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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from   to
Commission file number: 001-39504
SNOW-20210131_G1.JPG
SNOWFLAKE INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
46-0636374
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
450 Concar Drive
San Mateo, CA 94402
(Address of principal executive offices)
(844) 766-9355
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class Trading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, $0.0001 par value SNOW The New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: Not Applicable

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.         Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.     Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.        Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     Yes No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Small reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.      ☐ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.      ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes No
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant on March 1, 2021, based on the closing price of $272.17 for shares of the Registrant’s Class A common stock as reported by the New York Stock Exchange, was approximately $65.9 billion. The Registrant has elected to use March 1, 2021 as the calculation date because on July 31, 2020 (the last business day of the Registrant’s second fiscal quarter), the Registrant was a privately held company.
As of March 1, 2021, there were 288.7 million shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock, par value of $0.0001 per share, outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's definitive Proxy Statement relating to the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated herein by references in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. Such Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant's fiscal year ended January 31, 2021.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
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5
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2

SPECIAL NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, (Securities Act), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act), about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this report, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial condition, business strategy, and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, forward-looking statements may be identified by words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potentially,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

our expectations regarding our revenue, expenses, and other operating results, including statements relating to the portion of our remaining performance obligations that we expect to be recognized as revenue in future periods;
our ability to acquire new customers and successfully retain existing customers;
our ability to increase consumption on our platform;
our ability to achieve or sustain our profitability;
future investments in our business, our anticipated capital expenditures, and our estimates regarding our capital requirements;
the costs and success of our sales and marketing efforts, and our ability to promote our brand;
our growth strategies for our platform and the Data Cloud;
our reliance on key personnel and our ability to identify, recruit, and retain skilled personnel;
our ability to effectively manage our growth, including any international expansion;
our ability to protect our intellectual property rights and any costs associated therewith;
the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic or other public health crises and their related public health measures on our business, the business of our customers and partners, and the economy;
our ability to compete effectively with existing competitors and new market entrants; and
the growth rates of the markets in which we compete.
We caution you that the foregoing list may not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including risks described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K may include additional factors that could harm our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ from those contained in, or implied by, any forward-looking statements.

3

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We cannot assure you that the events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will be achieved or occur. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason after the date of this report or to conform these statements to actual results or to changes in our expectations. You should read this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the documents that we reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and have filed as exhibits to this report with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance, and achievements may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

Investors and others should note that we may announce material business and financial information to our investors using our investor relations website (investors.snowflake.com), our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), webcasts, press releases, and conference calls. We use these mediums, including our website, to communicate with investors and the general public about our company, our products, and other issues. It is possible that the information that we make available on our website may be deemed to be material information. We therefore encourage investors and others interested in our company to review the information that we make available on our website.

4

PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
We believe in a data connected world where organizations have seamless access to explore, share, and unlock the value of data. To realize this vision, we deliver the Data Cloud, an ecosystem where Snowflake customers, partners, data providers, and data consumers can break down data silos and derive value from rapidly growing data sets in secure, governed, and compliant ways.

Our platform is the innovative technology that powers the Data Cloud, enabling customers to consolidate data into a single source of truth to drive meaningful business insights, build data-driven applications, and share data. We provide our platform through a customer-centric, consumption-based business model, only charging customers for the resources they use.

Snowflake solves the decades-old problem of data silos and data governance. Leveraging the elasticity and performance of the public cloud, our platform enables customers to unify and query data to support a wide variety of use cases. It also provides frictionless and governed data access so users can securely share data inside and outside of their organizations, generally without copying or moving the underlying data. As a result, customers can blend existing data with new data for broader context, augment data science efforts, and create new monetization streams. Delivered as a service, our platform requires near-zero maintenance, enabling customers to focus on deriving value from their data rather than managing infrastructure.

Our cloud-native architecture consists of three independently scalable layers across storage, compute, and cloud services. The storage layer ingests massive amounts and varieties of structured and semi-structured data to create a unified data record. The compute layer provides dedicated resources to enable users to simultaneously access common data sets for many use cases without latency. The cloud services layer intelligently optimizes each use case’s performance requirements with no administration. This architecture is built on three major public clouds across 23 regional deployments around the world. These deployments are interconnected to deliver the Data Cloud, enabling a consistent, global user experience.

Our platform supports a wide range of use cases that enable our customers’ most important business objectives, including data warehousing, data lakes, data engineering, data science, data application development, and data sharing. From January 1, 2021 to January 31, 2021, we processed an average of over 777 million daily queries across all of our customer accounts, up from an average of over 364 million daily queries during the corresponding month of the prior fiscal year.

Our business benefits from powerful network effects. The Data Cloud will continue to grow as organizations move their siloed data from cloud-based repositories and on-premises data centers to the Data Cloud. The more customers adopt our platform, the more data can be exchanged with other Snowflake customers, partners, data providers, and data consumers, enhancing the value of our platform for all users. We believe this network effect will help us drive our vision of the Data Cloud.

Our platform is used globally by organizations of all sizes across a broad range of industries. As of January 31, 2021, we had 4,139 total customers, increasing from 2,392 customers as of January 31, 2020. As of January 31, 2021, our customers included 186 of the Fortune 500, based on the 2020 Fortune 500 list, and those customers contributed approximately 27% of our revenue for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021. Our Fortune 500 customer count is subject to adjustments for annual updates to the Fortune 500 list by Fortune, as well as acquisitions, consolidations, spin-offs, and other market activity with respect to such customers. As our customers experience the benefits of our platform, they typically expand their usage significantly, as evidenced by our net revenue retention rate, which was 168% as of January 31, 2021. The number of customers that contributed more than $1 million in trailing 12-month product revenue increased from 41 to 77 as of January 31, 2020 and 2021, respectively.

We have achieved significant growth in recent periods. For the fiscal years ended January 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, our revenue was $592.0 million, $264.7 million, and $96.7 million, respectively, representing year-over-year growth of 124% and 174%, respectively. Our net loss was $539.1 million, $348.5 million, and $178.0 million for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively.
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The Rise of the Data Cloud
Data exists everywhere, but is often held hostage in silos by machines, applications, networks, and clouds. In order to access the value of this data, organizations are undergoing massive digital transformation initiatives, and data is driving operations for many modern enterprises. In an effort to mobilize data, companies have invested billions of dollars in disparate on-premises systems, infrastructure clouds, and application clouds. Yet, there are a myriad of challenges associated with legacy data solutions and the data silo problem persists.

We believe the Data Cloud can enable a world without data silos, allowing organizations to effortlessly discover, access, derive insights from, and share data from a variety of sources. Customers can share and provide access to each other’s data, augment data science and machine learning algorithms with more data sets, connect global supply chains through data hubs, and create new monetization channels by connecting data providers and consumers. As the Data Cloud grows through broad adoption and increasing usage, there are enhanced benefits from greater data availability.
Our Solution
Our platform is built on a cloud-native architecture that leverages the massive scalability and performance of the public cloud. Our platform allows customers to consolidate data into a single source of truth to drive meaningful business insights, power applications, and share data across regions and public clouds. Key elements of our platform include:

Diverse data types. Our platform integrates and optimizes both structured and semi-structured data as a common data set, without sacrificing performance or flexibility.
Massive scalability of data volumes. Our platform leverages the scalability and performance of the public cloud to support growing data sets without sacrificing performance.
Multiple use cases and users simultaneously. Our platform makes compute resources dynamically available to address the demand of as many users and use cases as needed. Because the storage layer is independent of compute, the data is centralized and simultaneously accessible by many users without compromising performance or data integrity.
Optimized price-performance. Our platform uses advanced optimizations to efficiently access only the data required to deliver the desired results. It delivers speed without the need for tuning or the expense of manually organizing data prior to use. Organizations can adjust their consumption to precisely match their needs, always optimizing for price-performance.
Easy to use. Our platform can be up and running in seconds and is priced based on a consumption-based business model, reducing hidden costs and ensuring customers pay only for what they use. We also use a familiar programming model and query language, saving organizations from additional time and costs to learn new skills or hire specialized analysts or data scientists.
Delivered as a service with no overhead. Our platform is delivered as a service, eliminating the cost, time, and resources associated with managing underlying infrastructure. We deliver automated platform updates regularly with minimal planned downtime, eliminating expensive and time-consuming version and patch management. This gives customers the ability to consume more data at a lower total cost of ownership compared with other solutions.
Multi-cloud and multi-region. Our platform is available on three major public clouds across 23 regional deployments around the world. These deployments are interconnected to provide a global and consistent user experience.
Seamless and secure data sharing. Our platform enables governed and secure sharing of live data within an organization and externally across customers and partners, generally without copying or moving the underlying data. When sharing data across regions and public clouds, our platform allows customers to easily replicate data and maintain a single source of truth.
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Key Benefits to our Customers
Our platform enables customers to:

Transform into data-driven businesses. Our platform eliminates data silos, empowers secure and governed access to data, and removes data management and infrastructure complexities. This enables organizations to drive greater insights, improve products and services, and pursue new business opportunities.
Consolidate data into a single, analytics-ready source of truth. Our platform simplifies our customers’ data infrastructure by centralizing data in an analytics-ready format. As a result, organizations are able to deliver secure, fast, and accurate decision making. It also simplifies governance and minimizes the errors, complexity, and costs associated with managing data silos.
Increase agility and augment insights through seamless data sharing. Our platform allows customers to seamlessly share and consume live data across their organizations, and with their partners, customers, and suppliers, without moving the underlying data. By simplifying data access across the organization, our customers can make faster, better decisions. Through data sharing within and outside of their ecosystems, our customers are able to blend their existing data with broader context to gain deeper insights and enhance their partnerships.
Create new monetization streams and data-driven applications. Our platform allows customers to unlock previously untapped monetization streams and create new data-driven applications. This enables organizations to better reach, engage, and retain their end customers.
Benefit from a global multi-cloud strategy. Our platform delivers a consistent product experience across regions and public clouds. With a global multi-cloud strategy, organizations can optimize for the best features and functionality each public cloud provides, without becoming overly reliant on a single public cloud provider. Our customers can optimize their cloud costs, seamlessly migrate data among public clouds without having to alter existing security policies, and implement regional strategies, including to meet regulatory and data sovereignty requirements.
Reduce time spent managing infrastructure. Because we deliver our platform as a service, our customers can focus on driving immediate value from their data and not on managing complex and expensive infrastructure.
Enable greater data access through enhanced data governance. Security and governance, including the encryption of data in transit and at rest, were designed into our platform architecture. This provides customers with the confidence to share their data inside their organizations, as well as with their partners, customers, and suppliers, to unlock new insights.
Our Growth Strategies
We intend to invest in our business to advance the Data Cloud through the adoption of our platform. Our growth strategies include:

Innovate and advance our platform. We have a history of technological innovation, releasing new features on a regular basis and making frequent updates to our platform. We intend to continue making significant investments in research and development and hiring top technical talent to enable new use cases, strengthen our technical lead in our platform’s architecture, and increase our differentiation through enhanced data sharing capabilities. For example, we introduced our Data Marketplace in 2019, significantly enhancing our data sharing capabilities and advancing our vision of the Data Cloud.
Drive growth by acquiring new customers. We believe that nearly all organizations will eventually embrace a cloud strategy, and that the opportunity to continue growing our customer base, particularly with larger organizations, is substantial. To drive new customer growth, we intend to continue investing in sales and marketing, with a focus on replacing legacy database solutions and big data offerings.
Drive increased usage within our existing customer base. As customers realize the benefits of our platform, they typically increase their platform consumption by processing, storing, and sharing more data. We plan to continue investing in sales and marketing, with a focus on driving more consumption on our platform to grow large customer relationships, which lead to scale and operating leverage in our business model.
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Expand our global footprint. As organizations around the world increase their public cloud adoption, we believe there is a significant opportunity to expand the use of our platform outside of North America. We have made investments in sales and marketing, research and development, customer support, and public cloud deployments across the EMEA and Asia-Pacific regions.
Expand data content and data sharing across our global ecosystem. Our platform provides an innovative way for organizations to share, collaborate, and connect with data. We plan to continue investing in adding new customers, partners, data providers, and data consumers to connect on our platform, and to drive market awareness of the Data Cloud.
Grow and invest in our partner network. Our Snowflake Partner Network is comprised of system integrators, resellers, and other services partners who help accelerate the adoption of our platform, and technology partners, who help provide end-to-end solutions to our customers. We plan to continue investing in building out our partner program to drive more consumption on our platform, broaden our distribution footprint, acquire new customers, and drive greater awareness of our platform.
Our Platform
Our platform unifies data and supports a growing variety of use cases, including data warehousing, data lakes, data engineering, data science, data application development, and data sharing. Customers can leverage our platform for any one of these use cases, but when taken together, it provides an integrated, end-to-end solution that delivers greater insights, faster data transformations, and improved data sharing. Delivered as a service, our platform is deployed across multiple public clouds and regions, is easy to use, and requires near-zero maintenance.
Use Cases
Organizations use our platform to power the following use cases:

Data Warehouse. Our platform provides reporting and analytics to increase business intelligence. For Data Warehouse, our platform enables organizations to:
Support multiple users and activities concurrently. Enable multiple activities, such as repeatable analytics, rendering of dashboards, or ad hoc explorations, such as data science model training, with flexible compute capacity, no resource contention, and no provisioning of any infrastructure.
Generate comprehensive data insights. Customers can run SQL-based queries on both structured and semi-structured data to capitalize on a more comprehensive view of their data to drive maximum insights.
Simplify data governance. Gain immediate insight into data and usage patterns and set policies and configurations to maximize governance.
Data Lake. Our platform can serve as a central data repository without trade-offs in performance, security, or data governance. It can also augment existing data lakes with seamless access to external data and open formats. For Data Lake, our platform enables organizations to:
Build a modern scalable data lake in the cloud. Consolidate all structured and semi-structured data into one centralized place with the scalability, security, and analytical power of data warehousing in the cloud to enable real-time analytics on all data. Customers can rely on this centralized data repository to address a variety of use cases.
Enact better governance and security to enable broader data access. Simplify data governance and provide rich security and controls to ensure data is managed and accessed according to regulatory and corporate requirements.
Data Engineering. Our platform enables data engineers, IT departments, data science teams, and business analytics teams to efficiently build and manage data pipelines using SQL to transform raw data into actionable data for business insights. For Data Engineering, our platform enables organizations to:
Drive faster decision making. Ingest data and transform it in real time to ensure access to up-to-date information to drive better business outcomes.
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Dynamically meet peak business demands. Meet fluctuating business demands by instantly scaling resources up and down.

Data Science. A majority of data science efforts involve transforming massive amounts of raw data at scale to enable advanced analytics, such as advanced statistical analysis and machine learning techniques. For Data Science, our platform enables organizations to:
Accelerate transformations across massive data sets. Store and transform data at scale with the massive scalability and performance of the public cloud.
Integrate with leading data science tools and languages. Manage resources for data transformation and use leading data science tools, with the support of Scala, R, Java, and Python, to build machine learning algorithms in a single cloud platform.
Data Application Development. Our platform can power new applications as well as enable existing applications with capabilities for reporting and analytics. For Data Application Development, our platform enables organizations to:
Develop analytical applications. Build data-driven applications with our platform serving as the analytical engine to provide massive scalability and insights.
Embed Snowflake into existing applications. Feed data and analytics directly into business applications in the context of daily workstreams.
Data Sharing. Our platform enables organizations to securely share, connect, collaborate, monetize, and acquire live data sets. For Data Sharing, our platform enables organizations to:
Create a private data hub. Build a private data hub for employees across all parts of the organization to access, collaborate, and analyze data.
Acquire data sets to enrich analytics. Leverage public data sets on our Data Marketplace to enrich insights, augment analysis, and inform machine learning algorithms.
Monetize new data sets. Upload data sets to our Data Marketplace and tap into new monetization streams.
Invite external parties to access governed data. Invite customers, suppliers, and partners, to securely access their data to streamline operations and increase transparency.
Easy data replication. Our platform allows for easy replication of data for multiple users across multiple public cloud providers and regions without compromising data integrity and governance, enabling our customers and their users to rely on a single source of truth.
Architecture
Our platform was built from the ground up to take advantage of the cloud, and is built on an innovative multi-cluster, shared data architecture. It consists of three independently scalable layers deployed and connected globally across public clouds and regions:

Centralized storage. The storage layer is based on scalable cloud storage and can manage both structured and semi-structured data. It can be grown independently of compute resources, allowing for maximum scalability and elasticity, and ensures a single, persistent copy of the data. The stored data is automatically partitioned, and metadata is extracted during loading to enable efficient processing.
Multi-cluster compute. The compute layer is designed to capitalize on the instant elasticity and performance of the public cloud. Compute clusters can be spun up and down easily within seconds, enabling our platform to retrieve the optimal data required from the storage layer to answer queries and transform data with optimized price-performance. This functionality allows a multitude of users and use cases to operate on a single copy of the data.
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Cloud services. The cloud services layer acts as the brain of the platform ensuring the different components work in unison to deliver a consistent user-friendly customer experience. It performs a variety of tasks, including security operations, system monitoring, query optimization, and metadata and state tracking throughout the platform.
This architecture is built on three major public clouds across 23 regional deployments around the world. These deployments are interconnected to deliver the Data Cloud, enabling a global and consistent user experience.
Our Technology
Innovation is at the core of our culture. We have developed innovative technology across our platform, including managed service, storage, query capabilities, compute model, data sharing, global infrastructure, and integrated security.

Managed Service
High availability. Within a region, all components of our platform are distributed over multiple data centers to ensure high availability. Hardware and software problems are automatically detected and addressed by the system, with full transparency to our customers.
Transactions. Our platform supports full ACID compliant transactional integrity, ensuring that data remains consistent even when our platform is concurrently used by many users and use cases.
Data availability and recovery. Our platform provides customers the ability to replicate data across various deployments, create point-in-time consistent snapshots of data, and view or recover deleted or changed data over a configured period of time. This allows customers to avoid difficult trade-offs between high recovery times, data loss, or downtime.
Storage
Columnar data. Our platform stores data in a proprietary columnar representation, which optimizes the performance of analytical and reporting queries. It also provides high compression ratios, resulting in economic benefits for customers.
Micro-partitioning. Our platform automatically partitions all data it stores without the need for user specification or configuration. It creates small files called “micro partitions” based on size, enabling optimizations in query processing to retrieve only the data relevant for user queries, simplifying user administration and enhancing performance.
Metadata. When data is ingested, our platform automatically extracts and stores metadata to speed up query processing. It does so by collecting data distribution information for all columns in every micro-partition.
Semi-structured data. Our platform supports semi-structured data, including JSON, Avro, and Parquet. Data in these formats can be ingested and queried with performance comparable to a relational, structured representation.
Query Capabilities. Our platform is engineered to query petabytes of data. It implements support for a large subset of the ANSI SQL standard for read operations and data modification operations. Our platform provides additional features, including:
Time travel. Our platform keeps track of all changes happening to a table, which enables customers to query previous versions based on their preferences. Customers can query as of a relative point in time or as of an absolute point in time. This has a broad array of use cases for customers, including error recovery, time-based analysis, and data quality checks.
Cloning. Our architecture enables us to offer zero-copy cloning, an operation by which entire tables, schemas, or databases can be duplicated—or cloned—without having to copy or duplicate the underlying data. Our platform leverages the separation between cloud services and storage to be able to track independent clones of objects sharing the same physical copy of the underlying data. This enables a variety of customer use cases such as making copies of production data for data scientists, creating custom snapshots in time, or testing data pipelines.
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Compute Model. Our platform offers a variety of capabilities to operate on data, from ingestion to transformation, as well as rich query and analysis. Our compute services are primarily presented to users in one of two models, either through explicit specification of compute clusters we call virtual warehouses or through a number of serverless services.
Virtual warehouses. Our platform exposes compute clusters as a core concept called virtual warehouses. Our customers are able to create as few or as many virtual warehouses as they want and specify compute capacity at tiered levels. These clusters can be configured to run only when needed, with cluster instantiation operations typically completed in seconds. Virtual warehouses can also be configured as a multi-cluster warehouse in which our platform can automatically add and remove additional instances of a given cluster to address variations in query demands. This gives us the ability to offer extremely high levels of concurrency with a simple configuration specification.
Serverless services. We offer a number of additional services that automatically provide the capacity our customers require. For example, our data ingestion service automatically ingests data from cloud storage and allocates compute capacity based on the amount of data ingested; our clustering service continuously rearranges the physical layout of data to ensure conformity with clustering key specifications, improving performance; our materialized views service propagates changes from underlying tables to views that have materialized subsets or summaries; our replication service moves data between regions or clouds; and our search optimization service analyzes changes in data and maintains information that speeds up lookup queries.
Data Sharing. In our platform, data sharing is defined through access control and not through data movement. As such, the data consumer sees no latency relative to updates from the data provider, and incurs no cost to move or transform data to make it usable.
Global Infrastructure
Database replication. Our platform enables customers to replicate data from one region or public cloud to another region or public cloud while maintaining transactional integrity.
Business continuity. Our platform enables failing over and failing back a database and redirecting clients transparently across regions or public clouds. This provides an integrated and global disaster recovery capability.
Global listings for sharing. Our platform enables a listing to be published globally to access consumers across regions or public clouds.
Built-in Security. We built our platform with security as a core tenet. Our platform provides a number of capabilities for customers to confidently use our platform while preserving the security requirements of their organizations, including:
Authentication. Our platform supports rich authentication capabilities, including federated authentication with a variety of identity providers, as well as support for multi-factor authentication.
Access control. Our platform provides a fine-grained security model based on role-based access control. It provides granular privileges on system objects and actions.
Data encryption. Our platform encrypts all data, both in motion and at rest, and simplifies operations by providing automatic re-keying of data. It also supports customer-managed keys, where an additional layer of encryption is provided by keys controlled by customers, giving them the ability to control access to the data.
Sales and Marketing
We sell our platform primarily through our direct sales team, which consists of field sales and inside sales professionals segmented by customer size, region, and recently, industry. Our direct sales team is primarily focused on new customer acquisitions and driving increased usage of our platform by existing customers. The breadth of our platform allows us to engage at every level of an organization, including data analysts and data engineers through our self-service model and senior executives through our direct sales team. The substantial majority of our global sales and marketing efforts are carried out by teams located in North America. Outside of North America, we have dedicated direct sales teams for the EMEA and Asia-Pacific regions for organizations of all sizes.
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Many organizations initially adopt our platform through a self-service trial on our website. We deploy a range of marketing strategies to drive traffic to our website and usage of our platform. Our marketing team combines the creation of inbound demand with direct marketing, business development, and marketing efforts targeted at business and technology leaders.
Partnerships
Our partnership strategy is focused on delivering complete end-to-end solutions for our customers, driving general awareness of our platform, and broadening our distribution and reach to new customers. Our Snowflake Partner Network is a global program that manages our business relationships with a broad-based network of companies. Our partnerships consist of channel partners, system integrators, and technology partners. Collectively, these partners help us source leads, execute transactions, and provide training and implementation of our platform. Our system integrator partners help make the adoption and migration of our platform easier by providing implementations, value-added professional services, managed services, and resale services. Our technology partners provide strategic value to our customers by providing software tools, such as data loading, business intelligence, machine learning, data governance, and security, as well as data sets on our Data Marketplace, to augment the capabilities of our platform. We continue to invest in formal alliances with the leading consulting, data management, and implementation service providers to help our customers migrate their legacy database solutions to the cloud. Over time, we expect our partner network to drive more customers and consumption to our platform.
Research and Development
Our research and development organization is responsible for the design, development, testing, and delivery of new technologies, features, integrations, and improvements of our platform. It is also responsible for operating and scaling our platform, including the underlying public cloud infrastructure. Research and Development employees are currently working remotely. When our Research and Development employees return to an office, we expect them to be located primarily in or around Bellevue, Washington; Berlin, Germany; San Mateo, California; Toronto, Canada; and Warsaw, Poland.

Our research and development organization consists of teams specializing in software engineering, user experience, product management, data science, technical program management, and technical writing. As of January 31, 2021, we had 478 employees in our research and development organization. We intend to continue to invest in our research and development capabilities to expand our platform.
Our Competition
The markets we serve are highly competitive and rapidly evolving. With the introduction of new technologies and innovations, we expect the competitive environment to remain intense. Our competition includes the following:

large, well-established, public cloud providers that generally compete in all of our markets, including Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure (Azure), and Google Cloud Platform (GCP);
less-established public and private cloud companies with products that compete in some of our markets; and
other established vendors of legacy database solutions or big data offerings.
We believe we compete favorably based on the following competitive factors:

ability to provide and innovate around an architecture that is purpose-built for the cloud;
ability to efficiently and seamlessly ingest diverse data types in one location at scale;
ability to drive business value and ROI;
ability to support multiple use cases in one platform;
ability to provide seamless and secure access of data to many users simultaneously;
ability to seamlessly and securely share and move data across public clouds or regions;
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ability to provide a consistent user experience across multiple public cloud providers;
ability to provide pricing transparency and optimized price-performance benefits;
ability to elastically scale up and scale down in high-intensity use cases;
ease of deployment, implementation, and use;
performance, scalability, and reliability;
security and governance; and
quality of service and customer satisfaction.
See the section titled “Risk Factors” for a more comprehensive description of risks related to competition.
Seasonality
Historically, we have received a higher volume of orders from new and existing customers in the fourth fiscal quarter of each year as a result of industry buying patterns. As a result, our sequential growth in remaining performance obligations has historically been highest in the fourth fiscal quarter of each year. For more information, see the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
Human Capital Resources
General
As of January 31, 2021, we had 2,495 employees operating across 19 countries. None of our employees are represented by a labor union with respect to his or her employment. In certain countries in which we operate, such as France, we are subject to, and comply with, local labor law requirements, which include works councils and industry-wide collective bargaining agreements. We have not experienced any work stoppages, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good.
Location
We are a Delaware corporation with a globally distributed workforce. We recruit and hire employees in jurisdictions around the world based on a range of factors, including the available talent pool, the type of work being performed, the relative cost of labor, regulatory requirements and costs, and other considerations. Since April 2020, the vast majority of our workforce has been working remotely. Although we expect most of our employees to return to physical offices in the future, the nature and extent of that return is uncertain.
Culture and Engagement
We consider our culture and employees to be important to our success. Our culture is driven by our core company values:

Put Customers First: We only succeed when our customers succeed, so we focus on what matters most to them.

Integrity Always: We are open, honest, and respectful.

Think Big: We set big goals that will make a positive impact and a lasting difference.

Be Excellent: We hold ourselves to the highest standards to achieve quality and excellence in everything we do.

Make Each Other the Best: We bring ideas and people together through respect and collaboration.

Get it Done: We follow through on our commitments and deliver results.

Own It: We hold ourselves accountable at all times.

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Embrace Each Other’s Differences: We are mindful that everyone has different experiences, and we use our differences to strengthen who we are.
We have invested substantial time and resources in building our team, and we measure employee performance against our company values. We are dependent on our management, highly-skilled software engineers, and sales personnel, and it is crucial that we continue to attract and retain valuable employees. To facilitate attraction and retention, we strive to provide opportunities for our employees to grow and develop in their careers, supported by strong compensation and benefits programs, including equity-based compensation that is designed to align our employees’ interests with those of our stockholders.
Intellectual Property
Intellectual property rights are important to the success of our business. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions, as well as license agreements, confidentiality procedures, non-disclosure agreements with third parties, and other contractual protections, to protect our intellectual property rights, including our proprietary technology, software, know-how, and brand. We use open source software in our platform.

As of January 31, 2021, we held 89 issued U.S. patents and had 216 U.S. patent applications pending. We also held 50 issued patents in foreign jurisdictions. Our issued patents are scheduled to expire between January 2024 and May 2040. As of January 31, 2021, we held 13 registered trademarks in the United States, and also held 80 registered or protected trademarks in foreign jurisdictions. We continually review our development efforts to assess the existence and patentability of new intellectual property.

Although we rely on intellectual property rights, including patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets, as well as contractual protections to establish and protect our proprietary rights, we believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel, creation of new services, features and functionality, and frequent enhancements to our platform are more essential to establishing and maintaining our technology leadership position.

We control access to and use of our proprietary technology and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, including contractual protections with employees, contractors, customers, and partners. We require our employees, consultants, and other third parties to enter into confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements, and we control and monitor access to our software, documentation, proprietary technology, and other confidential information. Our policy is to require all employees and independent contractors to sign agreements assigning to us any inventions, trade secrets, works of authorship, developments, processes, and other intellectual property generated by them on our behalf and under which they agree to protect our confidential information. In addition, we generally enter into confidentiality agreements with our customers and partners. See the section titled “Risk Factors” for a more comprehensive description of risks related to our intellectual property.
Available Information
Our website address is www.snowflake.com. Information found on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, and is not incorporated into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We file electronically with the SEC our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. We make available on our website at www.snowflake.com, free of charge, copies of these reports and other information as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those described below. You should consider and read carefully all of the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before making an investment decision. The risks described below are not the only ones we face. The occurrence of any of the following risks or additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations. In such case, the trading price of our common stock could decline.
Risk Factors Summary
Below is a summary of the principal factors that make an investment in our common stock speculative or risky:

We have a limited operating history, which makes it difficult to forecast our future results of operations.
We may not have visibility into our financial position and results of operations.
We have a history of operating losses and may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
The markets in which we operate are highly competitive, and if we do not compete effectively, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be harmed.
If we fail to innovate in response to changing customer needs and new technologies and other market requirements, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be harmed.
If we or our third-party service providers experience an actual or perceived security breach or unauthorized parties otherwise obtain access to our customers’ data, our data, or our platform, our platform may be perceived as not being secure, our reputation may be harmed, demand for our platform may be reduced, and we may incur significant liabilities.
We could suffer disruptions, outages, defects, and other performance and quality problems with our platform or with the public cloud and internet infrastructure on which it relies.
We expect fluctuations in our financial results, making it difficult to project future results, and if we fail to meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors with respect to our results of operations, our stock price could decline.
Failure to effectively develop and expand our sales and marketing capabilities could harm our ability to increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our products and platform.
Sales efforts to large customers involve risks that may not be present or that are present to a lesser extent with respect to sales to smaller organizations.
The COVID-19 pandemic could have an adverse impact on our business, operations, and the markets and communities in which we, our partners, and customers operate.
Risks Related to Our Business and Operations
We have a limited operating history, which makes it difficult to forecast our future results of operations.
We were founded in 2012 and first offered our platform for sale in 2014. Our revenue was $592.0 million, $264.7 million, and $96.7 million for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively. However, you should not rely on the revenue growth of any prior quarterly or annual period as an indication of our future performance. As a result of our limited operating history, our ability to accurately forecast our future results of operations, including revenue, remaining performance obligations (RPO), and the percentage of RPO we expect to be recognized as revenue in future periods, is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to plan for and model future growth and platform consumption. Our historical revenue growth should not be considered indicative of our future performance.

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Further, in future periods, our revenue growth could slow or our revenue could decline for a number of reasons, including slowing demand for our platform, increased competition, changes to technology, a decrease in the growth of our overall market, or our failure, for any reason, to continue to take advantage of growth opportunities. We have also encountered, and will continue to encounter, risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, such as the risks and uncertainties described below. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties and our future revenue growth are incorrect or change, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations, and our business could suffer.
We may not have visibility into our financial position and results of operations.
Customers consume our platform by using compute, storage, and data transfer resources. Unlike a subscription-based business model, in which revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the subscription, we generally recognize revenue on consumption. Because our customers have flexibility in the timing of their consumption, we do not have the visibility into the timing of revenue recognition that a typical subscription-based software company has. There is a risk that customers will consume our platform more slowly than we expect, and our actual results may differ from our forecasts. Further, investors and securities analysts may not understand how our consumption-based business model differs from a subscription-based business model, and our business model may be compared to subscription-based business models. If our quarterly results of operations fall below the expectations of investors and securities analysts who follow our stock, the price of our common stock could decline substantially, and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class actions.
We have a history of operating losses and may not achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
We have experienced net losses in each period since inception. We generated net losses of $539.1 million, $348.5 million, and $178.0 million for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively. As of January 31, 2021 and 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $1.2 billion and $700.3 million, respectively. We expect our costs and expenses to increase in future periods. In particular, we intend to continue to invest significant resources to further develop our platform and expand our sales, marketing, and professional services teams. In addition, our platform currently operates on public cloud infrastructure provided by AWS, Azure, and GCP, and our costs and gross margins are significantly influenced by the prices we are able to negotiate with these public cloud providers, which in certain cases are also our competitors. We will also incur increased general and administrative expenses associated with our growth, including costs related to internal systems and operating as a public company. Our efforts to grow our business may be costlier than we expect, or our revenue growth rate may be slower than we expect, and we may not be able to increase our revenue enough to offset the increase in operating expenses resulting from these investments. If we are unable to achieve and sustain profitability, or if we are unable to achieve the revenue growth that we expect from these investments, the value of our business and common stock may significantly decrease.
The markets in which we operate are highly competitive, and if we do not compete effectively, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be harmed.
The markets in which we operate are rapidly evolving and highly competitive. As these markets continue to mature and new technologies and competitors enter such markets, we expect competition to intensify. Our current competitors include:

large, well-established, public cloud providers that generally compete in all of our markets, including AWS, Azure, and GCP;
less-established public and private cloud companies with products that compete in some of our markets;
other established vendors of legacy database solutions or big data offerings; and
new or emerging entrants seeking to develop competing technologies.
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We compete based on various factors, including price, performance, breadth of use cases, multi-cloud availability, brand recognition and reputation, customer support, and differentiated capabilities, including ease of implementation and data migration, ease of administration and use, scalability and reliability, data governance, security, and compatibility with existing standards and third-party products. Many of our competitors have substantially greater brand recognition, customer relationships, and financial, technical, and other resources than we do, and may be able to respond more effectively than us to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards, customer requirements, and buying practices.

We currently only offer our platform on the public clouds provided by AWS, Azure, and GCP, which are also some of our primary competitors. Currently, a substantial majority of our business is run on the AWS public cloud. There is risk that one or more of these public cloud providers could use its respective control of its public clouds to embed innovations or privileged interoperating capabilities in competing products, bundle competing products, provide us unfavorable pricing, leverage its public cloud customer relationships to exclude us from opportunities, and treat us and our customers differently with respect to terms and conditions or regulatory requirements than it would treat its similarly situated customers. Further, they have the resources to acquire, invest in, or partner with existing and emerging providers of competing technology and thereby accelerate adoption of those competing technologies. All of the foregoing could make it difficult or impossible for us to provide products and services that compete favorably with those of the public cloud providers.

For all of these reasons, competition may negatively impact our ability to maintain and grow consumption of our platform or put downward pressure on our prices and gross margins, any of which could materially harm our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition.
If we fail to innovate in response to changing customer needs and new technologies and other market requirements, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be harmed.
We compete in markets that evolve rapidly. We believe that the pace of innovation will continue to accelerate as customers increasingly base their purchases of cloud data platforms on a broad range of factors, including performance and scale, markets addressed, types of data processed, ease of data ingestion, user experience, and data governance and regulatory compliance. We introduced data warehousing on our platform in 2014 as our core use case, and our customers subsequently began using our platform for additional use cases, including data lake, data engineering, data science, data application development, and data sharing. Our future success depends on our ability to continue to innovate and increase customer adoption of our platform and the Data Cloud. Further, the value of our platform to customers is increased to the extent they are able to use it for all of their data. We need to continue to invest in technologies, services, and partnerships that increase the types of data available and processed on our platform and the ease with which customers can ingest data into our platform. We must also continue to enhance our data sharing and data marketplace capabilities so customers can share their data with internal business units, customers, and other third parties, and acquire additional third-party data to combine with their own data in order to gain additional business insights. In addition, our platform requires third-party public cloud infrastructure to operate. Currently, we use public cloud offerings provided by AWS, Azure, and GCP. We will need to continue to innovate to optimize our offerings for these and other public clouds that our customers require, particularly as we expand internationally. Further, the markets in which we compete are subject to evolving industry standards and regulations, resulting in increasing data governance and compliance requirements for us and our customers. To the extent we expand further into the public sector and highly regulated industries, our platform may need to address additional requirements specific to those industries.

If we are unable to enhance our platform to keep pace with these rapidly evolving customer requirements, or if new technologies emerge that are able to deliver competitive products at lower prices, more efficiently, more conveniently, or more securely than our platform, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.
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If we or our third-party service providers experience an actual or perceived security breach or unauthorized parties otherwise obtain access to our customers’ data, our data, or our platform, our platform may be perceived as not being secure, our reputation may be harmed, demand for our platform may be reduced, and we may incur significant liabilities.
Our platform processes, stores, and transmits our customers’ and partners’ proprietary, confidential, and sensitive data, such as personal information, protected health information, and financial data. Our platform is built to be available on the infrastructure of third-party public cloud providers, such as AWS, Azure, and GCP. We also use third-party service providers and sub-processors to help us deliver services to our customers and their end-users. These vendors may store or process proprietary, confidential, and sensitive data such as personal information, protected health information, or other information of our employees, our partners, our customers, or our customers’ end-users. We collect such information from individuals located both in the United States and abroad and may store or process such information outside the country in which it was collected. While we, our third-party service providers, and our sub-processors have implemented or are contractually obligated to implement security measures designed to protect against security breaches, these measures could fail or may be insufficient, resulting in the unauthorized disclosure, access, acquisition, modification, misuse, destruction, or loss of our, our customers’, or our partners’ data. Any security breach of our platform, our operational systems, our software (including open source software), physical facilities, or the systems of our third-party service providers or sub-processors, or the perception that one has occurred, could result in litigation, indemnity obligations, regulatory enforcement actions, investigations, fines, penalties, mitigation and remediation costs, disputes, reputational harm, diversion of management’s attention, and other liabilities and damage to our business. Even though we may not control the security measures of our third-party service providers or sub-processors, we may be responsible for any breach of such measures.

Cyber-attacks, denial-of-service attacks, ransomware attacks, business email compromises, computer malware, viruses, and social engineering (including phishing) are prevalent in our industry and our customers’ industries. In addition to such attacks, we may experience unavailable systems, unauthorized accidental or unlawful access, acquisition, or disclosure of information due to employee error, theft or misuse, sophisticated nation-state and nation-state supported actors, and advanced persistent threat intrusions. The techniques used to sabotage or to obtain unauthorized access to our platform, systems, networks, or physical facilities in which data is stored or through which data is transmitted change frequently, and we may be unable to implement adequate preventative measures or stop security breaches prior to or while they are occurring. The recovery systems, security protocols, network protection mechanisms, and other security measures that we have integrated into our platform, systems, networks, and physical facilities, which are designed to protect against, detect, and minimize security breaches, may not be adequate to prevent or detect service interruption, system failure, or data loss. We have previously been, and may in the future become, the target of cyber-attacks by third parties seeking unauthorized access to our or our customers’ or partners’ data or to disrupt our operations or ability to provide our services. Third parties may also exploit vulnerabilities in, or obtain unauthorized access to, platforms, systems, networks, or physical facilities utilized by our third-party processors.

We have contractual and other legal obligations to notify relevant stakeholders of security breaches. Most jurisdictions have enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals, regulatory authorities, and others of security breaches involving certain types of data. In addition, our agreements with certain customers and partners may require us to notify them in the event of a security breach. Such mandatory disclosures are costly, could lead to negative publicity, may cause our customers or partners to lose confidence in the effectiveness of our security measures, divert management’s attention, lead to governmental investigations, and require us to expend significant capital and other resources to respond to or alleviate problems caused by the actual or perceived security breach. Any security breach or effort to mitigate security vulnerabilities could result in unexpected interruptions, delays, cessation of service, and other harm to our business and our competitive position.

A security breach may cause us to breach customer contracts. Our agreements with certain customers may require us to use industry-standard or reasonable measures to safeguard proprietary, personal, or confidential information. A security breach could lead to claims by our customers, their end-users, or other relevant stakeholders that we have failed to comply with such contractual or other legal obligations. As a result, we could be subject to legal action (including the imposition of fines or penalties) and our customers could end their relationships with us. There can be no assurance that any limitations of liability in our contracts would be enforceable or adequate or would otherwise protect us from liabilities or damages.

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Litigation resulting from security breaches may adversely affect our business. Unauthorized access to our platform, systems, networks, or physical facilities could result in litigation with our customers, our customers’ end-users, or other relevant stakeholders. These proceedings could force us to spend money in defense or settlement, divert management’s time and attention, increase our costs of doing business, or adversely affect our reputation. We could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or modify our platform capabilities in response to such litigation, which could have an adverse effect on our business. If a security breach were to occur, and the confidentiality, integrity or availability of our data or the data of our partners, our customers, or our customers’ end-users was disrupted, we could incur significant liability, or our platform, systems, or networks may be perceived as less desirable, which could negatively affect our business and damage our reputation.

If we fail to detect or remediate a security breach in a timely manner, or a breach otherwise affects a large amount of data of one or more customers or partners, or if we suffer a cyber-attack that impacts our ability to operate our platform, we may suffer material damage to our reputation, business, financial condition, and results of operations. Further, our insurance coverage may not be adequate for data security, indemnification obligations, or other liabilities. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceeds our available insurance coverage or results in changes to our insurance policies (including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements) could have an adverse effect on our business. In addition, we cannot be sure that our existing insurance coverage and coverage for errors and omissions will continue to be available on acceptable terms or that our insurers will not deny coverage as to any future claim. Our risks are likely to increase as we continue to expand our platform and geographic footprint, grow our customer and partner base, and process, store, and transmit increasingly large amounts of data.

In addition, our workforce is generally working remotely and may continue to do so following the COVID-19 pandemic, which could increase our cyber security risk, create data accessibility concerns, and make us more susceptible to security breaches or business disruptions. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or prospects.
We could suffer disruptions, outages, defects, and other performance and quality problems with our platform or with the public cloud and internet infrastructure on which it relies.
Our business depends on our platform to be available without disruption. We have experienced, and may in the future experience, disruptions, outages, defects, and other performance and quality problems with our platform. We have also experienced, and may in the future experience, disruptions, outages, defects, and other performance and quality problems with the public cloud and internet infrastructure on which our platform relies. These problems can be caused by a variety of factors, including introductions of new functionality, vulnerabilities and defects in proprietary and open source software, human error or misconduct, natural disasters (such as tornadoes, earthquakes, or fires), capacity constraints, design limitations, or denial of service attacks or other security-related incidents.

Further, if our contractual and other business relationships with our public cloud providers are terminated, suspended, or suffer a material change to which we are unable to adapt, such as the elimination of services or features on which we depend, we could be unable to provide our platform and could experience significant delays and incur additional expense in transitioning customers to a different public cloud provider.

Any disruptions, outages, defects, and other performance and quality problems with our platform or with the public cloud and internet infrastructure on which it relies, or any material change in our contractual and other business relationships with our public cloud providers, could result in reduced use of our platform, increased expenses, including service credit obligations, and harm to our brand and reputation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We expect fluctuations in our financial results, making it difficult to project future results, and if we fail to meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors with respect to our results of operations, our stock price could decline.
Our results of operations have fluctuated in the past and are expected to fluctuate in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, our past results may not be indicative of our future performance. In addition to the other risks described herein, factors that may affect our results of operations include the following:

fluctuations in demand for or pricing of our platform;
fluctuations in usage of our platform;
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our ability to attract new customers;
our ability to retain existing customers;
customer expansion rates;
timing, amount, and cost of our investments to expand the capacity of our public cloud providers;
seasonality;
investments in new features and functionality;
fluctuations in customer consumption resulting from our introduction of new features or capabilities to our systems that may impact customer consumption;
the timing of our customers’ purchases;
the speed with which customers are able to migrate data onto our platform after purchasing capacity;
fluctuations or delays in purchasing decisions in anticipation of new products or enhancements by us or our competitors;
changes in customers’ budgets and in the timing of their budget cycles and purchasing decisions;
our ability to control costs, including our operating expenses;
the amount and timing of payment for operating expenses, particularly research and development and sales and marketing expenses, including commissions;
the amount and timing of non-cash expenses, including stock-based compensation, goodwill impairments, and other non-cash charges;
the amount and timing of costs associated with recruiting, training, and integrating new employees and retaining and motivating existing employees;
the effects and timing of acquisitions and their integration;
general economic conditions, both domestically and internationally, as well as economic conditions specifically affecting industries in which our customers and partners participate;
health epidemics or pandemics, such as the coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19);
the impact, or timing of our adoption, of new accounting pronouncements;
changes in regulatory or legal environments that may cause us to incur, among other things, expenses associated with compliance;
the overall tax rate for our business, which may be affected by the mix of income we earn in the United States and in jurisdictions with different tax rates, the effects of stock-based compensation, and the effects of changes in our business;
the impact of changes in tax laws or judicial or regulatory interpretations of tax laws, which are recorded in the period such laws are enacted or interpretations are issued and may significantly affect the effective tax rate of that period;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates and changes in the proportion of our revenue and expenses denominated in foreign currencies;
fluctuations in the market values of our portfolio or strategic investments and in interest rates;
changes in the competitive dynamics of our market, including consolidation among competitors or customers; and
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significant security breaches of, technical difficulties with, or interruptions to, the delivery and use of our platform.
Any of these and other factors, or the cumulative effect of some of these factors, may cause our results of operations to vary significantly. If our quarterly results of operations fall below the expectations of investors and securities analysts who follow our stock, the price of our common stock could decline substantially, and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class actions.
Failure to effectively develop and expand our sales and marketing capabilities could harm our ability to increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our products and platform.
We must expand our sales and marketing organization to increase our sales to new and existing customers. We plan to continue expanding our direct sales force, both domestically and internationally, particularly our direct enterprise sales organization focused on sales to the world’s largest organizations. It may require significant time and resources to effectively onboard new sales and marketing personnel, and our shift to a remote workforce could result in less effective, more operationally complicated, or lengthier onboarding processes. We also plan to dedicate significant resources to sales and marketing programs that are focused on these large organizations. Once a new customer begins using our platform, our sales team will need to continue to focus on expanding consumption with that customer. All of these efforts will require us to invest significant financial and other resources, including in industries and sales channels in which we have limited experience to date. Our business and results of operations will be harmed if our sales and marketing efforts generate increases in revenue that are smaller than anticipated. We may not achieve anticipated revenue growth from expanding our sales force if we are unable to hire, develop, integrate, and retain talented and effective sales personnel, if our new and existing sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, or if our sales and marketing programs are not effective.
Sales efforts to large customers involve risks that may not be present or that are present to a lesser extent with respect to sales to smaller organizations.
Sales to large customers involve risks that may not be present or that are present to a lesser extent with sales to smaller organizations, such as longer sales cycles, more complex customer requirements, including our ability to partner with third-parties that advise such customers or help them integrate their IT solutions, substantial upfront sales costs, and less predictability in completing some of our sales. For example, large customers may require considerable time to evaluate and test our platform prior to making a purchase decision and placing an order. In addition, large customers may be switching from legacy on-premises solutions when purchasing our products, and may rely on third-parties with whom we do not have relationships when making purchasing decisions. A number of factors also influence the length and variability of our sales cycle, including the need to educate potential customers about the uses and benefits of our platform, the discretionary nature of purchasing and budget cycles, and the competitive nature of evaluation and purchasing approval processes. As a result, the length of our sales cycle, from identification of the opportunity to deal closure, may vary significantly from customer to customer, with sales to large enterprises typically taking longer to complete. Moreover, large customers often begin to deploy our products on a limited basis but nevertheless demand implementation services and negotiate pricing discounts, which increase our upfront investment in the sales effort with no guarantee that sales to these customers will justify our substantial upfront investment. If we fail to effectively manage these risks associated with sales cycles and sales to large customers, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be affected.
The COVID-19 pandemic could have an adverse impact on our business, operations, and the markets and communities in which we, our partners, and customers operate.
The potential impact and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic (including any new strains or mutations) on the global economy and our business are difficult to assess or predict. Potential impacts include:

Our customer prospects and our existing customers may experience slowdowns in their businesses, which in turn may result in reduced demand for our platform, lengthening of sales cycles, loss of customers, and difficulties in collections.
Our employees are working and may continue to work remotely, which may result in decreased employee productivity, collaboration, and morale, with increased unwanted employee attrition.
We continue to incur fixed costs, particularly for real estate, and are deriving reduced or no benefit from those costs.
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We may continue to experience disruptions to our growth planning, such as for facilities and international expansion.
We anticipate incurring costs in returning to work from our facilities around the world, including changes to the workplace, such as space planning, food service, and amenities, as well as costs associated with complying with new or evolving regulatory requirements, which may vary significantly depending on the jurisdiction.
Our operating lease right-of-use assets may be impaired due to potential loss of sublease income.
We may be subject to legal liability for safe workplace claims.
Our critical vendors or partners could go out of business.
Our in-person marketing events, including customer user conferences, have been canceled and we may continue to experience prolonged delays in our ability to reschedule or conduct in-person marketing events and other sales and marketing activities.
Our marketing, sales, professional services, and support organizations are accustomed to extensive face-to-face customer and partner interactions, and conducting business virtually is unproven.
As global economic conditions recover from the COVID-19 pandemic, business activity may not recover as quickly as anticipated. Conditions will be subject to the effectiveness of government policies, vaccine administration rates, and other factors that may not be foreseeable. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our growth depends on the development, expansion, and success of our partner relationships.
As part of our vision for the Data Cloud, we are building, and will need to grow and maintain, a partner ecosystem of data providers, data consumers, and data application developers. The relationships we have with these partners, and that our partners have with our customers, provide our customers with enhanced value from our platform and the Data Cloud. Our future growth will be increasingly dependent on the success of these relationships, and if we are unsuccessful in growing and maintaining these relationships or the types and quality of data supported by or available for consumption on our platform, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Additionally, a small but increasing portion of our revenue is generated as a result of our relationships with global system integrators, managed service providers, and resellers. Increasingly, we and our customers rely on these partners to provide professional services, including customer implementations and migrations from legacy solutions, and there may not be enough qualified partners available, or we may not be able to develop or maintain relationships with enough partners, to meet customer demand. While we provide our partners with training and other enablement programs, these programs may not be effective or utilized consistently, and our return on these investments may be lower than expected. In addition, new partners may require extensive training or significant time and resources to achieve productivity. If we fail to effectively manage and grow our network of these partners, or properly monitor the quality and efficacy of their interactions with our customers, our ability to attract and retain new customers and expand customer consumption of our platform may be impacted, and our operating results and growth rate may be harmed.
If we are unable to successfully manage the growth of our professional services business and improve our profit margin from these services, our operating results will be harmed.
Our professional services business, which performs implementation services for our customers, has grown as our product revenue has grown. We believe our future success depends in part on investment in professional services to facilitate customer migration from legacy solutions and adoption of our platform, especially with large enterprises. As a result, our sales efforts have and will continue to be focused on helping our customers more quickly realize the value of our platform rather than on the profitability of our professional services business. In the future, we intend to price our professional services based on the anticipated cost of those services and, as a result, expect to improve the gross profit percentage of our professional services business. If we are unable to manage the growth of our professional services business and improve our profit margin from these services, our operating results, including our profit margins, will be harmed.
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If we lose key members of our management team or are unable to attract and retain the executives and employees we need to support our operations and growth, our business and future growth prospects may be harmed.
Our success depends in part on the continued services of Frank Slootman, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Michael P. Scarpelli, our Chief Financial Officer, and our other executive officers, as well as our other key employees in the areas of research and development and sales and marketing.

From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management team or other key employees resulting from the hiring or departure of these personnel. Our executive officers and other key employees are employed on an at-will basis, which means that these personnel could terminate their employment with us at any time. The loss of one or more of our executive officers, or the failure by our executive team to effectively work with our employees and lead our company, including as a result of remote working conditions, could harm our business.

In addition, to execute our growth plan, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel. Competition for these personnel is intense, especially for engineers experienced in designing and developing cloud-based data platform products, experienced sales professionals, and expert customer support personnel. We also are dependent on the continued service of our existing software engineers because of the sophistication of our platform.

In order to continue to hire and retain highly qualified personnel, we will need to continue to hire in new locations around the world, which may add to the complexity and costs of our business operations. From time to time, we have experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have. If we hire employees from competitors or other companies, their former employers may attempt to assert that these employees or we have breached their legal obligations, resulting in a diversion of our time and resources. In addition, prospective and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of our equity awards declines, experiences significant volatility, or increases such that prospective employees believe there is limited upside to the value of our equity awards, or if our existing employees receive significant proceeds from liquidating their previously vested equity awards, it may adversely affect our ability to recruit and retain key employees.

We also believe our culture has been a key contributor to our success to date and that the critical nature of the platform that we provide promotes a sense of greater purpose and fulfillment in our employees. As our workforce becomes more distributed around the world, we may not be able to maintain important aspects of our culture. Any failure to preserve our culture could negatively affect our ability to retain and recruit personnel. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects would be harmed.
If the availability of our platform does not meet our service-level commitments to our customers, our current and future revenue may be negatively impacted.
We typically commit to our customers that our platform will maintain a minimum service-level of availability. If we are unable to meet these commitments, we may be obligated to provide customers with additional capacity, which could significantly affect our revenue. We rely on public cloud providers, such as AWS, Azure, and GCP, and any availability interruption in the public cloud could result in us not meeting our service-level commitments to our customers. In some cases, we may not have a contractual right with our public cloud providers that compensates us for any losses due to availability interruptions in the public cloud. Further, any failure to meet our service-level commitments could damage our reputation and adoption of our platform, and we could face loss of revenue from reduced future consumption of our platform. Any service-level failures could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
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We agree to indemnify customers and other third parties, which exposes us to substantial potential liability.
Our contracts with customers, investors, and other third parties may include indemnification provisions under which we agree to defend and indemnify them against claims and losses arising from alleged infringement, misappropriation, or other violation of intellectual property rights, data protection violations, breaches of representations and warranties, damage to property or persons, or other liabilities arising from our products or such contracts. Although we attempt to limit our indemnity obligations, we may not be successful in doing so, and an event triggering our indemnity obligations could give rise to multiple claims involving multiple customers or other third parties. There is no assurance that our applicable insurance coverage, if any, would cover, in whole or in part, any such indemnity obligations. We may be liable for up to the full amount of the indemnified claims, which could result in substantial liability or material disruption to our business or could negatively impact our relationships with customers or other third parties, reduce demand for our products, and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Acquisitions, strategic investments, partnerships, or alliances could be difficult to identify, pose integration challenges, divert the attention of management, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value, and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We have in the past and may in the future seek to acquire or invest in businesses, joint ventures, and platform technologies that we believe could complement or expand our platform, enhance our technology, or otherwise offer growth opportunities. Further, the proceeds we received from our initial public offering (IPO) in September 2020 increased the likelihood that we will devote resources to exploring larger and more complex acquisitions and investments than we have previously attempted. Any such acquisitions or investments may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating, and pursuing suitable opportunities, whether or not the transactions are completed, and may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. In particular, we may encounter difficulties assimilating or integrating the businesses, technologies, products, personnel, or operations of any acquired companies, particularly if the key personnel of an acquired company choose not to work for us, their software is not easily adapted to work with our platform, or we have difficulty retaining the customers of any acquired business due to changes in ownership, management, or otherwise. Any such transactions that we are able to complete may not result in the synergies or other benefits we expect to achieve, which could result in substantial impairment charges. These transactions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Seasonality may cause fluctuations in our remaining performance obligations.
Historically, we have received a higher volume of orders from new and existing customers in the fourth fiscal quarter of each year. We believe that this results from the procurement, budgeting, and deployment cycles of many of our customers, particularly our large enterprise customers. This seasonality has an impact on our RPO. We expect this seasonality to become more pronounced as we continue to target large enterprise customers.
We do business with federal, state, and local governments and agencies, and heavily regulated U.S. and foreign organizations; as a result, we face risks related to the procurement process, budget decisions driven by statutory and regulatory determinations, termination of contracts, and compliance with government contracting requirements.
We provide our platform to the U.S. government, state and local governments, and heavily regulated organizations directly and through our partners. We have made, and may continue to make, significant investments to support future sales opportunities in the federal, state, and local government sectors, including obtaining government certifications. However, government certification requirements may change, or we may be unable to achieve or sustain one or more required government certifications. As a result, our ability to sell into the government sector could be restricted until we obtain such certifications.

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A substantial majority of our sales to date to government entities have been made indirectly through our distribution and reseller partners. Doing business with government entities presents a variety of risks. The procurement process for governments and their agencies is highly competitive, time-consuming, and may, in certain circumstances, be subject to political influence. We incur significant up-front time and expense, which subjects us to additional compliance risks and costs, without any assurance that we (or a third-party distributor or reseller) will win a contract. Beyond this, demand for our platform may be adversely impacted by public sector budgetary cycles, and funding availability that in any given fiscal cycle may be reduced or delayed, including in connection with an extended federal government shutdown. Further, if we are or our partners are successful in receiving a bid award, that award could be challenged by one or more competitive bidders. Bid protests may result in an increase in expenses related to obtaining contract awards or an unfavorable modification or loss of an award. In the event a bid protest is unsuccessful, the resulting delay in the startup and funding of the work under these contracts may cause our actual results to differ materially and adversely from those anticipated. As a result of these lengthy and uncertain sales cycles, it is difficult for us to predict the timing of entering into customer agreements with government entities.

In addition, public sector customers may have contractual, statutory, or regulatory rights to terminate current contracts with us or our third-party distributors or resellers for convenience or due to a default, though such risk may be assumed by such third-party distributors or resellers. If a contract is terminated for convenience, we may only be able to collect fees for platform consumption prior to termination and settlement expenses. If a contract is terminated due to a default, we may be liable for excess costs incurred by the customer for procuring alternative products or services or be precluded from doing further business with government entities. Further, entities providing services to governments are required to comply with a variety of complex laws, regulations, and contractual provisions relating to the formation, administration, or performance of government contracts that give public sector customers substantial rights and remedies, many of which are not typically found in commercial contracts. These may include rights with respect to price protection, the accuracy of information provided to the government, contractor compliance with supplier diversity policies, and other terms that are particular to government contracts, such as termination rights. These rules may apply to us or third-party resellers or distributors whose practices we may not control. Such parties’ non-compliance could result in repercussions with respect to contractual and customer satisfaction issues.

In addition, federal, state, and local governments routinely investigate and audit contractors for compliance with these requirements. If, as a result of an audit, it is determined that we have failed to comply with these requirements, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, costs associated with the triggering of price reduction clauses, fines, and suspensions or debarment from future government business, and we may suffer reputational harm.

Further, we are increasingly doing business in heavily regulated industries, such as the financial services and health care industries. Current and prospective customers, such as those in these industries, may be required to comply with more stringent regulations in connection with subscribing to and implementing our services or particular regulations regarding third-party vendors that may be interpreted differently by different customers. In addition, regulatory agencies may impose requirements toward third-party vendors generally, or our company in particular, that we may not be able to, or may not choose to, meet. In addition, customers in these heavily regulated areas often have a right to conduct audits of our systems, products, and practices. In the event that one or more customers determine that some aspect of our business does not meet regulatory requirements, we may be limited in our ability to continue or expand our business.

Our customers also include a number of non-U.S. governments, to which similar procurement, budgetary, contract, and audit risks of U.S. government contracting also apply, particularly in certain emerging markets where our customer base is less established. In addition, compliance with complex regulations and contracting provisions in a variety of jurisdictions can be expensive and consume significant management resources. In certain jurisdictions, our ability to win business may be constrained by political and other factors unrelated to our competitive position in the market. Each of these difficulties could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.
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Any future litigation against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend.
From time to time, we may become subject to legal proceedings and claims, such as claims brought by our customers in connection with commercial disputes, employment claims made by our current or former employees, including claims related to the loss of employee equity grants upon termination, intellectual property claims, or securities class actions or other claims related to any volatility in the trading price of our common stock. Litigation might result in substantial costs and may divert management’s attention and resources, which might seriously harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Insurance might not cover such claims, might not provide sufficient payments to cover all the costs to resolve one or more such claims, and might not continue to be available on terms acceptable to us (including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements). A claim brought against us that is uninsured or underinsured could result in unanticipated costs, potentially harming our business, financial position, and results of operations. In addition, we cannot be sure that our existing insurance coverage and coverage for errors and omissions will continue to be available on acceptable terms or that our insurers will not deny coverage as to any future claim.
Unfavorable conditions in our industry or the global economy, or reductions in cloud spending, could limit our ability to grow our business and negatively affect our results of operations.
Our results of operations may vary based on the impact of changes in our industry or the global economy on us or our customers and potential customers. Negative conditions in the general economy both in the United States and abroad, including conditions resulting from changes in gross domestic product growth, financial and credit market fluctuations, international trade relations, pandemic (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), political turmoil, natural catastrophes, warfare, and terrorist attacks on the United States, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, Japan, or elsewhere, could cause a decrease in business investments, including spending on cloud technologies, and negatively affect the growth of our business. Competitors, many of whom are larger and have greater financial resources than we do, may respond to challenging market conditions by lowering prices in an attempt to attract our customers. We cannot predict the timing, strength, or duration of any economic slowdown, instability, or recovery, generally or within any particular industry.
Our current operations are international in scope, and we plan further geographic expansion, creating a variety of operational challenges.
A component of our growth strategy involves the further expansion of our operations and customer base internationally. Customer accounts outside the United States generated 16% of our revenue for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021. We are continuing to adapt to and develop strategies to address international markets, but there is no guarantee that such efforts will have the desired effect. For example, we anticipate that we will need to establish relationships with new partners in order to expand into certain countries, and if we fail to identify, establish, and maintain such relationships, we may be unable to execute on our expansion plans. We expect that our international activities will continue to grow for the foreseeable future as we continue to pursue opportunities in existing and new international markets, which will require significant dedication of management attention and financial resources.

Our current and future international business and operations involve a variety of risks, including:

slower than anticipated public cloud adoption by international businesses;
changes in a specific country’s or region’s political, economic, or legal and regulatory environment, including the effects of Brexit, pandemics, tariffs, trade wars, or long-term environmental risks;
the need to adapt and localize our platform for specific countries;
greater difficulty collecting accounts receivable and longer payment cycles;
unexpected changes in trade relations, regulations, or laws;
new, evolving, and more stringent regulations relating to privacy and data security and the unauthorized use of, or access to, commercial and personal information, particularly in Europe;
differing and potentially more onerous labor regulations, especially in Europe, where labor laws are generally more advantageous to employees as compared to the United States, including deemed hourly wage and overtime regulations in these locations;
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challenges inherent in efficiently managing, and the increased costs associated with, an increased number of employees over large geographic distances, including the need to implement appropriate systems, policies, benefits, and compliance programs that are specific to each jurisdiction;
difficulties in managing a business in new markets with diverse cultures, languages, customs, legal systems, alternative dispute systems, and regulatory systems;
increased travel, real estate, infrastructure, and legal compliance costs associated with international operations;
currency exchange rate fluctuations and the resulting effect on our revenue and expenses, and the cost and risk of entering into hedging transactions if we choose to do so in the future;
limitations on, or charges or taxes associated with, our ability to reinvest earnings from operations in one country to fund the capital needs of our operations in other countries;
laws and business practices favoring local competitors or general market preferences for local vendors;
limited or insufficient intellectual property protection or difficulties obtaining, maintaining, protecting, or enforcing our intellectual property rights, including our trademarks and patents;
political instability or terrorist activities;
COVID-19 or any other pandemics or epidemics that could result in decreased economic activity in certain markets, additional costs associated with travel, return to work, or other restrictions that are specific to certain markets, decreased use of our products and services, or in our decreased ability to import, export, or sell our products and services to existing or new customers in international markets;
exposure to liabilities under anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (the FCPA), U.S. bribery laws, the U.K. Bribery Act, and similar laws and regulations in other jurisdictions;
burdens of complying with laws and regulations related to taxation; and
regulations, adverse tax burdens, and foreign exchange controls that could make it difficult or costly to repatriate earnings and cash.
We expect to invest substantial time and resources to further expand our international operations and, if we are unable to do so successfully and in a timely manner, our business and results of operations will suffer.
We may require additional capital to support the growth of our business, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.
We have funded our operations since inception primarily through equity financings, payments received from our customers, and more recently, proceeds from our IPO. We cannot be certain when or if our operations will generate sufficient cash to fully fund our ongoing operations or the growth of our business. We intend to continue to make investments to support our business, which may require us to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. Additional financing may not be available on terms favorable to us, if at all. If adequate funds are not available on acceptable terms, we may be unable to invest in future growth opportunities, which could harm our business, operating results, and financial condition. If we incur debt, the debt holders would have rights senior to holders of common stock to make claims on our assets, and the terms of any debt could restrict our operations, including our ability to pay dividends on our common stock. Furthermore, if we issue additional equity securities, stockholders will experience dilution, and the new equity securities could have rights senior to those of our common stock. Because our decision to issue securities in the future will depend on numerous considerations, including factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, or nature of any future issuances of debt or equity securities. As a result, our stockholders bear the risk of future issuances of debt or equity securities reducing the value of our common stock and diluting their interests.
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We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates and interest rates, which could negatively affect our results of operations and our ability to invest and hold our cash.
Our sales are currently denominated in U.S. dollars and in Euros, and will potentially be denominated in other currencies in the future. Our revenue is, therefore, subject to foreign currency risk. If we are not able to successfully hedge against the risks associated with currency fluctuations, our results of operations could be adversely affected. For example, for international customers with sales denominated in U.S. dollars, a strengthening of the U.S. dollar could increase the real cost of our platform to such customers, which could adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, an increasing portion of our operating expenses is incurred outside the United States. These operating expenses are denominated in foreign currencies and are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. In addition, we are exposed to fluctuations in interest rates, which may result in a negative interest rate environment, in which interest rates drop below zero. In such a zero interest rate environment, any cash that we may hold with financial institutions will yield a storage charge instead of earning interest income, which may encourage us to spend our cash or make high-risk investments, all of which could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies prove to be incorrect, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes appearing elsewhere herein. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates.” The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, and equity, and the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Significant estimates and judgments involve those related to the stand-alone selling prices (SSP) for each distinct performance obligation, valuation of our common stock prior to the IPO, and stock-based compensation, among others. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the market price of our common stock.
Our business could be disrupted by catastrophic occurrences and similar events.
Our platform and the public cloud infrastructure on which our platform relies are vulnerable to damage or interruption from catastrophic occurrences, such as earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunication failures, terrorist attacks, criminal acts, sabotage, other intentional acts of vandalism and misconduct, geopolitical events, disease, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and similar events. Some of our United States corporate offices and certain of the public cloud data centers in which we operate are located in the San Francisco Bay Area and Pacific Northwest, regions known for seismic activity. Despite any precautions we may take, the occurrence of a natural disaster or other unanticipated problems at our facilities or the facilities of our public cloud providers could result in disruptions, outages, and other performance and quality problems. If we are unable to develop adequate plans to ensure that our business functions continue to operate during and after a disaster and to execute successfully on those plans in the event of a disaster or emergency, our business would be seriously harmed.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
Our intellectual property rights may not protect our business or provide us with a competitive advantage.
To be successful, we must protect our technology and brand in the United States and other jurisdictions through trademarks, trade secrets, patents, copyrights, service marks, invention assignments, contractual restrictions, and other intellectual property rights and confidentiality procedures. Despite our efforts to implement these protections, they may not protect our business or provide us with a competitive advantage for a variety of reasons, including:

the failure by us to obtain patents and other intellectual property rights for important innovations or maintain appropriate confidentiality and other protective measures to establish and maintain our trade secrets;
uncertainty in, and evolution of, legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability, and scope of protection of intellectual property rights;
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potential invalidation of our intellectual property rights through administrative processes or litigation;
any inability by us to detect infringement or other misappropriation of our intellectual property rights by third parties; and
other practical, resource, or business limitations on our ability to enforce our rights.
Further, the laws of certain foreign countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not provide the same level of protection of corporate proprietary information and assets, such as intellectual property, trademarks, trade secrets, know-how, and records, as the laws of the United States. As a result, we may encounter significant problems in protecting and defending our intellectual property or proprietary rights abroad. Additionally, we may also be exposed to material risks of theft or unauthorized reverse engineering of our proprietary information and other intellectual property, including technical data, data sets, or other sensitive information. Our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights in such foreign countries may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Moreover, if we are unable to prevent the disclosure of our trade secrets to third parties, or if our competitors independently develop any of our trade secrets, we may not be able to establish or maintain a competitive advantage in our market, which could seriously harm our business.

Litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property or proprietary rights, protect our trade secrets, or determine the validity and scope of proprietary rights claimed by others. Any litigation, whether or not resolved in our favor, could result in significant expense to us, divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel, and result in counterclaims with respect to infringement of intellectual property rights by us. If we are unable to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property or are required to incur substantial expenses defending our intellectual property rights, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.
We may become subject to intellectual property disputes, which are costly and may subject us to significant liability and increased costs of doing business.
We compete in markets where there are a large number of patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and other intellectual and proprietary rights, as well as disputes regarding infringement of these rights. In addition, many of the holders of patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, and other intellectual and proprietary rights have extensive intellectual property portfolios and greater resources than we do to enforce their rights. As compared to our large competitors, our patent portfolio is relatively undeveloped and may not provide a material deterrent to such assertions or provide us with a strong basis to counterclaim or negotiate settlements. Further, to the extent assertions are made against us by entities that hold patents but are not operating companies, our patent portfolio may not provide deterrence because such entities are not concerned with counterclaims.

Any intellectual property litigation to which we become a party may require us to do one or more of the following:

cease selling, licensing, or using products or features that incorporate the intellectual property rights that we allegedly infringe, misappropriate, or violate;
require us to change the name of our products or services;
make substantial payments for legal fees, settlement payments, or other costs or damages, including indemnification of third parties;
obtain a license or enter into a royalty agreement, either of which may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, in order to obtain the right to sell or use the relevant intellectual property; or
redesign the allegedly infringing products to avoid infringement, misappropriation, or violation, which could be costly, time-consuming, or impossible.
Intellectual property litigation is typically complex, time consuming, and expensive to resolve and would divert the time and attention of our management and technical personnel. It may also result in adverse publicity, which could harm our reputation and ability to attract or retain employees, customers, or partners. As we grow, we may experience a heightened risk of allegations of intellectual property infringement. An adverse result in any litigation claims against us could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
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If we use open source software inconsistent with our policies and procedures or the license terms applicable to such software, we could be subject to legal expenses, damages, or costly remediation or disruption to our business.
We use open source software in our platform. From time to time, companies that use third-party open source software have faced claims challenging the use of such open source software and their compliance with the terms of the applicable open source license. We may be subject to suits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or claiming non-compliance with the applicable open source licensing terms. Additionally, while we have policies and procedures in place designed to govern our use of open source software, there is a risk that we may incorporate open source software with onerous licensing terms, including the obligation to make our source code available for others to use or modify without compensation to us, or inadvertently use third-party open source software in a manner that exposes us to claims of non-compliance with the applicable terms of such license, including claims for infringement of intellectual property rights or for breach of contract. If we receive an allegation that we have violated an open source license, we may incur significant legal expenses, be subject to damages, be required to redesign our product to remove the open source software or publicly release certain portions of our proprietary source code, or be required to comply with onerous license restrictions, all of which could have a material impact on our business. Even in the absence of a claim, if we discover the use of open source software inconsistent with our policies, we could expend significant time and resources to replace the open source software or obtain a commercial license, if available. All of these risks are heightened by the fact that the ownership of open source software can be uncertain, leading to litigation, and many of the licenses applicable to open source software have not been interpreted by courts, and these licenses could be construed to impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products. Any use of open source software inconsistent with our policies or licensing terms could harm our business and financial position.
Risks Related to Our Tax, Legal, and Regulatory Environment
Complying with evolving privacy and other data related laws as well as contractual and other requirements may be expensive and force us to make adverse changes to our business, and the failure or perceived failure to comply with such laws, contracts, and other requirements could result in significant fines and liability or otherwise result in substantial harm to our business and prospects.
We are subject to data privacy and protection laws, regulations, policies, and contractual obligations that apply to the collection, transmission, storage, processing, and use of personal information or personal data, which among other things, impose certain requirements relating to the privacy and security of personal information. Laws and regulations governing data privacy and protection, the use of the internet as a commercial medium, the use of data in artificial intelligence and machine learning, and data sovereignty requirements are rapidly evolving, extensive, complex, and include inconsistencies and uncertainties. Examples of recent and anticipated developments that have or could impact our business include the following:

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) took effect in May 2018 and established requirements applicable to the handling of personal information of residents of the European Union (EU).
The EU has proposed the Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications (ePrivacy Regulation), which, if adopted, would impose new obligations on the use of personal information in the context of electronic communications, particularly with respect to online tracking technologies and direct marketing.
The United Kingdom’s (U.K.) withdrawal from the EU, which is commonly referred to as “Brexit.” Although U.K. privacy, data protection, and data security laws are designed to be consistent with the GDPR, uncertainty remains regarding how data transfers to and from the U.K. will be regulated notwithstanding Brexit.

We are following developments regarding the frameworks that address the transfer of personal information outside of the EU and Switzerland, including the Privacy Shield frameworks and the standard contractual clauses, such as the invalidation of the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield framework and proposed new standard contractual clauses and recommendations by the European Data Protection Board in November 2020 on measures that supplement transfer tools (such as standard contractual clauses) to ensure the EU level of protection of personal information.

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In January 2020, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) took effect, providing California residents increased privacy rights and protections, including the ability to opt out of specific disclosures of their personal information. Further, in November 2020, California voters approved the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (CPRA), which takes effect January 1, 2023 and, in part, is expected to (i) provide California residents with the ability to limit use of sensitive information, (ii) increase the maximum penalties for specific data protection violations affecting California residents under the age of 16, and (iii) establish the California Privacy Protection Agency for purposes of implementing and enforcing the CPRA. Other U.S. states are considering adopting similar laws.

Both U.S. and non-U.S. governments are considering regulating artificial intelligence and machine learning.
The certifications we may maintain and the standards that may be applicable to our business, such as the U.S. Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program, PCI-DSS, ISO/IEC 27001, HI-TRUST CSF, among others, are becoming more stringent.
These and other similar legal and regulatory developments could contribute to legal and economic uncertainty, increase our exposure to liability, affect how we design, market, sell, and operate our platform, how our customers and partners process and share data, how we process and use data, and how we transfer personal data from one jurisdiction to another, any of which could require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, impact our ability to operate in certain jurisdictions, and/or negatively impact the types of data available on or the demand for our platform. It is possible that new and existing laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices and our efforts to comply with the evolving data protection rules may be unsuccessful. We may incur substantial costs to comply with such laws and regulations, to meet the demands of our customers relating to their own compliance with applicable laws and regulations, and to establish and maintain internal policies, self-certifications, and third-party certifications supporting our compliance programs. Our customers may delegate their GDPR compliance or other privacy law obligations to us via contract, and we may otherwise be required to expend resources to assist our customers with such compliance obligations. In addition, any actual or perceived non-compliance with applicable laws, regulations, policies, contractual obligations, or certifications could result in proceedings, investigations, or claims against us by regulatory authorities, customers, or others, leading to reputational harm, significant fines, litigation costs, and damages. For example, if regulators assert that we have failed to comply with the GDPR, we may be subject to fines of up to EUR 20 million or 4% of our worldwide annual revenue, whichever is greater, as well as potential data processing restrictions and penalties for a violation of certain GDPR requirements. Even if we are not determined to have violated these laws and other obligations, investigations into these issues typically require the expenditure of significant resources and generate negative publicity. In addition, any failure by our third-party processors to comply with applicable law, regulations, or contractual obligations could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others. All of these impacts could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We may publish privacy policies and other documentation regarding our collection, processing, use, and disclosure of personal information, or other confidential information. Although we endeavor to comply with our published policies, certifications, and documentation, we may at times fail to do so or may be perceived to have failed to do so. Moreover, despite our efforts, we may not be successful in achieving compliance if our employees or vendors fail to comply with our published policies, certifications, and documentation. Such failures can subject us to potential foreign, local, state, and federal action if they are found to be deceptive, unfair, or misrepresentative of our actual practices. Claims that we have violated individuals’ privacy rights or failed to comply with data protection laws or applicable privacy notices even if we are not found liable, could be expensive and time-consuming to defend and could result in adverse publicity that could harm our business.
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We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal or civil liability and harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We are subject to the FCPA, U.S. domestic bribery laws, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, and other anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws in the countries in which we conduct business. Anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws have been enforced aggressively in recent years and are interpreted broadly to generally prohibit companies, their employees, and their third-party intermediaries from authorizing, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to recipients in the public or private sector. As we increase our international sales and business and sales to the public sector, we may engage with business partners and third-party intermediaries to market or resell our products and to obtain necessary permits, licenses, and other regulatory approvals. In addition, we or our third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities.

While we have policies and procedures to address compliance with such laws, there is a risk that our employees, agents, and other third parties with which we do business, including reseller and system integrator partners, will take actions in violation of our policies and applicable law, for which we may be ultimately held responsible. As we expand internationally, our risks under these laws may increase.

Detecting, investigating, and resolving actual or alleged violations of anti-corruption laws can require a significant diversion of time, resources, and attention from senior management. In addition, noncompliance with anti-corruption, anti-bribery, or anti-money laundering laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, enforcement actions, fines, damages, other civil or criminal penalties or injunctions, suspension or debarment from contracting with certain persons, reputational harm, adverse media coverage, and other collateral consequences. If any subpoenas or investigations are launched, or governmental or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal proceeding, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be harmed.
We are subject to governmental export and import controls that could impair our ability to compete in international markets or subject us to liability if we violate the controls.
Our platform is subject to U.S. export controls, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, and we incorporate encryption technology into our platform. This encryption technology may be exported outside of the United States only with the required export authorizations, including by license, a license exception, or other appropriate government authorizations, including the filing of an encryption classification request or self-classification report.

Obtaining the necessary export license or other authorization for a particular sale may be time-consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. Furthermore, our activities are subject to U.S. economic sanctions laws and regulations administered by various U.S. agencies, including the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, that prohibit the sale or supply of most products and services to embargoed jurisdictions or sanctioned parties. Violations of U.S. sanctions or export control regulations can result in significant fines or penalties and possible incarceration for responsible employees and managers.

If our channel partners fail to obtain appropriate import, export, or re-export licenses or permits, we may also be adversely affected through reputational harm, as well as other negative consequences, including government investigations and penalties.

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Also, various countries, in addition to the United States, regulate the import and export of certain encryption and other technology, including import and export licensing requirements, and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our platform in those countries. Changes in our platform or future changes in export and import regulations may create delays in the introduction of our platform in international markets, prevent our customers with international operations from using our platform globally or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our platform to certain countries, governments, or persons altogether. From time to time, various governmental agencies have proposed additional regulation of encryption technology. Any change in export or import regulations, economic sanctions, or related legislation, increased export and import controls, or change in the countries, governments, persons, or technologies targeted by such regulations, could result in decreased use of our platform by, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our platform to, existing or potential customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our platform or limitation on our ability to export or sell our platform would adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our international operations may subject us to greater than anticipated tax liabilities.
We are expanding our international operations to better support our growth into international markets. Our corporate structure and associated transfer pricing policies contemplate future growth in international markets, and consider the functions, risks, and assets of the various entities involved in intercompany transactions. The amount of taxes we pay in different jurisdictions may depend on the application of the tax laws of various jurisdictions, including the United States, to our international business activities, changes in tax rates, new or revised tax laws or interpretations of existing tax laws and policies, and our ability to operate our business in a manner consistent with our corporate structure and intercompany arrangements. The taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our methodologies for pricing intercompany transactions pursuant to our intercompany arrangements or disagree with our determinations as to the income and expenses attributable to specific jurisdictions. If such a challenge or disagreement were to occur, and our position was not sustained, we could be required to pay additional taxes, interest, and penalties, which could result in one-time tax charges, higher effective tax rates, reduced cash flows, and lower overall profitability of our operations. Our financial statements could fail to reflect adequate reserves to cover such a contingency.
Changes in tax laws or tax rulings could materially affect our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
The tax regimes we are subject to or operate under, including income and non-income taxes, are unsettled and may be subject to significant change. Changes in tax laws, regulations, or rulings, or changes in interpretations of existing laws and regulations, could materially affect our financial position and results of operations. For example, the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Tax Act) made broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code, including changes to U.S. federal tax rates, additional limitations on the deductibility of interest, both positive and negative changes to the utilization of future net operating loss (NOL) carryforwards, allowing for the expensing of certain capital expenditures, and putting into effect the migration from a “worldwide” system of taxation to a territorial system. The issuance of additional regulatory or accounting guidance related to the Tax Act could materially affect our tax obligations and effective tax rate in the period issued. In addition, many countries in Europe, as well as a number of other countries and organizations (including the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the European Commission), have recently proposed, recommended, or (in the case of countries) enacted or otherwise become subject to changes to existing tax laws or new tax laws that could significantly increase our tax obligations in the countries where we do business or require us to change the manner in which we operate our business. These proposals, recommendations and enactments include changes to the existing framework in respect of income taxes, as well as new types of non-income taxes (such as taxes based on a percentage of revenue or taxes applicable to digital services) which could apply to our business.

Due to the large and expanding scale of our international business activities, these types of changes to the taxation of our activities could increase our worldwide effective tax rate, increase the amount of taxes imposed on our business, and harm our financial position. Such changes may also apply retroactively to our historical operations and result in taxes greater than the amounts estimated and recorded in our financial statements.
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Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards may be limited.
We have incurred substantial losses during our history, do not expect to become profitable in the near future, and may never achieve profitability. Unused U.S. federal NOLs for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, may be carried forward to offset future taxable income, if any, until such unused NOLs expire. Under legislation enacted in 2017, informally titled the Tax Act, as modified by legislation enacted on March 27, 2020, entitled the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the CARES Act), U.S. federal NOLs incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, can be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such U.S. federal NOLs in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2020 is limited to 80% of taxable income. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the Tax Act or the CARES Act. For instance, for California income tax purposes, California NOLs will be suspended for tax years beginning after 2019 but before 2023.

As of January 31, 2021, we had U.S. federal and state net operating loss carryforwards of $1.9 billion and $1.4 billion, respectively. Of the $1.9 billion U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards, $1.8 billion may be carried forward indefinitely with utilization limited to 80% of taxable income, and the remaining $0.1 billion will begin to expire in 2031. The state net operating loss carryforwards begin to expire in 2024.

In addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code), and corresponding provisions of state law, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” which is generally defined as one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of our stock increasing their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change NOL carryforwards to offset its post-change income or taxes may be limited. It is possible that we may experience ownership changes as a result of our initial public offering or in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership, some of which may be outside of our control. This could limit the amount of NOLs that we can utilize annually to offset future taxable income or tax liabilities. Subsequent ownership changes and changes to the U.S. tax rules in respect of the utilization of NOLs may further affect the limitation in future years. In addition, at the state level, there may be periods during which the use of NOLs is suspended or otherwise limited, which could accelerate or permanently increase state taxes owed.
Changes in our effective tax rate or tax liability may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and various foreign jurisdictions. The determination of our worldwide provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities requires significant judgment by management, and there are many transactions where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We believe that our provision for income taxes is reasonable, but the ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our consolidated financial statements and may materially affect our financial results in the period or periods in which such outcome is determined.

Our effective tax rate could increase due to several factors, including:

changes in the relative amounts of income before taxes in the various jurisdictions in which we operate that have differing statutory tax rates;
changes in tax laws, tax treaties, and regulations or the interpretation of them, including the Tax Act and the CARES Act;
changes to our assessment about our ability to realize our deferred tax assets that are based on estimates of our future results, the prudence and feasibility of possible tax planning strategies, and the economic and political environments in which we do business;
the outcome of current and future tax audits, examinations, or administrative appeals; and
the effects of acquisitions.
Any of these developments could adversely affect our results of operations.
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Risks Related to the Ownership of Our Common Stock
Our stock price may be volatile, and the value of our common stock may decline.
The market price of our common stock has been and may continue to be highly volatile and may fluctuate or decline substantially as a result of a variety of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition or results of operations;
variance in our financial performance from expectations of securities analysts;
changes in the pricing or consumption of our platform;
changes in our projected operating and financial results;
changes in laws or regulations applicable to our platform;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant business developments, acquisitions, or new offerings;
significant data breaches, disruptions to, or other incidents involving our platform;
our involvement in litigation;
future sales of our common stock by us or our stockholders, including as a result of our IPO lock-up release in March 2021;
changes in senior management or key personnel;
the trading volume of our common stock;
changes in the anticipated future size and growth rate of our market; and
general economic and market conditions.
Broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political, regulatory, and market conditions, such as recessions, interest rate changes, or international currency fluctuations, may also negatively impact the market price of our common stock. In addition, technology stocks have historically experienced high levels of volatility. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their securities have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future, which could result in substantial expenses and divert our management’s attention.
Future sales of our common stock in the public market could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. Many of our stockholders who held our capital stock prior to completion of our IPO have substantial unrecognized gains on the value of the equity they hold based upon the price at which shares were sold in our IPO, and therefore, they may take steps to sell their shares or otherwise secure the unrecognized gains on those shares. We are unable to predict the timing of or the effect that such sales may have on the prevailing market price of our common stock.

The 4,166,666 shares of common stock purchased in the two concurrent private placements completed in September 2020, and the 4,042,043 shares of common stock purchased in September 2020 in the secondary transaction from one of our stockholders, are subject to a market standoff agreement with us for a period of up to 365 days after September 15, 2020. Additionally, the shares of common stock subject to outstanding options and restricted stock unit awards under our equity incentive plans, and the shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans will become eligible for sale in the public market upon issuance, subject to compliance with applicable securities laws.

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Further, certain holders of our common stock have rights, subject to some conditions, to require us to file registration statements covering the sale of their shares or to include their shares in registration statements that we may file for ourselves or other stockholders.
Our issuance of additional capital stock in connection with financings, acquisitions, investments, our equity incentive plans, or otherwise will dilute all other stockholders.
We expect to issue additional capital stock in the future that will result in dilution to all other stockholders. We expect to grant equity awards to employees, directors, and consultants under our equity incentive plans. We may also raise capital through equity financings in the future. As part of our business strategy, we may acquire or make investments in companies, products, or technologies and issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition or investment. Any such issuances of additional capital stock may cause stockholders to experience significant dilution of their ownership interests and the per share value of our common stock to decline.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish unfavorable or inaccurate research about our business, the market price and trading volume of our common stock could decline.
The market price and trading volume of our common stock is heavily influenced by the way analysts interpret our financial information and other disclosures. We do not have control over these analysts. If securities analysts or industry analysts cease coverage of us, our stock price would be negatively affected. If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, downgrade our common stock, or publish negative reports about our business, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our common stock could decrease, which might cause our stock price to decline and could decrease the trading volume of our common stock.
We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future and, as a result, the ability of the holders of our common stock to achieve a return on their investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock, and we do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors. Accordingly, holders of our common stock may need to rely on sales of our common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and we cannot be certain if the reduced reporting and disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (Section 404), reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Pursuant to Section 107 of the JOBS Act, as an emerging growth company, we have elected to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. As a result, our consolidated financial statements may not be comparable to the financial statements of issuers who are required to comply with the effective dates for new or revised accounting standards that are applicable to public companies, which may make our common stock less attractive to investors. In addition, if we cease to be an emerging growth company, we will no longer be able to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of: (1) January 31, 2026, the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the IPO; (2) the last day of the first fiscal year in which our annual gross revenue is $1.07 billion or more; (3) the date on which we have, during the previous rolling three-year period, issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt securities; and (4) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates.

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We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive if we choose to rely on these exemptions. For example, if we do not adopt a new or revised accounting standard, our future results of operations may not be comparable to the results of operations of certain other companies in our industry that adopted such standards. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock, and our stock price may be more volatile.
We incur significant costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management is required to devote substantial time to compliance with our public company responsibilities and corporate governance practices.
As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company, which we expect to further increase after we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of the New York Stock Exchange, and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies. Our management and other personnel devote a substantial amount of time to compliance with these requirements. Moreover, these rules and regulations have increased our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we will incur as a public company or the specific timing of such costs.
As a result of being a public company, we are obligated to develop and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting, and any failure to maintain the adequacy of these internal controls may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.
We will be required, pursuant to Section 404, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2022. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm will be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC following the date we are no longer an “emerging growth company.” We have recently commenced the costly and challenging process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404, but we may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing, and any required remediation in a timely fashion once initiated. Our compliance with Section 404 will require that we incur substantial expenses and expend significant management efforts. We have only recently established an internal audit group, and as we continue to grow, we will hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge and compile the system and process documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404.

During the evaluation and testing process of our internal controls, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to certify that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition or results of operations. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of our company more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management, and limit the market price of our common stock.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include provisions that:

authorize our board of directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, shares of undesignated preferred stock with terms, rights, and preferences determined by our board of directors that may be senior to our common stock;
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require that any action to be taken by our stockholders be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent;
specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our board of directors, the chairperson of our board of directors, or our Chief Executive Officer;
establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors;
establish that our board of directors is divided into three classes, with each class serving three-year staggered terms;
prohibit cumulative voting in the election of directors;
provide that our directors may only be removed for cause;
provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum; and
require the approval of our board of directors or the holders of at least 66 2/3% of our outstanding shares of voting stock to amend our bylaws and certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation.
These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally, subject to certain exceptions, prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an “interested” stockholder. Any of the foregoing provisions could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock, and they could deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that holders of our common stock would receive a premium for their shares of our common stock in an acquisition.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware and, to the extent enforceable, the federal district courts of the United States of America as the exclusive forums for certain disputes between us and our stockholders, which will restrict our stockholders’ ability to choose the judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law: any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a breach of a fiduciary duty, any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our amended and restated bylaws, or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. This choice of forum provision does not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.

Furthermore, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all such Securities Act actions. Accordingly, both state and federal courts have jurisdiction to entertain such claims. To prevent having to litigate claims in multiple jurisdictions and the threat of inconsistent or contrary rulings by different courts, among other considerations, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. While the Delaware courts have determined that such choice of forum provisions are facially valid, a stockholder may nevertheless seek to bring a claim in a venue other than those designated in the exclusive forum provisions. In such instance, we would expect to vigorously assert the validity and enforceability of the exclusive forum provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. This may require significant additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions and there can be no assurance that the provisions will be enforced by a court in those other jurisdictions.

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These choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees. If a court were to find either exclusive-forum provision in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving the dispute in other jurisdictions, which could seriously harm our business.

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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We are a Delaware corporation with a globally distributed workforce. We recruit and hire employees in jurisdictions around the world based on a range of factors, including the available talent pool, the type of work being performed, the relative cost of labor, regulatory requirements and costs, and other considerations. Since April 2020, the vast majority of our workforce has been working remotely. Although we expect most of our employees to return to physical offices in the future, the nature and extent of that return is uncertain. We currently lease offices in the United States in Atlanta, Georgia; Bellevue, Washington; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; Dublin, California; McLean, Virginia; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and San Mateo, California, currently our largest lease, where we occupy facilities totaling approximately 210,115 square feet. We also have offices in multiple locations in Canada, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and Japan. All of our offices are leased, and we do not own any real property. While we believe that our current facilities are adequate to meet our foreseeable needs, we intend to expand our facilities in the future as we continue to add employees around the world. We believe that suitable additional or alternative space will be available to accommodate our future growth.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time, we have been and will continue to be subject to legal proceedings and claims. We are not presently a party to any legal proceedings that, if determined adversely to us, would individually or taken together have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows. We have received, and may in the future continue to receive, claims from third parties asserting, among other things, infringement of their intellectual property rights. Future litigation may be necessary to defend ourselves, our partners, and our customers by determining the scope, enforceability, and validity of third-party proprietary rights, or to establish our proprietary rights. The results of any current or future litigation cannot be predicted with certainty, and regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources, and other factors.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
None.

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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Price of Our Class A Common Stock
Our Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, under the symbol “SNOW” and began trading on September 16, 2020. Prior to that date, there was no public trading market for our Class A common stock.
Holders of Record
As of March 1, 2021, there were 512 stockholders of record of our Class A common stock. The actual number of holders of our Class A common stock is greater than the number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners, but whose shares are held in street name by brokers or other nominees. The number of holders of record presented here also does not include stockholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.

On March 1, 2021, all shares of our then-outstanding Class B common stock were automatically converted into the same number of shares of Class A common stock pursuant to the terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. See Note 16, Subsequent Events, in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Form on Form 10-K for further details.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, to fund the development and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination regarding the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects, and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities
The following sets forth information regarding all unregistered securities sold since January 31, 2020:

In February 2020, we issued and sold an aggregate of 8,480,857 shares of Series G-1 convertible preferred stock and 3,868,970 shares of Series G-2 convertible preferred stock to 55 accredited investors at $38.77 per share for an aggregate consideration of approximately $478.8 million.
From February 1, 2020 to September 16, 2020 (the date of the filing of our registration statement on Form S-8, File No. 333-248830), we granted stock options to purchase an aggregate of 876,961 shares of our Class B common stock to our employees at exercise prices ranging from $25.32 to $80.00 per share under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan.
From February 1, 2020 to September 16, 2020 (the date of the filing of our registration statement on Form S-8, File No. 333-248830), we issued an aggregate of 8,924,816 shares of our Class B common stock upon the exercise of options under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan at exercise prices ranging from $0.07 to $13.48 per share, for an aggregate purchase price of $30.5 million.
From February 1, 2020 to September 16, 2020 (the date of the filing of our registration statement on Form S-8, File No. 333-248830), we granted an aggregate of 7,724,604 restricted stock units to our employees to be settled in shares of our Class B common stock under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan.
On September 17, 2020, we issued 32,241 shares of our Class B common stock upon the net exercise of an outstanding warrant to purchase 32,336 shares of our Class B common stock at an exercise price of $0.74 per share.
On September 18, 2020, each of Salesforce Ventures LLC and Berkshire Hathaway Inc. purchased from us 2,083,333 shares of our Class A common stock at a price per share equal to the IPO price in two concurrent private placements. We received aggregate proceeds of $500.0 million and did not pay underwriting discounts with respect to the shares of Class A common stock that were sold in these private placements.
The offers, sales, and issuances of the securities described above were deemed to be exempt from registration under the Securities Act in reliance on Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act or Regulation D promulgated thereunder or Rule 701 promulgated under the Securities Act as transactions by an issuer not involving a public offering or under benefit plans and contracts relating to compensation as provided under Rule 701. The recipients of the securities in each of these transactions represented their intentions to acquire the securities for investment only and not with a view to or for sale in connection with any distribution thereof. All recipients had adequate access through their relationships with us, or otherwise to information about us. The issuances of these securities were made without any general solicitation or advertising.
Use of Proceeds
On September 18, 2020, we closed our IPO of 32,200,000 shares of our Class A common stock at an offering price of $120.00 per share, including 4,200,000 shares pursuant to the exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of our Class A common stock, resulting in gross proceeds to us of $3.7 billion, net of the underwriting discounts. All of the shares issued and sold in our IPO were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-248280), which was declared effective by the SEC on September 15, 2020. We incurred offering expenses of approximately $0.3 million.

Immediately subsequent to the closing of our IPO, each of Salesforce Ventures LLC and Berkshire Hathaway Inc. purchased from us approximately 2,083,333 shares of our Class A common stock at a price per share equal to the IPO price of $120.00 per share in two concurrent private placements. We received aggregate proceeds of $500.0 million and did not pay underwriting discounts with respect to the shares of Class A common stock that were sold in these private placements.

There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our IPO as described in our Final Prospectus for our IPO dated as of September 15, 2020 and filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) on September 16, 2020.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
None.
Stock Performance Graph
This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC, for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act.

The graph below shows the cumulative total return to our stockholders between September 16, 2020 (the date that our Class A common stock commenced trading on the New York Stock Exchange) through January 31, 2021 in comparison to the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Information Technology Index. The graph assumes (i) that $100 was invested in each of our Class A common stock, the S&P 500 Index, and the S&P 500 Information Technology Index at their respective closing prices on September 16, 2020 and (ii) reinvestment of gross dividends. The stock price performance shown in the graph represents past performance and should not be considered an indication of future stock price performance.

SNOW-20210131_G2.JPG
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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected consolidated statements of operations data for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of January 31, 2021 and 2020 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected consolidated balance sheet data as of January 31, 2019 is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements which are not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any other period in the future. You should read this information in conjunction with the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements, the accompanying notes, and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 2019
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
Revenue $ 592,049  $ 264,748  $ 96,666 
Cost of revenue(1)
242,588  116,557  51,753 
Gross profit 349,461  148,191  44,913 
Operating expenses(1):
Sales and marketing 479,317  293,577  125,642 
Research and development 237,946  105,160  68,681 
General and administrative 176,135  107,542  36,055 
Total operating expenses 893,398  506,279  230,378 
Operating loss (543,937) (358,088) (185,465)
Interest income 7,507  11,551  8,759 
Other expense, net (610) (1,005) (502)
Loss before income taxes (537,040) (347,542) (177,208)
Provision for income taxes 2,062  993  820 
Net loss $ (539,102) $ (348,535) $ (178,028)
Net loss per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders – basic and diluted(2)
$ (3.81) $ (7.77) $ (4.67)
Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders – basic and diluted(2)
141,613,196  44,847,442  38,162,228 
________________
(1)Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows:
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 2019
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue $ 33,642  $ 3,650  $ 1,895 
Sales and marketing 97,879  20,757  15,647 
Research and development 99,223  15,743  28,284 
General and administrative 70,697  38,249  6,912 
Total stock-based compensation expense $ 301,441  $ 78,399  $ 52,738 

During the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we began recognizing, using an accelerated attribution method, stock-based compensation expense associated with our RSUs granted prior to our IPO as the performance-based vesting condition applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020. We recognized stock-based compensation expense of $178.7 million associated with such RSUs for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021.
Stock-based compensation expense for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2019 included $30.3 million of compensation expense related to the amount paid in excess of the estimated fair value of common stock at the date of transaction in connection with two issuer tender offers.
See Note 11 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details.
(2)See Note 2 and Note 13 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for an explanation of the calculations of our net loss per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders, basic and diluted, and the weighted-average shares used to compute these amounts.
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As of January 31,
2021(1)
2020 2019
(in thousands)
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term and long-term investments
$ 5,073,339  $ 457,582  $ 608,798 
Total assets 5,921,739  1,012,720  764,288 
Working capital(2)
3,511,388  248,739  554,047 
Redeemable convertible preferred stock —  936,474  910,853 
Additional paid-in capital 6,175,425  155,340  39,296 
Accumulated deficit (1,239,421) (700,319) (351,784)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit) 4,936,471  (544,757) (312,467)
________________
(1)In September 2020, we completed our IPO, in which we issued and sold 32,200,000 shares of our Class A common stock, including 4,200,000 shares issued upon the exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares, at $120.00 per share, resulting in net proceeds of $3.7 billion, after deducting underwriting discounts. In connection with the closing of the IPO, (i) all shares of outstanding convertible preferred stock were automatically converted into an equivalent number of shares of Class B common stock and (ii) Salesforce Ventures LLC and Berkshire Hathaway Inc. each purchased 2,083,333 shares of our Class A common stock at $120.00 per share in concurrent private placements that closed immediately subsequent to the closing of the IPO, resulting in additional proceeds of $500.0 million. We did not pay underwriting discounts with respect to the shares of Class A common stock that were sold in these private placements. For additional information, see Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(2)Working capital is defined as current assets less current liabilities.

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion, particularly information with respect to our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans, and objectives of management for future operations, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties as described under the heading “Special Note About Forward-Looking Statements” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. You should review the disclosure under the heading “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a discussion of important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements.

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references in this report to “Snowflake,” the “Company”, “we,” “our,” “us,” or similar terms refer to Snowflake Inc. and its subsidiaries.

A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020 is presented below. A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2019 can be found in “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Final Prospectus dated September 15, 2020 and filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) on September 16, 2020.

Overview
We believe in a data connected world where organizations have seamless access to explore, share, and unlock the value of data. To realize this vision, we deliver the Data Cloud, an ecosystem where Snowflake customers, partners, data providers, and data consumers can break down data silos and derive value from rapidly growing data sets in secure, governed, and compliant ways.

Our platform is the innovative technology that powers the Data Cloud, enabling customers to consolidate data into a single source of truth to drive meaningful business insights, build data-driven applications, and share data. We provide our platform through a customer-centric, consumption-based business model, only charging customers for the resources they use.

Our cloud-native architecture consists of three independently scalable layers across storage, compute, and cloud services. The storage layer ingests massive amounts and varieties of structured and semi-structured data to create a unified data record. The compute layer provides dedicated resources to enable users to simultaneously access common data sets for many use cases without latency. The cloud services layer intelligently optimizes each use case’s performance requirements with no administration. This architecture is built on three major public clouds across 23 regional deployments around the world. These deployments are interconnected to deliver the Data Cloud, enabling a consistent, global user experience.

We generate the substantial majority of our revenue from fees charged to our customers based on the storage, compute, and data transfer resources consumed on our platform as a single, integrated offering. For storage resources, consumption fees are based on the average terabytes per month of all of the customer’s data stored in our platform. For compute resources, consumption fees are based on the type of compute resource used and the duration of use or, for some features, the volume of data processed. For data transfer resources, consumption fees are based on terabytes of data transferred, the public cloud provider used, and the region to and from which the transfer is executed.

Our customers typically enter into capacity arrangements with a term of one to four years, or consume our platform under on-demand arrangements in which we charge for use of our platform monthly in arrears. Consumption for most customers accelerates from the beginning of their usage to the end of their contract terms and often exceeds their initial capacity commitment amounts. When this occurs, our customers have the option to amend their existing agreement with us to purchase additional capacity or request early renewals. When a customer’s consumption during the contract term does not exceed its capacity commitment amount, it may have the option to roll over any unused capacity to future periods, generally on the purchase of additional capacity. For these reasons, we believe our deferred revenue is not a meaningful indicator of future revenue that will be recognized in any given time period.
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Our go-to-market strategy is focused on acquiring new customers and driving continued use of our platform for existing customers. We primarily focus our selling efforts on large organizations and primarily sell our platform through a direct sales force, which targets technical and business leaders who are adopting a cloud strategy and leveraging data to improve their business performance. Our sales organization is comprised of sales development, inside sales, and field sales personnel and is segmented by the size, region, and recently, industry of prospective customers. Once our platform has been adopted, we focus on increasing the migration of additional customer workloads to our platform to drive increased consumption, as evidenced by our net revenue retention rate, which exceeded 165% as of January 31, 2021 and 2020.

Our platform is used globally by organizations of all sizes across a broad range of industries. As of January 31, 2021, we had 4,139 total customers, increasing from 2,392 customers as of January 31, 2020. Our platform has been adopted by many of the world’s largest organizations that view Snowflake as a key strategic partner in their cloud and data transformation initiatives. As of January 31, 2021, our customers included 186 of the Fortune 500, based on the 2020 Fortune 500 list, and those customers contributed approximately 27% of our revenue for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021. Our Fortune 500 customer count is subject to adjustments for annual updates to the Fortune 500 list by Fortune, as well as acquisitions, consolidations, spin-offs, and other market activity with respect to such customers.
Initial Public Offering and Private Placements
In September 2020, we completed our initial public offering (IPO) in which we issued and sold 32,200,000 shares of our Class A common stock at $120.00 per share, including 4,200,000 shares issued upon the exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares. We received net proceeds of $3.7 billion after deducting underwriting discounts. In connection with the IPO:
all 182,271,099 shares of our outstanding redeemable convertible preferred stock automatically converted into an equivalent number of shares of Class B common stock on a one-to-one basis; and
Salesforce Ventures LLC and Berkshire Hathaway Inc. each purchased 2,083,333 shares of our Class A common stock at $120.00 per share in concurrent private placements that closed immediately subsequent to the closing of the IPO. We received aggregate proceeds of $500.0 million in these concurrent private placements and did not pay underwriting discounts with respect to the shares of Class A common stock that were sold in these private placements.

On March 1, 2021, all shares of our then-outstanding Class B common stock were automatically converted into the same number of shares of Class A common stock pursuant to the terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. See Note 16, Subsequent Events, in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Form on Form 10-K for further details.

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Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
Adoption of our Platform and Expansion of the Data Cloud
Our future success depends in large part on the market adoption of our platform. While we see growing demand for our platform, particularly from large enterprises, many of these organizations have invested substantial technical, financial, and personnel resources in their legacy database products or big data offerings, despite their inherent limitations. While this makes it difficult to predict customer adoption rates and future demand, we believe that the benefits of our platform put us in a strong position to capture the significant market opportunity ahead.

Our platform powers the Data Cloud, an ecosystem of data providers, data consumers, and data application developers that enables our customers to securely share, connect, collaborate, monetize, and acquire live data sets. Our future growth will be increasingly dependent on our ability to increase consumption of our platform by building and expanding this ecosystem and the types and quality of data available on the Data Cloud.
Expanding Within our Existing Customer Base
Our large base of customers represents a significant opportunity for further consumption of our platform. While we have seen a rapid increase in the number of customers that have contributed more than $1 million in product revenue in the trailing 12 months, we believe that there is a substantial opportunity to continue growing these customers further, as well as continuing to expand the usage of our platform within our other existing customers. We plan to continue investing in our direct sales force to encourage increased consumption and adoption of new use cases among our existing customers.

Once deployed, our customers often expand their use of our platform more broadly within the enterprise and across their ecosystem of customers and partners as they migrate more data to the public cloud, identify new use cases, and realize the benefits of our platform and the Data Cloud. However, because we generally recognize product revenue on consumption and not ratably over the term of the contract, we do not have visibility into the timing of revenue recognition from any particular customer. In any given period, there is a risk that customer consumption of our platform will be slower than we expect, which may cause fluctuations in our revenue and results of operations. New software releases or hardware improvements may make our platform more efficient, enabling customers to consume fewer compute, storage, and data transfer resources to accomplish the same workloads. Our ability to increase usage of our platform by, and sell additional contracted capacity to, existing customers, and, in particular, large enterprise customers, will depend on a number of factors, including our customers’ satisfaction with our platform, competition, pricing, overall changes in our customers’ spending levels, the effectiveness of our efforts to help our customers realize the benefits of our platform, and the extent to which customers migrate new workloads to our platform over time.
Acquiring New Customers
We believe there is a substantial opportunity to further grow our customer base by continuing to make significant investments in sales and marketing and brand awareness. Our ability to attract new customers will depend on a number of factors, including our success in recruiting and scaling our sales and marketing organization, competitive dynamics in our target markets, and our ability to build and maintain partner relationships, including with global system integrators, resellers, and technology partners. We intend to expand our direct sales force, with a focus on increasing sales to large organizations. While our platform is built for organizations of all sizes and industries, we have only recently focused our selling efforts on large enterprise customers. We may not achieve anticipated revenue growth from expanding our sales force to focus on large enterprises if we are unable to hire, develop, integrate, and retain talented and effective sales personnel; if our new and existing sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time; or if our sales and marketing programs are not effective.
Investing in Growth and Scaling our Business
We are focused on our long-term revenue potential. We believe that our market opportunity is large, and we will continue to invest significantly in scaling across all organizational functions in order to grow our operations both domestically and internationally. We have a history of introducing successful new features and capabilities on our platform, and we intend to continue to invest heavily to grow our business to take advantage of our expansive market opportunity rather than optimize for profitability or cash flow in the near future.

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Key Business Metrics
We monitor the key business metrics set forth below to help us evaluate our business and growth trends, establish budgets, measure the effectiveness of our sales and marketing efforts, and assess operational efficiencies. The calculation of the key business metrics discussed below may differ from other similarly titled metrics used by other companies, securities analysts, or investors.
Product Revenue
Product revenue is a key metric for us because we recognize revenue based on platform consumption, which is inherently variable at our customers’ discretion, and not based on the amount and duration of contract terms. Product revenue includes compute, storage, and data transfer resources, which are consumed by customers on our platform as a single, integrated offering. Customers have the flexibility to consume more than their contracted capacity during the contract term and may have the ability to roll over unused capacity to future periods, generally on the purchase of additional capacity at renewal. Our consumption-based business model distinguishes us from subscription-based software companies that generally recognize revenue ratably over the contract term and may not permit rollover. Because customers have flexibility in the timing of their consumption, which can exceed their contracted capacity or extend beyond the original contract term in many cases, the amount of product revenue recognized in a given period is an important indicator of customer satisfaction and the value derived from our platform. While customer use of our platform in any period is not necessarily indicative of future use, we estimate future revenue using predictive models based on customers’ historical usage to plan and determine financial forecasts. Product revenue excludes our professional services and other revenue, which has been less than 10% of revenue for each of the periods presented.
Remaining Performance Obligations
Remaining performance obligations (RPO) represent the amount of contracted future revenue that has not yet been recognized, including both deferred revenue and non-cancelable contracted amounts that will be invoiced and recognized as revenue in future periods. RPO excludes performance obligations from on-demand arrangements and certain time and materials contracts that are billed in arrears. RPO is not necessarily indicative of future product revenue growth because it does not account for the timing of customers’ consumption or their consumption of more than their contracted capacity. Moreover, RPO is influenced by a number of factors, including the timing of renewals, the timing of purchases of additional capacity, average contract terms, seasonality, and the extent to which customers are permitted to roll over unused capacity to future periods, generally upon the purchase of additional capacity at renewal. Due to these factors, it is important to review RPO in conjunction with product revenue and other financial metrics disclosed elsewhere herein.
Total Customers
We count the total number of customers at the end of each period. For purposes of determining our customer count, we treat each customer account, including accounts for end-customers under a reseller arrangement, that has at least one corresponding capacity contract as a unique customer, and a single organization with multiple divisions, segments, or subsidiaries may be counted as multiple customers. For purposes of determining our customer count, we do not include customers that consume our platform only under on-demand arrangements. Our customer count is subject to adjustments for acquisitions, consolidations, spin-offs, and other market activity. We believe that the number of customers is an important indicator of the growth of our business and future revenue trends.
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Net Revenue Retention Rate
We believe the growth in use of our platform by our existing customers is an important measure of the health of our business and our future growth prospects. We monitor our dollar-based net revenue retention rate to measure this growth. To calculate this metric, we first specify a measurement period consisting of the trailing two years from our current period end. Next, we define as our measurement cohort the population of customers under capacity contracts that used our platform at any point in the first month of the first year of the measurement period. We then calculate our net revenue retention rate as the quotient obtained by dividing our product revenue from this cohort in the second year of the measurement period by our product revenue from this cohort in the first year of the measurement period. Any customer in the cohort that did not use our platform in the second year remains in the calculation and contributes zero product revenue in the second year. Our net revenue retention rate is subject to adjustments for acquisitions, consolidations, spin-offs, and other market activity. Since we will continue to attribute the historical product revenue to the consolidated contract, consolidation of capacity contracts within a customer’s organization typically will not impact our net revenue retention rate unless one of those customers was not a customer at any point in the first month of the first year of the measurement period. We expect our net revenue retention rate to decrease over time as customers that have consumed our platform for an extended period of time become a larger portion of both our overall customer base and our product revenue that we use to calculate net revenue retention rate, and as their consumption growth primarily relates to existing use cases rather than new use cases.
Customers with Trailing 12-Month Product Revenue Greater than $1 Million
Large customer relationships lead to scale and operating leverage in our business model. Compared with smaller customers, large customers present a greater opportunity for us to sell additional capacity because they have larger budgets, a wider range of potential use cases, and greater potential for migrating new workloads to our platform over time. As a measure of our ability to scale with our customers and attract large enterprises to our platform, we count the number of customers under capacity arrangements that contributed more than $1 million in product revenue in the trailing 12 months. Our customer count is subject to adjustments for acquisitions, consolidations, spin-offs, and other market activity.

Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 2019
Product revenue (in millions) $ 553.8  $ 252.2  $ 95.7 


January 31, 2021 January 31, 2020 January 31, 2019
Remaining performance obligations (in millions)(1)
$ 1,332.8  $ 426.3  $ 128.0 
Total customers 4,139  2,392  948 
Net revenue retention rate 168  % 169  % 180  %
Customers with trailing 12-month product revenue greater than $1 million 77  41  14 
________________
(1)As of January 31, 2021, our RPO was approximately $1.3 billion, of which we expect approximately 55% to be recognized as revenue in the twelve months ending January 31, 2022 based on historical customer consumption patterns and revenue results. The weighted-average remaining life of our contracts was 1.9 years as of January 31, 2021. However, the amount and timing of revenue recognition are generally driven by customers' consumption, which is inherently variable at our customers’ discretion and can extend beyond the original contract term in cases where customers are permitted to roll over unused capacity to future periods, generally upon the purchase of additional capacity at renewal. In addition, our historical customer consumption patterns and revenue results are not necessarily indicative of future results.
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Impact of COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused general business disruption worldwide beginning in January 2020. The full extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic, including any new strains or mutations, will directly or indirectly impact our business, results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition will depend on future developments that are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted. Although our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition were not adversely impacted in the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we have experienced, and may continue to experience, an adverse impact on certain parts of our business as a result of governmental restrictions and other measures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, including a lengthening of the sales cycle for some prospective customers and delays in the delivery of professional services and trainings to our customers. We have also experienced, and may continue to experience, a modest positive impact on other aspects of our business, including an increase in consumption of our platform by existing customers. Moreover, during the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we saw slower growth in certain operating expenses due to reduced business travel, deferred hiring for some positions, and the virtualization or cancellation of customer, partner, and employee events. While a reduction in operating expenses had a positive impact on our results of operations for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we do not yet have visibility into the full impact this will have on our business. We cannot predict how long we will continue to experience these impacts as shelter-in-place orders and other related measures are expected to change over time, and the availability, efficacy, and acceptance of vaccines or other preventative measures is unclear. However, if our customers or partners experience downturns or uncertainty in their own business operations or revenue resulting from the spread or resurgence of COVID-19, they may decrease or delay their spending, request pricing discounts, or seek renegotiations of their contracts, any of which may result in decreased revenue and cash receipts for us in future periods. In addition, we may experience customer losses, including due to bankruptcy or our customers ceasing operations, which may result in an inability to collect accounts receivable from these customers.

In addition, in response to the spread of COVID-19, we have required virtually all of our employees to work remotely to minimize the risk of the virus to our employees and the communities in which we operate, and we may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, and business partners. Although we expect most of our employees to return to physical offices in the future, the nature and extent of that return is uncertain. Given the uncertainty regarding the length, severity, and ability to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, we cannot reasonably estimate the impact on our future results of operations, cash flows, or financial condition. For additional details, see the section titled “Risk Factors.”

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Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
We deliver our platform over the internet as a service. Customers choose to consume our platform under either capacity arrangements, in which they commit to a certain amount of consumption at specified prices, or under on-demand arrangements, in which we charge for use of our platform monthly in arrears. Under capacity arrangements, from which a majority of our revenue is derived, we typically bill our customers annually in advance of their consumption. However, in future periods, we expect to see an increase in capacity contracts providing for quarterly upfront billings and monthly in arrears billings as our customers increasingly want to align consumption and timing of payments. Revenue from on-demand arrangements typically relates to initial consumption as part of customer onboarding and, to a lesser extent, overage consumption beyond a customer’s contracted usage amount or following the expiration of a customer’s contract. Revenue from on-demand arrangements represented 4%, 4%, and 5% of our revenue for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

We recognize revenue as customers consume compute, storage, and data transfer resources under either of these arrangements. In limited instances, customers pay an annual deployment fee to gain access to a dedicated instance of a virtual private deployment. We recognize the deployment fee ratably over the contract term. Such deployment revenue represented approximately 1% of our revenue for all periods presented.

Our customer contracts for capacity typically have a term of one to four years. The weighted-average term of capacity contracts entered into during the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 is 2.1 years. To the extent our customers enter into such contracts and either consume our platform in excess of their capacity commitments or continue to use our platform after expiration of the contract term, they are charged for their incremental consumption. In many cases, our customer contracts permit customers to roll over any unused capacity to a subsequent order, generally on the purchase of additional capacity. For those customers who do not have a capacity arrangement, our on-demand arrangements generally have a monthly stated contract term and can be terminated at any time by either the customer or us.

We generate the substantial majority of our revenue from fees charged to our customers based on the storage, compute, and data transfer resources consumed on our platform as a single, integrated offering. We do not make any one of these resources available for consumption without the others. Instead, each of compute, storage, and data transfer work together to drive consumption on our platform. For storage resources, consumption for a given customer is based on the average terabytes per month of all of such customer’s data stored in our platform. For compute resources, consumption is based on the type of compute resource used and the duration of use or, for some features, the volume of data processed. For data transfer resources, consumption is based on terabytes of data transferred, the public cloud provider used, and the region to and from which the transfer is executed.

Because customers have flexibility in their consumption, and we generally recognize revenue on consumption and not ratably over the term of the contract, we do not have the visibility into the timing of revenue recognition from any particular customer contract that typical subscription-based software companies may have. As our customer base grows, we expect our ability to forecast customer consumption in the aggregate will improve. However, in any given period, there is a risk that customers will consume our platform more slowly than we expect, which may cause fluctuations in our revenue and results of operations.

Our revenue also includes professional services and other revenue, which consists of consulting, on-site technical solution services, and training related to our platform. Our professional services revenue is recognized over time based on input measures, including time and materials costs incurred relative to total costs, with consideration given to output measures, such as contract deliverables, when applicable. Other revenue consists of fees from customer training delivered on-site or through publicly available classes.
Allocation of Overhead Costs
Overhead costs that are not substantially dedicated for use by a specific functional group are allocated based on headcount. Such costs include costs associated with office facilities, depreciation of property and equipment, and information technology (IT) related personnel and other expenses, such as software and subscription services.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue consists of cost of product revenue and cost of professional services and other revenue. Cost of revenue also includes allocated overhead costs.
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Cost of product revenue. Cost of product revenue consists primarily of (i) third-party cloud infrastructure expenses incurred in connection with our customers’ use of our platform and the deployment and maintenance of our platform on public clouds, including different regional deployments, and (ii) personnel-related costs associated with customer support and maintaining service availability and security of our platform, including salaries, benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation. We periodically receive credits from third-party cloud providers that are recorded as a reduction to the third-party cloud infrastructure expenses. Cost of product revenue also includes amortization of internal-use software development costs, amortization of acquired developed technology intangible assets, and expenses associated with software and subscription services dedicated for use by our customer support team and our engineering team responsible for maintaining our platform.

Cost of professional services and other revenue. Cost of professional services and other revenue consists primarily of personnel-related costs associated with our professional services and training departments, including salaries, benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation, and costs of contracted third-party partners and software tools.

We intend to continue to invest additional resources in our platform infrastructure and our customer support and professional services organizations to support the growth of our business. Some of these investments, including certain support costs and costs of expanding our business internationally, are incurred in advance of generating revenue, and either the failure to generate anticipated revenue or fluctuations in the timing of revenue could affect our gross margin from period to period.
Operating Expenses
Our operating expenses consist of sales and marketing, research and development, and general and administrative expenses. Personnel costs are the most significant component of operating expenses and consist of salaries, benefits, bonuses, stock-based compensation, and sales commissions. Operating expenses also include allocated overhead costs.
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel-related expenses associated with our sales and marketing staff, including salaries, benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation. Sales and marketing expenses also include draws and sales commissions paid to our sales force and referral fees paid to independent third parties, including amortization of deferred commissions. Prior to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we primarily amortized sales commissions over a period of benefit that we determined to be five years as they were earned on new customer or expansion of existing customer contracts. As a result of modifications to our sales compensation plan during the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we now expense a portion of these sales commissions in the period earned, as they are earned based on the rate of our customers’ consumption of our platform, which we expect will accelerate our sales and marketing expenses in the near term. The remaining portion of the sales commissions is earned upon origination of the new customer or customer expansion contract and is deferred and amortized over the period of benefit, which we determined to be five years. Sales and marketing expenses also include advertising costs and other expenses associated with our marketing and business development programs, including Summit, our annual user conference, offset by proceeds from such conferences and programs. In addition, sales and marketing expenses are comprised of travel-related expenses, software and subscription services dedicated for use by our sales and marketing organizations, and outside services contracted for sales and marketing purposes. We expect that our sales and marketing expenses will increase in absolute dollars and continue to be our largest operating expense for the foreseeable future as we grow our business. However, we expect that our sales and marketing expenses will decrease as a percentage of our revenue over time.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel-related expenses associated with our research and development staff, including salaries, benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation. Research and development expenses also include contractor or professional services fees, third-party cloud infrastructure expenses incurred in developing our platform, and computer equipment, software, and subscription services dedicated for use by our research and development organization. We expect that our research and development expenses will increase in absolute dollars as our business grows, particularly as we incur additional costs related to continued investments in our platform. However, we expect that our research and development expenses will decrease as a percentage of our revenue over time. In addition, research and development expenses that qualify as internal-use software development costs are capitalized, the amount of which may fluctuate significantly from period to period.
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General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel-related expenses for our finance, legal, human resources, facilities, and administrative personnel, including salaries, benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation. General and administrative expenses also include external legal, accounting, and other professional services fees, software and subscription services dedicated for use by our general and administrative functions, insurance and other corporate expenses.

As a result of the closing of our IPO, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur additional expenses as a result of operating as a public company, including costs to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to companies listed on a national securities exchange, costs related to compliance and reporting obligations, and increased expenses for insurance, investor relations, and professional services. We expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase in absolute dollars as our business grows but will decrease as a percentage of our revenue over time.
Interest Income
Interest income consists primarily of interest income earned on our cash equivalents and short-term and long-term investments, net of associated fees.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net consists primarily of the effect of exchange rates on our foreign currency-denominated asset and liability balances.
Provision for (Benefit from) Income Taxes
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes consists primarily of income taxes in certain foreign and U.S. state jurisdictions in which we conduct business. We maintain a full valuation allowance against our U.S. and U.K. deferred tax assets because we have concluded that it is more likely than not that the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

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Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data for the periods indicated (in thousands):
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 2019
Revenue $ 592,049  $ 264,748  $ 96,666 
Cost of revenue(1)
242,588  116,557  51,753 
Gross profit 349,461  148,191  44,913 
Operating expenses(1):
Sales and marketing 479,317  293,577  125,642 
Research and development 237,946  105,160  68,681 
General and administrative 176,135  107,542  36,055 
Total operating expenses 893,398  506,279  230,378 
Operating loss (543,937) (358,088) (185,465)
Interest income 7,507  11,551  8,759 
Other expense, net (610) (1,005) (502)
Loss before income taxes (537,040) (347,542) (177,208)
Provision for income taxes 2,062  993  820 
Net loss $ (539,102) $ (348,535) $ (178,028)
________________
(1)Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows (in thousands):

Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 2019
Cost of revenue $ 33,642  $ 3,650  $ 1,895 
Sales and marketing 97,879  20,757  15,647 
Research and development 99,223  15,743  28,284 
General and administrative 70,697  38,249  6,912 
Total stock-based compensation expense $ 301,441  $ 78,399  $ 52,738 

During the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, we began recognizing, using an accelerated attribution method, stock-based compensation expense associated with our RSUs granted prior to our IPO as the performance-based vesting condition applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020. We recognized stock-based compensation expense of $178.7 million associated with such RSUs for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021. Stock-based compensation expense for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2019 included $30.3 million of compensation expense related to the amount paid in excess of the estimated fair value of common stock at the date of transaction in connection with two issuer tender offers.
See Note 11 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details.

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The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data expressed as a percentage of revenue for the periods indicated:
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 2019
Revenue 100  % 100  % 100  %
Cost of revenue 41  44  54 
Gross profit 59  56  46 
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing 81  111  130 
Research and development 40  40  71 
General and administrative 30  41  37 
Total operating expenses 151  192  238 
Operating loss (92) (136) (192)
Interest income
Other expense, net —  —  — 
Loss before income taxes (91) (132) (183)
Provision for income taxes —  — 
Net loss (91%) (132%) (184%)

Comparison of the Fiscal Years Ended January 31, 2021 and 2020
Revenue
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 % Change
(dollars in thousands)
Revenue:
Product $ 553,794  $ 252,229 120%
Professional services and other 38,255  12,519 206%
Total $ 592,049  $ 264,748 124%
Percentage of revenue:
Product 94% 95%
Professional services and other 6% 5%
Total 100% 100%

Product revenue increased $301.6 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020, primarily due to increased consumption of our platform by existing customers, as evidenced by our net revenue retention rate of 168% as of January 31, 2021. The increase in product revenue was also driven by an increase in capacity sales prices of approximately 8% for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, compared to the prior fiscal year, primarily as a result of better discipline over discounting. We had 77 customers with product revenue of greater than $1 million for the trailing 12 months ended January 31, 2021, an increase from 41 customers as of January 31, 2020. Such customers represented approximately 47% of our product revenue for each of the trailing 12 months ended January 31, 2021 and January 31, 2020. Approximately 89% of our revenue for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 was derived from existing customers under capacity arrangements, and approximately 7% of our revenue for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 was derived from new customers under capacity arrangements. The remainder was driven by on-demand arrangements. As described in the section titled “Impact of COVID-19,” we have experienced impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic, including the elongation of sales cycles, that may impact new customer acquisition, the timing of future revenue recognition, and our future growth rates. We continue to carefully monitor the impact of COVID-19 on product revenue, customer acquisitions, and net revenue retention rates.

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Professional services and other revenue increased $25.7 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year as we expanded our professional services organization to help our customers further realize the benefits of our platform.
Cost of Revenue, Gross Profit (Loss), and Gross Margin
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 % Change
(dollars in thousands)
Cost of revenue:
Product $ 193,835  $ 96,622 101%
Professional services and other 48,753  19,935 145%
Total cost of revenue $ 242,588  $ 116,557 108%
Gross profit (loss):
Product $ 359,959  $ 155,607
Professional services and other (10,498) (7,416)
Total gross profit $ 349,461  $ 148,191
Gross margin:
Product 65  % 62%
Professional services and other (27  %) (59%)
Total gross margin 59  % 56%
Headcount (at period end)
Product 154 81
Professional services and other 185 84
Total headcount 339 165

Cost of product revenue increased $97.2 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $63.0 million in third-party cloud infrastructure expenses and, to a lesser extent, increased headcount, which resulted in an increase of $28.6 million in personnel-related costs and allocated overhead costs for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year. The increase in personnel-related costs included an increase of $15.9 million in stock-based compensation for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, primarily due to the recognition of $11.9 million in stock-based compensation expense using an accelerated attribution method for RSUs granted prior to our IPO, as the performance-based vesting condition applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020. Additionally, amortization of internal-use software development costs increased $2.0 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year.

Cost of professional services and other revenue increased $28.8 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, primarily due to increased headcount, resulting in an increase of $28.1 million in personnel-related costs and allocated overhead costs for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year. The increase in personnel-related costs included an increase of $14.1 million in stock-based compensation for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, primarily due to the recognition of $10.3 million in stock-based compensation expense using an accelerated attribution method for RSUs granted prior to our IPO, as the performance-based vesting condition applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020.

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Our product gross margin was 65% for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, compared to 62% for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020, primarily due to better discipline over discounting, higher volume-based discounts for our purchases of third-party cloud infrastructure, and increased scale across our cloud infrastructure regions. While we expect our product gross margin to increase for the fiscal year ending January 31, 2022 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, fluctuations in the mix and timing of customers' consumption, which is inherently variable at our customers' discretion, whether or not a customer contracts with us through our marketplace listings, our discounting practices, including as a result of changes to the competitive environment, and the extent of our investments in our operations, could hinder any improvement in our product gross margin. Given that we have only recently started to scale our professional services organization and our professional services and other revenue represents a small percentage of our revenue, we do not believe year-over-year changes in professional services and other gross margins are currently meaningful.
Sales and Marketing
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 % Change
(dollars in thousands)
Sales and marketing $ 479,317  $ 293,577 63%
Percentage of revenue 81% 111%
Headcount (at period end) 1,257 989

Sales and marketing expenses increased $185.7 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to increased headcount, resulting in an increase of $160.4 million in personnel-related costs (excluding commission expenses) and allocated overhead costs for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year. The increase in personnel-related costs included an increase of $77.1 million in stock-based compensation for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, primarily due to the recognition of $56.7 million in stock-based compensation expense using an accelerated attribution method for RSUs granted prior to our IPO, as the performance-based vesting condition applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020, and, to a lesser extent, the recognition of $16.0 million in stock-based compensation expense related to our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (2020 ESPP), which became effective in connection with our IPO. Expenses associated with sales commissions and draws paid to our sales force and third-party referral fees, including amortization of deferred commissions, increased $33.8 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, due to an increase in bookings and modifications to our sales compensation plan during the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, as discussed in “Components of Results of Operations” above. Other sales and marketing program expenses, which include advertising costs and contractor fees, also increased $13.2 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year.

The overall increase in sales and marketing expenses was partially offset by lower than anticipated travel and event expenses as we have implemented certain travel restrictions and replaced in-person events with digital events in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These changes resulted in a $12.7 million reduction in travel-related expenses and a $2.1 million reduction in expenses from our user conferences and programs for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year. The increase in sales and marketing expenses was further offset by a decrease of $9.0 million in recruiting expenses for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, primarily due to a reduction in third-party recruiting expenses as we continued to increase the utilization of our internal recruiting organization.
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Research and Development
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 % Change
(dollars in thousands)
Research and development $ 237,946  $ 105,160 126%
Percentage of revenue 40% 40%
Headcount (at period end) 478 311

Research and development expenses increased $132.8 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to increased headcount, resulting in an increase of $122.7 million in personnel-related costs and allocated overhead costs for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year. The increase in personnel-related costs included an increase of $83.5 million in stock-based compensation for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, primarily due to the recognition of $62.9 million in stock-based compensation expense using an accelerated attribution method for RSUs granted prior to our IPO, as the performance-based vesting condition applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020, and, to a lesser extent, the recognition of $5.7 million in stock-based compensation expense related to the 2020 ESPP. The remaining increase in stock-based compensation was attributable to additional RSUs granted to new employees after our IPO with an increased weighted-average grant date fair value.

The increase in research and development expenses for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 was also due to an increase of $9.3 million in third-party cloud infrastructure expenses incurred in developing our platform.
General and Administrative
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 % Change
(dollars in thousands)
General and administrative $ 176,135  $ 107,542 64%
Percentage of revenue 30% 41%
Headcount (at period end) 421 211

General and administrative expenses increased $68.6 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020. The increase was primarily due to increased headcount, resulting in an increase of $53.3 million in personnel-related costs and allocated overhead costs for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year. The increase in personnel-related costs included an increase of $32.4 million in stock-based compensation for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, primarily due to the recognition of $36.8 million in stock-based compensation expense using an accelerated attribution method for RSUs granted prior to our IPO, as the performance-based vesting condition applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020, and, to a lesser extent, the recognition of $2.8 million in stock-based compensation expense related to the 2020 ESPP. The overall increase in stock-based compensation was partially offset by a decrease of $11.3 million in expense attributable to the modification of certain awards held by a former executive officer.

The increase in general and administrative expenses, which includes insurance and other corporate expenses, was also due to an increase of $6.8 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year for additional expenses as a result of becoming a public company. Expenses relating to outside services also increased $6.7 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the prior fiscal year, primarily related to legal, accounting, and other professional services fees. The remaining increase in general and administrative expenses of $1.7 million was due to expenses associated with software and subscription services used to support our administrative functions.
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Interest Income
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 % Change
(dollars in thousands)
Interest income $ 7,507  $ 11,551  (35  %)

Interest income decreased $4.0 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020, primarily due to lower yields on investments, partially offset by the effect of higher cash and investment balances.
Provision for Income Taxes
Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 % Change
(dollars in thousands)
Loss before income taxes $ (537,040) $ (347,542) 55  %
Provision for income taxes 2,062 993 108  %
Effective tax rate (0.4%) (0.3%)

The provision for income taxes increased primarily as a result of the increase in pre-tax income related to international operations and U.S. state taxes in the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, and the partial release of a valuation allowance as a result of an acquisition in the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020.

We maintain a full valuation allowance on our U.S. and U.K. deferred tax assets, and the significant components of our recorded tax expense are current cash taxes in various jurisdictions. The cash tax expenses are impacted by each jurisdiction’s individual tax rates, laws on the timing of recognition of income and deductions, and availability of net operating losses and tax credits. Our effective tax rate might fluctuate significantly and could be adversely affected to the extent earnings are lower than forecasted in countries that have lower statutory rates and higher than forecasted in countries that have higher statutory rates.

Quarterly Results of Operations Data and Other Data
The following tables summarize our selected unaudited quarterly consolidated statements of operations data, the percentage of revenue that each line item represents, and the key business metrics for each of the eight quarters in the period ended January 31, 2021. The information for each of these quarters has been prepared on the same basis as our audited annual consolidated financial statements and reflects, in the opinion of management, all adjustments of a normal, recurring nature that are necessary for the fair statement of the results of operations for these periods. This data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full fiscal year or any other period.
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Consolidated Statements of Operations Data
Three Months Ended
January 31,
2021
October 31, 2020 July 31,
2020
April 30,
2020
January 31,
2020
October 31,
2019
July 31,
2019
April 30,
2019
(in thousands)
Revenue $ 190,465  $ 159,624  $ 133,145  $ 108,815  $ 87,692  $ 73,012  $ 60,339  $ 43,705 
Cost of revenue(1)
82,904  66,681  50,446  42,557  34,522  29,489  28,508  24,038 
Gross profit 107,561  92,943  82,699  66,258  53,170  43,523  31,831  19,667 
Operating expenses(1):
Sales and marketing 154,050  134,727  92,663  97,877  80,444  75,668  73,413  64,052 
Research and development 93,997  74,138  36,533  33,278  29,709  27,669  26,164  21,618 
General and administrative 59,911  53,532  31,186  31,506  28,129  30,318  27,823  21,272 
Total operating expenses 307,958  262,397  160,382  162,661  138,282  133,655  127,400  106,942 
Operating loss (200,397) (169,454) (77,683) (96,403) (85,112) (90,132) (95,569) (87,275)
Interest income 1,853  1,517  1,689  2,448  2,299  2,491  3,167  3,594 
Other income (expense), net 951  (519) (1,109) 67  (186) (40) (492) (287)
Loss before income taxes (197,593) (168,456) (77,103) (93,888) (82,999) (87,681) (92,894) (83,968)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes 1,342  433  531  (244) 255  376  521  (159)
Net loss $ (198,935) $ (168,889) $ (77,634) $ (93,644) $ (83,254) $ (88,057) $ (93,415) $ (83,809)
Net loss per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders – basic and diluted(2)
$ (0.70) $ (1.01) $ (1.31) $ (1.72) $ (1.67) $ (1.92) $ (2.18) $ (2.07)
________________
(1)Includes stock-based compensation as follows:

Three Months Ended
January 31,
2021
October 31, 2020 July 31,
2020
April 30,
2020
January 31,
2020
October 31,
2019
July 31,
2019
April 30,
2019
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue $ 18,135  $ 13,226  $ 1,164  $ 1,117  $ 968  $ 832  $ 1,070  $ 780 
Sales and marketing 48,165  39,481  5,135  5,098  5,329  4,802  5,066  5,560 
Research and development 50,037  39,368  5,154  4,664  4,921  4,411  3,457  2,954 
General and administrative 27,314  27,066  6,751  9,566  9,756  12,913  8,858  6,722 
Stock-based compensation expense $ 143,651  $ 119,141  $ 18,204  $ 20,445  $ 20,974  $ 22,958  $ 18,451  $ 16,016 

During the three months ended October 31, 2020, we began recognizing stock-based compensation expense related to our RSUs granted prior to our IPO, which had both service-based and performance-based vesting conditions. During the three months ended January 31, 2021 and October 31, 2020, we recognized stock-based compensation expense associated with these RSUs of $81.7 million and $97.0 million, respectively, of which $55.5 million of cumulative compensation expense was recognized upon the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020 due to the satisfaction of the performance-based vesting condition. See Note 11 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Form on Form 10-K for further details.
The increase in stock-based compensation expense for the three months ended January 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2020 was primarily attributable to additional RSU grants to new employees, increased weighted-average grant date fair value of RSUs, and expense related to the 2020 ESPP. The overall increase was partially offset by the decrease in stock-based compensation expense associated with RSUs granted prior to our IPO as discussed above.

(2)See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for an explanation of the calculations of our net loss per share attributable to Class A and Class B common stockholders, basic and diluted.

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Percentage of Revenue Data
Three Months Ended
January 31,
2021
October 31, 2020 July 31,
2020
April 30,
2020
January 31,
2020
October 31,
2019
July 31,
2019
April 30,
2019
Revenue 100  % 100  % 100  % 100  % 100  % 100  % 100  % 100  %
Cost of revenue 44  42  38  39  39  40  47  55 
Gross margin 56  58  62  61  61  60  53  45 
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing 81  84  70  90  92  104  122  146 
Research and development 49  46  27  30  34  38  43  49 
General and administrative 31  34  23  29  32  42  46  49 
Total operating expenses 161  164  120  149  158  184  211  244 
Operating margin (105) (106) (58) (88) (97) (124) (158) (199)
Interest income — 
Other income (expense), net —  —  (1) —  —  —  (1) (1)
Loss before income taxes (104) (106) (58) (86) (95) (120) (154) (192)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes —  —  —  —  —  — 
Net loss (104  %) (106  %) (58  %) (86  %) (95  %) (121  %) (155  %) (192  %)
Quarterly Changes in Revenue
Revenue increased sequentially in each of the quarters presented primarily due to increased consumption of our platform by existing customers and the addition of new customers. Because our revenue is based on consumption and consumption is at the discretion of our customers, our historical revenue results are not necessarily indicative of future performance.
Quarterly Changes in Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin
Cost of revenue increased sequentially in each of the quarters presented. For all quarters presented, cost of revenue increased primarily as a result of increased third-party cloud infrastructure expenses, driven by the initial cost of new deployments and increased consumption of our platform by customers, as well as increased personnel-related expenses resulting from increased headcount. In addition, during the three months ended October 31, 2020, we began recognizing, using an accelerated attribution method, stock-based compensation expense associated with our RSUs granted prior to our IPO as the performance-based vesting condition applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020. Our cost of revenue for the three months ended October 31, 2020 included $11.8 million of stock-based compensation expense associated with such RSUs. As a result, our cost of revenue increased, as a percentage of revenue, during the three months ended October 31, 2020 compared to the three months ended July 31, 2020. See Note 11 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Form on Form 10-K for further details.

Our cost of revenue increased, as a percentage of revenue, during the three months ended January 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2020, due primarily to the increase in stock-based compensation as a result of additional RSU grants to new employees, increased weighted-average grant date fair value of RSUs, and expense related to the 2020 ESPP.

Except for the three months ended October 31, 2020 and January 31, 2021, our improved quarterly gross margin since the three months ended October 31, 2019 was primarily attributable to higher volume-based discounts for purchases of third-party cloud infrastructure, increased scale across our cloud infrastructure regions, and improved platform pricing discipline. The decrease in our quarterly gross margin during the three months ended October 31, 2020 and January 31, 2021 was primarily a result of the increase in stock-based compensation expense in those periods as discussed above.
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Quarterly Changes in Operating Expenses
Operating expenses have generally increased sequentially in each of the quarters presented primarily due to increased headcount and other related costs to support our growth. However, after the outbreak of COVID-19, we have seen slower growth in certain operating expenses due to reduced business travel, deferred hiring for some positions, and the virtualization or cancellation of customer and employee events. In addition, during the three months ended October 31, 2020, we began recognizing, using an accelerated attribution method, stock-based compensation expense associated with our RSUs granted prior to our IPO as the performance-based vesting condition applicable to such RSUs was satisfied upon the effectiveness of our IPO in September 2020. Our operating expenses for the three months ended October 31, 2020 included $85.2 million of stock-based compensation expense associated with such RSUs. See Note 11 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Form on Form 10-K for further details. The increase in the absolute value of our operating expenses for the three months ended January 31, 2021 compared to the three months ended October 31, 2020 was also partially due to the increase in stock-based compensation expense as a result of additional RSU grants to new employees, increased weighted-average grant date fair value of RSUs, and expense related to the 2020 ESPP.

We intend to continue to make significant investments in research and development as we enhance our platform. We also intend to invest in our sales and marketing organization to drive future revenue growth. As a result of the closing of our IPO, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur additional expenses as a result of operating as a public company, including costs to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to companies listed on a national securities exchange, costs related to compliance and reporting obligations, and increased expenses for insurance, investor relations, and professional services.
Key Business Metrics
Three Months Ended
January 31,
2021
October 31, 2020 July 31,
2020
April 30,
2020
January 31,
2020
October 31,
2019
July 31,
2019
April 30,
2019
Product revenue (in millions) $ 178.3  $ 148.5  $ 125.2  $ 101.8  $ 82.4  $ 69.2  $ 57.8  $ 42.8 
January 31,
2021
October 31, 2020 July 31,
2020
April 30,
2020
January 31,
2020
October 31,
2019
July 31,
2019
April 30,
2019
Remaining performance obligations (in millions) $ 1,332.8  $ 927.9  $ 688.2  $ 467.8  $ 426.3  $ 273.0  $ 221.1  $ 137.9 
Total customers 4,139  3,554  3,117  2,720  2,392  1,934  1,547  1,194 
Net revenue retention rate 168  % 162  % 158  % 171  % 169  % 189  % 223  % 187  %
Customers with trailing 12-month product revenue greater than $1 million 77  65  56  48  41  31  22  16 

During the three months ended July 31, 2019, we experienced a significant increase in our net revenue retention rate as a result of a large enterprise customer’s increased consumption of our platform.

Historically, we have received a higher volume of orders from new and existing customers in the fourth fiscal quarter of each year as a result of industry buying patterns. As a result, our sequential growth in RPO has historically been highest in the fourth fiscal quarter of each fiscal year. In addition, we have experienced a significant increase in RPO each quarter since the three months ended July 31, 2020 primarily due to large enterprise customers entering into multi-year capacity contracts.

We expect our net revenue retention rate to decrease over time as existing customers that have consumed our platform for an extended period of time become a larger portion of both our overall customer base and our product revenue that we use to calculate net revenue retention rate, and as their consumption growth primarily relates to existing use cases rather than new use cases.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources
Since inception, we have financed operations primarily through proceeds received from sales of equity securities and payments received from our customers as further detailed below.

In September 2020, we completed our IPO which resulted in aggregate net proceeds of $3.7 billion, after underwriting discounts of $121.7 million. We also received aggregate proceeds of $500.0 million related to our concurrent private placements, and did not pay any underwriting discounts or commissions with respect to the shares that were sold in these private placements.

As of January 31, 2021, our principal sources of liquidity were cash, cash equivalents, and short-term and long-term investments totaling $5.1 billion. Our investments primarily consist of corporate notes and bonds, U.S. government and agency securities, commercial paper, certificates of deposit, and money market funds.

We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents, and short-term and long-term investments will be sufficient to support our working capital and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 12 months. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including our revenue growth rate, the timing and the amount of cash received from customers, the expansion of sales and marketing activities, the timing and extent of spending to support development efforts, the price at which we are able to purchase public cloud capacity, expenses associated with our international expansion, the introduction of platform enhancements, and the continuing market adoption of our platform. In the future, we may enter into arrangements to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, products, and technologies. We may be required to seek additional equity or debt financing. In the event that we require additional financing, we may not be able to raise such financing on terms acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to expand our operations and invest in continued innovation, we may not be able to compete successfully, which would harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

The following table shows a summary of our cash flows for the periods presented (in thousands):

Fiscal Year Ended January 31,
2021 2020 2019
Net cash used in operating activities $ (45,417) $ (176,558) $ (143,982)
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities (4,036,645) 138,495  (362,642)
Net cash provided by financing activities 4,775,290  57,469  413,601 
Operating Activities
Our largest source of operating cash is payments received from our customers. Our primary uses of cash from operating activities are for personnel-related expenses, sales and marketing expenses, third-party cloud infrastructure expenses, and overhead expenses. We have generated negative cash flows and have supplemented working capital through net proceeds from the sale of equity securities.

Cash used in operating activities mainly consists of our net loss adjusted for certain non-cash items, including stock-based compensation, net of amounts capitalized, depreciation and amortization of property and equipment, amortization of acquired intangible assets, amortization of operating lease right-of-use assets, amortization of deferred commissions, and changes in operating assets and liabilities during each period.

For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, net cash used in operating activities was $45.4 million, primarily consisting of our net loss of $539.1 million, adjusted for non-cash charges of $386.8 million, and net cash inflows of $106.9 million provided by changes in our operating assets and liabilities, net of the effect of an acquisition. The main drivers of the changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of the effect of an acquisition, were a $312.9 million increase in deferred revenue, resulting primarily from increased prepaid capacity arrangements; a $58.3 million increase in accrued expenses and other liabilities due to increased headcount, growth in our business, and employee contributions under the 2020 ESPP; and a $116.3 million increase in accounts receivable due to growth of our business and timing of collections, partially offset by (i) a $62.3 million increase in prepaid expenses and other assets, primarily driven by increased prepaid insurance as a result of becoming a public company, increased interest income receivables resulting from the increase in our investments, and increased prepaid third-party infrastructure expenses; (ii) a $51.4 million increase in deferred commissions earned on bookings; and (iii) a $31.3 million decrease in operating lease liabilities due to payments related to our operating lease obligations.
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For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020, net cash used in operating activities was $176.6 million, primarily consisting of our net loss of $348.5 million, adjusted for non-cash charges of $122.6 million, and net cash inflows of $49.3 million provided by changes in our operating assets and liabilities, net of effect of acquisitions. The main drivers of the changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of effect of acquisitions, were a $223.0 million increase in deferred revenue, resulting primarily from increased prepaid capacity arrangements, a $35.0 million increase in accrued expenses and other liabilities due to increased headcount and growth in our business, and a $1.1 million increase in accounts payable. These amounts were partially offset by a $116.9 million increase in accounts receivable due to an increase in sales, a $68.6 million increase in deferred commissions earned on bookings, a $10.8 million increase in prepaid expenses and other assets, primarily driven by prepaid software and subscription services and deposits for our leased facilities, and a $13.5 million decrease in operating lease liabilities due to payments related to our operating lease obligations.

Net cash used in operating activities decreased $131.1 million for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020, primarily due to an increase of $435.6 million in cash collected from customers resulting from increased sales. This was partially offset by increased expenditures due to an increase in headcount and growth in our business. We expect net cash used in operating activities to decrease for the fiscal year ending January 31, 2022 compared to the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 was $4.0 billion, primarily as a result of net purchases of investments, and, to a lesser extent, purchases of property and equipment to support existing and additional office facilities, purchases of intangible assets, cash paid for an acquisition, and capitalized internal-use software development costs.

Net cash provided by investing activities for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020 was $138.5 million, primarily as a result of net sales, maturities, and redemptions of investments, partially offset by purchases of property and equipment to support additional office facilities and cash paid for an acquisition, net of cash acquired.
Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 was $4.8 billion, primarily as a result of the $4.2 billion of aggregate net proceeds from our IPO and the concurrent private placements completed in September 2020, net of underwriting discounts, as well as $532.1 million in proceeds from the issuance of equity securities.

Net cash provided by financing activities for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2020 was $57.5 million, primarily as a result of proceeds from the issuance of equity securities.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments
The following table summarizes our contractual obligations as of January 31, 2021:
Payments Due By Period
Total Less than 1
Year
1-3 Years 3-5 Years More than 5
Years
(in thousands)
Operating lease commitments
$ 202,082  $ 19,407  $ 39,730  $ 35,744  $ 107,201 
Purchase commitments