)
Retroactive application of recapitalization (Note 1) (175,437,783) (220,563) (2,961) —  28,974,414  220,559  —  —  220,563 
Adjusted balance, beginning of period —  —  —  —  40,202,785  230,620  (192) (407,841) (177,409)
Issuance of beneficial conversion feature related to convertible notes (Note 8) —  —  —  —  —  —  1,126  —  —  1,126 
Stock option and stock warrant exercises —  —  —  —  1,412,025  —  3,147  —  —  3,147 
Stock-based compensation —  —  —  —  —  —  784  —  —  784 
Foreign currency translation adjustments —  —  —  —  —  —  —  251  —  251 
Net loss —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (82,553) (82,553)
Balance as of March 31, 2021 —  —  —  —  41,614,810  235,677  59  (490,394) (254,654)
Merger and PIPE financing (Note 1) —  —  —  —  70,428,326  247,011  —  —  247,018 
Conversion of warrants into common stock upon Merger (Note 9) —  —  —  —  2,759,970  —  60,568  —  —  60,568 
Conversion of convertible notes into common stock upon Merger (Note 8) —  —  —  —  10,921,548  77,747  —  —  77,748 
Exchange of warrants into common stock (Note 9) —  —  —  —  4,683,349  168,646  —  —  168,647 
Issuance of common stock warrants for services (Note 9) —  —  —  —  —  —  9,183  —  —  9,183 
Stock option and stock warrant exercises —  —  —  —  360,052  —  39  —  —  39 
Stock-based compensation —  —  —  —  —  —  1,047  —  —  1,047 
Foreign currency translation adjustments —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (602) —  (602)
Net loss —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (100,216) (100,216)
Balance as of June 30, 2021 —  —  —  —  130,768,055  13  799,918  (543) (590,610) 208,778 
Public Warrant exercises (Note 9) —  —  —  —  12,638,723  312,115  —  —  312,116 
Stock option exercises —  —  —  —  879,181  —  (12,552) —  —  (12,552)
Stock-based compensation —  —  —  —  —  —  6,739  —  —  6,739 
Unrealized loss on available-for-sale securities —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (19) —  (19)
Foreign currency translation adjustments —  —  —  —  —  —  —  245  —  245 
Net income —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  115,612  115,612 
Balance as of September 30, 2021 —  $ —  —  $ —  144,285,959  $ 14  $ 1,106,220  $ (317) $ (474,998) $ 630,919 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
6


Convertible Preferred Stock Series 1 Convertible Preferred Stock Common Stock Additional Paid-In Capital Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) Accumulated Deficit Total Stockholders’ Deficit
Shares Amount Shares Amount Shares Amount
Balance as of December 31, 2019 191,139,933  $ 231,129  2,961  $ —  9,392,682  $ —  $ 3,339  $ 54  $ (259,054) $ (255,661)
Retroactive application of recapitalization (Note 1) (191,139,933) (231,129) (2,961) —  33,796,513  231,126  —  —  231,129 
Adjusted balance, beginning of period —  —  —  —  43,189,195  234,465  54  (259,054) (24,532)
Effect of exchange transaction —  —  —  —  (3,448,648) —  (10,605) —  7,337  (3,268)
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options and warrants —  —  —  —  15,457  —  21  —  —  21 
Stock-based compensation —  —  —  —  —  —  456  —  —  456 
Foreign currency translation adjustments —  —  —  —  —  —  —  451  —  451 
Net loss —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (17,471) (17,471)
Balance as of March 31, 2020 —  —  —  —  39,756,004  224,337  505  (269,188) (44,343)
Issuance of common and preferred stock upon exercise of stock options and warrants —  —  —  —  —  —  168  —  —  168 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options and warrants —  —  —  —  87,942  —  —  — 
Stock-based compensation —  —  —  —  —  —  476  —  —  476 
Foreign currency translation adjustments —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (209) —  (209)
Net loss —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (18,981) (18,981)
Balance as of June 30, 2020 —  —  —  —  39,843,946  224,985  296  (288,169) (62,885)
Stock option and stock warrant exercises —  —  —  —  4,621  —  — 
Stock-based compensation —  —  —  —  —  —  495  —  —  495 
Foreign currency translation adjustments —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (283) —  (283)
Net loss —  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  (18,785) (18,785)
Balance as of September 30, 2020 —  $ —  —  $ —  39,848,567  $ $ 225,484  $ 13  $ (306,954) $ (81,453)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
7


STEM, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(UNAUDITED)
(in thousands)
Nine Months Ended September 30,
2021 2020
OPERATING ACTIVITIES
Net loss $ (67,157) $ (55,237)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization expense 15,620  13,769 
Non-cash interest expense, including interest expenses associated with debt issuance costs 8,098  7,080 
Stock-based compensation 7,983  1,427 
Change in fair value of warrant liability and embedded derivative (3,424) 3,005 
Noncash lease expense 280  435 
Accretion expense 174  188 
Impairment of energy storage systems 2,200  — 
Issuance of warrants for services 9,183  — 
Net (accretion of discount) amortization of premium on investments 295  — 
Other — 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable (21,383) (6,039)
Inventory (3,357) (17,595)
Deferred costs with suppliers —  2,751 
Other assets (18,060) (105)
Contract origination costs (1,853) (2,135)
Accounts payable and accrued expenses 6,151  2,836 
Deferred revenue (3,538) 32,251 
Lease liabilities (331) (475)
Other liabilities 99  (86)
Net cash used in operating activities (69,020) (17,921)
INVESTING ACTIVITIES
Purchase of available-for-sale investments (171,109) — 
Purchase of energy storage systems (6,173) (4,121)
Capital expenditures on internally-developed software (4,250) (3,585)
Purchase of property and equipment (525) (13)
Net cash used in investing activities (182,057) (7,719)
FINANCING ACTIVITIES
Proceeds from exercise of stock options and warrants 148,322  30 
Payments for taxes related to net share settlement of stock options (12,622) — 
Net contributions from Merger and PIPE financing, net of transaction costs of $58,061
550,322  — 
Proceeds from financing obligations 4,929  12,901 
Repayment of financing obligations (5,721) (7,776)
Proceeds from issuance of convertible notes, net of issuance costs of $8 and $1,740 for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively
1,118  12,548 
Proceeds from issuance of notes payable, net of issuance costs of $101 and $1,502 for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively
3,917  25,000 
Repayment of notes payable (41,446) (21,660)
Net cash provided by financing activities 648,819  21,043 
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents 505  (349)
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents 398,247  (4,946)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period 6,942  12,889 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period $ 405,189  $ 7,943 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
8


SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION
Cash paid for interest $ 8,992  $ 6,446 
NON-CASH INVESTING AND FINANCING ACTIVITIES
Change in asset retirement costs and asset retirement obligation $ 162  $ 527 
Exchange of warrants for common stock $ 168,647  $ — 
Conversion of warrants upon merger $ 60,568  $ — 
Conversion of convertible notes upon merger $ 77,748  $ — 
Conversion of accrued interest into outstanding note payable $ 337  $ 385 
Right-of-use asset obtained in exchange for lease liability $ 13,816  $ — 
Settlement of warrant liability into common stock due to exercise $ 167,050  $ — 
Settlement of warrant liability into common stock due to redemption $ 2,121  $ — 
Issuance of warrants upon debt modification $ —  $ 168 
Stock-based compensation capitalized to internal-use software $ 587  $ — 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
9

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

1.BUSINESS
Description of the Business
Stem, Inc. and its subsidiaries (together, “Stem” or the “Company”) is one of the largest digitally connected, intelligent energy storage networks, providing customers (i) with an energy storage system, sourced from leading, global battery original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), that the Company delivers through its partners, including solar project developers and engineering, procurement and construction firms and (ii) through its Athena® artificial intelligence (“AI”) platform (“Athena”), with ongoing software-enabled services to operate the energy storage systems for up to 20 years. In addition, in all the markets where the Company operates its customers’ systems, the Company has agreements to manage the energy storage systems using the Athena platform to participate in energy markets and to share the revenue from such market participation.

The Company delivers its battery hardware and software-enabled services through its Athena platform to its customers. The Company’s hardware and recurring software-enabled services mitigate customer energy costs through services such as time-of-use and demand charge management optimization and by aggregating the dispatch of energy through a network of virtual power plants. The resulting network created by the Company’s growing customer base increases grid resilience and reliability through the real-time processing of market-based demand cycles, energy prices and other factors in connection with the deployment of renewable energy resources to such customers. Additionally, the Company’s energy storage solutions support renewable energy generation by alleviating grid intermittency issues and thereby reducing customer dependence on traditional, fossil fuel resources. As of December 31, 2020, Athena has accumulated over 20 million runtime hours, which is equivalent to more than 2,200 years of operational experience, across hundreds of sites and customers in several utility territories across the U.S., Canada and Chile.

The Company operated as Rollins Road Acquisition Company (f/k/a Stem, Inc.) (“Legacy Stem”) prior to the Merger (as defined below). Stem, Inc. was incorporated on March 16, 2009 in the State of Delaware and is headquartered in San Francisco, California.
Star Peak Acquisition Corp. Merger

On December 3, 2020, the Company entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) with Star Peak Transition Corp. (“STPK,” prior to the closing of the Merger and “New Stem,” following the closing of the Merger), an entity listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the trade symbol “STPK”, and STPK Merger Sub Corp., a Delaware corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of STPK (“Merger Sub”), providing for, among other things, and subject to the conditions therein, the combination of the Company and STPK pursuant to the merger of Merger Sub with and into the Company with the Company continuing as the surviving entity (the “Merger”).

On April 28, 2021, shareholders of STPK approved the Merger, under which Stem received approximately $550.3 million, net of fees and expenses as follows (in thousands):
Recapitalization
Cash — STPK trust and working capital cash $ 383,383 
Cash — PIPE 225,000 
Less: transaction costs and advisory fees paid (58,061)
Merger and PIPE financing $ 550,322 

Immediately prior to the closing of the Merger, (i) all issued and outstanding shares of Legacy Stem preferred stock, par value $0.00001 per share (the “Legacy Stem Preferred Stock”), were converted into shares of Legacy Stem common stock, par value $0.000001 per share (the “Legacy Stem Common Stock”) in accordance with Legacy Stem’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation, (ii) all outstanding convertible promissory notes of Legacy Stem (the “Legacy Stem Convertible Notes”) were converted into Legacy Stem Preferred Stock in accordance with the terms of the Legacy Stem Convertible Notes and (iii) certain warrants issued by Legacy Stem to purchase Legacy Stem Common Stock and Legacy Stem Preferred Stock (the “Legacy Stem Warrants”) were exercised by holders into Legacy Stem Common Stock in accordance with the terms thereof. Upon the consummation of the Merger, each share of Legacy Stem common stock then issued and outstanding was canceled and converted into the right to receive shares of Class A common stock of Stem using an exchange ratio of 4.6432

10

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
In connection with the execution of the Merger Agreement, STPK entered into separate subscription agreements (each, a “Subscription Agreement”) with a number of investors (each a “Subscriber”), pursuant to which the Subscribers agreed to purchase, and STPK agreed to sell to the Subscribers, an aggregate of 22,500,000 shares of common stock (the “PIPE Shares”), for a purchase price of $10 per share and an aggregate purchase price of $225.0 million, in a private placement pursuant to the subscription agreements (the “PIPE”). The PIPE investment closed simultaneously with the consummation of the Merger. The Merger is accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with GAAP. Under this method of accounting, STPK was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Merger was treated as the equivalent of Stem issuing stock for the net assets of STPK, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net liabilities of STPK of $304.0 million, comprised primarily of the warrant liabilities associated with the Public and Private Placement Warrants discussed in Note 9, are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded.
Liquidity and Going Concern
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of the Regulation S-X, assuming the Company will continue as a going concern. As of September 30, 2021, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $405.2 million, short-term investments of $170.8 million, an accumulated deficit of $475.0 million and net working capital of $573.3 million, with $14.3 million of financing obligation coming due within the next 12 months. During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, the Company incurred a net loss of $67.2 million and had negative cash flows from operating activities of $69.0 million. However, the Merger and the proceeds of $145.3 million from the exercise of Public Warrants (as described in Note 8 - Warrants), provided the Company with a significant amount of cash proceeds and, as such, the Company believes that its cash position is sufficient to meet capital and liquidity requirements for at least the next 12 months after the date that the financial statements are available to be issued.
The Company’s business prospects are subject to risks, expenses, and uncertainties frequently encountered by companies in the early stages of commercial operations. Prior to the Merger, the Company had been funded primarily by equity financings, convertible promissory notes and borrowings from affiliates. The attainment of profitable operations is dependent upon future events, including obtaining adequate financing to complete the Company’s development activities, securing adequate supplier relationships, building its customer base, successfully executing its business and marketing strategy, and hiring and retaining appropriate personnel. Failure to generate sufficient revenues, achieve planned gross margins and operating profitability, control operating costs, or secure additional funding may require the Company to modify, delay or abandon some of its planned future expansion or development, or to otherwise enact operating cost reductions available to management, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, operating results and financial condition.
COVID-19
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted and may continue to result in widespread adverse impacts on the global and U.S. economies. Ongoing government and business responses to COVID-19, along with the COVID-19 Delta variant and resurgence of related disruptions, could have a continued material adverse effect on economic and market conditions and trigger a period of continued global and U.S. economic slowdown.

The Company’s industry is currently facing shortages and shipping delays affecting the supply of energy storage systems, batteries, modules and component parts for inverters and battery energy storage systems available for purchase. These shortages and delays can be attributed in part to the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting government action. While a majority of the Company’s suppliers have secured sufficient quantities to permit them to continue delivery and installing through the end of 2021, if these shortages and delays persist into 2022, they could adversely affect the timing of when energy storage systems can be delivered and installed and when the Company can begin to generate revenue from those systems. The Company cannot predict the full effect the COVID-19 pandemic will have on its business, cash flows, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations at this time due to numerous uncertainties. The Company will continue to monitor developments affecting its workforce, its customers and its business operations generally, and will take actions it determines are necessary in order to mitigate these effects.
2.SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with GAAP for interim reporting and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X.
11

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Accordingly, the condensed balance sheet at December 31, 2020 has been derived from the audited financial statements at that date, but certain notes or other information that are normally required by GAAP have been omitted if they substantially duplicate the disclosures contained in the Company’s annual audited consolidated financial statements. In the opinion of Stem management, all normal and recurring adjustments considered necessary for a fair statement of the results for the interim period presented have been included in the accompanying unaudited financial statements. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company, its wholly-owned subsidiaries, and consolidated variable interest entities (“VIEs”). All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. These unaudited condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020. Operating results for the three and nine month period ended September 30, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2021 or for any other future interim period or year.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions believed to be reasonable. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences could be material to the financial position and results of operations.
Significant estimates and assumptions reflected in these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, depreciable life of energy systems; the amortization of financing obligations; deferred commissions and contract fulfillment costs; the valuation of energy storage systems, internally developed software, and asset retirement obligations; and the fair value of equity instruments, equity-based instruments, warrant liabilities and embedded derivatives.
Segment Information
Operating segments are defined as components of an entity for which discrete financial information is available that is regularly reviewed by the Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”) in deciding how to allocate resources to an individual segment and in assessing performance. The Company’s Chief Executive Officer is the CODM. The CODM reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of making operating decisions, allocating resources, and evaluating financial performance. As such, management has determined that the Company operates as one operating segment that is focused exclusively on innovative technology services that transform the way energy is distributed and consumed. Net assets outside of the U.S. were less than 10% of total net assets as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
Significant Customers
A significant customer represents 10% or more of the Company’s total revenue or accounts receivable, net balance at each reporting date. For each significant customer, revenue as a percentage of total revenue and accounts receivable as a percentage of total accounts receivable are as follows:
Accounts Receivable Revenue Revenue
September 30, December 31, Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020 2021 2020
Customers:
Customer A * 30  % * * 11  % *
Customer B * 20  % * * * *
Customer C 18  % 17  % 22  % * 12  % *
Customer D * * * * 13  % *
Customer H 12  % * 15  % 32  % 11  % 17  %
Customer I 12  % * * * * *
*Total less than 10% for the respective period

12

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Short-Term Investments
Investments with a maturity date greater than three months that the Company intends to convert to cash or cash equivalents within a year or less are classified as short-term investments in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. Additionally, in accordance with ASC 320, Investments - Debt Securities, the Company has classified all short-term investments as available-for-sale securities and changes in fair market value are reported in other comprehensive income (loss).

The Company’s utilizes its short-term investments as an alternative form of cash and, if the cash needs arise, could liquidate the investments at any point in time regardless of the contractual maturity of the investments. All of the Company’s investments are tradable on an active market and could be sold at fair value at any point in time.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value in the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are categorized based upon the level of judgment associated with the inputs used to measure their fair value. The fair value of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities reflects management’s estimate of amounts that the Company would have received in connection with the sale of the assets or paid in connection with the transfer of the liabilities in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. In connection with measuring the fair value of its assets and liabilities, the Company seeks to maximize the use of observable inputs (market data obtained from independent sources) and to minimize the use of unobservable inputs (internal assumptions about how market participants would price assets and liabilities).

Hierarchical levels which are directly related to the amount of subjectivity associated with the inputs to the valuation of these assets or liabilities are as follows:
Level 1 — Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access as of the measurement date.
Level 2 — Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are directly observable for the asset or liability or indirectly observable through corroboration with observable market data.
Level 3 — Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability only used when there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at the measurement date.
This hierarchy requires the Company to use observable market data, when available, and to minimize the use of unobservable inputs when determining fair value. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to their fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a specific input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires management to make judgments and consider factors specific to the asset or liability.
Financial assets and liabilities held by the Company measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 include cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments and warrant liabilities.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework — Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. The amendments applicable to the Company on the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should be prospectively applied in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments applicable to the Company should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. The Company adopted ASU 2018-13 as of January 1, 2020. The Company’s disclosures related to its level 3 financial instruments were not materially impacted for the periods presented. See Note 5, Fair Value Measurements, for more information.

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles — Goodwill and Other — Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract (“ASU 2018-15”). The intent of this pronouncement is to align the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software as defined in ASC 350-40. Under ASU 2018-15, the capitalized
13

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
implementation costs related to a cloud computing arrangement will be amortized over the term of the arrangement and all capitalized implementation amounts will be required to be presented in the same line items of the financial statements as the related hosting fees. ASU 2018-15 is effective for public and private companies’ fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and December 15, 2020, respectively, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted ASU 2018-15 as of January 1, 2021. The adoption did not have a material effect on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial instruments — Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, and subsequent related ASUs, which amends the guidance on the impairment of financial instruments by requiring measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held. This ASU is effective for public and private companies’ fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019, and December 15, 2022, respectively. The Company expects to adopt ASU 2016-13 under the private company transition guidance beginning January 1, 2023 and is currently assessing the effect, if any, the guidance will have on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”). ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. ASU 2019-12 will be effective for public entities for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. ASU 2019-12 will be effective for private entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company plans to adopt ASU 2019-12 for the fiscal year beginning January 1, 2022 and is currently assessing the effect, if any, the guidance will have on the Company's unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
3.REVENUE
The Company recognizes revenue through two types of arrangements with customers, host customer arrangements and partnership arrangements as described below.

Host Customer Arrangements

Host customer contracts are generally entered into with commercial entities that have traditionally relied on power supplied directly from the grid. Host customer arrangements consist of a promise to provide energy optimization services through the Company’s proprietary SaaS platform coupled with a dedicated energy storage system owned and controlled by the Company throughout the term of the contract. The host customer does not obtain legal title to, or ownership of the dedicated energy storage system at any point in time. The host customer is the end consumer of the energy that directly benefits from the energy optimization services provided by the Company. The term for the Company’s contracts with host customers generally ranges from 5 to 10 years, which may include certain renewal options to extend the initial contract term or certain termination options to reduce the initial contract term.
Although the Company installs an energy storage system at the host customer site in order to provide the energy optimization services, the Company directs how and for what purpose the asset is used through the operation of its SaaS platform and, as such, retains control of the energy storage system; therefore, the contract does not contain a lease. The Company determines the various energy optimization services provided throughout the term of the contract, which may include services such as remote monitoring, performance reporting, preventative maintenance and other ancillary services necessary for the safe and reliable operation of the energy storage system, are part of a combined output of energy optimization services and the Company provides a single distinct combined performance obligation representing a series of distinct days of services.
The Company determines the transaction price at the outset of the arrangement, primarily based on the contractual payment terms dictated by the contract with the customer. Fees charged to customers for energy optimization services generally consist of recurring fixed monthly payments throughout the term of the contract. In certain arrangements, the transaction price may include incentive payments that are earned by the host customer from utility companies in relation to the services provided by the Company. Under such arrangements, the rights to the incentive payments are assigned by the host customer to the Company. These incentives may be in the form of fixed upfront payments, variable monthly payments, or annual performance-based payments over the first five years of the customer contract term. Incentive payments may be contingent on approval from utility companies or actual future performance of the energy storage system.
14

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Substantially all of the Company’s arrangements provide customers the unilateral ability to terminate for convenience prior to the conclusion of the stated contractual term or the contractual term is shorter than the estimated benefit period, which the Company has determined to be 10 years based on the estimated useful life of the underlying energy storage systems and the period over which the customer can benefit from the energy optimization services utilizing such energy storage systems. In these instances, the Company determined that upfront incentive payments received from its customers represent a material right that is, in effect, an advance payment for future energy optimization services to be recognized throughout the estimated benefit period. In contracts where the customer does not have the unilateral ability to terminate for convenience without a penalty during the estimated benefit period, the Company determined the upfront incentive payments do not represent a material right for services provided beyond the initial contractual period and are therefore a component of the initial transaction price. The Company revisits its estimate of the benefit period each reporting period. The Company’s contracts with host customers do not contain a significant financing component.

The Company transfers control of its energy optimization services to its customers continuously throughout the term of the contract (a stand-ready obligation) and revenue is recognized ratably as control of these services is transferred to its customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be contractually entitled to in exchange for its services. Monthly incentive payments based on the performance of the energy storage system are allocated to the distinct month in which they are earned because the terms of the payments relate specifically to the outcome from transferring the distinct time increment (month) of service and because such amounts reflect the fees to which the Company expects to be entitled for providing energy optimization services each period, consistent with the allocation objective. Annual variable performance- based payments are estimated at the inception in the transaction price using the expected value method, which takes into consideration historical experience, current contractual requirements, specific known market events and forecasted energy storage system performance patterns, and the Company recognizes such payments ratably using a time-based measure of progress of days elapsed over the term of the contract to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of the cumulative revenue recognized will not occur in a future period. At the end of each reporting period, the Company reassesses its estimate of the transaction price. The Company does not begin recognition of revenue until the energy storage system is live (i.e., provision of energy optimization services has commenced) or, as it relates to incentive payments, when approval has been received from the utility company, if later.
Partnership Arrangements
Partnership arrangements consist of promises to transfer inventory in the form of an energy storage system to a “solar plus storage” project developer and separately provide energy optimization services as described previously to the ultimate owner of the project after the developer completes the installation of the project. Under partnership arrangements, the Company’s customer is the solar plus storage project developer. The customer obtains legal title to along with ownership and control of the inventory upon delivery and the customer is responsible for the installation of the project. Once installation of the project is complete, the owner of the solar plus storage project provides energy to the end consumer through a separate contractual arrangement directly with the end consumer. The term for the Company’s contracts with customers under partnership arrangements generally ranges from 10 to 20 years.
The Company determined the promise to deliver the inventory as a component of the solar plus storage project for which the customer is responsible to develop is a separate and distinct performance obligation from the promise to provide energy optimization services.
The Company determines the transaction price at the outset of the arrangement, primarily based on the contractual payment terms dictated by the contract with the customer. Fees charged for the sale of inventory generally consist of fixed fees payable upon or shortly after successful delivery to the customer. Fees charged to customers for energy optimization services consist of recurring fixed monthly payments throughout the term of the contract. The Company is responsible for designing, procuring, delivering and ensuring the proper components are provided in accordance with the requirements of the contract. Although the inventory is purchased by the Company from a third-party manufacturer, the Company determined it obtains control of the inventory prior to delivery to the customer and is the principal in the arrangement. The Company is fully responsible for responding to and correcting any customer issues related to the delivery of the inventory. The Company holds title and assumes all risks of loss associated with the inventory until the customer accepts the inventory. The Company is primarily responsible for fulfilling the delivery of the inventory to the customer, assumes substantial inventory risks and has discretion in the pricing charged to the customer. The Company has not entered into any partnership arrangements where it is not the principal in the transaction.
15

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
The Company allocates revenue between the hardware and energy storage services performance obligations based on the standalone selling price of each performance obligation. The standalone selling price for the hardware is established based on observable pricing. The standalone selling price for the energy optimization services is established using a residual value approach due to the significant variability in the services provided to each individual customer based on the specific requirements of each individual project and the lack of observable standalone sales of such services. The Company’s partnership arrangements do not contain a significant financing component.
The Company transfers control of the inventory upon delivery and simultaneous transfer of title to the customer. The Company transfers control of its energy optimization services to its customers continuously throughout the term of the contract (a stand-ready obligation), which does not commence until the customer successfully completes the installation of the project. As a result, the time frame between when the Company transfers control of the inventory to the customer upon delivery is generally several months, and can be in excess of one year, before the Company is required to perform any subsequent energy optimization services. Revenue is recognized ratably as control of these services is transferred to its customers based on a time-based output measure of progress of days elapsed over the term of the contract, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for its services.
In some partnership arrangements, the Company charges shipping fees for the inventory. The Company accounts for shipping as a fulfillment activity, since control transfers to the customer after the shipping is complete and includes such amounts within cost of revenue.
Disaggregation of Revenue
The following table provides information on the disaggregation of revenue as recorded in the consolidated statements of operations (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020
Partnership hardware revenue
$ 34,886 $ 5,523 $ 59,609 $ 6,950
Partnership service revenue
33 112
Host customer service revenue
4,914 3,649 14,870 10,711
Total revenue
$ 39,833 $ 9,172 $ 74,591 $ 17,661
Remaining Performance Obligations
Remaining performance obligations represent contracted revenue that has not been recognized, which include contract liabilities (deferred revenue) and amounts that will be billed and recognized as revenue in future periods. As of September 30, 2021, the Company had $207.2 million of remaining performance obligations, and the approximate percentages expected to be recognized as revenue in the future are as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
Total remaining
performance
obligations
Percent Expected to be Recognized as Revenue
Less than
one year
Two to
five years
Greater than
five years

Service revenue
$ 157,494  12  % 48  % 40  %
Hardware revenue
49,738  100  % —  % —  %
Total revenue $ 207,232 
16

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Contract Balances
Deferred revenue primarily includes cash received in advance of revenue recognition related to energy optimization services and incentives. The following table presents the changes in the deferred revenue balance during the nine months ended September 30, 2021 (in thousands):
Beginning balance as of January 1, 2021 $ 52,410 
Upfront payments received from customers 36,652 
Upfront or annual incentive payments received 4,575 
Revenue recognized related to amounts that were included in beginning balance of deferred revenue (32,139)
Revenue recognized related to deferred revenue generated during the period (12,626)
Ending balance as of September 30, 2021 $ 48,872 
4.SHORT-TERM INVESTMENTS
The following tables summarize the estimated fair value of the Company’s cash equivalents and debt securities and the gross unrealized holding gains and losses as of September 30, 2021 (in thousands):


Amortized cost Unrealized gain Unrealized Loss Estimated Fair Value
Assets
Cash equivalents:
Money market fund $ 3,787  $ —  $ —  $ 3,787 
Total cash equivalents $ 3,787  $ —  $ —  $ 3,787 
Debt securities:
Corporate debt securities $ 34,378  $ $ (17) $ 34,363 
Commercial paper $ 20,738  $ $ —  $ 20,740 
U.S. government bonds $ 80,845  $ $ (8) $ 80,840 
Certificate of deposits $ 24,520  $ $ —  $ 24,523 
Other $ 10,333  $ —  $ (4) $ 10,329 
Total debt securities $ 170,814  $ 10  $ (29) $ 170,795 
Classified as:
Cash equivalents $ 3,787 
Short-term debt securities $ 170,795 
Long-term debt securities $ — 
$ 174,582 

The Company periodically reviews the available-for-sale securities for other-than-temporary impairment loss. The Company considers factors such as the duration, severity and the reason for the decline in value, the potential recovery period and its intent to sell. For debt securities, it also considers whether (i) it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the securities before recovery of their amortized cost basis, and (ii) the amortized cost basis cannot be recovered as a result of credit losses. During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, the Company did not recognize any other-than-temporary impairment losses. All securities with unrealized losses have been in a loss position for less than 12 months.
5.FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS
Fair value accounting is applied for all financial assets and liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis. At September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the carrying amount of accounts receivable, other current assets, accounts payable, and accrued and other current liabilities approximated their estimated fair value due to their relatively short maturities. There were no assets or liabilities classified as Level 3 as of September 30, 2021.
The following table provides the financial instruments measured at fair value (in thousands):
17

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
September 30, 2021
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total
Assets
Cash equivalents:
Money market fund
$ 3,787 $ —  $ $ 3,787
Debt securities
Corporate debt securities —  34,363  —  34,363
Commercial paper —  20,740  —  20,740
U.S. government bonds —  80,840  —  80,840
Certificate of deposits —  24,523  —  24,523
Other —  10,329  —  10,329 
Total financial assets $ 3,787  $ 170,795  $ —  $ 174,582 

December 31, 2020
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total
Assets
Cash equivalents:
Money market fund
$ 67  $ —  $ —  $ 67 
Liabilities
Convertible preferred stock warrant liability
$ —  $ —  $ 95,342  $ 95,342 
The Company’s money market funds are classified as Level 1 because they are valued using quoted market prices. The Company’s short-term investments consist of available-for-sale securities and are classified as Level 2 because their value is based on valuations using significant inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data. The convertible preferred stock warrant liabilities are defined as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy as the valuations are based on significant unobservable inputs, which reflect the Company’s own assumptions incorporated in valuation techniques used to determine fair value; further discussion of these assumptions is set forth below. There were no transfers into or out of Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy during the periods presented.
Convertible Preferred Stock Warrant Liabilities
As discussed in Note 9 - Warrants, upon effectiveness of the Merger, substantially all of the outstanding convertible preferred stock warrants were converted into shares of Class A common stock of Stem. As such, the associated warrant liability was reclassified to additional paid-in-capital upon the Merger and was no longer an outstanding Level 3 financial instrument as of September 30, 2021. The fair value of the convertible preferred stock warrants as of September 30, 2020 was determined using the Black-Scholes method as well as a discount for lack of marketability. Black-Scholes inputs used to value the warrants are based on information from purchase agreements and within valuation reports prepared by an independent third party for the Company. Inputs include exercise price, volatility, fair value of common or preferred stock, expected dividend rate and risk-free interest rate.
The key assumptions used for the valuation of the preferred stock warrant liabilities upon remeasurement were as follows:
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2020
Volatility 65.0  %
Risk-free interest rate 0.1  %
Expected term (in years) 1.8
Dividend yield —  %
Discount for lack of marketability 36.5  %
18

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
The following table presents the changes in the liability for the Company’s warrants during the nine months ended September 30, 2021 (in thousands):
Warrant Liability
Balance as of December 31, 2020 $ 95,342 
Changes in estimated fair value (1,303)
Assumption of warrant liability upon Merger 303,221 
Conversion of warrants upon Merger (59,442)
Exchange of warrants (168,647)
Exercised warrants (169,171)
Balance as of September 30, 2021 $ — 
6.ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS, NET
Energy Storage Systems, Net
Energy storage systems, net, consists of the following (in thousands):
September 30, 2021
Energy storage systems placed into service $ 143,423 
Less: accumulated depreciation (42,465)
Energy storage systems not yet placed into service 13,191 
Total energy storage systems, net $ 114,149 
Depreciation expense for energy storage systems was approximately $3.6 million and $3.6 million for the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Depreciation expense for energy storage systems was approximately $10.8 million and $10.3 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Depreciation expense is recognized in cost of service revenue.
7.NOTES PAYABLE
Revolving Loan Due to SPE Member
In April 2017, the Company entered into a revolving loan agreement with an affiliate of a member of certain of the Company’s special purpose entities (“SPE”). This agreement was, from time to time, subsequently amended. The purpose of this revolving loan agreement was to finance the Company’s purchase of hardware for its various energy storage system projects. As of the beginning of 2020, the agreement had a total revolving loan capacity of $45.0 million that bore fixed interest at 10% with a maturity date of June 2020.
In May 2020, concurrent with the 2020 Credit Agreement discussed below, the Company entered into an amendment to the revolving loan agreement, which reduced the loan capacity to $35.0 million and extended the maturity date to May 2021. The amendment increased the fixed interest rate for any borrowings outstanding more than nine months to 14% thereafter. Additionally, under the original terms of the revolving loan agreement, the Company was able to finance 100% of the value of the hardware purchased up to the total loan capacity. The amendment reduced the advance rate to 85%, with an additional reduction to 70% in August 2020. The amendment was accounted for as a modification of the debt, which did not have a material impact on the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had $7.4 million outstanding under the revolving loan agreement. In April 2021, the Company repaid the remaining outstanding balance of this facility with the proceeds received from the Merger. The facility was terminated after the repayment in April 2021.
Term Loan Due to SPE Member
In December 2018, the Company entered into a term loan in the amount of $13.3 million with an affiliate of a member of certain SPEs with the Company. As of the beginning of 2020, the term loan bore fixed interest of 12.5% on the outstanding principal balance with a final balloon payment of $3.0 million due at the maturity date of June 30, 2020. In May 2020, the
19

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Company repaid the remaining outstanding balance of $5.9 million with the proceeds received through the 2020 Credit Agreement discussed below.
Term Loan Due to Former Non-Controlling Interest Holder
In June 2018, the Company acquired the outstanding member interests of an entity controlled by the Company for $8.1 million. The Company financed this acquisition by entering into a term loan agreement with the noncontrolling member bearing fixed interest of 4.5% per quarter (18.0% per annum) on the outstanding principal balance. The loan required fixed quarterly payments throughout the term of the loan, which was scheduled to be paid in full by April 1, 2026.
In May 2020, the Company amended the term loan and, using the proceeds from the 2020 Credit Agreement discussed below, prepaid $1.5 million of principal and interest on the note, of which $1.0 million was towards the outstanding principal balance, thereby reducing the fixed quarterly payment due to the lender. In relation to this amendment, the Company was required to issue warrants for 400,000 shares of common stock resulting in a discount to the term loan of $0.2 million. As of December 31, 2020, the outstanding balance was $5.8 million. In April 2021, the Company repaid the remaining outstanding balance of this facility with the proceeds received from the Merger. Upon prepayment of this facility, the Company incurred $2.6 million in prepayment penalties that were recorded to loss on extinguishment of debt in the Company’s statement of operations. The facility was terminated after the repayment in April 2021.
2020 Credit Agreement
In May 2020, the Company entered into a credit agreement (“2020 Credit Agreement”) with a new lender that provided the Company with proceeds of $25.0 million to provide the Company with access to working capital towards the purchase of energy storage system equipment. The 2020 Credit Agreement has a maturity date of the earlier of (1) May 2021, (2) the maturity date of the revolving loan agreement, or (3) the maturity date of the convertible promissory notes discussed below. The loan bore interest of 12% per annum, of which 8% was paid in cash and 4% added back to principal of the loan balance every quarter. The Company used a portion of the proceeds towards payments associated with existing debt as previously discussed. As of December 31, 2020, the outstanding balance was $25.6 million. In April 2021, the Company repaid the remaining outstanding balance of this facility with the proceeds received from the Merger. Upon prepayment of this facility, the Company incurred $1.4 million in prepayment penalties that were recorded to loss on extinguishment of debt in the Company’s statement of operations. The facility was terminated after the repayment in April 2021.
2021 Credit Agreement
In January 2021, the Company, through a wholly owned Canadian entity, entered into a credit agreement to provide a total of $2.7 million towards the financing of certain energy storage systems. The credit agreement is structured on a non-recourse basis and the system will be operated by the Company. The credit agreement has a stated interest of 5.45% and a maturity date of June 2031. The Company received an advance under the credit agreement of $1.8 million in January 2021. The repayment of advances received under this credit agreement is determined by the lender based on the proceeds generated by the Company through the operation of the underlying energy storage systems. As of September 30, 2021, and December 31, 2020, the outstanding balance was $1.9 million and zero, respectively. The Company was in compliance with all covenants contained in the 2021 Credit Agreement as of September 30, 2021.
The Company’s outstanding debt consisted of the following as of September 30, 2021 (in thousands):
9/30/2021
Outstanding principal $ 1,902 
Unamortized discount (227)
Carrying value of debt $ 1,675 
8.CONVERTIBLE PROMISSORY NOTES
As of December 31, 2020, the Company had various convertible notes outstanding to investors. The Company refers to the collective group of all such note instruments as the “Convertible Promissory Notes”. As of December 31, 2020, these Convertible Promissory Notes had a balance of $67.6 million. During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, the Company issued additional Convertible Promissory Notes. All Convertible Promissory Notes were converted and cancelled upon effectiveness of the Merger (see “—Conversion and Cancellation of Convertible Promissory Notes Upon Merger” below). As of September 30, 2021, there were no Convertible Promissory Notes outstanding.
20

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

Q1 2021 Convertible Notes
In January 2021, the Company issued and sold convertible promissory notes (the “Q1 2021 Convertible Notes”) under the same terms as the then existing Convertible Promissory Notes to various investors with aggregate gross proceeds of $1.1 million. The Company evaluated the conversion option within the Q1 2021 Convertible Notes and determined the effective conversion price was beneficial to the note holders. As such, the Company recorded a beneficial conversion feature (“BCF”) related to the issuance of the Q1 2021 Convertible Notes based on the difference between the effective conversion rate and the fair value of the stock into which it was convertible, limited by the amount of the aggregate gross proceeds. The BCF resulted in a $1.1 million discount to the Q1 2021 Convertible Notes with an increase to additional paid in capital. The Company accreted the discount in connection with the BCF as interest expense over the term of the Q1 2021 Convertible Notes using the effective interest rate method.
Conversion and Cancellation of Convertible Promissory Notes Upon Merger
Immediately prior to the effectiveness of the Merger, the entire balance of the Company’s outstanding Convertible Promissory Notes issued by Legacy Stem automatically converted into shares of Legacy Stem Common Stock. Upon the effectiveness of the Merger, these shares of Legacy Stem Common Stock automatically converted into 10,921,548 shares of Class A common stock of Stem. The balance associated with the outstanding Convertible Promissory Notes totaling $77.7 million, including $7.7 million of interest accrued on the notes through the date of Merger, was reclassified to additional paid-in-capital. The unamortized portion of the debt discount associated with the outstanding Q1 2021 Convertible Notes totaling $1.1 million was fully expensed to loss on extinguishment of debt on the Company’s statement of operations.
9.WARRANTS
Legacy Stem Warrants
Since inception the Company has issued warrants to purchase shares of Legacy Stem’s preferred stock in conjunction with various debt financings. See Note 5 - Fair Value Measurements, for further information regarding fair value measurements associated with the resulting warrant liabilities, which are remeasured on a recurring basis each period. The Company has also issued warrants to purchase shares of Legacy Stem’s common stock. Upon effectiveness of the Merger, the Company had 50,207,439 warrants outstanding, of which substantially all were converted into 2,759,970 shares of Class A common stock of Stem. Upon conversion of the warrants, the existing warrant liabilities were remeasured to fair value resulting in a gain on remeasurement of $100.9 million and a total warrant liability of $60.6 million, which was then reclassified to additional paid-in-capital. As of September 30, 2021, there were 23,634 Legacy Stem Warrants outstanding. These instruments are exercisable into the Company’s Class A common stock and are equity classified.
Public Warrants and Private Placement Warrants
As part of STPK’s initial public offering, under the Warrant Agreement dated as of August 20, 2020 (the “Warrant Agreement”) and, prior to the effectiveness of the Merger, STPK issued 12,786,168 warrants each of which entitled the holder to purchase one share of Class A common stock at an exercise price of $11.50 per share of common stock (the “Public Warrants”). Simultaneously with the closing of the IPO, STPK completed the private sale of 7,181,134 million warrants to STPK’s sponsor (the “Private Warrants”). Upon issuance, these warrants met the criteria for liability classification. Upon the effectiveness of the Merger, Stem assumed the outstanding Public Warrants and Private Warrants, which continued to meet the criteria for liability classification, resulting in assumed warrant liabilities of $185.9 million and $118.4 million, respectively, or a total warrant liability of $304.3 million.
On June 25, 2021, the Company entered into an exchange agreement (the “Exchange Agreement”) with the holders of the 7,181,134 outstanding Private Placement Warrants, pursuant to which such holders received 4,683,349 shares of the Company’s common stock on June 30, 2021, in exchange for the cancellation of the outstanding Private Placement Warrants. The Exchange Shares were issued in reliance upon the exemption provided by Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Immediately prior to the exchange, the Private Warrants were marked to fair value, resulting in a loss of $52.0 million. As a result of the Exchange Agreement, there were no Private Warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2021.

On August 20, 2021, the Company issued an irrevocable notice for redemption of all 12,786,129 of the Company’s outstanding public warrants at 5:00 p.m. Eastern time on September 20, 2021 (“Redemption Date”). Pursuant to the notice of redemption, holders exercised 12,638,723 Public Warrants for a purchase price of $11.50 per share, for proceeds to the
21

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Company of approximately $145.3 million. The Company redeemed all remaining outstanding Public Warrants that had not been exercised as of 5:00 p.m. Eastern time on the Redemption Date. As a result of the settlement of the Public Warrants, the Company recorded a gain of $134.9 million on the revaluation of the warrant liability. The Company also recorded a gain of $2.1 million on the redemption of unexercised public warrants. These gains are recorded in “change in fair value of warrants and embedded derivative” in the condensed consolidated statements of operation, in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021. The public warrants have been delisted from the NYSE, and there are no public warrants left outstanding.
Warrants Issued for Services
On April 7, 2021, the Company entered into a strategic relationship with an existing shareholder not deemed to be a related party to jointly explore on a non-exclusive basis possible business opportunities to advance projects in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe and Asia. As consideration for the strategic relationship, upon closing of the Merger, the Company issued warrants to purchase 350,000 shares of the Company’s common stock at an exercise price of $0.01 per share. These warrants were deemed to have been fully earned as of the grant date. The warrants were valued at fair market value as of the grant date totaling $9.2 million and recorded to general and administrative expense in the Company’s statement of operations. In May 2021, all of these warrants were exercised for shares of the Company’s common stock.
10.COMMON STOCK
The Company had reserved shares of common stock for issuance as follows:
September 30,
2021
Shares reserved for warrants 23,673
Options issued and outstanding 9,165,901
Shares available for future issuance under equity incentive plan 20,923,177
Total 30,112,751
11.STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION
Under both the Stem, Inc. 2009 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2009 Plan”) and the Stem Inc. 2021 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2021 Plan,” and together with the 2009 Plan, the “Plans”), the Company can grant stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and other awards that are settled in shares of the Company’s common stock. The Plans permit net settlement of vested awards, pursuant to which the award holder forfeits a portion of the vested award to satisfy the purchase price (in the case of stock options), the holder’s withholding tax obligation, if any, or both. When the holder net settles the tax obligation, the Company pays the amount of the withholding tax to the U.S. government in cash, which is accounted for as an adjustment to additional paid-in-capital. The Company does not intend to grant new awards under the 2009 Plan. At September 30, 2021, 8,166,991 stock options were outstanding under the 2009 Plan. In May 2021, the Company issued awards under the 2021 Plan, with 23,722,254 shares reserved thereunder.

Stock Options

Under the Plans, the exercise price of an option cannot be less than 100% of the fair value of one share of common stock for incentive or non-qualified stock options, and not less than 110% of the fair value for stockholders owning greater than 10% of all classes of stock, as determined by the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”). Options under the Plans generally expire after 10 years. Under the Plans, the Compensation Committee of the Board determines when the options granted will become exercisable. Options granted under the Plans generally vest 1/4 one year from the grant date and then 1/48 each month over the following three years and are exercisable for 10 years from the date of the grant. The Plans allow for exercise of unvested options with repurchase rights over the restricted common stock issued at the original exercise price. The repurchase rights lapse at the same rate as the options vest.
22

STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
The following table summarizes the stock option activity for the period ended September 30, 2021:
Number of
Options
Outstanding
Weighted-
Average
Exercise Price
Per Share
Weighted-
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life (years)
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
(in thousands)
Balances as of December 31, 2020 51,379,939  $ 0.56  7.2 $ 46,516 
Retroactive application of recapitalization (40,314,281) 2.05  — 
Adjusted Balance as of December 31, 2020 11,065,658  2.61  7.2 46,516 
Options granted 1,043,948  28.80 
Options exercised (2,842,564) 1.72 
Options forfeited (101,141) 14.03 
Balances as of September 30, 2021 9,165,901  $ 2.32  7.1 $ 171,226 
Options vested and exercisable — September 30, 2021 6,133,879  $ 2.32  6.2 $ 132,327 
The weighted-average grant date fair value of stock options granted to employees was $18.92 during the nine months ended September 30, 2021. There were 2,440,000 stock options granted during the nine months ended September 30, 2020. The intrinsic value of options exercised was $63.0 million and less than $0.1 million during the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. During the three months ended September 30, 2021, 1,440,026 stock options were exercised at a weighted average exercise price of $1.48 per share. During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, the Company issued 839,745 shares of common stock from the net settlement of 1,426,130 stock options and shares granted. The Company paid $12.6 million in withholding taxes in connection with the net share settlement of these awards.

Restricted Stock Units

RSUs represent a right to receive one share of the Company’s common stock that is both non-transferable and forfeitable unless and until certain conditions are satisfied. RSUs generally, either cliff vest on the third anniversary of the award grant date, or vest 1/4 per year over a four-year period, subject to continued employment through each anniversary. The fair value of restricted stock units is determined on the grant date and is amortized over the vesting period on a straight-line basis.

The following table summarizes the RSU activity for the period ended September 30, 2021:

Number of
RSUs
Outstanding
Weighted-
Average
Grant Date Fair Value
Per Share
Balances as of December 31, 2020 $ — 
RSUs granted 1,759,077 36.21 
RSUs vested
RSUs forfeited
Balances as of September 30, 2021 1,759,077 $ 36.21 

The fair value of all RSUs granted during the nine month period ended September 30, 2021 was $63.7 million. During the nine month period ended September 30, 2021, no RSUs vested.

Stock-Based Compensation
The following table summarizes stock-based compensation expense recorded in each component of operating expenses in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss (in thousands):
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STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020
Sales and marketing $ 723 $ (24) $ 975 $ 196
Research and development 965 33 1,384 519
General and administrative 4,511 486 5,624 712
Total stock-based compensation expense $ 6,199 $ 495 $ 7,983 $ 1,427
As of September 30, 2021, the Company had approximately $22.8 million of remaining unrecognized stock-based compensation expense for stock options, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 3.4 years. As of September 30, 2021, the Company had approximately $59.6 million of remaining unrecognized stock-based compensation expense for RSUs, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 5.1 years.
12.NET INCOME (LOSS) PER SHARE
The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders (in thousands, except share and per share amounts):
Three Months Ended
September 30,
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020
Numerator - Basic:
Net income (loss) $ 115,612  $ (18,785) $ (67,157) $ (55,237)
     Less: Deemed Dividend —  —  —  (9,484)
Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders, basic $ 115,612  $ (18,785) $ (67,157) $ (64,721)
Numerator - Diluted:
Net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders, basic 115,612  (18,785) (67,157) (64,721)
     Less: Gain from decrease in fair value and redemption of warrants (137,001) —  —  — 
Net loss attributable to common stockholders, diluted (21,389) (18,785) (67,157) (64,721)
Denominator:
Weighted-average number of shares outstanding used to compute net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders, basic 135,231,146  39,844,652  92,436,649  40,087,247 
Dilutive potential common shares 5,054,019  —  —  — 
Weighted-average number of shares outstanding used to compute net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, diluted 140,285,165  39,844,652  92,436,649  40,087,247 
Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders, basic $ 0.85  $ (0.47) $ (0.73) $ (1.61)
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, diluted $ (0.15) $ (0.47) $ (0.73) $ (1.61)
The following potentially dilutive shares were not included in the calculation of diluted shares outstanding for the periods presented as the effect would have been anti-dilutive:
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STEM, INC.
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
September 30, 2021 September 30, 2020
Convertible preferred stock —  175,593,919 
Outstanding convertible promissory notes —  35,358,748 
Outstanding stock options 9,165,901  43,971,965 
Outstanding warrants 23,673  6,001,639 
Outstanding RSUs 1,759,077  — 
Outstanding convertible preferred stock warrants —  39,697,463 
Total
10,948,651  300,623,734 
13.INCOME TAXES
The Company did not record a provision or benefit for income taxes during the nine months ended September 30, 2021. The Company recorded a tax provision of $0.1 million during the nine months ended September 30, 2020. The Company continues to maintain a full valuation allowance for its net U.S. federal and state deferred tax assets.
14.COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Contingencies
The Company is party to various legal proceedings from time to time. A liability is accrued when a loss is both probable and can be reasonably estimated. Management believes that the probability of a material loss with respect to any currently pending legal proceeding is remote. However, litigation is inherently uncertain and it is not possible to definitively predict the ultimate disposition of any of these proceedings. The Company does not believe that there are any pending legal proceedings or other loss contingencies that will, either individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse impact on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

Commitments
In June 2021, the Company entered into an agreement to lease 23,533 square feet of office space in San Francisco, California. The lease commenced on September 23, 2021 and expires on February 28, 2029. The lease agreement does not contemplate options to extend or reduce the non-cancelable lease term. Base rent is $160,809 per month with escalating payments. On September 23, 2021, the Company recognized a $12.6 million operating lease liability, and a $12.7 million operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) asset, which are included in the condensed consolidated balance sheet as of September 30, 2021.
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ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This third-quarter 2021 Form 10-Q, as well as other statements we make, contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws, which include any statements that are not historical facts. Such statements often contain words such as “expect,” “may,” “can,” “believe,” “predict,” “plan,” “potential,” “projected,” “projections,” “forecast,” “estimate,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “ambition,” “goal,” “target,” “think,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “will,” “hope” “see,” “likely,” and other similar words.

Forward-looking statements address matters that are, to varying degrees, uncertain, such as statements about the reduction of greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions; the integration and optimization of energy resources; the business strategies of Stem and those of its customers; the global commitment to decarbonization; our ability to retain or upgrade current customers, further penetrate existing markets or expand into new markets; our ability to manage our supply chains and distribution channels and the impact of natural disasters and other events beyond our control, such as the COVID-19 pandemic and the Delta variant, and government and business responses thereto; and future results of operations. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties, and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based upon assumptions and estimates that, while considered reasonable by Stem and its management, depend upon inherently uncertain factors and risks that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations, including our inability to help reduce GHG emissions; our inability to seamlessly integrate and optimize energy resources; our inability to achieve our financial and performance targets and other forecasts and expectations; our inability to recognize the anticipated benefits of our recent business combination with Star Peak Energy Transition Corp. (“Star Peak”); our ability to grow and manage growth profitably; risks relating to the development and performance of our energy storage systems and software-enabled services; the risk that the global commitment to decarbonization may not materialize as we predict, or even if it does, that we might not be able to benefit therefrom; our inability to retain or upgrade current customers, further penetrate existing markets or expand into new markets; our inability to secure sufficient inventory from our suppliers to meet customer demand, and provide us with contracted quantities of equipment; supply chain interruptions and manufacturing or delivery delays; disruptions in sales, production, service or other business activities; our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel; the risk that our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by other political, economic, business and competitive factors; and other risks and uncertainties set forth in this Form 10-Q, the section entitled “Risk Factors” in the definitive proxy statement relating to the business combination filed by Star Peak on March 30, 2021, the Form 10-K/A filed by Star Peak with the SEC on April 26, 2021, and our Forms 8-K filed with or furnished to the SEC. If one or more of these or other risks or uncertainties materialize (or the consequences of any such development changes), or should our underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual outcomes may vary materially from those reflected in our forward-looking statements. Statements in this third-quarter 2021 Form 10-Q are made as of November 9, 2021, and Stem disclaims any intention or obligation to update publicly or revise such statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

You should read the following management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included under Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. This discussion and analysis should also be read together with our audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 (“Annual Financial Statements”) and the section entitled “Stem’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results or Operations” contained in our Form S-1 filed with the SEC on July 19, 2021.You should carefully read the sections entitled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” to gain an understanding of the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our forward-looking statements. Throughout this section, unless otherwise noted “we”, “us”, “our” and the “Company” refer to Stem and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Star Peak Acquisition Corp. Merger

On April 28, 2021, Star Peak Energy Transition Corp. (“STPK”), an entity listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the trade symbol “STPK”, acquired Stem, Inc. (“Legacy Stem”), by the merger of STPK Merger Sub Corp., a Delaware corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary of STPK (“Merger Sub”), with and into Legacy Stem, with Legacy Stem continuing as the surviving entity and a wholly-owned subsidiary of STPK (the “Merger”). The public company resulting from the Merger was renamed Stem, Inc., which we refer to as “Stem”, “we”, “us”, “our”, or the Company, and is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the trade symbol “STEM”. Upon the consummation of the Merger, Stem received approximately $550.3 million, net of fees and expenses. See Note 1 - Business, of the Notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in this report, for additional details regarding this transaction. For financial reporting purposes, Legacy Stem is treated as the accounting acquirer.
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Overview
Our mission is to build and operate the largest, digitally connected, intelligent energy storage network for our customers. In order to fulfill our mission, (i) we provide our customers, which include commercial and industrial (“C&I”) enterprises as well as independent power producers, renewable project developers, utilities and grid operators, with an energy storage system, sourced from leading, global battery original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), that we deliver through our partners, including solar project developers and engineering, procurement and construction firms and (ii) through our Athena artificial intelligence (“AI”) platform (“Athena”), we provide our customers with on-going software-enabled services to operate the energy storage systems for 10 to 20 years. In addition, in all the markets where we operate our customers’ systems, we have agreements to manage the energy storage systems using the Athena platform to participate in energy markets and to share the revenue from such market participation.
We operate in two key areas within the energy storage landscape: Behind-the-Meter (“BTM”) and Front-of-the-Meter (“FTM”). An energy system’s position in relation to a customer’s electric meter determines whether it is designated a BTM or FTM system. BTM systems provide power that can be used on-site without interacting with the electric grid and passing through an electric meter. Our BTM systems reduce C&I customer energy bills and help our customers facilitate the achievement of their corporate environmental, social, and corporate governance (“ESG”) objectives. FTM, grid-connected systems provide power to off-site locations and must pass through an electric meter prior to reaching an end-user. Our FTM systems decrease risk for project developers, lead asset professionals, independent power producers and investors by adapting to dynamic energy market conditions in connection with the deployment of electricity and improving the value of energy storage over the course of their FTM system’s lifetime.
Since our inception in 2009, we have engaged in developing and marketing Athena’s software enabled services, raising capital, and recruiting personnel. We have incurred net operating losses and negative cash flows from operations each year since our inception. We have financed our operations primarily through the issuance of convertible preferred stock, debt financing, and cash flows from customers.
Our total revenue grew from $9.2 million for the three months ended September 30, 2020 to $39.8 million for the three months ended September 30, 2021. For the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, we earned net income of $115.6 million and incurred net losses of $18.8 million, respectively. Our total revenue grew from $17.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 to $74.6 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2021. For the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, we incurred net losses of $67.2 million and $55.2 million, respectively. As of September 30, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $475.0 million.

We expect that our sales and marketing, research and development, regulatory and other expenses will continue to increase as we expand our marketing efforts to increase sales of our solutions, expand existing relationships with our customers, and obtain regulatory clearances or approvals for future product enhancements. In addition, we expect our general and administrative costs and expenses to increase due to the additional costs associated with scaling our business operations as well as being a public company, including legal, accounting, insurance, exchange listing and SEC compliance, investor relations and other costs and expenses.
Some Key Factors, Trends and Risks Affecting our Business
We believe that our performance and future success depend on several factors that present significant opportunities for us but also pose risks and challenges, including but not limited to:
Decline in Lithium-Ion Battery Costs
Our revenue growth is directly tied to the continued adoption of energy storage systems by our customers. The cost of lithium ion energy storage hardware has declined significantly in the last decade and has resulted in a large addressable market today. The market for energy storage is rapidly evolving, and while we believe costs will continue to decline, there is no guarantee. If costs do not continue to decline, or do not decline as quickly as we anticipate, this could adversely affect our ability to increase our revenue and grow our business.
Increase in Deployment of Renewables
Deployment of intermittent resources has accelerated over the last decade, and today, wind and solar have become a low cost fuel source. We expect the cost of generating renewable energy to continue to decline and deployments of energy storage systems to increase. As renewable energy sources of energy production are expected to represent a larger proportion of energy generation, grid instability rises due to their intermittency, which can be addressed by energy storage solutions.
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Competition
We are currently a market leader in terms of capacity of energy storage under management. We intend to expand our market share over time by leveraging the network effect of Athena’s AI infrastructure. Existing competitors may expand their product offerings and sales strategies, and new competitors may enter the market. Furthermore, our competitors include other types of software providers and some hardware manufacturers that offer software solutions. If our market share declines due to increased competition, our revenue and ability to generate profits in the future may be adversely affected.
Government Regulation and Compliance
Although we are not regulated as a utility, the market for our product and services is heavily influenced by federal, state, and local government statutes and regulations concerning electricity. These statutes and regulations affect electricity pricing, net metering, incentives, taxation, competition with utilities, and the interconnection of customer-owned electricity generation. In the United States and internationally, governments continuously modify these statutes and regulations and acting through state utility or public service commissions, regularly change and adopt different rates for commercial customers. These changes can positively or negatively affect our ability to deliver cost savings to customers.
Impact of COVID-19

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted and may continue to result in widespread adverse effects on the global and the U.S. economy. Ongoing government and business responses to COVID-19, along with the COVID-19 Delta variant and resurgence of related disruptions, could have a continued material adverse impact on economic and market conditions and trigger a period of continued global and U.S. economic slowdown.

Our industry is currently facing shortages and shipping delays affecting the supply of inverters, enclosures, battery modules and associated component parts for inverters and battery energy storage systems available for purchase. These shortages and delays can be attributed in part to the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting government action. While a majority of our suppliers have secured sufficient supply to permit them to continue delivery and installations through the end of 2021, if these shortages and delays persist into 2022, they could adversely affect the timing of when battery energy storage systems can be delivered and installed, and when (or if) we can begin to generate revenue from those systems. We cannot predict the full effects the COVID-19 pandemic will have on our business, cash flows, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations at this time due to numerous uncertainties. We will continue to monitor developments affecting our workforce, our suppliers, our customers and our business operations generally, and will take actions we determine are necessary in order to mitigate these impacts as much as possible.


Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In addition to our results determined in accordance with GAAP, we use Adjusted EBITDA and non-GAAP gross margin, which are non-GAAP financial measures, for financial and operational decision making and as a means to evaluate our operating performance and future prospects, develop internal budgets and financial goals, and to facilitate period-to-period comparisons. Our management believes that these non-GAAP financial measures provide meaningful supplemental information regarding our performance and liquidity by excluding certain expenses and expenditures that may not be indicative of our operating performance, such as stock-based compensation and other non-cash charges, as well as discrete cash charges that are infrequent in nature. We believe that both management and investors benefit from referring to these non-GAAP financial measures in assessing our performance and when planning, forecasting, and analyzing future periods. These non-GAAP financial measures also facilitate management’s internal comparisons to our historical performance and liquidity as well as comparisons to our competitors’ operating results. We believe these non-GAAP financial measures are useful to investors both because they (1) allow for greater transparency with respect to key metrics used by management in its financial and operational decision making and (2) are used by our institutional investors and the analyst community to help them analyze the health of our business. Adjusted EBITDA and non-GAAP gross margin should not be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP.
Non-GAAP gross margin

We define non-GAAP gross margin as gross margin excluding amortization of capitalized software, impairments related to decommissioning of end-of-life systems, and certain operating expenses including communication and cloud services expenditures reclassified to cost of revenue.
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The following table provides a reconciliation of gross margin (GAAP) to non-GAAP gross margin ($ in millions, except for percentages):


Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020
Revenue $ 39.8  $ 9.2  $ 74.6  $ 17.7 
Cost of revenue (36.7) (10.9) (71.7) (22.5)
Gross Margin (GAAP) 3.1  (1.7) 2.9  (4.9)
Gross Margin % (GAAP) % (19) % % (28) %
Adjustments to Gross Margin:
Amortization of Capitalized Software 1.4  1.0  3.8  2.9 
Impairments 0.7  1.4  2.0  2.8 
Other Adjustments (1)
0.6  —  2.1  0.3 
Non-GAAP Gross Margin $ 5.8  $ 0.7  $ 10.8  $ 1.0 
Non-GAAP Gross Margin % 15  % % 14  % %
     (1) Consists of certain operating expenses including communication and cloud service expenditures reclassified to cost of revenue.

Adjusted EBITDA

As discussed above, we believe that Adjusted EBITDA is useful for investors to use in comparing our financial performance with the performance of other companies. Nonetheless, the expenses and other items that we exclude in our calculation of Adjusted EBITDA may differ from the expenses and other items, if any, that other companies may exclude when calculating Adjusted EBITDA.

We calculate Adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) before net interest expense, income tax provision and depreciation and amortization, including amortization of internally developed software, further adjusted to exclude stock-based compensation and other income and expense items, including the change in fair value of warrants and embedded derivatives, vesting of warrants and loss on extinguishment of debt.

The following table provides a reconciliation of net loss to Adjusted EBITDA:
Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020
(in thousands) (in thousands)
Net income (loss) $ 115,612  $ (18,785) $ (67,157) $ (55,237)
Adjusted to exclude the following:
Depreciation and amortization 5,305  3,924  15,620  13,769 
Interest expense 2,674  4,265  12,835  13,826 
Loss on extinguishment of debt —  —  5,064  — 
Stock-based compensation 6,199  495  7,983  1,427 
Issuance of warrants for services —  —  9,183  — 
Change in fair value of warrants and embedded derivative (137,001) 2,096  (3,424) 3,005 
Provision for income taxes —  142  —  142 
Adjusted EBITDA $ (7,211) $ (7,863) $ (19,896) $ (23,068)
Key Metrics

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The following table presents our key metrics:

Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
2021 2020 2021 2020
(in millions) (in millions)
Key Financial Metrics
Revenue $ 39.8  $ 9.2  $ 74.6  $ 17.7 
Gross Margin (GAAP) $ 3.1  $ (1.7) $ 2.9  $ (4.9)
Gross Margin % (GAAP) % (19) % % (28) %
Non-GAAP Gross Margin $ 5.8  $ 0.7  $ 10.8  $ 1.0 
Non-GAAP Gross Margin % 15  % % 14  % %
Net Income (loss) $ 115.6  $ (18.8) $ (67.2) $ (55.2)
Adjusted EBITDA $ (7.2) $ (7.9) $ (19.9) $ (23.1)
Key Operating Metrics
12-Month Pipeline (in billions) (1) $ 2.4  ** * **
Bookings (in millions) (2) 103.7  36.6  148.8  94.3 
Contracted Backlog (in millions) (3) 312  ** * **
Contracted AUM (in GWh) (4) 1.4  1.0  * **
* at period end
** not available
(1) As described below.
(2) As described below.
(3) Total value of bookings in dollars, as reflected on a specific date. Backlog increases as new contracts are executed (bookings) and decreases as integrated storage systems are delivered and recognized as revenue.
(4) Total GWh of systems in operation or under contract.

Pipeline

Pipeline represents the total value (excluding market participation revenue) of uncontracted, potential hardware and software contracts that are currently being pursued by Stem direct salesforce and channel partners with developers and independent power producers seeking energy optimization services and transfer of energy storage systems that have a reasonable likelihood of execution within 12 months of the end of the relevant period based on project timelines published by such developers and independent power producers. We cannot guarantee that our pipeline will result in meaningful revenue or profitability.

Bookings
Due to the long-term nature of our contracts, bookings are a key metric that allows us to understand and evaluate the growth of our Company and our estimated future revenue related to customer contracts for our energy optimization services and transfer of energy storage systems. Bookings represents the accumulated value at a point in time of contracts that have been executed under both our host customer and partnership sales models.

For host customer sales, bookings represent the expected consideration from energy optimization services contracts, including estimated incentive payments that are earned by the host customer from utility companies in relation to the services provided by us and assigned by the host customer to us. For host customer sales, there are no differences between bookings and remaining performance obligations at any point in time.

For partnership sales, bookings are the sum of the expected consideration to be received from the transfer of hardware and energy optimization services (excluding any potential revenues from market participation). For partnership sales, even though we have secured an executed contract with estimated timing of project delivery and installation from the customer, we do not consider it a contract in accordance with ASC 606 or a remaining performance obligation until the customer has placed a binding purchase order. A signed customer contract is considered a booking as this indicates the customer has agreed to place a
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purchase order in the foreseeable future, which typically occurs within three (3) months of contract execution. However, executed customer contracts, without binding purchase orders, are cancellable without penalty by either party.

For partnership sales, once a purchase order has been executed, the booking is considered to be a contract in accordance with ASC 606, and therefore, gives rise to a remaining performance obligation as we have an obligation to transfer hardware and energy optimization services in our partnership agreements. We also have the contractual right to receive consideration for our performance obligations.

The accounting policy and timing of revenue recognition for host customer contracts and partnership arrangements that qualify as contracts with customers under ASC 606, are described within Note 3- Revenue, of the Notes to the audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2020.

Components of Our Results of Operations
Revenue
We generate service revenue and hardware revenue. Service revenue is generated through arrangements with host customers to provide energy optimization services using our proprietary cloud-based software platform coupled with a dedicated energy storage system owned and controlled by us throughout the term of the contract. Fees charged to customers for energy optimization services generally consist of recurring fixed monthly payments throughout the term of the contract and in some arrangements, an installation and/or upfront fee component. We may also receive incentives from utility companies in relation to the sale of our services.

We generate hardware revenue through partnership arrangements consisting of promises to sell an energy storage system to a solar plus storage project developers. Performance obligations are satisfied when the energy storage system along with all ancillary hardware components are delivered. The milestone payments received before the delivery of hardware is treated as deferred revenue. We separately generate services revenue through partnership arrangements by providing energy optimization services after the developer completes the installation of the project.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of hardware revenue includes the cost of the hardware, which generally includes the cost of the hardware purchased from a manufacturer, shipping, delivery, and other costs required to fulfill our obligation to deliver the energy storage system to the customer location. Cost of revenue may also include any impairment of energy storage systems held in our inventory for sale to our customer. Cost of hardware revenue related to the sale of energy storage systems is recognized when the delivery of the product is completed.

Cost of service revenue includes depreciation of the cost of energy storage systems we own under long-term customer contracts, which includes capitalized fulfillment costs, such as installation services, permitting and other related costs. Cost of revenue may also include any impairment of inventory and energy storage systems, along with system maintenance costs associated with the ongoing services provided to customers. Costs of revenue are recognized as energy optimization and other supporting services are provided to our customers throughout the term of the contract.
Gross Margin
Our gross margin fluctuates significantly from quarter to quarter. Gross margin, calculated as revenue less costs of revenue, has been, and will continue to be, affected by various factors, including fluctuations in the amount and mix of revenue and the amount and timing of investments to expand our customer base. We hope to increase both our gross margin in absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue through enhanced operational efficiency and economies of scale.
Operating Expenses
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expense consists of payroll and other related personnel costs, including salaries, stock-based compensation, employee benefits, and travel for our sales and marketing personnel. In addition, sales and marketing expense includes trade show costs, amortization of intangibles and others expenses. We expect to our selling and marketing expense to increase in future periods to support the overall growth in our business.

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Research and development
Research and development expense consists primarily of payroll and other related personnel costs for engineers and third parties engaged in the design and development of products, third-party software and technologies, including salaries, bonus and stock-based compensation expense, project material costs, services and depreciation. We expect research and development expense to increase in future periods to support our growth, including continuing to invest in optimization, accuracy and reliability of our platform and other technology improvements to support and drive efficiency in our operations. These expenses may vary from period to period as a percentage of revenue, depending primarily upon when we choose to make more significant investments.
General and Administrative Expense
General and administrative expense consists of payroll and other related personnel costs, including salaries, stock-based compensation, employee benefits and expenses for executive management, legal, finance and other costs. In addition, general and administrative expense includes fees for professional services and occupancy costs. We expect our general and administrative expense to increase in future periods as we scale up headcount with the growth of our business, and as a result of operating as a public company, including compliance with the rules and regulations of the SEC, legal, audit, additional insurance expenses, investor relations activities, and other administrative and professional services.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Interest Expense
Interest expense consists primarily of interest on our outstanding borrowings under our outstanding notes payable, convertible promissory notes, and financing obligations and accretion on our asset retirement obligations.
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt
Loss on extinguishment of debt consists of penalties incurred in relation to the prepayment of our outstanding borrowings under our outstanding notes payable and the write-off of any unamortized debt issuance costs associated with such notes.
Change in Fair Value of Warrants and Embedded Derivatives
Change in fair value of warrants and embedded derivatives is related to the revaluation of our outstanding convertible preferred stock warrant liabilities and embedded derivatives related to the redemption features associated with our convertible notes at each reporting date.
Other Expenses, Net
Other expenses, net consists primarily of income from equity investments and foreign exchange gains or losses.

















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Results of Operations for the Three Months Ended September 30, 2021 and 2020
Three Months Ended
September 30,
$ Change % Change
2021 2020
(In thousands, except percentages)
Revenue
Service revenue $ 4,947 $ 3,649 $ 1,298 36%
Hardware revenue 34,886 5,523 29,363 *
Total revenue 39,833 9,172 30,661 334%
Cost of revenue
Cost of service revenue 6,639 5,828 811 14%
Cost of hardware revenue 30,057 5,074 24,983 *
Total cost of revenue 36,696 10,902 25,794 237%
Gross margin 3,137  (1,730) 4,867  281%
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing 4,975  3,053  1,922  63%
Research and development 6,268  5,052  1,216  24%
General and administrative 11,024  2,635  8,389  318%
Total operating expenses 22,267  10,740  11,527  107%
Loss from operations (19,130) (12,470) (6,660) 53%
Other income (expense), net:
Interest expense (2,674) (4,265) 1,591  (37)%
Loss on extinguishment of debt —  —  —  *
Change in fair value of warrants and embedded derivative 137,001  (2,096) 139,097  *
Other expenses, net 415  188  227  121%
Total other income (expense) 134,742  (6,173) 140,915  (2,283)%
Income (loss) before income taxes 115,612  (18,643) 134,255  (720)%
Income tax expense —  (142) 142  *
Net income (loss) $ 115,612  $ (18,785) $ 134,397  (715)%
*Percentage is not meaningful

Revenue
Revenue increased by $30.7 million, or 334%, for the three months ended September 30, 2021, as compared to the three months ended September 30, 2020. The increase was primarily driven by a $29.4 million increase in hardware revenue due to increase in demand for systems related to both FTM and BTM partnership agreements. Services revenue increased by $1.3 million primarily due to continued growth in host customers arrangements and partnership revenue related to services provided.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue increased by $25.8 million, or 237%, for the three months ended September 30, 2021, as compared to the three months ended September 30, 2020. The increase was primarily driven by an increase of cost of hardware sales of $25.0 million in line with the increase in hardware revenue, and an increase of $0.8 million in cost of service revenue associated with growth in service revenue.
Operating Expenses
Sales and Marketing
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Sales and marketing expense increased by $1.9 million, or 63%, for the three months ended September 30, 2021, as compared to the three months ended September 30, 2020. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $0.8 million in personnel related expenses as a result of higher headcount, an increase of $0.7 million in stock-based compensation expense primarily due to grants of stock options and RSUs to employees, and an increase of $0.3 million in professional services.
Research and Development
Research and development expense increased by $1.2 million, or 24%, for the three months ended September 30, 2021, as compared to the three months ended September 30, 2020. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $1.7 million in personnel related expenses as a result of higher headcount, and an increase of $0.9 million in stock-based compensation expense primarily due to grants of stock options and RSUs to employees. The increase was partially offset by a decrease of $1.1 million in third-party software and technologies related expenses, and a decrease of $0.3 million in professional services.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expense increased by $8.4 million, or 318% for the three months ended September 30, 2021 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2020. The increase was primarily driven by an increase of $4.1 million in stock-based compensation expense primarily due to grants of stock options and RSUs to employees, an increase of $1.6 million in professional and legal services, an increase of $1.5 million in insurance and office related expenses, and an increase of $1.1 million in personnel related expenses as a result of higher headcount.

Other Income (Expense), Net
Interest Expense
Interest expense decreased by $1.6 million, or 37%, for the three months ended September 30, 2021 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2020. The decrease was primarily driven by the repayment of loans and the conversion of convertible notes in relation to the Merger. The decrease in interest expense was partially offset by an increase of $0.7 million in interest expense in connection with the financing obligation, and an increase of $0.3 million in amortization of premium on debt securities.
Change in Fair Value of Warrants and Embedded Derivative
The change in fair value of warrants and embedded derivative reflected $137.0 million gain in the three months ended September 30, 2021, compared to $2.1 million loss the three months ended September 30, 2020.

The $137.0 million gain in the three months ended September 30, 2021 resulted from the extinguishment of the warrant liability in connection with the exercise and redemption of the Public Warrants. The gain of $137.0 million encompasses a $134.9 million revaluation gain from the decrease in the fair value of the Public Warrants, and a $2.1 million gain on the redemption of unexercised Public Warrants on the Redemption Date.

The $2.1 million expense in the three months ended September 30, 2020 resulted from a revaluation loss of the Series A, D and D’ warrants and embedded derivative.
Other Expenses, Net
Other expenses, net increased by $0.2 million, or 121%, for the three months ended September 30, 2021 compared to the three months ended September 30, 2020. The net increase was primarily driven by foreign exchange losses realized in the period related to operations in Canada.








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Results of Operations for the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2021 and 2020
Nine Months Ended
September 30,
$ Change % Change
2021 2020
(In thousands, except percentages)
Revenue
Service revenue $ 14,982 $ 10,711 $ 4,271 40%
Hardware revenue 59,609 6,950 52,659 *
Total revenue 74,591 17,661 56,930 322%
Cost of revenue
Cost of service revenue 19,354  16,083 3,271  20%
Cost of hardware revenue 52,343  6,439 45,904  *
Total cost of revenue 71,697  22,522