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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

Registration statement pursuant to Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

or

Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

or

Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

For the transition period from ____________to ____________

or

Shell company report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

Commission file number 001-34563

Concord Medical Services Holdings Limited

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

Room 2701-05, Tower A, Global Trade Center

36 North Third Ring Road, Dongcheng District

Beijing 100013

People’s Republic of China

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Mr. Yap Yaw Kong

Telephone: (86 10) 5903 6688

Facsimile: (86 10) 5957-5252

Room 2701-05, Tower A, Global Trade Center

36 North Third Ring Road, Dongcheng District

Beijing 100013

People’s Republic of China

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile Number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per
share*

CCM

New York Stock Exchange*

*

Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing of the American depositary shares (“ADSs”) on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “CCM.” Each ADS represents the right to receive three Class A ordinary shares. The ADSs are

registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, pursuant to a registration statement on Form F-6. Accordingly, the ADSs are exempt from registration under Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, pursuant to Rule 12a-8 thereunder.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the Issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

130,251,685 ordinary shares, including 84,463,737 Class A ordinary shares and 45,787,948 Class B ordinary shares, outstanding as of December 31, 2020

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.                  

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board 

Other 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which consolidated financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

 

Item 17 

Item 18 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934).

Yes No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes  No 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page 

PART I

2

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

2

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

2

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

2

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

34

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

66

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

66

ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

102

ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

112

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

113

ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING

114

ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

115

ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

130

ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

131

PART II

134

ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

134

ITEM 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

134

ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

134

ITEM 16A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

135

ITEM 16B. CODE OF ETHICS

135

ITEM 16C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

135

ITEM 16D. EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

136

ITEM 16E. PURCHASE OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

136

ITEM 16F. CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

136

ITEM 16G. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

137

ITEM 16H. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

137

PART III

138

ITEM 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

138

ITEM 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

138

ITEM 19. EXHIBITS

138

i

CONVENTIONS THAT APPLY TO THIS ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 20-F

Unless otherwise indicated, references in this annual report on Form 20-F to:

“ADR” are to the American depositary receipts, which, if issued, evidence our ADSs;
“ADSs” are to our American depositary shares, each of which represents three Class A ordinary shares;
“China” and the “PRC” are to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purposes of this annual report only, Taiwan and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau;
“Concord Medical,” “we,” “us,” “our company” and “our” are to Concord Medical Services Holdings Limited, its predecessor entities and its consolidated subsidiaries;
“ordinary shares” are to our ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share, which can be divided into Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares;
“PRC subsidiaries” are to our subsidiaries incorporated in the People’s Republic of China, including Meizhong Jiahe Medical Science & Technology Development Group Co., Ltd. (“Meizhong Jiahe”), Medstar (Tianjin) Medical Technology Services Ltd. (“Medstar Tianjin”), Tianjin Concord Medical Technology Limited (“Tianjin Concord Medical”), Guofu Huimei (Tianjin) Investment Management Partnership Firm (LP) (“Guofu Huimei”), Tianjin Jiatai Enterprise Management Center (LP) (“Tianjin Jiatai”), Heze Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd. (“Heze Meizhong Jiahe”), Shanghai Rongchi Medical Management Co., Ltd. (“Shanghai Rongchi”), Medstar(Guangzhou) Medical Technology Services Ltd. (“Guangzhou Medstar”), Jiaxue (Shanghai) Medical Technology Services Ltd. (“Shanghai Jiaxue”), Wuxi Concord Medical Development Ltd. ("Wuxi Concord”), Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center (“Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe”), Shanghai Concord Cancer Center Co., Ltd (“SHC”), Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd (“CMCC”), Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center Co., Ltd. (“Guangzhou Concord Cancer Hospital”), Guangzhou New Spring Hospital Management Ltd. (“GNSHM”), Guangzhou New Spring Medical Cancer Ltd (“GNSMC”), Beijing Century Friendship Science & Technology Development Co., Ltd. (“Beijing Century Friendship”), Beijing Proton Medical Center Co., Ltd (“BPMC”), Shenzhen Concord Medical Investment Limited (“SZ CMS”), Datong Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center (“DTMZ”), Datong Meizhong Jiahe Traditional Chinese Medical Center (“DTZY”), Shenzhen Aohua Medical Technology Development Co., Ltd. (“Aohua Technology ”), Shanghai Taifeng Medical Technology Ltd. (“Taifeng”), Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center (“SHCC”), Beijing Yundu Internet Technology Co., Ltd. (“Yundu”), Ningbo Jiahe Hospital Management Ltd. (“NBJH”), Yinchuan Meizhong Jiahe Internet Hospital Ltd. (“YCIH”), Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Medical Image Diagnosis Limited (“SHMID”), Medstar (Shanghai) Financial Leasing Co., Ltd. (“Medstar SH”), Taizhou Concord Leasing Ltd. (“Taizhou Leasing”), Beijing Concord Medical Technology Limited (“BCMT”), Shanghai Meizhong Jaihe General Practice Center (“SH GPC”);
“RMB” and “Renminbi” are to the legal currency of China;
“US$” and “U.S. dollars” are to the legal currency of the United States;
“£” is to the legal currency of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; and
“SGD” and “Singapore dollars” are to the legal currency of Singapore.

Our reporting currency is the Renminbi. This annual report contains translations of Renminbi amounts into U.S. dollars for the convenience of the reader. Conversions of Renminbi into U.S. dollars in this annual report are based on the noon buying rate for U.S. dollars in the City of New York for cable transfers in Renminbi as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to Renminbi in this annual report were made at a rate of RMB6.5250 to US$1.00, the noon buying rate in effect as of December 31, 2020.

We make no representation that any Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, or at all. The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves

1

in part through direct regulation of the conversion of Renminbi into foreign exchange and through restrictions on foreign trade. On October 8, 2021, the noon buying rate was RMB6.4435 to US$1.00.

PART I

ITEM 1.IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2.OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3.KEY INFORMATION

A.Selected Financial Data

The following selected consolidated statements of comprehensive loss and other consolidated financial data for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020 (other than the loss per ADS data) and the selected consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2019 and 2020 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F. The selected consolidated statements of comprehensive loss data for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2017 and the selected consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements, which are not included in this annual report on Form 20-F.

You should read the selected consolidated financial data in conjunction with those financial statements and the related notes and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F. Our consolidated

2

financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of our results expected for any future periods.

Year Ended December 31,

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

RMB

RMB

RMB

RMB

RMB

US$

(in thousands, except share, per share and per ADS data)

Selected Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss Data

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

Revenues, net of value-added tax

 

455,042

 

330,977

 

190,898

 

198,363

 

223,011

 

34,178

Cost of revenues

 

(286,543)

 

(232,979)

 

(171,136)

 

(214,193)

 

(209,928)

 

(32,173)

Gross profit

 

168,499

 

97,998

 

19,762

 

(15,830)

 

13,083

 

2,005

Operating expenses:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

Selling expenses(1)

 

(70,093)

 

(43,608)

 

(21,718)

 

(30,241)

 

(25,761)

 

(3,948)

General and administrative expenses(2)

 

(205,908)

 

(237,646)

 

(291,854)

 

(315,134)

 

(294,823)

 

(45,184)

Impairment of long-lived assets

 

(61,124)

 

(28,600)

 

(5,433)

 

(76,089)

 

(8,500)

 

(1,303)

Operating loss

 

(168,626)

 

(211,856)

 

(299,243)

 

(437,294)

 

(316,001)

 

(48,430)

Interest expense

 

(89,327)

 

(89,959)

 

(46,232)

 

(28,700)

 

(81,359)

 

(12,469)

Foreign exchange gain (loss), net

 

13,472

 

4,023

 

36,531

 

34,990

 

(58,686)

 

(8,994)

Gain (Loss) on disposal of long-lived assets

 

(7,619)

 

(31,437)

 

4,711

 

(1,299)

 

677

 

104

Interest income

 

27,982

 

12,077

 

14,168

 

9,165

 

8,440

 

1,293

Changes in fair value of derivatives

 

713

 

 

 

 

 

Income (loss) from equity method investments

 

616

 

1,454

 

(20,747)

 

(5,078)

 

6,021

 

923

Gain on disposal of subsidiaries

 

 

58,913

 

3,341

 

 

(14,894)

 

(2,283)

Other income, net

 

18,191

 

2,890

 

34,206

 

37,138

 

6,312

 

967

Gain on disposal of an equity method investment

 

 

 

48,019

 

 

7,837

 

1,201

Loss from continuing operations before income taxes

 

(204,598)

 

(253,895)

 

(225,246)

 

(391,078)

 

(441,653)

 

(67,688)

Income tax (expenses) benefit

 

(60,486)

 

(31,789)

 

(34,051)

 

38,986

 

37,624

 

5,766

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

 

(3,217)

 

(1,364)

 

(24,422)

 

(45,043)

 

(94,040)

 

(14,412)

Net loss attributable to Concord Medical Services Holdings Limited

 

(261,867)

 

(284,320)

 

(234,875)

 

(307,049)

 

(309,989)

 

(47,510)

Net loss

 

(265,084)

 

(285,684)

 

(259,297)

 

(352,092)

 

(404,029)

 

(61,922)

Loss per share for Class A and Class B ordinary shares

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Basic/Diluted

 

(2.00)

 

(2.19)

 

(2.76)

 

(4.24)

 

(5.11)

 

(0.78)

Loss per ADS

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

Basic/Diluted

 

(6.00)

 

(6.56)

 

(8.28)

 

(12.72)

 

(15.33)

 

(2.34)

Weighted average number of Class A and Class B ordinary shares outstanding: Basic/Diluted

 

130,631,867

 

130,091,977

 

130,104,787

 

130,238,498

 

131,053,858

 

131,053,858

(1) Our selling expenses included share-based compensation of RMB0.8 million in 2016, RMB1.5 million in 2017, RMB2.0 million in 2018, RMB2.9 million in 2019 and RMB3.1 million (US$0.5 million) in 2020.
(2) Our general and administrative expenses included share-based compensation of RMB7.6 million in 2016, RMB10.1 million in 2017, RMB9.2 million in 2018, RMB17.7 million in 2019 and RMB17.6 million (US$2.7 million) in 2020.

3

As of December 31,

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

RMB

RMB

RMB

RMB

RMB

US$

(in thousands)

Selected Consolidated Balance Sheet Data

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

Cash and cash equivalents

 

189,905

 

98,191

 

404,742

 

74,307

 

334,264

 

51,229

Total current assets

 

1,194,856

 

1,111,136

 

1,228,692

 

282,487

 

675,998

 

103,601

Property, plant and equipment, net

 

775,338

 

793,571

 

1,219,309

 

1,898,861

 

2,559,191

 

392,213

Goodwill

 

 

 

165,171

 

210,443

 

213,656

 

32,744

Intangible assets, net

 

17,188

 

7,799

 

456,844

 

532,489

 

522,821

 

80,126

Total assets

 

3,228,603

 

3,465,390

 

4,585,394

 

4,297,445

 

5,334,538

 

817,554

Long-term bank and other borrowings, current portion

 

82,632

 

197,139

 

44,068

 

42,939

 

124,395

 

19,064

Total current liabilities

 

951,059

 

1,108,171

 

870,265

 

627,451

 

512,117

 

78,487

Total non-current liabilities

 

1,045,774

 

1,342,301

 

1,441,248

 

1,780,756

 

2,421,591

 

371,125

Contingently redeemable non-controlling interest

 

 

 

1,720,366

 

1,909,606

 

2,913,675

 

446,540

Total equity (deficit)

 

1,231,770

 

1,014,918

 

553,515

 

(20,368)

 

(512,845)

 

(78,598)

Total liabilities, mezzanine equity and equity (deficit)

 

3,228,603

 

3,465,390

 

4,585,394

 

4,297,445

 

5,334,538

 

817,554

Selected Consolidated Statements of Cash Flow Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net cash generated from (used in) operating activities

 

(78,078)

 

26,732

 

(38,591)

 

(195,347)

 

(229,766)

 

(35,212)

Net cash used in investing activities(1)

 

(74,847)

 

(313,010)

 

(1,000,355)

 

(1,071,507)

 

(533,885)

 

(81,822)

Net cash (used in) generated from financing activities

 

(117,922)

 

189,899

 

1,203,042

 

513,268

 

1,138,302

 

174,454

Effect of foreign exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalent and restricted cash

 

(11,240)

 

157

 

459

 

1,161

 

(2,563)

 

(394)

Net increase (decrease) in cash(2)

 

(282,087)

 

(96,222)

 

164,555

 

(752,425)

 

372,088

 

57,026

(1) Net cash used in investing activities in 2018 included acquisitions and deposits for the purchases of property, plant and equipment of RMB764.4 million and acquisitions of Guofu Huimei, Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center, Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center, net of cash acquired, RMB528.7 million and purchase of short-term investments of RMB252.3 million. Net cash generated from investing activities in 2018 included redemption from short-term investments of RMB202.3 million, proceeds from disposal of other investment of RMB212.9 million and proceeds from disposal of property, plant and equipment of RMB113.0 million. Net cash used in investing activities in 2019 included acquisitions of and deposits for the purchases of property, plant and equipment of RMB700.9 million, acquisitions of Tianjin Jiatai, SH Rongchi, Heze Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center, Shanghai Meizhang Jiahe Imaging Diagnostic Center and Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center, net of cash acquired of RMB420.6 million and settlement of investment in Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center of RMB105.1 million. Net cash generated from investing activities in 2019 included redemption of short-term investments of RMB50.0 millionand proceeds from disposal of property, plant and equipment of RMB69.3 million. Net cash used in investing activities in 2020 included acquisitions of and deposits for the purchases of property, plant and equipment of RMB504.7 million (US$ 77.4 million), investment in equity method investees of RMB 163.8 million (US$ 25.1 million) purchase of available-for-sale debt securities of RMB 80.0 million (US$12.3 million), which were partially offset by disposal of 90% equity interest of the Concord Healthcare Singapore Pte. Ltd of RMB201.6 million (US$30.9 million).
(2) Net increase (decrease) in cash in 2016 and 2017 was adjusted due to our adoption of Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash, (“ASU 2016-18”), effective January 1, 2018 using the retrospective transition method and included all restricted cash with cash and cash equivalent when reconciling beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts presented in the consolidated statements of cash flows.

4

Year Ended December 31,

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

RMB

RMB

RMB

RMB

RMB

US$

(in thousands)

Total net revenues generated by our primary medical equipment under lease and management services arrangements:

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

    

  

Linear accelerators

 

98,251

 

56,959

 

32,865

 

29,583

 

33,996

 

5,210

Head gamma knife systems

 

27,514

 

14,833

 

8,291

 

25,924

 

21,959

 

3,365

Body gamma knife systems

 

16,499

 

9,286

 

12,356

 

2,484

 

3,263

 

500

PET-CT scanners

 

96,848

 

57,288

 

1,058

 

832

 

8

 

1

MRI scanners

 

77,969

 

60,854

 

44,031

 

39,890

 

28,070

 

4,302

Others(1)

 

61,642

 

46,214

 

9,877

 

8,262

 

2,558

 

393

Total net revenues — lease and management services

 

378,723

 

245,434

 

108,478

 

106,975

 

89,854

 

13,771

(1) Included computed tomography (“CT”) scanners and emission computed tomograms (“ECT”) scanners for diagnostic imaging, electroencephalography for the diagnosis of epilepsy and an image-guided linear accelerator.

B.Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.Risk Factors

Risks Related to Our Company

We plan to establish and operate proton centers, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals that will be majority owned by us and are subject to significant risks.

As part of our growth strategy, we plan to establish and operate proton centers, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals that will focus on providing a variety of radiotherapy services as well as diagnostic imaging services, chemotherapy and surgery. For example, at our Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center that has already been in operation since June 2021, we plan to offer proton beam therapy treatment services with which we have had no prior experience.

Since we have limited experience in operating our own centers and hospitals, or in providing many of the services that we plan to offer in such centers and hospitals, such as chemotherapy treatments, surgical procedures or proton beam therapy, we may not be able to provide as high a level of service quality for those treatment options as compared to the other treatments that we offer at our network of centers, which may result in damage to our reputation and growth prospects.

In addition, we may not be successful in recruiting qualified medical professionals to effectively provide the services that we intend to offer in our own centers and hospitals. Although our brand name is well known among referring doctors, patients are not familiar with our brand as we do not carry our own brand name in our network of centers under our existing agreements with our hospital partners. Therefore, when we establish our own centers and hospitals under our brand name, we may not be able to immediately gain wide acceptance among patients and, thus, may be unable to attract a sufficient number of patients to our new centers and hospitals.

5

We may not be able to develop and introduce new services or upgrade existing services in a timely and cost-effective manner, which may adversely affect our business, results of operations and prospects.

Based on our existing medical equipment and consumable sales services, we will develop cloud system solutions which will offer the hospital clients with solutions to upgrade and maintain their oncology departments. We plan to help our clients to understand their needs and demands, select the configuration of medical equipment and maintain good conditions of their equipment. It is difficult to predict the needs and demands of our clients. Our new services may not be well received by our clients, and newly introduced services may not achieve expected results. Furthermore, the cloud system solutions require specialized knowledge of the industry and comprehensive understanding of the market of medical equipment and consumables. We may misjudge the trend of the industry and the market, and may not be able to develop the appropriate solutions for our clients. The efforts to introduce new services may require substantial investments of additional human capital and financial resources. If we fail to improve our existing services or introduce new ones in a timely or cost-effective manner, our ability to attract and retain clients may be impaired, and our results of operations and prospects may be adversely affected.

We plan to establish and operate internet hospitals that will be subject to significant risks.

We plan to establish and operate an internet hospital that focuses on cancer diagnosis and treatment. As this is a new business opportunity with which we have little experience, we may not able to attract and maintain the patients. The future profitability of our planned internet hospital relies on our capability of building our brand and improving our services and brand awareness. The brand image and reputation of our planned internet hospital will be impaired if there are any negative information associated with our services, operations and management personnel.

In addition, the performance of our planned internet hospital will rely heavily on our marketing and business developing strategy. The marketing activities of our planned internet hospital will increase additional operational costs, and we cannot ensure that our marketing activities will achieve the anticipated effect. Any malicious harassment or other unfair competitions will also make our marketing activities less effective.

We are carrying out a number of large-scale hospital construction projects, which requires a substantial increase in capital expenditures. Our operational and financial conditions and results will be adversely affected if we cannot effectively manage our capital expenditures.

We commenced construction of Beijing Proton Medical Center in June 2017 with an estimated construction period of four and a half year. The construction project was suspended due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the failure of one of the shareholders to perform its obligations. We also commenced construction of Shanghai Concord Cancer Center in September 2017 with an estimated construction period of five years. The construction project was delayed due to the suspension of construction activities caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. We also commenced construction of Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center in November 2017, the construction was completed in October 2020, and the hospital has already been in operation since June 2021. All these cities are considered top-tier cities in China, with large and nationally-renowned government hospitals. To attract patients, our planned proton center and premium cancer hospitals need to train our staff members properly, provide services and treatment environment superior to local hospitals and install high-end equipment, including CyberKnife, positron emission tomography–magnetic resonance (“PET-MR”) and proton beam therapy.

The required capital expenditures will be substantial. Planning, designing and constructing the proton center and premium cancer hospitals will be time consuming and complex, and will require a dedicated team in our company. We do not have prior experience and existing team in managing hospital projects of the planned size. If we cannot manage the process properly, our operating and financial results will be adversely affected.

Our growth plan includes the construction of proton centers, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals. If we cannot identify and seize growth opportunities in fast-changing markets, our future growth will face uncertainties.

We plan to build proton centers, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals in multiple regions in China. While current healthcare reform policies encourage the establishment of private medical institutions, the implementation process will be complex, time-consuming and subject to uncertainty.

We are identifying suitable regions for free-standing centers and hospitals by considering a number of factors, including regional market size, existing competition and potential strategic partners. There are uncertainties regarding how successfully we can

6

identify the suitable market, acquire required government approvals in a timely manner and control planned investments. In addition, we may face competition from our existing cooperative centers.

We may encounter difficulties in successfully opening new cooperative centers or renewing agreements for existing cooperative centers due to the limited number of suitable hospital partners and their potential ability to finance the purchase of medical equipment directly.

Our growth has depended on our ability to expand our network of radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers by entering into new agreements primarily with top-tier hospitals in China. These hospitals are 3A hospitals, the highest ranked hospitals by quality and size in China determined in accordance with the standards of the National Health Commission of the PRC (formerly the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the PRC) (the “NHC”). The hospitals typically enter into long-term agreements with us and our competitors with terms of up to 20 years.

As a result, in any locality or at any given time, only a limited number of top-tier hospitals may have not already entered into long-term agreements with us or our competitors. In addition, quotas imposed by government authorities as to the number and type of certain medical equipment that can be purchased, such as head gamma knife systems or positron emission tomography-computed tomography (“PET-CT”) scanners, will limit the number of top-tier hospitals with which we or our competitors can enter into agreements in a given period. See “—Risks Related to Our Industry—Healthcare administrative authorities in China currently set procurement quotas for certain types of medical equipment.”

Due to the limited supply of suitable top-tier hospitals and increasing competition, we may not be able to enter into agreements with new hospital partners or renew agreements with existing hospital partners on terms as favorable as those that we have been able to obtain in the past, or at all. Certain competitors may have greater financial resources than we do, which may provide them with an advantage in negotiating new agreements with hospitals, including our existing hospital partners. In addition, if adequate funding becomes available for hospitals to purchase medical equipment directly, hospitals may purchase and manage radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging equipment on their own instead of entering into or renewing agreements with us or our competitors.

If we are unable to enter into agreements with new hospital partners or renew existing agreements on favorable terms, or at all, or if hospitals purchase and manage their own medical equipment, our growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected. Finally, the development of new cooperative centers generally involves a ramp-up period during which the operating efficiency of such cooperative centers may be lower than our established cooperative centers, which may negatively affect our profitability.

We have historically derived a significant portion of our revenues from cooperative centers located at a limited number of our hospital partners and regions in which we operate and our accounts receivable are also concentrated with a few hospital partners.

We have historically derived a large portion of our total net revenues from a limited number of partner hospitals. In 2018, 2019 and 2020, net revenues derived from our top five hospital partners amounted to approximately 35.0%, 34.6% and 25.9%, respectively, of our total net revenues. The largest hospital partner accounted for 9.7%, 9.4% and 5.9% of our total net revenues during those periods, respectively.

Cooperative centers located in Shandong Province, Hunan Province and Hubei Province accounted for 13.0%, 12.2% and 8.6%, respectively, of our total net revenue in 2018. Cooperative centers located in Henan Province, Hubei Province and Shandong Province accounted for 16.5%, 9.6% and 7.5%, respectively, of our total net revenue in 2019. Cooperative centers located in Henan Province, Hubei Province and Shandong Province accounted for 10.6%, 8.1% and 5.9%, respectively, of our total net revenue in 2020.

Such revenue concentration may continue in the future. Due to the concentration of our revenues and our dependence on a limited number of hospital partners, any one or more of the following events may cause material fluctuations or declines in our revenues and materially adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and prospects:

reduction in the number of patient cases at the cooperative centers located at these hospital partners;
loss of key experienced medical professionals;
decrease in the profitability of such centers;

7

failure to maintain or renew our agreements with these hospital partners;
any failure of these hospital partners to pay us our contracted percentage of any such center’s revenue net of specified operating expenses;
any regulatory changes in the geographic areas where our hospital partners are located; or
any other disputes with these hospital partners.

In addition, the top ten of our hospital partners in terms of revenue contribution, accounted for 55.51% of our total network accounts receivable as of December 31, 2020. Any significant delay in the payment of such accounts receivable could materially impact our financial condition and results of operations.

We conduct our business in a heavily regulated industry.

The operation of our network of centers and our hospitals is subject to laws and regulations issued by a number of government agencies at the national and local levels. These rules and regulations relate mainly to the procurement of large medical equipment, the pricing of medical services, the operation of radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging equipment, the licensing and operation of medical institutions, the licensing of medical staff and the prohibition on non-profit civilian medical institutions from entering into cooperation agreements with third parties to set up for-profit centers that are not independent legal entities. Our growth prospects may be constrained by such rules and regulations, particularly those relating to the procurement of large medical equipment.

If we or our hospital partners fail to comply with such applicable laws and regulations, we could be required to make significant changes to our business or suffer fines or penalties, including the potential loss of our business licenses, the suspension from use of our medical equipment, and the suspension or cessation of operations at cooperative centers in our network. In addition, many of the agreements we have entered into with our hospital partners provide for termination in the event of major government policy changes that cause the agreements to become unenforceable. Our hospital partners may invoke such termination rights to our disadvantage.

We depend on our hospital partners to recruit and retain qualified doctors and other medical professionals to ensure the high quality of treatment services provided in our network of centers.

Our success depends in part on our and our hospital partners’ ability to recruit, train, manage and retain doctors and other medical professionals. Although we may help our hospital partners to identify and recruit suitable, qualified doctors and other medical professionals, almost all of these medical professionals in our network of centers are employed by our hospital partners rather than by us. As a result, we may have little control over whether such medical professionals will continue working in cooperative centers in our network.

In addition, a limited pool of qualified medical professionals possess expertise and experience in radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging in China. We and our hospital partners face competition for such qualified medical professionals from other public hospitals, private healthcare providers, research and academic institutions and other organizations. If we or our hospital partners fail to recruit and retain a sufficient number of these medical professionals, the resulting shortage could adversely affect the operation of cooperative centers in our network and our hospital and our growth prospects.

Any failure by our hospital partners to make contracted payments to us or any disputes over, or significant delays in receiving, such payments could materially adversely affect our business and financial condition.

We have established most of the cooperative centers in our network through long-term lease and management services arrangements with our hospital partners. We also provide management services to certain radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers through service-only agreements. Our hospital partners typically collect payments for treatment and diagnostic imaging services provided in cooperative centers in our network and then transfer our contracted percentage of such revenue net of specific operating expenses to us on a periodic basis.

Our total outstanding accounts receivable from our hospital partners were RMB45.1 million and RMB43.1 million (US$6.6 million) as of December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 28% of the accounts receivable for our network business reported on our consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2019 were still outstanding.  For the years ended

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December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, account receivables amounted to RMB10.0 million, RMB0.7 million and RMB1.67 million (US$0.26 million) were written off as uncollectible, respectively.

Any failure by our hospital partners to pay us our contracted percentage, or any disputes over, or significant delays in, receiving such payments from our hospital partners could negatively impact our financial condition. Accordingly, any failure by us to maintain good working relationships with our hospital partners, or any dissatisfaction of our hospital partners with our services, could negatively affect our cooperative centers and our ability to collect revenue; reduce the likelihood that our agreements with hospital partners will be renewed; damage our reputation; and otherwise materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation.

We may not be able to effectively manage the expansion of our operations through new acquisitions or joint ventures or to successfully realize the anticipated benefits of any such acquisition or joint venture.

We have historically complemented our organic development of new centers and hospitals by selectively acquiring hospital businesses in China and overseas or assets or forming joint ventures, and we may continue to do so in the future. The identification of suitable acquisition targets or joint venture candidates can be difficult, time consuming and costly, and we may not be able to successfully capitalize on identified opportunities. We may not be able to grow our business as anticipated if we are unable to successfully identify and complete potential acquisitions in the future. Even if we successfully complete an acquisition or establish a joint venture, we may not be able to successfully integrate the acquired businesses or assets or cooperate successfully with the joint venture partner.

Integration of acquired businesses or assets or cooperation with joint venture partners can be expensive, time consuming and may strain our resources. Such integration or cooperation could also require significant attention from our management team, which may divert key members of our management’s focus from other important aspects of our business.

In addition, we may be unable to successfully integrate or retain employees or management of acquired businesses or assets or retain the acquired entity’s patients, suppliers or other partners. Consequently, we may not achieve the anticipated benefits of any acquisitions or joint ventures. We cannot assure you that any transformation and integration would be implemented successfully, or without incurring significant costs. Furthermore, future acquisitions or joint ventures could result in potentially dilutive issuances of equity or equity-linked securities or the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities or other expenses, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We had losses and net current liabilities historically and we may incur losses and experience net current liabilities in the future.

For the three years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, our net loss was approximately RMB259.3 million, RMB352.1 million and RMB404.0 million (US$61.9 million), respectively, and negative cash flows from operating activities of RMB195.3 million and RMB229.8 million (US$35.2 million) for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of RMB2,456.6 million (US$376.5 million) and a total shareholders’ deficit of RMB663.0 million (US$101.6 million). As of December 31, 2020, we had working capital of RMB163.9 million (US$25.1 million). We cannot anticipate when, if ever, we will become profitable. If we are unable to generate revenues that significantly exceed our costs and expenses, we will continue to incur losses in the future.

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We have received the capital injection into our company’s subsidiary of RMB400.0 million (US$61.3 million) from several investors, issued convertible bonds with the principal of approximately RMB 97.9 million (US$15.0 million) to two investors in August 2021, and obtained credit facilities and loans with a total amount of RMB 418.4 million (US$64.1 million) from several PRC banks in 2021. Furthermore, we plan to seek additional equity financing from new investors into our hospital business operation. Therefore, management believed that the substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date the financial statements are issued has been alleviated. However, there can be no assurance that capital will be available as necessary to meet the Company’s capital commitment on the investment in the hospital business, or, if the capital is available, that it will be timely and on terms acceptable to the Company. We may not have sufficient cash to meet our capital expenditure in the future, which could materially and negatively affect the price of our ADSs and our ability to enter into critical contractual relations with third parties. In addition, we could have net current liabilities in the future. If we fail to generate current assets to the extent that the aggregate amount of our current assets exceeds the aggregate current liabilities, we will record net current liabilities. If we have significant net current liabilities for an extended period of time, our working capital for purposes of our operations may be subject to constraints, which may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Government authorities may interpret regulations to find that our lease and management agreements are not in compliance with relevant regulations.

Our lease and management agreements with civilian public hospital partners provide that our revenues from hospital-based centers are to be calculated based on contracted percentages of each center’s revenue net of specified operating expenses. We believe these agreements comply with the Implementation Opinions on the Classified Management of Urban Medical Institutions and the Opinions on Certain Issues Regarding Classified Management of Urban Medical Institutions. However, the NHC or other competent authorities could interpret these regulations differently, and determine that our lease and management agreements do not comply with such regulations. As a result, such authorities could declare our lease and management agreements to be void, order our civilian hospital partners to terminate such agreements with us, order our civilian hospitals partners to suspend or cease operation of the centers governed by such agreements, suspend the use of our medical equipment, or confiscate revenues generated under noncompliant agreements. Furthermore, we may have to change our business model which may not be successful. If any of the above were to occur, our business, financial condition and results of operation could be materially and adversely affected.

Corrupt practices in the healthcare industry in China may place us at a competitive disadvantage if our competitors engage in such practices and may harm our reputation if our hospital partners and the medical personnel who work in our centers, over whom we have limited control, engage in such practices.

There may be corrupt practices in the healthcare industry in China. Our competitors, other service providers or their personnel or equipment manufacturers may engage in corrupt practices to influence hospital personnel or other decision-makers in violation of the anti-corruption laws of China and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”).

We have adopted a policy regarding compliance with the anti-corruption laws of China and the FCPA to prevent, detect and correct such corrupt practices. However, as competition persists and intensifies in our industry, we may lose potential hospital partners, patient referrals and other opportunities if our competitors engage in such practices or other illegal activities. In addition, our partner hospitals or the doctors or other medical personnel who work in our network of centers may engage in corrupt practices without our knowledge to procure patient referrals to cooperative centers in our network.

Although our policies prohibit such practices, we have limited control over the actions of our hospital partners or the actions of the doctors and other medical personnel who work in our network of centers since we do not formally employ these individuals. If any of them engages in such illegal practices with respect to patient referrals or other matters, we or the cooperative centers in our network may be subject to sanctions or fines and our reputation may be adversely affected by negative publicity stemming from such incidents.

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We rely on doctors and other medical professionals that provide services in our network of centers and our hospital to make proper clinical decisions and we rely on our hospital partners to maintain proper control over the clinical aspects of our network of centers.

We rely on the doctors and other medical professionals who work in our network and our hospital to make proper clinical decisions regarding the diagnosis and treatment of their patients. We develop treatment protocols for doctors, provide periodic training for medical professionals in our network of centers on proper treatment procedures and techniques, and host seminars and conferences to facilitate consultation among doctors in our network of centers. However, we ultimately rely on our hospital partners to maintain proper control over the clinical activities of each cooperative center and over the doctors and other medical professionals who work in these centers.

Any incorrect clinical decisions by doctors and other medical professionals or any failure by our hospital partners to properly manage the clinical activities of each cooperative center may result in unsatisfactory treatment outcomes, patient injury or possibly death. Although part of the liability for any such incidents may rest with our partner hospitals and the doctors and other medical professionals they employ, we may be made a party to any such liability claim. Regardless of its merit or eventual outcome, these claims could result in significant legal defense costs for us, harm our reputation, and otherwise materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The financial and operational performance of our existing hospital and our planned proton center, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals depend on our ability to attract and retain quality doctors, nurses, hospital administrators and managers. Under the regulatory environment in China, doctors and nurses remain affiliated with hospitals and their professional registration and accreditation require the approval of hospitals they serve. The government policy is relaxing on the mobility of doctors and other medical professionals, such as the policy to allow “multiple-location practices” for doctors. However, full enactment and implementation may take time and vary from region to region.

To attract, train and retain qualified doctors, nurses and hospital managers, we may need to offer compensation packages superior to those of government hospitals, provide more professional training opportunities, such as overseas training and exchange, and include the medical team in our employee share incentive plan. These measures may result in higher compensation and administrative expenses and adversely affect our financial and operational results.

Since commencing operations, the cooperative centers in our network have experienced claims as to a limited number of medical disputes. We must generally account for expenses resulting from such liability claims as expenses of the relevant cooperative center, which could reduce our revenue from such center. Furthermore, any incorrect clinical decisions on the part of doctors and other medical professionals in our own hospital or our failure to properly manage the clinical activities of our own hospital will subject us to direct liability claims for any such accidents. These claims could result in significant legal defense costs, harm our brand name and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We do not carry professional malpractice liability insurance or other liability insurance at many cooperative centers in our network because the professional malpractice liability insurance is to be purchased by the hospital partners. At our own hospitals that we do carry the professional malpractice liability insurance or other liability insurance, it may not be sufficient to cover any potential liability resulting from such claims. For our planned proton center, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals, we will likely face direct liability claims for any such incidents.

When we open our proton centers, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals, we expect to face the risk of increased exposure to liability claims and our professional malpractice liability insurance may not be sufficient to cover such increased liability exposure.

Our planned proton center, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals are under development or held for future development. Once we start operating these hospitals, claims alleging medical malpractice against us in these hospitals may arise from time to time. We may also need to obtain certain types of insurance that we do not currently carry for the coverage of additional liability exposure associated with operating these hospitals.

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However, such insurance coverage may not be available at a reasonable price and we may not be able to maintain adequate levels of liability insurance coverage, if at all. Any failure for us to maintain sufficient liability insurance coverage for operating of these hospitals at a reasonable price could subject us to substantial cost and diversion of resources arising out of liability claim. Such insurance coverage could also increase our expenses and decrease our profitability, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Any failures or defects in the medical equipment in our network of centers or any failure of the medical personnel who work at these centers to properly operate our medical equipment could subject us to liability claims and we may not have sufficient insurance to cover any potential liability.

Our business exposes us to liability risks inherent in operating complex medical equipment, which may contain defects or experience failures. We rely to a large degree on equipment manufacturers to provide adequate technical training on the proper operation of our complex medical systems to the medical technicians who work in our network of centers. If such medical technicians are not properly and adequately trained by the equipment manufacturers or by us, they may misuse or ineffectively use the complex medical equipment in our network of centers.

These medical technicians may also make errors in operating the complex medical equipment even if they are properly trained. Any medical equipment defects or failures or any failure of the medical personnel who work in the cooperative centers to properly operate the medical equipment could result in unsatisfactory treatment outcomes, patient injury or possibly death.

Although the liability for any such incidents rests with the equipment manufacturers or the medical technicians, we may be made a party to any such liability claim. Any such claim, regardless of its merit or eventual outcome, could result in significant legal defense costs, harm our reputation, and otherwise materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, we could account for any expenses resulting from such liability claims as expenses of the cooperative center, which could reduce our revenue derived from such center. We do not carry product liability insurance at any of the cooperative centers in our network.

Any downtime for maintaining or repairing our medical equipment could lead to business interruptions that could be expensive and harmful to our reputation and to our business.

Significant downtime associated with maintaining or repairing medical equipment in our network of centers and hospital would result in the inability of our cooperative centers and hospitals to provide radiotherapy treatment or diagnostic imaging services to patients in a timely manner. We primarily rely on equipment manufacturers or third party service companies for maintenance and repair services.

The failure of manufacturers or third party service companies to provide timely repairs could interrupt the operation of our cooperative centers in our network and our hospital for extended periods of time. Such extended downtime could result in lost revenues for us and our partner hospitals, dissatisfaction of our patients and our partner hospitals and damage to the reputation of the cooperative centers in our network, our partner hospitals, our own hospital and our company.

We rely on a limited number of equipment manufacturers.

Much of the medical equipment in our network of centers and our hospital is highly complex and produced by a limited number of equipment manufacturers. These equipment manufacturers provide training on the proper operation of our medical equipment, as well as maintenance and repair services for such equipment, to the medical personnel who work in the cooperative centers in our network and hospital.

Any disruption in the supply of medical equipment or services from these manufacturers, including as a result of failure by any such manufacturers to obtain requisite third-party consents and licenses for the intellectual property used in the equipment they manufacture, may delay the development of new cooperative centers and our planned hospitals. Any such disruption could also negatively affect the operation of cooperative centers and our hospital and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We may fail to protect our intellectual property rights or we may be exposed to misappropriation and infringement claims by third parties, either of which may materially adversely affect our business.

We have applied for and obtained the registration of our trademark “Medstar” and a total of 56 other trademarks, including “Concord Medical,” in China to protect our corporate name. As of December 31, 2020, we also owned the rights to 110 domain names that we use in connection with our business. We believe that such domain names enhance our marketing efforts for the treatments and services provided in our network and enhance patients’ knowledge as to cancers, the benefits of radiotherapy and the various treatment options available. Our failure to protect our trademark or such domain names may undermine our marketing efforts and result in harm to our reputation and the growth of our business.

Equipment manufacturers from whom we purchase equipment may not have all required third-party consents and licenses for the intellectual property used in the equipment they manufacture. As a result, those equipment manufacturers may be exposed to risks associated with intellectual property infringement and misappropriation claims by third parties. In turn, we may be subject to claims that the equipment we have purchased infringes the intellectual property rights of third parties.

We have in the past been subject to, and may in the future be subject to, such claims by third parties. As a result, we may be named as a defendant in, or joined as a party to, intellectual property infringement proceedings against equipment manufacturers relating to any equipment we have purchased. If a court determines that equipment we have purchased from our equipment manufacturers infringes the intellectual property rights of any third party, we may be required to pay damages to such third party. The cooperative centers in our network may also be prohibited from using such equipment, which could damage our reputation and materially adversely affect our business prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, any such proceeding may be costly to defend and divert our management’s attention and other resources away from our business. Furthermore, the standard equipment purchase agreements that we enter into with our equipment manufacturers typically do not contain indemnification provisions for intellectual property claims. Although we have obtained a specific indemnity from one equipment manufacturer for a patent infringement claim, we may not be able to recover damages, lost profits or litigation costs resulting from any intellectual property infringement claims or proceedings in which we are a party.

We do not have insurance coverage for some of our medical equipment and do not carry any business interruption insurance.

Damage to, or the loss of, such uninsured equipment due to natural disasters, such as fires, floods or earthquakes, could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operation. In addition, the operations of our network of centers and our hospital may be vulnerable to natural disasters that disrupt transportation since many patients travel long distances to reach such centers and hospital. We do not have any business interruption insurance.

Any business disruption could result in substantial expenses and diversion of resources and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic caused the suspension of operations at eight of our cooperative centers for approximately five weeks on average due to the Chinese government’s travel restriction policies during the pandemic.

Most of our radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging equipment contains radioactive materials or emits radiation during operation.

Most of the radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging equipment in our network of centers and our hospital, including gamma knife systems, proton beam therapy systems, linear accelerators and PET-CT systems, contain radioactive materials or emit radiation during operation. Radiation and radioactive materials are extremely hazardous unless properly managed and contained. Any accident or malfunction that results in radiation contamination could harm human beings, subject us to significant legal expenses and harm to our reputation.

Although equipment manufacturers and our hospital partners and their staff may bear some or all of the liability and costs associated with any accidents or malfunctions, if we are found to be liable in any way we may also face severe fines, legal reparations and possible suspension of our operating permits. Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, certain of our medical equipment require the periodic replacement of their radioactive source materials.

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We do not directly oversee the handling of radioactive materials during the replacement or reloading process or during the disposal process. Any failure of our hospital partners or us to handle or dispose of such radioactive materials in accordance with PRC laws and regulations may adversely affect the operation of such centers and hospital.

Any change in the regulations governing the use of medical data in China, which are still in development, could adversely affect our ability to use our medical data and could potentially subject us to liability for our past use of such medical data.

The cooperative centers in our network collect and store medical data from radiotherapy treatments for training doctors providing services in our cooperative network and improving the effectiveness of the treatments provided in our network of centers. In addition, doctors in our network utilize such medical data to conduct clinical research. We do not make any such medical data public and retain such medical data for our internal use and for research purposes by doctors upon the approval of our medical affairs department and our hospital partners.

Chinese regulations governing the use of such medical data remain in development but do not impose restrictions on the internal use of such data as long as we have the permission of our hospital partners who have ownership of such data. Any change in the regulations governing the use of such medical data could adversely affect our ability to use such medical data and could subject us to liability for past use of such data, either of which could materially adversely affect our business and financial results.

Our future proton centers and premium cancer hospitals will provide patients high-end medical services and medicines that may not be covered by national basic medical insurance, and as a result we may need to cooperate with commercial insurance companies and face risks in respect of charge fees and patients’ ability of payment.

The majority of patients in our network of centers are covered under national basic medical insurance. We settle payments with local medical insurance agencies on a regular basis. However, our planned proton centers and premium cancer hospitals will offer high-end radiotherapy and other services that may not be covered under the national basic medical insurance program. Our patients need to self-pay or be covered under various commercial insurance coverages.

We will need to negotiate with various insurance companies, both domestic and international, to enroll our hospitals in their coverages. Since February 28, 2019, the nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and cancer radiotherapy services and the basic medical services, including general outpatient registration, chemotherapy, linear accelerator radiotherapy, blood examination, image examination (such as nuclear magnetic resonance, CT, ultrasound, molybdenum target, electrocardiogram), medicines and consumables, of our Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center’s basic medical services have been fully covered by Shanghai basic medical insurance. However, we cannot assure you that we can establish and manage the business relationship with insurance companies properly and effectively. Without the insurance coverage, our future revenue may not meet our forecasts and profitability will be adversely affected. We may also face collection risks as insurance companies may not pay for certain clinical procedures.

With the rising conflicts between doctors and patients, if we cannot properly handle disputes with patients in a timely manner, we will face the increasing risk of litigation.

Recently, patient-doctor conflicts and litigation have increased in China. Patients in China are demanding higher service quality of the medical services and treatments they receive from hospitals. In our centers and hospitals, we also deal with patient disputes and litigation due to real or perceived medical incidents and practices. While we offer periodic training to all medical staff in our centers and hospitals, our patients may still raise issues with treatment procedures, especially cancer patients who experience higher than expected side-effects, sometimes resulting in unexpected deaths.

While our cooperative centers and our hospitals in operation are covered by medical malpractice insurance and we have also purchased bodily-injury insurance for our medical staff, the process to reach a settlement, typically in the form of a financial settlement under the medical malpractice insurance, is time-consuming. The settlement process also requires our management team to divert attention from the normal operation of the centers and hospital. If we cannot properly handle the medical disputes in our centers and hospitals, we may face increasing risks of litigation and our reputation among patients may be adversely affected.

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Our business is subject to seasonality.

During a fiscal year, the first quarter usually sees fewest patient visits, both inpatient and outpatient, mainly due to the Chinese New Year. The fourth quarter is usually the busiest quarter during the year, as most patients, especially patients from the rural areas, will have more free time to visit hospitals. Since our cooperative centers are located within the government hospitals, they are subjected to seasonality of patient traffic as well.

Our planned proton center, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals will also be affected by seasonality, although to a lesser degree, as cancer patients need to receive treatment and diagnosis immediately. If we cannot manage and mitigate the seasonality effectively, our financial and operational results will be adversely affected.

Our business depends substantially on the continuing efforts of our executive officers and other key personnel, and our business may be severely disrupted if we lose their services.

We depend on the key members of our management team and of our material subsidiaries, including Dr. Jianyu Yang, chairman and our chief executive officer, Mr. Yaw Kong Yap, our chief financial officer, and Ms. Xiao Fu, our chief operating officer, as well as other key personnel for the continued growth of our business. The loss of any of these key members or other key personnel could delay the implementation of our business strategy and adversely affect our operations.

Our future success also depends in large part on our ability to attract and retain highly qualified management personnel. The process of hiring suitable, qualified personnel is often lengthy and such talented and highly qualified management personnel is often in short supply in China. If our recruitment and retention efforts are unsuccessful, it may be more difficult for us to execute our business strategy.

We may not always make a similar smooth transition if any executive officers or key personnel leave our company in the future. Although none of the key members of our management team is of retirement age in the near future and we are not aware of any current key members of our management team and of our material subsidiaries or other key personnel planning to retire or leave us, if one or more of such personnel are unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to replace them readily, if at all. Consequently, our business may be severely disrupted, and we may incur additional expenses to recruit and retain new officers.

In addition, we do not maintain key employee insurance. We have entered into employment agreements and confidentiality agreements with the key members of our management team and other key personnel. However, if any disputes arise between any of our key members of our management team or other key personnel and us, we cannot assure you, in light of uncertainties associated with the PRC legal system, the extent to which any of these agreements could be enforced in China, where all key members of our management team and other key personnel reside and hold some of their assets. See “—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could materially adversely affect us.”

Our articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could adversely affect the rights of holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs.

Our fourth amended and restated articles of association limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. These provisions could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. For example, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to fix their designations, powers, preferences, privileges, and relative participating, optional or special rights and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions, including dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption and liquidation preferences, any of which may be greater than the rights associated with our ordinary shares, in the form of ADS or otherwise.

Preferred shares could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or to make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors issues preferred shares, the price of our ADSs may fall and the voting and other rights of the holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs may be adversely affected.

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We may require additional funding to finance our operations, which financing may not be available on terms acceptable to us or at all, and if we are able to raise funds, the value of your investment in us may be negatively impacted.

Our business may require expenditures that exceed our available capital resources. To the extent that our funding requirements exceed our financial resources, we will seek additional financing or defer planned expenditures. We may not be able to obtain these bank loans or additional funds on terms acceptable to us, or at all. In addition, our ability to raise additional funds is subject to a variety of uncertainties, including, but not limited to:

our future financial condition, results of operations and cash flows;
general market conditions for capital raising and debt financing activities; and
economic, political and other conditions in China and elsewhere.

If we raise additional funds through equity or equity-linked financings, your equity interest in our company may be diluted. Alternatively, if we incur debt obligations, we may be subject to covenants under the relevant debt instruments that may, among other things, restrict our ability to pay dividends or obtain additional financing, or require us to provide notice or obtain consent for certain significant corporate events.

Some of our loan agreements may contain cross-default provisions where a technical default on one of our obligations under other agreements will trigger a technical default under such agreements. Servicing such debt obligations could also be burdensome to our operations. If we fail to service such debt obligations or are unable to comply with any of these covenants, we could be in default under such debt obligations and our liquidity and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

If we fail to comply with financial covenants under our loan agreements, our financial condition, results of operations and business prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

We have entered into and may in the future enter into loan agreements containing financial covenants that require us to maintain certain financial ratios. We may not be able to comply with these financial covenants from time to time. If we need to obtain waivers from lenders with respect to prepayment or to amend financial covenants or other relevant provisions under such loan agreements to address potential breaches, we may not be able to reach agreements with the lenders to avoid a breach.

If we are required to repay a significant portion or all of our existing indebtedness prior to their maturity, we may lack sufficient financial resources to do so. A breach of those financial covenants will also restrict our ability to pay dividends. Any of those events could materially adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and business prospects.

We have granted security interests over certain of our medical equipment to secure bank borrowings. Any failure to satisfy our obligations under such borrowings could lead to the forced sale of such equipment.

In order to secure our bank loans, we may grant security interests in equipment from time to time. In 2020, we granted security interests in equipment with a net carrying value of RMB414.3 million (US$63.5 million), representing 16.2% of the net value of our net property, plant and equipment of RMB2,559.2 million (US$392.2 million). Although we did not grant security interest in equipment to secure our bank loans in 2018, 2019 and 2020, we granted other forms of security, such as accounts receivable, lease receivables, land use rights and construction in progress, and we cannot assure you that we will not grant security interest in equipment in the future.

Any failure to satisfy our obligations under these loans could lead to the forced sale of our medical equipment that secure these loans, the suspension of the operation of the centers in which such medical equipment is used, or otherwise damage our relationship with our hospital partners and our reputation in the medical community, all of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation.

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If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may lose investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements.

We are subject to reporting obligations under the U.S. securities laws. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, adopted rules requiring every public company to include a management report on the company’s internal control over financial reporting in its annual report, which contains management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting.

Our management has concluded that we had not maintained effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2020. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weakness as of December 31, 2020 was related to the lack of sufficient resources with U.S. GAAP to timely provide adequate information on complicated accounting matters, including the assessment on recoverability of certain investment and the taxation on certain employee expenses. See “Item 15. Controls and Procedures.” This annual report on Form 20-F does not include an attestation report of the Company's registered public accounting firm because the Company is neither an accelerated filer nor a large accelerated filer, as such terms are defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act. However, if we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, our management may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting at a reasonable assurance level. This could in turn result in loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements and negatively impact the trading price of our ADSs. Furthermore, we have incurred and anticipate that we will continue to incur considerable costs, management time and other resources in an effort to comply with Section 404 and other requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

Our business may be adversely affected by fluctuations in the value of the Renminbi as a significant portion of our capital expenditures relates to the purchase of medical equipment priced in U.S. dollars.

A significant portion of our capital expenditures relates to the purchase of radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging equipment from manufacturers outside of China. As the price of such equipment is denominated almost exclusively in U.S. dollars, any depreciation in the value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar could significantly increase our capital expenditures, reduce the profitability of our network of centers and materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We are a Cayman Islands company and, because judicial precedent regarding the rights of shareholders is more limited under Cayman Islands law than that under U.S. law, you may have less protection for your shareholder rights than you would under U.S. law.

Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, as amended and restated from time to time, the Companies Law (as amended) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take legal action against the directors and us, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands.

The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from English common law, which has persuasive, but not binding, authority on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States.

The Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. In addition, some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands.

As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests through actions against us, our management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as shareholders of a company incorporated in the U.S.

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You may have difficulty enforcing judgments obtained against us.

We are a Cayman Islands company and substantially all of our assets are located outside of the United States. We conduct substantially all of our operations in the PRC. In addition, most of our directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for you to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons.

It may also be difficult for you to enforce judgments obtained in U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors. Most of our officers and directors not residents in the United States and the substantial majority of their assets are located outside of the United States.

In addition, the courts of the Cayman Islands or the PRC may not recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts against us or such persons based on the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state. It is also uncertain whether such Cayman Islands or PRC courts would be competent to hear original actions brought in the Cayman Islands or the PRC against us or such persons predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.

Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the U.S. that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including: (i) the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K; (ii) the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act; (iii) the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and (iv) the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

We are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our financial results on a half-yearly basis as press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the New York Stock Exchange. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

We are exempt from certain corporate governance requirements of the New York Stock Exchange.

As a foreign private issuer, we are permitted to exempt from certain corporate governance requirements of the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”). Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from the New York Stock Exchange corporate governance listing standards. For instance, we are not required to: (i) have a majority of the board of directors be independent; (ii) have a compensation committee or a corporate governance and nominating committee consisting entirely of independent directors; or (iii) have regularly scheduled executive sessions with only independent directors each year. We intend to rely on some of these exemptions. As a result, you may not be provided with the benefits of certain corporate governance requirements of the NYSE.

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We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company, which could result in adverse United States federal income tax consequences to United States Holders.

We believe we were not a passive foreign investment company (a “PFIC”) for our taxable year ended on December 31, 2020, although there can be no assurance in this regard. The determination of whether or not we are a PFIC is made on an annual basis and depends on the composition of our income and assets. A non-U.S. corporation will be considered a PFIC for any taxable year if either (i) at least 75% of its gross income is passive income or (ii) at least 50% of the value of its assets (generally based on an average of the quarterly values of the assets during a taxable year) is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income (which includes cash). The market value of our assets may be determined in large part by the market price of our ADSs and ordinary shares, which is likely to fluctuate. In addition, the composition of our income and assets will be affected by how, and how quickly, we spend our cash. If we are treated as a PFIC for any taxable year during which United States Holders (as defined in “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—United States Federal Income Taxation”) hold ADSs or ordinary shares, certain adverse United States federal income tax consequences could apply to such United States Holders with respect to any “excess distribution” received from us and any gain from a sale or other disposition of ADSs or ordinary shares. See “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—United States Federal Income Taxation— Passive Foreign Investment Company.”

If a United States person is treated as owning at least 10% of our shares, such holder may be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.

If a United States person is treated as owning (directly, indirectly or constructively) at least 10% of the value or voting power of our stock (including our ordinary shares and ADSs), such person may be treated as a “United States shareholder” with respect to each “controlled foreign corporation” in our group (if any). If our group includes one or more U.S. subsidiaries, certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries could be treated as controlled foreign corporations (regardless of whether we are not treated as a controlled foreign corporation). A United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation may be required to report annually and include in its U.S. taxable income its pro rata share of “Subpart F income,” “global intangible low-taxed income” and investments in U.S. property by controlled foreign corporations, regardless of whether we make any distributions. An individual that is a United States shareholder with respect to a controlled foreign corporation generally would not be allowed certain tax deductions or foreign tax credits that would be allowed to a United States shareholder that is a U.S. corporation. Failure to comply with these reporting obligations may subject you to significant monetary penalties and may prevent the statute of limitations with respect to your U.S. federal income tax return for the year for which reporting was due from starting. We cannot provide any assurances that we will assist investors in determining whether any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries is treated as a controlled foreign corporation or whether such investor is treated as a United States shareholder with respect to any of such controlled foreign corporations or furnish to any United States shareholders information that may be necessary to comply with the aforementioned reporting and tax paying obligations. A United States investor should consult its advisors regarding the potential application of these rules to an investment in the stock.

Risks Related to Our Industry

Healthcare administrative authorities in China currently set procurement quotas for certain types of medical equipment.

The Rules on Procurement and Use of Large Medical Equipment issued on December 31, 2004 by the NHC, the National Development and Reform Commission of PRC (“NDRC”) and the Ministry of Finance, regulate the procurement, installation and operation of large medical equipment in China. Pursuant to these rules, the NDRC and the NHC or the relevant provincial healthcare administrative authorities set quotas for large medical equipment, and hospitals must obtain a large medical equipment procurement license prior to the procurement of any such equipment.

For medical equipment classified as Class A large medical equipment, which includes proton beam therapy systems and PET-MR, the NHC conducts procurement planning and approval. In addition, the NHC issues large medical equipment procurement licenses. For medical equipment classified as Class B large medical equipment, which includes gamma knife systems, PET-CT scanners and linear accelerators, the relevant provincial healthcare administrative authorities conduct procurement planning and approval. These rules apply to public and private civilian medical institutions, whether non-profit or for-profit.

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Although these rules do not directly apply to military hospitals in China, the healthcare administrative authority of the general logistics department of the PRC People’s Liberation Army (the “PLA”) uses these rules as a reference to approve the procurement of such medical equipment. The procurement regulations issued by the NHC stipulate that from 2018 to 2020, the total number of PET-CT large medical equipment procurement licenses issued in China cannot exceed 710 by the end of 2020. According to “the configuration plan of large medical equipment from 2018 to 2020” (“2018 to 2020 Plan”) issued by NHC on October 26, 2018, national master plan configures a maximum of 10 newly added proton therapy treatment systems between 2018 and 2020. The allocation will depend on the actual situation of regional function orientation, radiation capacity of medical services and the service level of diagnosis and treatment of medical institutions. In addition, “2018 to 2020 Plan” also stipulates the provincial the procurement planning and quotas for Class B large medical equipment procurement licenses.

Although the current number of procurement licenses available did not significantly impact our expansion plans in 2020, the limitation on the number of procurement licenses available and any adverse changes to such procurement licenses available in the future, or any failure of our hospital partners and our planned hospital(s) to obtain such licenses, may affect our expansion plan after 2020. Any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect our future prospects.

In addition, for most of the medical equipment that we intend to install and operate in our planned proton center, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals, we will need to obtain large medical equipment procurement licenses from the NHC or provincial level healthcare administrative authorities. We may not be able to obtain such licenses in a timely manner or at all, which could delay or prevent the opening of our planned hospitals, and could materially adversely affect our growth strategy and results of operations. See “—Risks Related to Our Company—We plan to establish and operate proton centers, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals that will be majority owned by us and are subject to significant risks.”

A few of our hospital partners have not received large medical equipment procurement licenses or interim procurement permits for some of the medical equipment in our network of centers which could result in fines or the suspension from use of such medical equipment.

The quota requirement for large medical equipment procurement became effective in March 2005. A medical institution that houses equipment purchased prior to that time is required to retroactively apply for and obtain a large medical equipment procurement license. If a medical institution is unable to obtain a procurement license as a result of a lack of procurement quotas for such medical equipment allocated to the region in which the medical institution is located, an interim procurement permit for large medical equipment must be obtained instead.

As of December 31, 2020, we had five cooperative centers under service-only agreements pursuant to which we only managed those cooperative centers in exchange for a management fee and we did not purchase and lease to the hospitals the medical equipment used at those cooperative centers. Medical equipment in the other 22 cooperative centers in our network were subject to large medical equipment procurement quota requirements, of which 20 centers obtained procurement licenses, two centers were in the processing of applying for the procurement license or permit and one center was not clear whether any procurement license or permit was required according to the current regulations. Although our hospital partners are in the process of applying to the competent regulatory authorities for procurement licenses or permits, we cannot assure you that they will be successful. If our hospital partners fail to obtain either a procurement license or an interim procurement permit, the cooperative centers in our network operating such medical equipment may be required to discontinue operations and may be deprived of revenue from operating such equipment or assessed a fine. Any of the foregoing risks could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation.

Pricing for the services provided by our network of centers may suffer from reductions in treatment and examination fees set by the Chinese government.

Cooperative centers in our network are primarily located in non-profit civilian and military hospitals in China. The medical service fees charged by these non-profit hospitals are subject to price ceilings set by the relevant provincial or regional price control authorities and healthcare administrative authorities in accordance with the Opinion Concerning the Reform of Medical Service Pricing Management issued on July 20, 2000 by the NDRC and the Ministry of Health. Those authorities may adjust these price ceilings downwards or upwards from time to time. Historically, treatment fees for large medical equipment were requested to reduce. In the future, if the government reduces examination or treatment fees for the services provided by the centers in our network, our contracted percentage of each center’s revenue net of specified operating expenses may decrease, hospitals may be discouraged from entering into or renewing their agreements with us, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

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Our business may be harmed by technological and therapeutic changes or by shifts in doctors’ or patients’ preferences for alternative treatments.

The treatment of cancer patients is subject to potentially revolutionary technological and therapeutic changes. Future technological developments could render our equipment and the services provided in our network of centers and our hospital obsolete. We may incur significant costs in replacing or modifying equipment in which we have already made a substantial investments prior to the end of its anticipated useful life.

In addition, there may be significant advances in other cancer treatment methods, such as chemotherapy, surgery, biological therapy or cancer prevention techniques, which could reduce demand or even eliminate the need for the radiotherapy services that we provide. Patients and doctors may also choose alternative cancer therapies over radiotherapy due to any number of reasons. Any shifts in doctors’ or patients’ preferences for other cancer therapies over radiotherapy may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The technology used in some of our radiotherapy equipment, particularly our body gamma knife and our proton beam therapy system, has been in use for a limited period of time and the international medical community has not yet developed a large quantity of peer-reviewed literature that supports their safe and effective use.

The technology in some of our radiotherapy equipment, particularly the body gamma knife system and the proton beam therapy system, has been in use for a limited period of time, and the international medical community has not yet developed a large quantity of peer-reviewed literature that supports their safe and effective use. As a result, such technology may not gain acceptance by doctors and patients in China or may lose any acceptance previously gained if negative information concerning their effectiveness or safety emerges.

As our agreements with manufacturers do not directly address such contingencies, we cannot assure you that equipment manufacturers will allow us to return their equipment or will otherwise reimburse us for losses that we may suffer under all such circumstances. Since each unit of our medical equipment represents a significant investment, any of the foregoing could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation.

We or our hospital partners may be unable to obtain permits and authorizations from regulatory authorities in China relating to our medical equipment, which could delay the installation or interrupt the operation of our equipment.

For our hospital-based centers, our hospital partners must obtain a radiation safety permit from the Ministry of Environmental Protection (“MEP”) and a radiotherapy permit from the competent healthcare administrative authorities to operate the medical equipment in our network of centers that contains radioactive materials or emit radiation during operation.

Our hospital partners must also obtain a radiation worker permit from the competent provincial healthcare administrative authorities for each medical technician who operates such equipment. Any failure on the part of our hospital partners to obtain approvals or renewals of these permits from the MEP or the competent healthcare administrative authorities could delay the installation, or interrupt the operation, of our medical equipment, either of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation.

Each of our planned proton center, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals in China that we majority own must obtain a radiation safety permit from the MEP and a radiotherapy permit, medical institution practicing license and radiation worker permits for our staff from the relevant provincial healthcare administrative authorities.

Any failure on our part to obtain approvals or renewals of these permits could delay the opening, or interrupt the operation, of our proton center, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation. For more information on risks related to our planned specialty cancer hospitals, see “—Risks Related to Our Company—We plan to establish and operate proton centers, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals that will be majority owned by us and are subject to significant risks.”

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If the government and public insurers in the PRC do not provide sufficient coverage and reimbursement for the radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging services provided by our network of centers, our revenues could be adversely affected.

Self-payments account for approximately 28.4% of total medical expenses in China in 2017, approximately 26.7% of total medical expenses were sourced from direct payments by the government and approximately 44.9% of total medical expenses were sourced from government-directed public medical insurance schemes, commercial insurance plans and employers in 2019, according to the NHC. For public servants and others covered by 1989 Administrative Measure on Public Health Service and the 1997 Circular of Reimbursement Coverage of Large Medical Equipment of Public Health Service, the government either fully or partially reimburses medical expenses for certain approved cancer diagnosis and radiotherapy treatment services, including treatments utilizing linear accelerators and diagnostic imaging services utilizing CT and magnetic resonance imaging (“MRI”) scanners.

However, gamma knife treatments and positron emission tomography (“PET”) scans are currently not eligible for reimbursement under this plan. Urban residents in China are covered by one of two urban public medical insurance schemes and rural residents are covered under a new rural healthcare insurance program launched in 2003.

The urban employees basic medical insurance scheme, which covers employed urban residents, partially reimburses urban workers for treatments utilizing linear accelerators and gamma knife systems and diagnostic imaging services utilizing CT and MRI scanners, with reimbursement levels varying from province to province. For urban non-workers and rural residents, the types of cancer diagnosis and radiotherapy treatments covered are generally set with reference to the policy for urban employees in the same region of the country. However, the reimbursement levels for covered medical expenses for urban non-workers and rural residents, which vary widely from region to region and treatment to treatment, are generally lower than those for urban employees in the same region.

We cannot assure you that the current coverage or reimbursement levels for cancer diagnosis or radiotherapy treatments will persist. If national or provincial authorities in China reduce the coverage or reimbursement levels for the radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging services provided by our network of centers, patients may opt for or be forced to resort to other forms of cancer therapy. In addition, our business, financial condition and results of operation could be materially and adversely affected.

We will target the high net-worth population which is not covered by the government insurance programs. If we cannot meet their demands effectively or reach them through effective marketing, our financial position and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Our planned proton center and premium cancer hospitals will provide international-standard cancer treatments, especially radiotherapy services. We will target the high net-worth population in China, who may demand high-quality and differentiated medical services not available in government hospitals. As China’s economic growth continues, the number of high net-worth population will keep growing as well.

However, this group of population usually has access to high-quality medical services and many of them visit hospitals overseas already. Our success depends on whether we will can provide the quality of medical services comparable to or better than international standards. If we fail to target this group of patients, i.e., high net-worth population, or fail to offer competitive services, our financial position and results of operations may be adversely affected.

We are facing competition from other hospitals in the market, in particular for high-end patients.

As China’s healthcare reform deepens and more private hospitals enter into the market, more hospitals will offer differentiated services that are not currently available in China’s healthcare service market. The high-net-worth population usually has access and resources to the best hospitals and medical experts in China. To reach this group of patients, we need to establish our industry position and reputation as the best cancer specialty service provider in China, which offers comparable or better services than other domestic and international hospitals.

Our planned proton centers, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals will face growing competition from other private and international hospitals in China. If we cannot establish a set of proper medical protocols and build up a strong reputation among patients, our revenue and profits will be affected adversely.

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In recent years, national policy of limiting foreign investment in the healthcare industry has been relaxed, foreign hospitals constantly influx the Chinese market, and Chinese patients have gradually sought healthcare services in the overseas market, such as Japan, Korea, other Southeast Asian countries. We also face the risks of loss of patient sources.

As China’s healthcare reforms progress and restrictions are relaxed on private and international investments, more international hospitals are planning to enter into the Chinese healthcare service market. As a result, our planned proton center, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals will face future competition from international hospitals, many of which will target the same high net-worth population. However, if we cannot execute our strategy properly, our operation and financial conditions will be affected.

In addition, more Chinese patients are traveling overseas to seek best treatment available to locations such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea or Southeast Asian nations. The MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center in the United States also receive patients from mainland China.

Development of cancer radiotherapy and cancer treatment technology, and medical equipment based on new technologies and research are advancing rapidly. If we cannot keep pace with advances in medical technology, we will be at risk.

We believe our planned proton center will offer the most advanced and cutting-edge treatment to cancer patients in China, including proton beam therapy, the most sophisticated radiotherapy currently available in the market. While considered the most accurate and effective radiotherapy mode at this time, proton therapy treatment may be overtaken by new trends or breakthroughs in the radiotherapy market. For instance, there is a trend of miniaturization of proton therapy equipment, which delivers the same treatment at lower upfront investments and physical specifications.

Although the miniature proton therapy equipment is not widely adopted, if the trend becomes popular, our planned proton center may face more competition as capital expenditures for proton centers will be substantially lower and more hospitals and institutions enter into the segment and offer the treatment at lower prices. We need to follow the technology development closely or face the risk of lower cost alternative treatments.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Adverse changes in political, economic and other policies of the Chinese government could materially adversely affect the overall economic growth of China, which could materially and adversely affect the growth of our business and our competitive position.

We conduct our operations primarily in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects are affected significantly by economic, political and legal developments in China. The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including:

the degree of government involvement;
the level of development;
the growth rate;
the control of foreign exchange;
the allocation of resources;
an evolving regulatory system; and
lack of sufficient transparency in the regulatory process.

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While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth in the past 30 years, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The Chinese economy has also experienced certain adverse effects due to the recent global financial crisis. The Chinese government has implemented measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may also negatively affect us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations applicable to us.

The Chinese economy has been transitioning from a planned economy to a more market-oriented economy. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets and the establishment of sound corporate governance in business enterprises, the Chinese government still owns a substantial portion of the productive assets in China. The Chinese government’s control of these assets and other aspects of the national economy could materially and adversely affect our business.

The Chinese government also exercises significant control over Chinese economic growth through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. Any adverse change in the economic conditions or government policies in China could materially adversely affect overall economic growth and the level of healthcare investments and expenditures in China, which in turn could lead to a reduction in demand for our products and materially adversely affect our businesses.

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could materially adversely affect us.

The PRC legal system is based on written statutes. Prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. In 1979, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation since then has been to significantly enhance the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China.

We conduct our operations primarily in China through our subsidiaries established in China. Our PRC subsidiaries are generally subject to laws and regulations applicable to foreign investment in China and, in particular, laws applicable to foreign-invested enterprises. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties, which may limit legal protections available to us.

In addition, some regulatory requirements issued by certain PRC government authorities may not be consistently applied by other government authorities (including local government authorities), making strict compliance with all regulatory requirements impractical, or in some circumstances, impossible. For example, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce the legal protections that we enjoy either by law or contract. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems.

These uncertainties may impede our ability to enforce the contracts we have entered into with our business partners, customers and suppliers. In addition, such uncertainties, including the inability to enforce our contracts, together with any development or interpretation of PRC law that is adverse to us, could materially adversely affect our business. Furthermore, intellectual property rights and confidentiality protections in China may not be as effective as in the United States or other countries.

Accordingly, we cannot predict the effect of future developments in the PRC legal system, including the promulgation of new laws, changes to existing laws or the interpretation or enforcement thereof, or the preemption of local regulations by national laws. These uncertainties could limit the legal protections available to us and other foreign investors, including you. In addition, any litigation in China may be protracted and result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources and management attention.

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The M&A rule establishes more complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

The M&A rule (as defined below) establishes additional procedures and requirements that could make some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex. These procedures and regulations require in some instances that the Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM”) be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a Chinese domestic enterprise.

We may grow our business in part by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the M&A rule to complete such transactions could be time-consuming. Any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

PRC foreign exchange rules may limit our ability to acquire PRC companies and adversely affect the implementation of our strategy, business and prospects.

On July 4, 2014, State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) promulgated the Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control of Domestic Residents’ Overseas Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Offshore Special Purpose Vehicles (“SAFE Circular No. 37”), which replaced the former Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for PRC Residents to Engage in Financing and Inbound Investment via Overseas Special Purpose Vehicles (“SAFE Circular No. 75”) promulgated by SAFE on October 21, 2005.

SAFE Circular No. 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, which is referred to in SAFE Circular No. 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” SAFE Circular No. 37 requires amending the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as an increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC residents share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material events.

In the event that a PRC resident holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to complete the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities. The special purpose vehicle may also be restricted from contributing additional capital into its PRC subsidiaries. Failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls.

Currently, several of our beneficial owners who are residents in the PRC and are or may be subject to the requirements of registering with the competent local branch of SAFE with respect to their investments in our company as required by SAFE Circular No. 75. They will update their registration filings with SAFE under SAFE Circular No. 37 when there are any changes that should be registered under SAFE Circular No. 37. However, we may not at all times be fully aware or informed of the identities of all our beneficial owners that are required to make such registrations, and if or when we have such shareholders or beneficial owners, we may not always be able to compel them to comply with SAFE Circular No. 37 requirements.

As a result, we cannot assure you that all of our shareholders or beneficial owners who are PRC residents will at all times comply with, or in the future make or obtain any applicable registrations or approvals required by, SAFE Circular No. 37 or other related regulations. The failure or inability of such individuals to comply with the registration procedures set forth in these regulations may subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrictions on our cross-border investment activities or our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to, or obtain foreign-exchange-dominated loans from, our company, or prevent us from making distributions or paying dividends. As a result, our operations and our ability to make distributions to you could be materially adversely affected.

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Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to use our revenues effectively and the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to obtain financing.

We receive substantially all of our revenues in Renminbi, which currently is not a freely convertible currency. Restrictions on currency conversion imposed by the PRC government may limit our ability to use revenues generated in Renminbi to fund our expenditures denominated in foreign currencies or our business activities outside China, if any. Under China’s existing foreign exchange regulations, Renminbi may be freely converted into foreign currency for payments relating to “current account transactions,” which include among other things dividend payments and payments for the import of goods and services, by complying with certain procedural requirements.

Our PRC subsidiaries are able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to us without prior approval from the SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. Our PRC subsidiaries may also retain foreign currency in their respective current account bank accounts for making payments in international current account transactions. However, the PRC government may take measures in the future to restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions.

Conversion of Renminbi into foreign currencies, and of foreign currencies into Renminbi, for payments relating to “capital account transactions,” which principally includes investments and loans, generally requires the approval of SAFE and other relevant PRC governmental authorities. Restrictions on the convertibility of the Renminbi for capital account transactions could affect the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make investments overseas or to obtain foreign currency through debt or equity financing, including by means of loans or capital contributions from us.

If our PRC subsidiaries borrow foreign currency from us or other foreign lenders, they must do so within approved limits that satisfy their approval documentation and PRC debt to equity ratio requirements. Such loans must be registered with the SAFE or its local counterpart. In practice, it could be time-consuming to complete such SAFE registration process.

If we finance our PRC subsidiaries through additional capital contributions, the amount of these capital contributions must be approved by or filed with MOFCOM in China or its local counterpart. On August 29, 2008, SAFE promulgated Circular 142, a notice regulating the conversion by a foreign-invested company of foreign currency into Renminbi by restricting how the converted Renminbi may be used. The notice requires that Renminbi converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested company may only be used for purposes within the business scope approved by the applicable governmental authority and may not be used for equity investments within the PRC unless specifically provided for otherwise in its business scope.

In addition, SAFE strengthened its oversight over use of Renminbi funds converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested company. The use of such Renminbi may not be changed without approval from SAFE, and may not be used to repay Renminbi loans if the proceeds of such loans have not yet been used for purposes within the company’s approved business scope. Violations of Circular 142 may result in severe penalties, including substantial fines as set forth in the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations.

On March 30, 2015, SAFE promulgated the Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming the Management Approach regarding the Settlement of Foreign Exchange Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises (“SAFE Circular No. 19”), which replaced the former notice on the conversion by a foreign-invested company of foreign currency into Renminbi. Pursuant to SAFE Circular No. 19, the foreign exchange capital of foreign-invested enterprises shall be subject to discretional foreign exchange settlement. For domestic equity investment made with capital obtained from foreign exchange settlement, the invested enterprises first shall handle the registration of domestic reinvestment at the foreign exchange bureaus (banks) at the places of registration and open the corresponding Account Pending for Foreign Exchange Settlement Payment.

The enterprises making the investment shall then transfer the capital in Renminbi obtained from foreign exchange settlement based on the actual investment scale to the Account Pending for Foreign Exchange Settlement Payment opened by the invested enterprises. This may help foreign-invested enterprises carry out domestic equity investment with the capital obtained from foreign exchange settlement to some extent.

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Fluctuations in the value of the Renminbi may materially adversely affect your investment.

The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in China’s political and economic conditions. On July 21, 2005, the PRC government changed its decade-old policy of pegging the value of the Renminbi to the U.S. dollar, and the Renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. dollar over the following three years.

Between July 2008 and June 2010, this appreciation halted and the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar remained within a narrow band. Since June 2010, the Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between the Renminbi and the U.S. dollar.

There remains significant international pressure on the PRC government to liberalize its currency policy, which could result in a further and more significant fluctuation in the value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar. In addition, as we rely entirely on dividends paid to us by our PRC subsidiaries, any significant revaluation of the Renminbi may materially adversely affect our revenues and financial condition, and the value of any dividends payable on our ADSs in foreign currency terms.

For example, to the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars that we receive from a future offering into Renminbi for our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would decrease the Renminbi amount that we receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert our Renminbi into U.S. dollars to make payments for dividends on our ordinary shares or ADSs or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would negatively affect the U.S. dollar amount available to us. In addition, appreciation or depreciation in the value of the Renminbi relative to the U.S. dollar would affect our financial results reported in U.S. dollar terms without giving effect to any underlying change in our business or results of operations.

We rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs, and any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make payments to us could materially adversely affect our ability to conduct our business.

We conduct our business primarily through our consolidated subsidiaries incorporated in China. We rely on dividends paid by these consolidated subsidiaries for our cash needs, including the funds necessary to pay any dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, service any debt we may incur and pay our operating expenses. The payment of dividends by entities established in China is subject to limitations. Regulations in China permit payment of dividends only out of accumulated profits as determined in accordance with accounting standards and regulations in China.

Each of our PRC subsidiaries, including wholly foreign-owned enterprises (generally known as WFOEs), and joint venture enterprises is also required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profit based on PRC accounting standards each year to its general reserves or statutory capital reserve fund until the aggregate amount of such reserves reaches 50% of its respective registered capital. Our statutory reserves are not distributable as loans, advances or cash dividends. We anticipate that in the foreseeable future our PRC subsidiaries will need to continue to set aside 10% of their respective after-tax profits to their statutory reserves.

In addition, if any of our PRC subsidiaries incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to us. Any limitations on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to transfer funds to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends and otherwise fund and conduct our business.

In addition, under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law (the “EIT Law”), the Circular issued by the State Administration of Taxation on January 29, 2008 regarding a summary on the dividend rates under the double tax treaties (“Notice 112”), the Arrangement between the Mainland of China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income (“PRC-HK DTA”), or the Double Taxation Arrangement (Hong Kong), which became effective on December 8, 2006, and the Notice of the State Administration of Taxation Regarding Interpretation and Recognition of Beneficial Owners under Tax Treaties (“Notice 601”), which became effective on October 27, 2009, dividends from our PRC subsidiaries paid to us through our Hong Kong subsidiary may be subject to a withholding tax at a rate of 10%.

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This rate may be lowered to 5% if our Hong Kong subsidiary is considered a “beneficial owner” that is generally engaged in substantial business activities and entitled to treaty benefits under the Double Taxation Arrangement (Hong Kong). Furthermore, the ultimate tax rate will be determined by treaty between the PRC and the tax residence of the holder of the PRC subsidiary. We are actively monitoring the proposed withholding tax and are evaluating appropriate organizational changes to minimize the corresponding tax impact.

Dividends we receive from our operating subsidiaries located in the PRC would be subject to PRC withholding tax.

The EIT Law provides that a maximum income tax rate of 20% may be applicable to dividends payable to non-PRC investors that are “non-resident enterprises,” to the extent such dividends are derived from sources within the PRC. The State Council has reduced such rate to 10%, in the absence of any applicable tax treaties that may reduce such rate, through the implementation regulations.

We are a Cayman Islands holding company and substantially all of our income may be derived from dividends we receive from our operating subsidiaries located in the PRC. If we are required under the EIT Law to pay income tax for any dividends we receive from our subsidiaries, the amount of dividends, if any, we may pay to our shareholders and ADS holders may be materially adversely affected.

According to the PRC-HK DTA, Notice 112, Notice 601 and Guoshuihan [2009] No. 81, dividends paid to enterprises incorporated in Hong Kong are subject to a withholding tax of 5% provided that a Hong Kong resident enterprise owns over 25% of the PRC enterprise continuously in the last 12 months before distributing the dividend and can be considered as a “beneficial owner” and entitled to treaty benefits under the PRC-HK DTA.

Cyber Medical Networks Limited (“Cyber Medical”) is a Hong Kong company. Under the aforementioned arrangement, dividends paid to us by Cyber Medical may be subject to the 5% income tax if we and Cyber Medical are considered “non-resident enterprises” under the EIT Law and Cyber Medical is considered as a “beneficial owner” and entitled to treaty benefits under the PRC-HK DTA.

If Cyber Medical is not regarded as the beneficial owner of any such dividends, it will not be entitled to the treaty benefits under the PRC-HK DTA. As a result, such dividends would be subject to normal withholding income tax of 10% as provided by the PRC domestic law rather than the favorable rate of 5% applicable under the PRC-HK DTA.

We may be classified as a “resident enterprise” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, which could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders.

The EIT Law provides that enterprises established outside of China whose “effective management organizations” are located in China are considered “resident enterprises” and are generally subject to the uniform 25% enterprise income tax rate on their worldwide income. In addition, a circular issued by the State Administration of Taxation on April 22, 2009 regarding the standards used to classify certain Chinese-invested enterprises controlled by Chinese enterprises or Chinese group enterprises and established outside of China as “resident enterprises” clarified that dividends and other income paid by such “resident enterprises” will be considered to be PRC source income, subject to PRC withholding tax, currently at a rate of 10%, when recognized by non-PRC enterprise shareholders.

This circular also subjects such “resident enterprises” to various reporting requirements with the PRC tax authorities. Under the implementation regulations to the enterprise income tax, an “effective management organization” is defined as a body that has material and overall management and control over the manufacturing and operations, personnel and human resources, finances and properties of an enterprise. In addition, the circular mentioned above sets out criteria for determining whether “effective management organizations” are located in China for overseas incorporated, domestically controlled enterprises.

However, as this circular only applies to enterprises established outside of China that are controlled by PRC enterprises or groups of PRC enterprises, it remains unclear how the tax authorities will determine the location of “effective management organizations” for overseas incorporated enterprises that have no actual controller like us and some of our subsidiaries. Therefore, although substantially all of our management is currently located in the PRC, it remains unclear whether the PRC tax authorities would require our overseas registered entities to be treated as PRC tax resident enterprises.

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We do not currently consider our company to be a PRC tax resident enterprise. However, if the PRC tax authorities disagree with our assessment and determine that we are a “resident enterprise,” we may be subject to enterprise income tax at a rate of 25% on our worldwide income and dividends paid by us to our non-PRC shareholders as well as capital gains recognized by them with respect to the sale of our shares, except for the income from equity investment income such as dividend and bonus between “resident enterprise,” and other resident enterprises of China, which shall be identified as tax-exempted income, may be subject to a PRC withholding tax. This will have an impact on our effective tax rate, materially adversely affect our net income and results of operations, and may require us to withhold tax on our non-PRC shareholders.

Dividends payable by us to our foreign investors and gains on the sale of our ADSs or ordinary shares may become subject to taxes under PRC tax laws.

Under the EIT Law and implementation regulations issued by the State Council, a 10% PRC income tax is applicable to dividends payable to investors that are “non-resident enterprises,” which do not have an establishment or place of business in the PRC or which have such establishment or place of business but have income not effectively connected with the establishment or place of business, to the extent such dividends are derived from sources within the PRC. Similarly, any gain realized on the transfer of ADSs or shares by such investors is also subject to a 10% PRC income tax if such gain is regarded as income derived from sources within the PRC.

It is unclear whether dividends paid on our ordinary shares or ADSs, or any gain realized from the transfer of our ordinary shares or ADSs, would be treated as income derived from sources within the PRC and would as a result be subject to PRC tax. If we are considered a PRC “resident enterprise,” then any dividends paid to our overseas shareholders or ADS holders that are “nonresident enterprises” may be regarded as being derived from PRC sources and, as a result, would be subject to PRC withholding tax at a rate of 10%.

In addition, if we are considered a PRC “resident enterprise,” non-resident enterprise shareholders of our ordinary shares or ADSs may be eligible for the benefits of income tax treaties entered into between China and other countries. If we are required under the EIT Law to withhold PRC income tax on dividends payable to our non-PRC investors that are “non-resident enterprises,” or if you are required to pay PRC income tax on the transfer of our ordinary shares or ADSs, the value of your investment in our ordinary shares or ADSs may be materially adversely affected.

If we are found to have failed to comply with applicable laws, we may incur additional expenditures or be subject to significant fines and penalties.

Our operations are subject to PRC laws and regulations applicable to us. However, the scope of many PRC laws and regulations are uncertain, and their implementation could differ significantly in different localities. In certain instances, local implementation rules and their implementation are not necessarily and fully consistent with the regulations at the national level. Although we strive to comply with all applicable PRC laws and regulations, PRC government authorities may determine that we have not complied with certain laws or regulations.

Our auditor, like other independent registered public accounting firms operating in China, is not permitted to be subject to inspection by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and, as such, investors may be deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

Our independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit reports included in our annual reports filed with the SEC, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), is required by the laws of the United States to undergo regular inspections by PCAOB to assess its compliance with the laws of the United States and professional standards. Because our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of PRC authorities, our auditor, like other independent registered public accounting firms operating in China, is currently not inspected by PCAOB.

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In May 2013, PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with China Securities Regulatory Commission (the “CSRC”) and the Ministry of Finance, which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations undertaken by PCAOB, the CSRC or the Ministry of Finance in the United States and the PRC. PCAOB remains in discussions with the CSRC and the Ministry of Finance to permit joint inspections in the PRC of audit firms that are registered with PCAOB and audit Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges.

Inspections of other firms that PCAOB has conducted outside of China have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. The inability of PCAOB to conduct inspections of independent registered public accounting firms operating in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures or quality control procedures. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections.

As part of a continued regulatory focus in the United States on access to audit and other information currently protected by national law, in particular China’s, in June 2019, a bipartisan group of lawmakers introduced bills in both houses of the U.S. Congress, which if passed, would require the SEC to maintain a list of issuers for which PCAOB is not able to inspect or investigate an auditor report issued by a foreign public accounting firm. The proposed Ensuring Quality Information and Transparency for Abroad-Based Listings on our Exchanges (“EQUITABLE”) Act prescribes increased disclosure requirements for these issuers and, beginning in 2025, the delisting from U.S. national securities exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange of issuers included on the SEC’s list for three consecutive years. Enactment of this legislation or other efforts to increase U.S. regulatory access to audit information could cause investor uncertainty for affected issuers, including us, and the market price of our ADSs and ordinary shares could be adversely affected. It is unclear if this proposed legislation will be enacted. Furthermore, there has been recent deliberations within the U.S. government regarding potentially limiting or restricting China-based companies from accessing U.S. capital markets. If any such policies were to materialize, the resulting legislation, if it were to apply to us, would likely have a material adverse impact on our business and the price of our ADSs and ordinary shares.

We face risks related to natural disasters and health epidemics in China, which could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Our business could be materially adversely affected by severe weather conditions and natural disasters or the outbreak of health epidemics in China. As our network of radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers are located in hospitals across China, our operations may be particularly vulnerable to any health epidemic. In the last decade, the PRC has suffered health epidemics related to the outbreak of avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, the influenza A (H1N1) and H7N9. In December 2019, a strain of novel coronavirus, COVID-19, causing respiratory illness emerged in the city of Wuhan in the Hubei province of China. The PRC government has taken certain emergency measures to combat the spread of the virus, including implementation of travel bans and closure of factories and businesses. Since that time, other cities in China and other countries throughout the world have been affected by the spread of the virus. The outbreak has negatively impacted our network centers and self-owned hospital operations in China and resulted in less patient treatment from late January to early March due to travel restrictions and quarantines. Our total revenue declined for January and March of 2020 as compared to the same period in the prior year. As the COVID-19 outbreak has further spread outside the PRC and it is uncertain as to whether the COVID-19 outbreak will continue to be contained in the PRC, our operation result and financial position of 2020 might be adversely impacted to a certain extent, which is highly unpredictable at this time. We continue to monitor the spread of COVID-19 in China and globally and have put in place and will continue to put in place measures as appropriate and necessary for our business. Any prolonged deviations from normal daily operations could negatively impact our business. While the full impact of this outbreak is unknown at this time, we are closely monitoring the rapid developments in China that have become exposed to the virus and continually assessing the potential impact on our business.

Any future natural disasters or health epidemics in the PRC could severely disrupt our daily operations, and may even require a temporary closure of our centers. Such closures may disrupt our operations and adversely affect our results of operations. Our operations could also be disrupted if our suppliers, customers or business partners were affected by such natural disasters or health epidemics.

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Proceedings instituted recently by the SEC against five PRC-based accounting firms, including our previous independent registered public accounting firm, could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

In December 2012, the SEC brought administrative proceedings against five accounting firms in China, including our previous independent registered public accounting firm, alleging that they had refused to produce audit work papers and other documents related to certain other China-based companies under investigation by the SEC. On January 22, 2014, an initial administrative law decision was issued, censuring these accounting firms and suspending four of these firms from practicing before the SEC for six months. The decision is neither final nor legally effective unless and until reviewed and approved by the SEC.

On February 12, 2014, four of these PRC-based accounting firms appealed to the SEC against this decision. In February 2015, each of the four PRC-based accounting firms agreed to a censure and to pay a fine to the SEC to settle the dispute and avoid suspension of their ability to practice before the SEC. The settlement requires the firms to follow detailed procedures to seek to provide the SEC with access to Chinese firms’ audit documents via the CSRC. If the firms do not follow these procedures, the SEC could impose penalties such as suspensions, or it could restart the administrative proceedings.

In the event that the SEC restarts the administrative proceedings, depending upon the final outcome, listed companies in the United States with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, including possible delisting. Moreover, any negative news about the proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding China-based, United States-listed companies and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

If our independent registered public accounting firm were denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our consolidated financial statements, our consolidated financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to our delisting from the NYSE or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.

Risks Related to Our Ordinary Shares and ADSs

The market price for our ADSs may be volatile.

The market price for our ADSs has been and may continue to be highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors including the following:

announcements of technological or competitive developments;
regulatory developments in China affecting us or our competitors;
announcements of studies and reports relating to the effectiveness or safety of the services provided in our network of centers or those of our competitors;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly operating results and changes or revisions of our expected results;
changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;
changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other medical services companies;
addition or departure of our senior management and other key personnel;
release or expiration of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding ordinary shares or ADSs;
sales or perceived sales of additional ordinary shares or ADSs; and

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general economic or political conditions in China or elsewhere in the world.

In addition, the securities market has from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to the operating performance of particular companies. For example, the securities of some China-based companies that have listed their securities in the United States have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings, including, in some cases, substantial price declines in trading prices.

The trading performances of these Chinese companies’ securities after their offerings may affect the attitudes of investors toward Chinese companies listed in the United States, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting, corporate structure or other matters of other Chinese companies may negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards Chinese companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have engaged in any inappropriate activities.

In particular, the global financial crisis and the ensuing economic recessions in many countries have contributed and may contribute to extreme volatility in the global stock markets, such as the large decline in share prices in the United States, China and other jurisdictions in late 2008, early 2009 and the second half of 2011. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our ADSs.

In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, shareholders have often instituted securities class action litigation against that company. If we were involved in a class action suit or other securities litigation, it would divert the attention of our senior management, require us to incur significant expense and, whether or not adversely determined, materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Substantial future sales or perceived sales of our ADSs in the public market could cause the price of our ADSs to decline.

Sales of our ADSs or ordinary shares in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of our ADSs to decline. In addition, certain of our shareholders or their transferees and assignees have the right to cause us to register the sale of their shares under the Securities Act upon the occurrence of certain circumstances.

Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in these shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act immediately upon the effectiveness of the registration. Sales of these registered shares in the public market could cause the price of our ADSs to decline.

Holders of ADSs have fewer rights than shareholders and must act through the depositary to exercise those rights.

Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights as our shareholders and may only exercise voting rights with respect to the underlying ordinary shares in accordance with the deposit agreement. Under the deposit agreement, if the vote is by show of hands, the depositary will vote the deposited securities in accordance with the voting instructions received from a majority of holders of ADSs that provided timely voting instructions. If the vote is by poll, the depositary will vote the deposited securities in accordance with the voting instructions it timely receives from ADS holders. In the event of poll voting, deposited securities for which no instructions are received will not be voted.

Under our fourth amended and restated articles of association, the minimum notice period required to convene a general meeting is seven days. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient notice of a shareholders’ meeting to permit you to your ordinary shares to allow you to cast your vote with respect to any specific matter. In addition, the depositary and its agents may not be able to send voting instructions to you or carry out your voting instructions in a timely manner.

We will make all reasonable efforts to cause the depositary to extend voting rights to you in a timely manner, but we cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote your shares. Furthermore, the depositary and its agents will not be responsible for any failure to carry out any instructions to vote, for the manner in which any vote is cast or for the effect of any such vote. As a result, you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and you may lack recourse if your ordinary shares are not voted as you requested. In addition, in your capacity as an ADS holder, you will not be able to call a shareholder meeting.

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Holders of our Class B ordinary shares will control the outcome of shareholder actions in our company.

Our ordinary shares are divided into Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. Holders of Class A ordinary shares are entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B ordinary shares are entitled to ten votes per share. In 2018, the Class A ordinary shares held by Morgancreek Investment Holding Limited (“Morgancreek”) were converted into Class B ordinary shares at one-to-one ratio and Morgancreek completed its restructuring. Immediately after the exchange and Morgancreek’s restructuring, the spouse of Dr. Jianyu Yang, our chairman and chief executive officer, indirectly held 70% interest in Morgancreek, Dr. Jianyu Yang became Morgancreek’s sole director and Morgancreek held 38,287,948 of our Class B ordinary shares and 4,660,976 of our ADSs. Dr. Jianyu Yang has the power to direct Morgancreek as to the voting and disposition of the Class B ordinary shares and the ADSs held by Morgancreek. As of the date of this annual report, Dr. Jianyu Yang beneficially held 40.5% in our company, representing 73.2% of the total voting rights in our company.

The greater voting rights of the Class B ordinary shares gives Class B ordinary shareholders the power to control any actions that require shareholder approval under Cayman Islands law, our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association and the NYSE requirements. These actions include the election and removal of any member of our board of directors; mergers, consolidations and other business combinations; changes to our amended and restated memorandum and articles of association; the number of shares available for issuance under share incentive plans; and the issuance of significant amounts of our ordinary shares in private placements.

Due to the disparate voting rights attached to the two classes of our ordinary shares, holders of our Class B ordinary shares could have sufficient voting rights to determine the outcome of all matters requiring shareholder approval even if it holds considerably less than a majority of the combined total of our outstanding Class A and Class B ordinary shares.

Holders of our Class B ordinary shares may also cause transactions to occur that might not be beneficial to you as a holder of ADSs and may prevent transactions that would be beneficial to you. For example, their voting power may prevent a transaction involving a change of control of us, including transactions in which you as a holder of our ADSs might otherwise receive a premium for your securities over the then-current market price.

Similarly, holders of our Class B ordinary shares may approve a merger or consolidation of our company that may result in you receiving a stake (either in the form of shares, debt obligations or other securities) in the surviving or new consolidated company, which may not operate our current business model and dissenter rights may not be available to you in such an event. This concentrated control could discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transactions that holders of Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

You may be subject to limitations on transfers of your ADSs.

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems is expedient to do so in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deem it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

Your right to participate in any future rights offerings may be limited, which may cause dilution to your holdings and you may not receive cash dividends if it is impractical to make them available to you.

We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. However, we cannot make any such rights available to you in the United States unless we register such rights and the securities to which such rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. Also, under the deposit agreement, the depositary bank will not make rights available to you unless the distribution to ADS holders of both the rights and any related securities are either registered under the Securities Act, or exempted from registration under the Securities Act.

We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective. We may also not be able to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, you may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution in your holdings.

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The depositary has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our ordinary shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary may, at its discretion, decide that it is inequitable or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs.

For example, the depositary may determine that it is not practicable to distribute certain property through the mail, or that the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may decide not to distribute such property and you will not receive such distribution.

ITEM 4.INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

A.History and Development of the Company

Concord Medical Services Holdings Limited (“Concord Medical”) was incorporated in the Cayman Islands on November 27, 2007 as a limited liability company. Concord Medical became our ultimate holding company on March 7, 2008, when the shareholders of Ascendium Group Limited (“Ascendium”), a holding company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands on September 10, 2007, exchanged all of their shares of Ascendium for shares of Concord Medical. Prior to that, on October 30, 2007, Ascendium had acquired 100% of the equity interests in Our Medical Services, Ltd. (“OMS”), resulting in a change in control. We refer to this transaction as the OMS reorganization in this annual report. Prior to the OMS reorganization, OMS, together with Shenzhen Aohua Medical Service Co., Ltd. (“Aohua Medical”), in which OMS effectively held all of the equity interests at the time, operated all of our business.

Aohua Medical was incorporated by OMS on July 23, 1997. OMS contributed RMB4.8 million to Aohua Medical, representing 90% of the equity interests in Aohua Medical. The remaining 10% equity interest in Aohua Medical was held by two nominees who acted as the custodians of such equity interest. On June 10, 2009, this 10% equity interest was transferred to our subsidiary Shenzhen Aohua Medical Leasing and Services Co., Ltd. (“Aohua Leasing”). The two nominees have not maintained their required capital contributions at any time subsequent to the incorporation of Aohua Medical. Due to this capital deficiency as well as other legal conditions, the two nominees had no legal rights to participate either retrospectively or prospectively at any time in any profits or losses of Aohua Medical or to share in any residual assets or any proceeds in the event that Aohua Medical encountered a liquidation event. For these reasons, we did not account for this 10% equity interest as a minority interest in our consolidated results of operations or financial position. In December 2011, we effectuated a merger through which Aohua Medical was merged into Aohua Leasing. Aohua Leasing acquired all of the assets and assumed all of the liabilities of Aohua Medical, which was dissolved upon the merger. Aohua Leasing subsequently changed its name to Aohua Technology.

On July 31, 2008, our subsidiary Ascendium acquired 100% of the equity interests in China Medstar Pte. Ltd. (“China Medstar”), together with its wholly owned PRC subsidiary, Shanghai Medstar, for approximately £17.1 million. China Medstar, through its then subsidiary Shanghai Medstar, provided medical equipment leasing and management services to hospitals in the PRC. In 2009, 100% of the equity interests in Shanghai Medstar were transferred from China Medstar to Ascendium.

On October 28, 2008, we acquired 100% of the equity interests in Yundu through our subsidiaries Aohua Leasing and Meizhong Jiahe (formerly known as CMS Hospital Management Co., Ltd. (“CMS Hospital Management”)) with a consideration of approximately RMB35.0 million.

In April 2010, we acquired four radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers in Hebei Province with a consideration of RMB60.0 million, including RMB42.0 million in cash and RMB18.0 million in contingent consideration, by acquiring 100% of the equity interests in Tianjin Concord Medical (formerly known as Tianjin Kangmeng Radiology Equipment Management Co., Ltd.).

In July 2010, we acquired 52% of the equity interests in Chang’an CMS International Cancer Center and Xi’an Wanjiehuaxiang Medical Technology Development Co., Ltd. (“WHT”) with a consideration of RMB103.2 million from Chang’an Hospital. In June 2012, through Cyber Medical and Shanghai Medstar, we acquired 52% of the equity interests in Chang’an Hospital with a total consideration of approximately RMB248.8 million in cash. In December 2014, we sold our 52% equity interest in Chang’an Hospital and WHT for total cash consideration of approximately RMB397.9 million in order to focus on building a nationwide network of diagnosis and treatment centers and specialized cancer hospitals.

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In May, June and September 2011, we incorporated four holding companies, namely, (i) US Proton Therapy Holdings Limited (BVI) in British Virgin Islands, (ii) US Proton Therapy Holdings Limited (Delaware) in Delaware, U.S., (iii) Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center in PRC, and (iv) Medstar Overseas Limited in British Virgin Islands for potential future acquisitions and businesses. None of these holding companies had any substantive assets or business as of the date of this annual report.

In December 2012, we acquired 19.98% of equity interests in the MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center, a leading proton treatment center in the world, with a total consideration of approximately US$32.3 million. In August 2015, we acquired an additional 7.04% equity interest in the MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center from an existing owner of the general partner, with a total consideration of approximately US$4.6 million. According to the partnership agreement, we have significant influence over the MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center. In November 2018, MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center reached an agreement with The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (“UTMDACC”) to sell all its assets and liabilities to UTMDACC, as well as terminating management service agreement between MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center and PTC-Houston Management, LP, at a consideration of RMB212.9 million. In December 2018, we received all the shared consideration from PTC-Houston Management, LP. After the transaction, we still retained the partnership shares of 59.51% in PTC-Houston Management, LP., the general partner of the center.

In October 2014, we established a wholly-owned free-standing radiotherapy cancer center, Datong Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center in Datong City, Shanxi Province, to provide advanced, best-practice diagnostic and radiotherapy services with 100 beds.

In April 2015, we acquired 100% of the equity interests in Fortis Surgical Hospital (“Fortis Surgical Hospital”) with a consideration of SGD55.0 million in cash from Fortis Healthcare International, a subsidiary of Fortis Healthcare Ltd. After the transaction, the hospital was renamed Concord Healthcare Singapore Pte Ltd. In October 2015, we changed its name to Concord Cancer Hospital, which provides oncology as its main service, including medical oncology and surgical oncology, in Singapore. In June 2017, we changed the name to Concord International Hospital. In November 2020, we entered into a definitive agreement to sell 90% equity interest in Concord Healthcare Singapore Pte Ltd, which operated and owned Concord International Hospital in Singapore, and ceased control over the management of Concord International Hospital in Singapore. The purchasers have completed the renaming process of Concord International Hospital. Our divestment of Concord International Hospital allows us to fully concentrate on our efforts to build comprehensive cancer hospitals in China.

On January 25, 2016, Meizhong Jiahe completed its listing on the National Equities Exchange and Quotations, (“NEEQ”) which is also known as the New Third Board in China, for a private placement financing. Meizhong Jiahe will focus on providing management services to our existing network centers and specialty cancer hospital projects in the future. In September and December 2016, Meizhong Jiahe completed two rounds of private offerings of additional shares and received proceeds of approximately RMB141.7 million, after which we held a 85.34% equity interest in Meizhong Jiahe. In February 2018, Meizhong Jiahe delisted from NEEQ.

In January 2016, we acquired from Chang’an Information Industry (Group) Co., Ltd. 100% of the equity interests in Beijing Century Friendship, which held a 55% equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center, with a total consideration of RMB100.6 million. As a result, we indirectly held an 80% equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center through Beijing Century Friendship and King Cheers. See the paragraphs below regarding details of the subsequent restructurings and the changes in our effective equity interests in Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center. Beijing Century Friendship has engaged in the establishment and construction of Beijing Proton Medical Center.

On February 22, 2016, the board of Meizhong Jiahe approved a restructuring plan (the “Reorganization”), pursuant to which Meizhong Jiahe acquired 100% of the equity interests in Aohua Technology with a consideration of approximately RMB322.7 million in cash and 100% of the equity interests in Beijing Century Friendship with a consideration of approximately RMB100.6 million in cash. After completion of the Reorganization in September 2016, Meizhong Jiahe holds the network business which was formerly under Aohua Technology’s management, and our cancer radiotherapy hospital business in China.

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In November 2016, we entered into a framework agreement, as amended, with Zhongrong Guofu Investment Management Company Limited (“ZR Guofu”) to establish an offshore fund, namely Zhongrong International Growth Fund SPC - ZR Concord Healthcare Investment Fund SP (“SP”), for the purpose of acquiring our several hospital businesses, including Concord International Hospital, Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center and PTC-Houston Management, LP (collectively, the “CCM Hospital Business”). Pursuant to the framework agreement, among others, ZR Guofu shall provide management and consultation services on the funds, and we shall continue to manage the CCM Hospital Business. ZR Guofu subscribed Class A shares of SP with a consideration of RMB521.4 million, while we subscribed Class B shares of the SP with the consideration of creditor’s rights of RMB166.3 million due from CCM Hospital Business and cash of RMB7.5 million. In 2016, ZR Guofu and we injected RMB521.4 million and RMB7.5 million, respectively, to the SP, which was then provided to the CCM Hospital Business as loans. After the restructuring mentioned below, only Concord International Hospital was retained in the CCM Hospital Business.

In 2016, ZR Guofu and we established an onshore fund, Guofu Huimei. The registered capital of Guofu Huimei is RMB1,009.0 million. In 2016, ZR Guofu and we subscribed the registered capital of RMB746.0 million and RMB263.0 million, respectively, for a 73.93% equity interest and a 26.07% equity interest, respectively, in Guofu Huimei. The capital injection was completed in April 2017. In 2018, ZR Guofu and Guofu Huimei reached an agreement, pursuant to which ZR Guofu withdrew its investments in Guofu Huimei. As a result, ZR Guofu exited the onshore fund, Guofu Huimei, and our equity interests in Guofu Huimei increased to 100%.

In April 2017, ZR Guofu and we entered into a supplemental contract to the framework agreement, pursuant to which, Guofu Huimei will be used as the platform to invest and provide loans to some domestic entities engaging in hospital business. Among others, during 2017, Guofu Huimei acquired a 78.31% equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship which holds a 55% equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center with a consideration of RMB388.5 million and a 54.8% equity interest in Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center with a consideration of RMB182.1 million through capital injections. As a result of the foregoing, our effective equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship decreased from 100% to 42.1%, our total effective equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center decreased to 48.16% (through Beijing Century Friendship and King Cheers) from 80% and our total effective equity interest in Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center was 49.48% (after more acquisitions by our other subsidiaries in 2017). In June 2018, Meizhong Jiahe entered into agreements with Guofu Huimei to purchase its 78.31% equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship, which holds a 55% equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center, and a 54.8% equity interest in Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center with a consideration of RMB388.5 million and RMB182.1 million, respectively. Meanwhile, ZR Guofu and Guofu Huimei reached an agreement, pursuant to which ZR Guofu withdrew its original investments in Guofu Huimei. Therefore, we held a 100% equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship, a 80% equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center and a 90% equity interest in Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center through our wholly-owned or majority-owned subsidiaries upon execution and closing of the agreement. Our effective equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship is 60%, our total effective equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center is 58% (through Beijing Century Friendship and King Cheers) and our effective equity interest in Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center is 55.42%.

Pursuant to the supplemental contract, the 75% equity interest in SP held by the ZR Guofu is contractually required to be repurchased by us at the end of four years from the establishment of SP in November 2016 at a consideration equivalent to the investment cost of RMB521.4 million. ZR Guofu is also entitled to an annual premium at 15% for its capital contribution of RMB521.4 million in SP in the form of interest expense and consultation expense. In addition, our share in Beijing Century Friendship, certain construction in progress and certain land use rights are pledged to secure our obligation to repurchase capital contribution from ZR Guofu.

In November 2017, ZR Guofu transferred its rights to the mandatorily redeemable non-controlling interest in SP to Tianjin Jiatai.

On December 20, 2017, we repaid a loan with principal of RMB97.1 million to ZR Guofu and repurchased a 100% equity interest in CMS Holdings with a consideration of US$1.0. Upon completion, we pledged the shares in CMS Holdings to ZR Guofu.

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In 2018, ZR Guofu and Guofu Huimei reached an agreement, pursuant to which ZR Guofu withdrew its investments in Guofu Huimei. In September 2018, ZR Guofu completed the withdrawal of its investments in Guofu Huimei and exited Guofu Huimei, and we became the sole shareholder of Guofu Huimei. We obtained control of Guofu Huimei in October 2018. We hold a 100% equity interest in Guofu Huimei. In addition, after Guofu Huimei became our wholly-owned subsidiary, SH Rongchi and Tianjin Jiatai became our equity investees. During 2019, Tianjin Jiatai made capital injection in a total of RMB34.5 million to Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnostic Center, and increased the equity interests in it from 56.77% to 78.34%. In July 2019, we entered into an agreement with Tianjin Jiatai, to purchase all of its 90% equity interests in Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd. at a consideration of RMB27.0 million. After the acquisition, Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd. became our wholly owned subsidiary. In August 2019, we further injected capital of RMB82.1 million to Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd. In September 2019, we entered into an agreement with ZR Guofu, pursuant to which ZR Guofu sold its 77.18% equity interests in Tianjin Jiatai to us at a cash consideration of RMB421.7 million. We paid the consideration in August and September 2019 and completed the related registration on November 18, 2019. In November 2019, ZR Guofu entered into another agreement with us and Tianjin Jiatai to withdraw from Tianjin Jiatai and its subsidiaries.  As a result of ZR Guofu’s withdrawal, we became the sole shareholder of Tianjin Jiatai and its subsidiaries, including Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnostic Center, Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd., Heze Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd., SH Rongchi and Oriental Light Group Limited.

We expect our acquisitions support our strategy to facilitate our long-term goal to develop specialized hospital chains in cancer and oncology treatment services including diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology treatment and medical oncology treatment.

In October 2017, an indirect subsidiary of Fosun International Limited, a company organized under the laws of Hong Kong principally engaged in creating customer-to-maker ecosystems in health, happiness and wealth, entered into a share purchase agreement with the affiliates of Carlyle Group (“Carlyle entities”) to purchase all of our ordinary shares beneficially owned by the Carlyle entities, which accounted for approximately 9.9% of our then total issued and outstanding shares. The transaction closed in November 2017.

In March 2018 and July 2018, we, the investment institutions led by CICC Capital Management Company Limited (“CICC Capital”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of China International Capital Corporation Limited (“CICC”), and other investors entered into agreements pursuant to which the parties jointly made a strategic investment in our subsidiary, Meizhong Jiahe. The total investment was RMB1.5 billion. After completion of the investment, those investment institutions led by CICC Capital and the other minority investors held a total of 40% of the equity interests in Meizhong Jiahe and our equity interests in Meizhong Jiahe was diluted to 60%. As of December 31, 2019, our effective equity interests in Meizhong Jiahe was 60%. In February 2020, we and CITIC Industrial Investment Group Limited (“CITIC”) entered into agreements pursuant to which CITIC will make an investment of approximately RMB700 million in Meizhong Jiahe, subject to the satisfaction of closing conditions. Upon completion in March 2020, our ownership in Meizhong Jiahe was diluted from 60% to 50.01%.

Shanghai Concord Medical Imaging Diagnostic Center, our first independent imaging diagnostic center, obtained an independent imaging diagnostic license in October 17, 2017. Through Shanghai Concord Medical Imaging Diagnostic Center, we expect to introduce world-class diagnostic technology and management services, covering the Yangtze River Delta Region through a remote sharing consultation platform, and provide a full range of imaging diagnosis and high-quality services for domestic and foreign commercial insurance patients.

In August 2020, Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center entered into a strategic cooperation framework agreement with Macao Kiang Wu Hospital in Macau. Pursuant to the strategic cooperation framework agreement, Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center and Macao Kiang Wu Hospital will jointly build a cancer specialist alliance and a multi-disciplinary consultation platform to promote cancer treatment, education, research and other fields of proton radiation therapy, based on the complementary clinical advantages of hospitals. This is a progress in the implementation of the "Outline for the Development of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay Area" issued by the PRC State Council.

On February 28, 2019, CMS Holdings entered into a shares purchase agreement with Merge Limited to purchase 20% equity interests of Zhejiang Marine Leasing Ltd (“Zhejiang Marine”) to expand our medical equipment leasing and management business. As we held 20% equity interest in and had the ability to exercise significant influence over the Zhejiang Marine, we applied the equity method of accounting to the investment. The registration change was completed on June 10, 2020 and Zhejiang Marine became our associate company since then.

See “—C. Organizational Structure” for our effective equity interests in our subsidiaries as of December 31, 2020.

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As of the date of this annual report, we conduct substantially all of our operations through Datong Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center in PRC, Shanghai Concord Medical Imaging Diagnostic Center, Guangzhou New Spring Hospital Clinic, and Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center in PRC for our hospital business and the following subsidiaries for our network business in the PRC:

Aohua Technology, our subsidiary incorporated in the PRC, which provides radiotherapy and diagnostic equipment leasing services to hospitals in the PRC;
Shanghai Medstar, our subsidiary incorporated in the PRC, which sells medical equipment and provides radiotherapy and diagnostic equipment leasing and management services to hospitals in the PRC;
Meizhong Jiahe, our subsidiary incorporated in the PRC, which provides radiotherapy and diagnostic equipment management services to hospitals in the PRC; and
Yundu, our subsidiary incorporated in the PRC, which provides teleconsultation, and medical information technology services in the PRC.

See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Acquisitions and Capital Expenditures” for more details of the capital expenditures.

Our principal executive offices are located at Room 2701-05, Tower A, Global Trade Center, 36 North Third Ring Road East, Dongcheng District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China, 100013. Our telephone number at this address is (86 10) 5903-6688 and our fax number is (86 10) 5957-5252. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at P.O. Box 31119 Grand Pavilion, Hibiscus Way, 802 West Bay Road, Grand Cayman, KY1-1205, Cayman Islands. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Corporation Service Company, located at 251 Little Falls Drive, Wilmington, DE USA 19808. Our website is www.concordmedical.com. The information contained on our website is not a part of this annual report.

The SEC also maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC. Our annual report and some of the other information submitted by us to the SEC may also be accessed through this web site.

Initial Public Offering

On December 11, 2009, our ADSs were listed on the NYSE.

Dual Class Share Structure

In January 2015, our shareholders approved the creation of a dual class share structure. In October 2018, Bluestone Holdings Limited, a company indirectly wholly owned by Mr. Zheng Cheng, transferred its shares in Morgancreek to companies wholly owned by Mr. Hao Zhou and Ms. Bi Zhang, the spouse of Dr. Jianyu Yang, respectively. On the same day, all the Class A ordinary shares held by Morgancreek were converted into Class B ordinary shares. Morgancreek transferred 7,500,000 Class B ordinary shares to Bluestone. Upon completion of these transactions, Mr. Zhou and Ms. Zhang indirectly hold 30% and 70% shares of Morgancreek, respectively, and Dr. Cheng holds ordinary shares of our company through Bluestone. As of the date of this annual report, 130,251,685 ordinary shares were outstanding, including 84,463,737 Class A ordinary and 45,787,948 Class B ordinary shares. Class A ordinary shares are each entitled to one vote, whereas Class B ordinary shares are each entitled to ten votes.

B.Business Overview

Overview

We operate an extensive network of radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers in China. As of December 31, 2020, our network consisted of 27 cooperative centers based in 20 hospitals, spanning over 20 cities across 13 provinces and administrative regions in China. These hospitals substantially consist of 3A hospitals, the highest ranked hospitals by quality and size in China as determined in accordance with the standards of NHC in China (formerly the Ministry of Health).

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Since April 2015, we have operated Concord International Hospital in Singapore, which we acquired from Fortis Healthcare International, providing oncology as its main service, including medical oncology and surgical oncology, in Singapore. In November 2020, we entered into a definitive agreement to sell 90% equity interest in Concord Healthcare Singapore Pte Ltd, which operated and owned Concord International Hospital in Singapore, and ceased control over the management of Concord International Hospital in Singapore. The purchasers have completed the renaming process of Concord International Hospital. Our divestment of Concord International Hospital allows us to fully concentrate on our efforts to build comprehensive cancer hospitals in China.

Cancer has become a serious global public health problem. According to the latest data issued by National Cancer Center in January, 2019 and the 2020 World Report on Cancer issued by World Health Organization (“WHO”), the burden of cancer rose to 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million cancer death in 2018 globally and there were 3.92 million new cancer cases and 2.33 million cancer-caused deaths in China. Moreover, according to the China Health Statistics Yearbook 2019, cancer is still one of the leading causes of death (26.0% of total death) in China. According to the latest Chinese Cancer Report issued by the Chinese National Cancer Institute in January 2019, the burden of cancer showed a continuous upward trend in China in recent 10 years, the incidence of cancer increased by about 3.9% from 2005 to 2015 and the mortality increased by 2.5% annually from 2005 to 2015. The number of cancer cases and cancer-caused death is expected to increase in the next decade. Major factors that contribute to the increase of cancer cases include demographic reasons, such as aging population, smoking and air pollution.

Radiotherapy is considered a mature treatment for many types of cancer. For example, nasopharyngeal cancer (“NPC”), also known as ‘Canton Cancer’, is the most prevalent cancer in Southern China, including Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian Provinces, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. The most common treatment of NPC is radiotherapy or comprehensive therapy based on radiotherapy.

In the future, more advanced treatment methods, such as proton therapy, are expected to be used for the treatment of NPC patients. Proton therapy can significantly reduce the radiation damage to the critical organs. We are working with leading domestic and international medical institutions to develop a clinical workflow of proton therapy for NPC.

We are also working with such institutions to reduce the cancer survival rate gap between China and U.S., by providing more advanced medical treatment to our patients. We believe that our leading network and experience and expertise uniquely position us to address the underserved market in China for radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging services.

We established most of the cooperative centers in our network through long-term lease and management services arrangements with our hospital partners. Under these arrangements, we receive a contracted percentage of each cooperative center’s revenue. Each cooperative center is located on the premises of our hospital partners and is typically equipped with a primary unit of advanced radiotherapy or diagnostic imaging equipment, such as a linear accelerator, head gamma knife system, body gamma knife system, PET-CT scanner or MRI scanner.

We provide clinical support services to doctors who work in the cooperative centers in our network. These services include developing treatment protocols for doctors and organizing joint diagnosis between doctors in our network and clinical research. In addition, we help recruit and determine the compensation of doctors and other medical personnel in our network and are typically in charge of most of the non-clinical aspects of the centers’ daily operations, including marketing, training and administrative duties. Our hospital partners are responsible for the centers’ clinical activities, the medical decisions made by doctors, and the employment of the doctors in accordance with regulations.

We believe that our success is largely due to the high quality clinical care provided at our network of centers and our market-oriented management culture and practices. Many of the doctors who work in our network have extensive clinical experience in radiotherapy, some of whom are recognized as leading experts in radiation oncology in China. We enhance the quality of clinical care in our network through established training of, and on-going clinical education for, doctors in our network.

We believe that our market-oriented management culture and practices allow us to manage cooperative centers more efficiently and offer more consistent and better patient services than our competitors. We believe that our success has allowed us to develop a strong reputation within the medical community, which in turn gives us a competitive advantage in gaining patient referrals and establishing new cooperative centers.

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To complement our organic growth, we have selectively acquired businesses to expand our network of centers. In July 2008, we acquired China Medstar, a company then publicly listed on the Alternative Investment Market of the London Stock Exchange (AIM) for approximately £17.1 million. At the time of the acquisition, China Medstar jointly managed 23 centers with its hospital partners across 14 cities in China. In April 2010, we acquired four radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers in Hebei Province with a consideration of RMB60.0 million by acquiring 100% of the equity interests in Tianjin Concord Medical (formerly known as Tianjin Kangmeng Radiology Equipment Management Co., Ltd.)

As part of our growth strategy, we plan to (i) establish and operate proton centers, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals, (ii) provide cloud system solutions of medical devices for our clients, (iii) develop an internet hospital focusing on cancer diagnosis and treatment, and (iv) develop our medical equipment leasing and management business.

Since 2010, we have shifted our focus to developing our own proton centers, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals. We are establishing freestanding radiotherapy cancer centers in our network of centers in China which we will wholly own and register as specialty cancer hospitals with required departments, including radiation, imaging, test laboratory, inpatient and nursing. Datong Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center, the first cancer hospital under our Meizhong Jiahe brand, opened preliminarily in May 2016 and officially opened for operations in May 2017.

We also plan to establish and operate premium cancer hospitals and proton centers in China and overseas to develop our hospital business as part of our growth strategy. Our premium cancer hospitals, which will provide premium cancer treatment services to our patients, currently include two planned hospitals in China, namely, Shanghai Concord Cancer Center and Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center. We commenced construction of Shanghai Concord Cancer Center in September 2017 with an estimated construction period of five years. The construction project was prolonged due to the suspension of construction activities caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. We also commenced construction of Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center in November 2017, and the construction was completed in October 2020. Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center has been in operation since June 2021.

Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnostic Center has officially opened and has commenced operation since April 2020. We expect this will expand our business income. The Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnosis Center is located on the second floor of the Medical Technology Center of Shanghai Xinhongqiao International Medical Park (the “Park”), which is the center of the Park. The Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnosis Center provides high-quality diagnostic imaging services, such as radiology, ultrasound and nuclear medicine, diagnosis and remote consultation, education and training, to all the medical institutions, premium clinics and medical institutions around the Park. Advanced imaging diagnostic equipment, such as CT, magnetic resonance, PET-CT and PET-MRI, have been installed in the Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnosis Center.

We believe our planned proton center will offer the most advanced and cutting-edge treatment to cancer patients by providing services such as proton beam therapy, the most sophisticated radiotherapy currently available in the market. We are in the process of establishing Beijing Proton Medical Center, and the construction commenced in June 2017. The construction was suspended and delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the failure of one of the shareholders to perform its obligations. In December 2012, we acquired indirect ownership of 19.98% of the equity interests in the MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center. In August 2015, we acquired an additional 7.04% equity interest in the MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center from an existing owner of the general partner to expand our expertise and knowledge base in preparation for the future operation of proton centers in China. According to the partnership agreement, we have significant influence over the MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center. Although MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center sold its assets and liabilities in November 2018, we retained the partnership shares of 59.51% in PTC-Houston Management, LP., the general partner of the center.

Public hospitals in China received more budget form the government during the COVID-19 pandemic, and many public hospitals plan to spend the extra budget on medical equipment. We take the advantage of the expanding market of medical equipment and are developing our cloud system solutions from our existing medical equipment and consumable sales services.

Leveraging on our specialized knowledge of the industry and comprehensive understanding of the market of medical equipment and consumables, our cloud system solutions will offer the hospital clients with solutions to upgrade and maintain their oncology departments. Traditionally, financial, technical, and operational levels of risks exist for both the buyer and the seller in the market due to the complex nature of medical equipment deals. Our cloud system solutions services will readily present a set of solutions to the hospital clients that meet their demands efficiently and lower their risks.

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We also developed an internet hospital that focuses on cancer diagnosis and treatment. The development of our internet hospital started from October 2020 and our internet hospital obtained the liscence in April 2021 and has been in operation since May 2021. Based on offline medical institutions and combined with online platforms, the hospital provides cancer patients with full-process medical services from cancer prevention to recovery. Our internet hospital offers specialized and customized services, such as medical safety and medication guidance for patients, which distinguishes our internet hospital form the other internet hospitals focusing on common diseases. Combined with our offline medical services, our internet hospital will expand the boundaries of our business.

On February 28, 2019, we purchased 20% equity interests of Zhejiang Marine Leasing Ltd (“Zhejiang Marine”) to expand our shares in medical equipment leasing and management market. Medical equipment leasing and management business is a conventional sector of our business in which we are responsible for purchasing the medical equipment used in our hospital clients. We lease the medical equipment to hospitals for a fixed period, establish and manage cooperative centers, and receive a contracted percentage of each center’s revenue. As of December 31, 2020, we operated 27 radiotherapy centers and diagnostic imaging centers, which were based in 20 hospitals, established under long-term lease and management services arrangements with us and spanning over 20 cities across 13 provinces and administrative regions in China. We plan to improve the amount of our cooperative centers in the future.

Our business structure has evolved in recent years through the development of new specialty cancer hospitals, such as Datong Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center, and premium hospitals. Our total net revenues were RMB190.9 million, RMB198.4 million and RMB223 million (US$34.2 million) for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, respectively. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating Results—Key Components of Results of Operations—Revenues” regarding our total net revenues by segments and our total net revenues by geographic regions for the three years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020. For additional information relating to our history and reorganization and our financial presentation, see “—A. History and Development of the Company,” “—C. Organizational Structure” and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.”

Our Network of Centers

As of December 31, 2020, we operated an extensive network of 27 cooperative centers based in 20 hospitals, spanning over 20 cities across 13 provinces and administrative regions in China. These hospitals substantially consist of 3A hospitals, the highest ranked hospitals by quality and size in China based on the standards of the NHC. Our network includes 17 radiotherapy centers and 10 diagnostic imaging centers.

Each cooperative center is typically equipped with a primary unit of medical equipment, such as a linear accelerator, head gamma knife system, body gamma knife system, PET-CT scanner or MRI scanner. Each cooperative center is located on the premises of our hospital partners with the facilities of the centers provided by the hospitals. Each cooperative center typically includes a treatment area, a patient preparation and observation room, working areas for the center’s doctors and other personnel and a waiting and reception area.

Our Arrangements with Hospital Partners

Lease and Management Services Arrangements

As of December 31, 2020, we had 27 cooperative centers established under lease and management services arrangements. We typically establish such centers with hospitals by entering into a lease agreement and a management agreement.

Under these lease and management services arrangements, we are responsible for purchasing the medical equipment used in these cooperative centers. We lease medical equipment to hospitals for a fixed period and establish and manage the cooperative centers in conjunction with our hospital partners. These arrangements are typically long-term in nature, ranging from 5 to 20 years.

We receive from the hospital a contracted percentage of each center’s revenue net of specified operating expenses. The contracted percentage typically ranges from 50% to 90% and are typically adjusted based on a declining scale over the term of the arrangement. We also have cooperative centers that operate under revenue-sharing agreements, which stipulate the percentage of the revenue and the pre-operating expenses to be shared with our hospital partners.

The specified operating expenses of cooperative centers typically include variable expenses such as the salaries and benefits of the medical and other personnel at the cooperative center, the cost of medical consumables, marketing expenses, training expenses, utility expenses and routine equipment repair and maintenance expenses. Typically, these lease and management services arrangements

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may be terminated upon the mutual agreement of the parties if the cooperative centers experience an operating loss for a specified period of time or fail to achieve certain operating targets.

In addition, the arrangements typically can be terminated upon the default or failure by either party to perform its respective obligations under the arrangement. In the event of termination, most arrangements call for the parties to reach a mutual agreement to resolve the remaining obligations of the parties or the division of assets that have been acquired for the cooperative centers. Under certain of these arrangements, our hospital partners must compensate us based on the average contracted percentage for an agreed upon period of time if we are not responsible for the early termination.

Management Services

From time to time, we provide management services to radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers under service-only agreements. As of December 31, 2020, we had such agreements for five cooperative centers. Unlike the cooperative centers established under lease and management services arrangements, we do not purchase and lease to the hospitals the medical equipment used at the cooperative centers established under service-only agreements. Rather, we only manage such cooperative centers in exchange for a management fee typically consisting of a contracted percentage of the revenue net of specified operating expenses of the cooperative center.

In addition, as compared to our lease and management services arrangements, the terms of the service-only agreements are typically shorter. We enter into such service-only agreements on a strategic basis to expand the coverage of our network. We expect to enter into additional strategic service-only agreements with other hospitals in the future.

Technical Services

We provide technical services to radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers under technical service agreements. As of December 31, 2020, we had such agreements at five cooperative centers. Similar to management services arrangements, we do not invest in the medical equipment installed at the cooperative centers.

Instead, we provide technical support, equipment and software maintenance and tele-diagnosis services to cooperative centers in exchange for a fixed fee. The terms are usually similar to those of our lease and management services contracts. As our telemedicine business grows, we expect to enter into more of the technical services agreements with other hospitals in the future.

Brand Royalty Fees

Starting from the year of 2016, we granted several newly set-up specialty cancer hospitals, on a fixed annual fee, the right to use the brand of Meizhong Jiahe. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, revenue from brand royalty fees amounted to RMB5.2 million, RMB5.1 million and nil.

Service Offerings in Our Network; Medical Equipment

Each of the cooperative centers in our network is typically equipped with a primary unit of medical equipment, such as a linear accelerator, head gamma knife system, body gamma knife system, PET-CT scanner or MRI scanner. Set forth below is a summary of the principal treatment and diagnostic imaging systems provided at our cooperative centers.

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Linear Accelerators External Beam Radiotherapy

As of December 31, 2020, we owned seven linear accelerators (excluding those in the five cooperative centers in our network under service-only agreements pursuant to which we only manage those cooperative centers in exchange for a management fee and we did not purchase and lease to the hospitals the medical equipment used at those cooperative centers). As of December 31, 2020, the cooperative centers under service-only agreements in our network owned two linear accelerators. Linear accelerators use microwave technology to deliver a high-energy x-ray beam directed at the tumor. Linear accelerators can be used to treat tumors in the brain or elsewhere in the body. A typical course of treatment given to a patient ranges from 20 to 40 daily sessions and with each session lasting for 10 to 20 minutes.

Since linear accelerators move during treatment, they are not as precise as gamma knife systems. However, linear accelerators are capable of treating larger tumors. Linear accelerators can also be integrated with specialized computer software and advanced imaging and detection equipment to provide more effective and advanced treatments.

Such advanced treatments include three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, which uses imaging equipment to create detailed, three-dimensional representations of the tumor and surrounding organs. The radiation beam can then be shaped to match the patient’s tumor, reducing the radiation damage to healthy tissues. In general, such advanced methods increase the medical service fees charged as compared to the maximum medical service fees that can be charged for treatments.

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

A gamma knife is used in radiosurgery for the treatment of tumors and other abnormal growths. A gamma knife uses multiple radiation sources, which differentiates it from traditional radiotherapy where only a single radiation source is used. These radioactive sources, which are typically cobalt-60, a radioactive isotope, emit gamma rays that are passed through a collimator unit to produce a highly-focused beam of radiation. The individual beams then converge to deliver an extremely concentrated dose of radiation to locations within the patient that are identified using imaging guidance systems, such as PET-CT or MRI scanners.

The intense radiation produced by a gamma knife at a precise target point destroys tumor cells, while minimizing damage to the surrounding healthy tissues. The treatment procedure is minimally or not invasive and may be used as a primary or supplementary treatment option for cancer patients. The treatment requires no general anesthesia and provides an alternative treatment option to patients who may not be good candidates for surgery.

In addition, the gamma knife procedure usually involves shorter patient hospitalization, is more cost effective than surgery and avoids many of the potential risks and complications associated with other treatment options. Our network of centers currently operates two types of gamma knife systems, head gamma knife systems and body gamma knife systems. As of December 31, 2020, we owned five gamma knife systems, including two head gamma knife systems and two body gamma knife systems (excluding those in the five cooperative centers under service-only agreements in our network). As of December 31, 2020, the cooperative centers under service-only agreements in our network owned two gamma knife systems, including one head gamma knife systems and one body gamma knife systems.

Head Gamma Knife Systems

Head gamma knife systems are primarily used for the treatment of brain tumors. The treatment is typically completed in one 10 to 30 minute session rather than in multiple daily sessions spanning several weeks during which time small doses of radiation are given at each session. Head gamma knife systems can also be used to treat other conditions, such as certain types of brain lesions, trigeminal neuralgia (facial pain) and arteriovenous malformations (abnormal connection between veins and arteries).

Body Gamma Knife Systems

Body gamma knife systems are used for the treatment of tumors located in the body but outside of the brain. Treatments using the body gamma knife are provided over a course of multiple sessions spanning several weeks. The radiation that converges from the individual beams is less concentrated than in head gamma knife systems due to the difficulty of fixing and restricting the movement of the body. The PRC State Food and Drug Administration (the “SFDA”) developed and approved this widely used technology in China.

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Diagnostic Imaging

Our network of centers employs a wide range of diagnostic imaging equipment. Such equipment includes some of the most advanced diagnostic imaging technology available in China, including PET-CT scanners. A PET-CT scanner combines a PET scanner and a CT scanner in one unit. PET-CT scanners allow the functional imaging obtained by PET scanning, which depicts the spatial distribution of metabolic or biochemical activities in the body, to be more precisely aligned or correlated with the anatomic imaging obtained by a CT scanner.

Other diagnostic imaging services offered in our cooperative centers include MRI. MRI scanners use a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and computers to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI technology, which does not involve radiation, is typically able to provide a much greater level of contrast between the different soft tissues of the body than CT, making it especially useful in neurological or oncological imaging. As of December 31, 2020, we owned nine MRI scanners and did not own any PET-CT scanner (excluding those in the five cooperative centers under service-only agreements in our network) and the cooperative centers under service-only agreements in our network owned one PET-CT scanner and did not own any MRI scanner.

Medical Equipment Procurement

The medical equipment used in our network of centers is highly complex and usually a limited number of manufacturers worldwide produce such equipment. We typically purchase medical equipment used in our cooperative network directly from domestic manufacturers and through importers from overseas manufacturers.

In accordance with PRC laws and regulations, the procurement, installation and operation of Class A or Class B large medical equipment by hospitals in China are subject to procurement quotas or procurement planning. A large medical equipment procurement license must also be obtained prior to the purchase of such medical equipment. For medical equipment classified as Class A large medical equipment, which includes gamma knife systems, proton beam therapy systems and PET-CT scanners, quotas are set by the NHC and the NDRC and large medical equipment procurement licenses are issued by the NHC. For medical equipment classified as Class B large medical equipment, which includes linear accelerators and MRI and CT scanners, relevant provincial healthcare administrative authorities conduct procurement planning and approvals with ratification by the NHC. Provincial healthcare administrative authorities issue large medical equipment procurement licenses. A large medical equipment procurement license is not required for medical equipment that is not classified as either Class A or Class B large medical equipment.

These rules concerning procurement of large medical equipment apply to public and private medical institutions in China, whether non-profit or for-profit, except for military hospitals in China, which have a separate procurement system. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation of Our Industry—Regulations in China—Regulation of Medical Institutions—Large Medical Equipment Procurement License.”

Once non-profit hospitals have obtained large medical equipment procurement licenses, the purchase of medical equipment for such hospitals is conducted through a collective tender process. The tender process is centralized in accordance with the relevant PRC laws and regulations and is supervised by the NHC for Class A large medical equipment. For Class B large medical equipment, the relevant provincial heath administrative authorities supervise the tender process. Equipment purchases by military hospitals are also conducted through a centralized collective tender process supervised by the general logistics department of the PLA.

The government or military authority will appoint an agent to manage the tender process who must be certified by the government and be qualified to conduct the tender process. The agent publicizes information relevant to the tender process, such as the type of equipment requested by the hospital and the desired commercial terms.

The manufacturers prepare the tender document according to the agent’s requirement and submit their bids to the agent on or before the specified date. The agent then consults with industry experts in evaluating each bid and the industry experts make a determination on the winning manufacturer. When the tender process is complete, the results are publicly announced and an import permit is issued for the equipment of the winning manufacturer. We then begin negotiations with such manufacturer or its importer with respect to the purchase price and the purchasing terms for the equipment based on the general commercial terms submitted by such manufacturer in the tender process.

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Financing Leases and Other Business Arrangements

We have entered into financing lease agreements in connection with several hospitals to which we lease radiotherapy, diagnostic and other equipment. We will transfer the leased properties to the lessee by the end of the lease term pursuant to the financing lease agreement. The terms of the financing leases vary, usually between three to ten years.

We have, from time to time, purchased medical equipment from manufacturers or distributors for re-sale to hospitals. We also have contractual relationships with certain equipment manufacturers and acted as a distributor of such manufacturer’s equipment in selling medical equipment to hospitals. Although we may continue these activities on a limited basis in the future, we do not expect these activities to represent an important part of our business going forward.

Specialty Cancer Hospitals

In addition to our cooperative centers, we are establishing specialty cancer hospitals that will focus on providing radiotherapy services as well as diagnostic imaging services, chemotherapy and surgery. We intend for these specialty cancer hospitals to provide a complete and coordinated treatment program for cancer patients. We expect these hospitals to be centers of excellence in our network providing cancer treatments to patients using the latest radiotherapy technology in China in our network of centers.

Typically, in China, the various specialist doctors such as surgeons, radiation oncologists or medical oncologists who provide care to a given cancer patient do not collaborate. We believe that the quality of cancer treatment will be greatly improved at our specialty cancer hospitals, because we will employ and manage the various specialist doctors directly and promote the appropriate coordination of their services for the benefit of cancer patients. We believe that these hospitals will play an important role in strengthening our reputation as the leading provider of radiotherapy services in China and developing our corporate brand.

We expect to wholly own and operate these specialty cancer hospitals. We expect to purchase all the medical equipment for these hospitals and employ and manage all the personnel, including doctors, nurses, medical technicians and administrative personnel. The specialty cancer hospitals will be licensed as for-profit hospitals in China and subject to PRC laws and regulations and permits requirements.

As for-profit hospitals, we do not expect that the medical service fees of our specialty cancer hospitals to be subject to price controls, although they will be subject to certain taxes not applicable to non-profit hospitals. We plan to fund the development of our specialty cancer hospitals with bank loans and cash on hand.

In October 2014, we established a wholly-owned radiotherapy cancer center, Datong Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center in Datong City, Shanxi Province, to provide advanced, best-practice diagnostic and radiotherapy services with 100 beds with a planned gross floor area of 5,983 square meters. It is the first free-standing center in our network of centers. Datong Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center, opened preliminarily in May 2016 and officially opened for operation in May 2017.

In May 2017, we opened Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center in Shanghai to provide outpatient services, imaging diagnosis services and daily radiotherapy and chemotherapy services. Since February 28, 2019, the nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and cancer radiotherapy services and the basic medical services, including general outpatient registration, chemotherapy, linear accelerator radiotherapy, blood examination, image examination (such as nuclear magnetic resonance, CT, ultrasound, molybdenum target, electrocardiogram), medicines and consumables, of our Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center’s basic medical services have been fully covered by Shanghai basic medical insurance. The center is registered as a specialty cancer hospital with required departments, including radiation, imaging, test laboratory, inpatient and nursing. We plan to have this center apply to join the local social insurance coverage. This free-standing center facility constitutes an important step of our broader strategy to build a nationwide chain of free-standing cancer treatment and diagnosis centers in the future.

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In April 2020, Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnostic Center officially opened. Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnostic Center has commenced operation since April 2020, which we expect will expand our business income. The Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnosis Center is located on the second floor of the Medical Technology Center of Shanghai Xinhongqiao International Medical Park (the "Park"), which is the center of the Park. The Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnosis Center provides high-quality diagnostic imaging services, such as radiology, ultrasound and nuclear medicine, diagnosis and remote consultation, education and training, to all the medical institutions, premium clinics and medical institutions around the Park. Advanced imaging diagnostic equipment, such as CT, magnetic resonance, PET-CT and PET-MRI, have been installed in the Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnosis Center.

Operation of Radiotherapy and Diagnostic Imaging Centers in Our Network

The following is a brief summary of the various aspects of the operations of the radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers in our network of centers.

Management Structure

We manage each of the radiotherapy and diagnostic centers jointly with our hospital partners. Our hospital partners appoint a medical director to each center and are responsible for the centers’ clinical activities, the medical decisions made by doctors, and the employment of doctors in accordance with the licensing regulations. We provide clinical support to doctors, including developing treatment protocols for doctors and organizing joint diagnosis between doctors in our network and clinical research.

We appoint either an operations director or a project manager to each cooperative center. The director or manager provides most of the non-clinical aspects of the centers’ day-to-day operations, which include marketing, providing training and clinical education to doctors and other medical personnel in cooperative centers and other general administrative duties such as arranging for the repair and maintenance of medical equipment. Budgets for each cooperative center are established annually based on discussions between our hospital partners and us. Costs incurred at the cooperative centers usually require approval of both our hospital partners and us. As a matter of practice, certain major expenditures of the cooperative center are subject to further approval by our hospital partners’ management and our management.

We have established operating procedures and a comprehensive quality assurance program designed to ensure that our cooperative centers operate efficiently and provide consistent and high quality services. The operating procedures cover the use and maintenance of the medical equipment and interactions with patients, from initial patient appointment and registration to post-treatment follow-up. The operations director or project manager of each cooperative center is primarily responsible for ensuring the adherence to our operating procedures and comprehensive quality assurance program.

At the corporate level, we have established a dedicated operations department to supervise and provide support to ensure the effective operation of each cooperative center. We actively monitor the activities of each cooperative center and conduct scheduled annual evaluations for the cooperative centers. These evaluations focus on whether our operating personnel follow applicable procedures and perform at the expected level. In addition to the scheduled annual review, we conduct unscheduled evaluations for certain randomly selected centers.

The results of these evaluations help determine the compensation received by our operations directors or project managers and our other employees at the cooperative centers. We receive weekly reports on the operating activities for each cooperative center, which help us identify opportunities for improvement with respect to various aspects of each center’s operations. We also have a risk management department that helps to ensure that we meet applicable PRC laws and regulations and compliance standards for the operation of our business. We have also adopted a code of ethics.

For our specialty cancer hospitals, we intend to maintain full operating control over all clinical and non-clinical aspects of its operation, including direct supervision over medical decisions made by doctors.

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Staffing

In addition to the operations director or project manager appointed by us to each cooperative center, we typically staff each cooperative center with dedicated marketing and accounting personnel. Our hospital partners appoint medical directors to the cooperative centers and, except in very limited cases, they also assign all of the doctors and other medical personnel to the cooperative centers.

However, we also help our hospital partners to recruit many of the doctors or medical personnel that provide services at the cooperative centers. We provide feedback to our hospital partners as to the suitability and performance of the doctors and other medical personnel at each cooperative center, and work with our hospital partners to help ensure that each cooperative center is staffed with the most qualified and suitable personnel. In addition, we help our hospital partners determine the compensation of doctors and other medical personnel providing services in our network of centers.

On a limited basis, we also enter into employment agreements with doctors to work at cooperative centers in our network after consulting with our hospital partners where such centers are based. We are establishing specialty cancer hospitals, such as Datong Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center. We expect to be responsible for employing and managing all personnel of such specialty cancer hospitals, including doctors and other medical personnel, in the future.

Medical Affairs

We have a medical affairs department to support the training, clinical education and clinical research activities of our network of centers. Prior to setting up a new center, we arrange training for the medical professionals of such new center at certain established centers in our network designated as training centers. This provides the medical professionals of each new center with the opportunity to gain hands-on clinical experience in advanced radiotherapy treatment and diagnostic imaging technologies, and to benefit from the considerable clinical knowledge of the doctors and other medical personnel at the designated training centers.

The doctors at the designated training centers evaluate the performance of the medical professionals of the new center and ensure that they can provide high quality clinical care. In addition, we arrange training for the medical staff with the medical equipment manufacturers.

We also periodically provide follow-up training at selected centers and host academic conferences and semi-annual academic seminars where doctors and other medical personnel from our network of centers and medical experts in China share their knowledge and clinical experience. From time to time, we invite experts from professional or academic institutions, such as the Oncology Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Science, to give lectures and provide guidance as to the latest developments and trends in radiotherapy treatments.

We believe that a well-managed clinical research program enhances the reputation of doctors in our network, which in turn enhances the reputation of our network of centers. We maintain a database of radiotherapy treatments. This collection of data can be used, upon approval by us and our hospital partners, to conduct cross-center clinical research and statistical analysis to determine the efficacy and potential of treatment methods offered in our network.

We actively organize, encourage and assist doctors in our network to engage in clinical research and to publish their results. We assist in coordinating the clinical research efforts between different radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers in our network, which is critical for certain research initiatives that require a significant amount of clinical data that would be difficult for one center to collect.

Doctors in China have historically had limited opportunities for discussions or consultations with doctors outside of their own hospital. Our network offers doctors the opportunity to consult with each other on challenging cases and treatments. In addition, we have developed treatment protocols that are introduced to each cooperative center and can be followed by doctors in our network of centers.

We also evaluate the clinical activities of each cooperative center as part of our annual evaluations to ensure that high quality treatments or services are provided to patients. We also publish an internal quarterly magazine titled “Stereotactic Radiosurgery” that highlights the different clinical cases treated in our centers and the latest developments in radiosurgery treatment. We further assist in the publication of other literature related to radiosurgery.

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Marketing

Marketing efforts for each cooperative center in our network are primarily initiated and implemented by the marketing personnel or the operations director or project manager at each cooperative center with the support of our headquarters. Each center’s marketing efforts are directed at other doctors in the hospital where the cooperative center is based and at other local hospitals.

These marketing efforts focus on informing such doctors of the applicability and benefits of radiotherapy and the expertise and experience of the doctors at the cooperative centers. We also create and distribute educational materials and brochures and engage in consumer advertising and educational campaigns through television, magazines and electronic media.

Each cooperative center must report its marketing activities to us, and we closely monitor such activities and provide approval for major marketing initiatives. We also oversee the budget for marketing activities at the cooperative centers.

We assist the cooperative centers by providing relevant content for marketing materials and help coordinate with leading experts in the medical community to attend conferences or seminars hosted by the centers. As our network of centers expands and as we began operating the first of our specialty cancer hospitals in the first half of 2017, we centralized certain of our marketing and advertising efforts.

Accounting and Payment Collection

Our hospital partners are responsible for patient billing and fee collections and for delivering to us our contracted percentage of medical fees based on our arrangements with them. We typically hire accounting personnel at each of our centers who are in charge of keeping books and records as to the revenues and expenses of the center. We reconcile the accounting records for each cooperative center in our network with our hospital partners periodically.

After the revenue net of specified operating expenses of a cooperative center is agreed upon between us and our hospital partners, we will bill our hospital partners for our portion of the revenue determined based on our contracted percentage. Our hospital partners will then go through their internal approval process, which usually takes about 45 days from the time of billing before making payments to us. We have implemented accounting procedures at each of the cooperative centers in our network, and perform periodic reviews to help ensure that such activities are properly conducted. For our specialty cancer hospitals, we are responsible for patient billing and fee collection.

Medical Equipment Maintenance and Repair

The equipment manufacturers or third party service companies typically carry out equipment maintenance and repair. The manufacturers typically provide equipment warranties for a period of one year. After the warranty period expires, we typically enter into service agreements with the manufacturers or third party service companies to provide periodic maintenance and repair services.

We have also established a dedicated engineering team that is responsible for the general preventive maintenance of medical equipment used in our network of centers. Our engineering team serves as an initial point of contact when problems arise and coordinates with equipment manufacturers or a third-party service company to help ensure that problems are resolved in a timely manner.

Pricing of Medical Services

Medical service fees generated through the use of both Class A and Class B large medical equipment at non-profit civilian hospitals. Military hospitals are subject to the pricing guidance of the relevant provincial or regional price control authorities and healthcare administrative authorities. The pricing guidance sets forth the range of medical service fees that can be charged by non-profit civilian medical institutions and military hospitals. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Industry—Pricing for the services provided by our network of centers may suffer from reductions in treatment and examination fees set by the Chinese government.”

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The relevant price control authorities and healthcare administrative authorities provide notices to hospitals, which in turn provide immediate notices to us, as to any change in the pricing ceiling for medical services. The timing between when notices are provided by the relevant price control authorities and healthcare administrative authorities and the effective date of such pricing change varies in different cities and regions as well as the relevant medical services in question, but typically ranges from one to three months. For-profit hospitals or centers based in for-profit hospitals in China, such as our planned specialty cancer hospitals, are not subject to such pricing restrictions and are entitled to set medical service fees based on their cost structures, market demand and other factors.

Our Premium Cancer Hospitals

Permits Needed to Establish a Medical Institution

In order to establish a medical institution, we need to apply for and receive approvals and permits/licenses from various government authorities and agencies. Since 2012, companies that are registered in Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan are permitted to establish wholly-owned medical institutions in selected cities in China, including Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing and certain cities in Jiangsu Province, Fujian Province, Hainan Province and Guangdong Province, after obtaining relevant permits from the local authorities and agencies, the procedure of which may be substantially different in various regions.

The procedure to establish a wholly-owned foreign medical institution in Beijing, for instance, also requires applications to the several government agencies and departments, including local public health bureau, fire department and environmental protection bureau. These agencies need to review the application from different perspectives, such as compliance with local healthcare planning, fire safety and environment impact. If radiation therapy is included in the services to be offered, radiation protection review will be included in the procedures as well. After reviews are completed and approvals from the above agencies are received, we can apply to the local public health bureau for a Permit of Operations for Foreign Invested Medical Institution. Then we need to apply to the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Commerce for Permit to Establish Foreign Invested Corporation, after which we can apply to the local Administration of Industry and Commerce to obtain a license for the registration of the corporation.

All of our self-owned hospitals have received these permits or equivalents.

Shanghai Concord Cancer Center

In April 2014, we received the government approval for the establishment of Shanghai Concord Cancer Center, a 400-bed cancer specialty hospital with a planned gross floor area of 158,769 square meters in Shanghai New Hongqiao International Medical Center. Our Shanghai Concord Cancer Center will utilize the advance domestic and international therapeutic methods, medical process and management system. The hospital plans to install the most advanced cancer diagnosis and treatment equipment and multidiscipline system. We are in the process of finalizing the pre-construction work. The construction of this hospital project commenced in September 2017 with an estimated construction period of five years.

Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center

In January 2011, we entered into a framework agreement with Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center and a third party to build Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center, a 400-bed specialty hospital in Guangzhou with a planned gross floor area of 40,000 square meters for cancer diagnosis and treatment. In May 2012, we obtained the approval of establishing medical institution from the NHC of Guangdong Province. Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center was granted the land usage rights from the local land administrative bureau in 2012 and obtained the relevant land use rights certificate in 2013. The construction of this hospital project commenced in November 2017. The construction was completed in October 2020. Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center has been in operation since June 2021.

In August 2020, Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center entered into a strategic cooperation framework agreement with Macao Kiang Wu Hospital in Macau. Pursuant to the strategic cooperation framework agreement, Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center and Macao Kiang Wu Hospital will jointly build a cancer specialist alliance and a multi-disciplinary consultation platform to promote cancer treatment, education, research and other fields of proton radiation therapy, based on the complementary clinical advantages of hospitals. This is a progress in the implementation of the “Outline for the Development of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay Area” issued by the PRC State Council.

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Concord International Hospital

As a part of our overseas business expansion, we acquired 100% of the equity interests in Fortis Surgical Hospital from Fortis Healthcare International, a subsidiary of Fortis Healthcare Ltd., with a consideration of SGD55.0 million in cash in April 2015. We changed the name of the hospital to Concord Cancer Hospital in October 2015. In June 2017, we changed its name to Concord International Hospital. Concord International Hospital has 31-bed patient capacity and provides oncology as its main service, including medical oncology and surgical oncology, in Singapore.

Concord International Hospital is a private facility in Singapore that was originally established in July 2012. We plan to establish Concord International Hospital as a platform for high-end medical treatment that will also include academic research targeting patients in Singapore as well as patients coming from China as part of our efforts to expand overseas business.

In November 2020, we entered into a definitive agreement to sell 90% equity interest in Concord Healthcare Singapore Pte Ltd, which operated and owned Concord International Hospital in Singapore, and ceased control over the management of Concord International Hospital in Singapore. The purchasers have completed the renaming process of Concord International Hospital.

Our Proton Centers

Beijing Proton Medical Center

We have entered into a framework agreement with Chang’an Information Industry (Group) Co., Ltd. and China-Japan Friendship Hospital to establish Beijing Proton Medical Center. We expect Beijing Proton Medical Center to allow us to bring the latest radiotherapy treatment technology to China and increase the radiotherapy treatment options available to cancer patients.

Beijing Proton Medical Center is expected to be equipped with the proton beam therapy system in China licensed for clinical use. Beijing Proton Medical Center is expected to have a gross floor area of approximately 12,555 square meters and 50 licensed patient beds. Beijing Proton Medical Center will primarily offer treatments using a proton beam therapy system, which are designed to be non-invasive and usually do not require hospitalization.

Proton beam therapy is a form of external beam radiotherapy that uses beams of protons rather than the x-ray beams used by linear accelerators. The advantages of proton beam therapy compared to other types of external beam radiotherapy is that a proton beam’s signature energy distribution curve, known as the “Bragg peak,” allows for greater accuracy in targeting tumor cells so that healthy tissue is exposed to a smaller dosage. Proton beam therapy can focus cell damage caused by the proton beam at the precise depth of the tissue where the tumor is situated, while tissues located before the Bragg peak receive a reduced dose and tissues situated after the peak receive none. These advantages make proton beam therapy a preferred option for treating certain types of cancers where conventional radiotherapy would damage surrounding tissues to an unacceptable level, such as tumors near optical nerves, the spinal cord or central nervous system and in the head and neck area, as well as prostate cancer and cancer in pediatric cases. Proton beam therapy is not a widely utilized treatment modality, with only approximately 132 proton beam therapy treatment centers in operation or under construction worldwide.

The framework agreement contemplates that we are to invest equity capital to Beijing Proton Medical Center project that was previously invested and developed by Chang’an Information Industry (Group) Co., Ltd., King Cheers and China-Japan Friendship Hospital. In January 2016, we acquired from Chang’an Information Industry (Group) Co., Ltd. a 100% equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship, which held a 55% equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center and was set up for the construction of Beijing Proton Medical Center, with a total cash consideration of RMB100.6 million. As a result, we held a total of 80% equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center through Beijing Century Friendship and King Cheers. During 2017, more investments were injected to Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center. Our total equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center decreased from 80% to 48.16%, with the remaining equity interests held by China-Japan Friendship Hospital and parties from Zhongrong. During 2018, we, through our majority-owned subsidiary, acquired all the equity interests in Beijing Century Friendship, which held 55% of Beijing Proton Medical Center. We hold 52.19% equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center through Beijing Century Friendship and King Cheers. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—History and Development of the Company.”

We have received the relevant government approvals for the establishment of Beijing Proton Medical Center. The construction of this hospital project commenced in June 2017. The construction project was suspended and delayed primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the failure of one of its shareholders to fulfill the obligations.

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The MD Anderson Cancer Center (The Proton Therapy Center)

In December 2012, we acquired indirect ownership of 19.98% of the equity interests in the MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center, and in August 2015, we acquired an additional 7.04% equity interest in the MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center from an existing owner of the general partner. The MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center is a leading proton treatment center in the world. According to the partnership agreement, we have significant influence over the MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center.

This transaction may enable us to expand our expertise and knowledge base in preparation for the operation of future proton centers. After the closing of the transaction, we became the second largest owner of the MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center, behind UTMDACC. We joined both the board of directors of PTC-Houston Management, LP, the general partner of the center, and the center’s advisory committee.

The MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center is an affiliate of UTMDACC. Opened in 2006, it was the fourth proton treatment center in the U.S. For nine of the past 10 years, UTMDACC has been ranked the leading in cancer hospital in the U.S. News & World Report’s “Best Hospitals” survey.

The MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center is an international center of excellence for proton therapy, research and education. It is the world’s first proton therapy facility located within a comprehensive cancer center and the only proton therapy center that is part of the top-ranked cancer center in the world. Its highly skilled and experienced cancer care team includes radiation oncologists, pediatric radiation oncologists, research nurses, registered nurses, radiation therapists, medical dosimetrists, physicists and other cancer professionals who work to provide an individualized treatment plan for each patient’s cancer.

The MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center houses four treatment rooms that include one fixed beam room and three equipped with gantries within 96,000-square-feet of space. Each gantry is three stories tall, 35 feet in diameter, weighs 190 tons and rotates around a patient to direct the proton beam precisely at the cancerous tumor. The center also includes clinical space and examination rooms for consultations and patient visits, anesthesiology work areas, holding and recovery areas, medical dosimetry areas for treatment planning and other areas related to the care, treatment, education and research of proton technology. In addition, the Proton Therapy Center has a dedicated, on-site machine shop that produces the apertures and other pieces needed to precisely and effectively deliver proton therapy to patients.

In November 2018, MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center reached an agreement with UTMDACC to sell all its assets and liabilities to UTMDACC, as well as terminating management service agreement between MD Anderson Proton Therapy Center and PTC-Houston Management, LP. After the transaction, we still retained the partnership shares of 59.51% in PTC-Houston Management, LP.

Business Development

Our business development team is responsible for pursuing opportunities to develop cooperative centers with hospitals and our hospital investment team is responsible for pursuing opportunities to establish proton centers, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals. When examining potential opportunities, we take into account factors that include:

population density, demographics and the level of economic development of the regions or cities in which such new centers and hospitals would be located; and
the reputation of the potential hospital partner and its doctors, nurses and other personnel and the number of licensed patient beds and patient volume for our planned cooperative centers.

After each potential opportunity is identified and evaluated by the business development team or the hospital investment team, as applicable, the opportunity is presented to our investment committee for review. Our investment committee consists of several of our senior executives and members of our board of directors, and includes chairman of the committee, Dr. Jianyu Yang, Mr. Yaw Kong Yap and two rotating regional directors. New projects need to be approved by a super-majority approval of our investment evaluation committee and also by our chief executive officer.

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Seasonality

During a fiscal year, the first quarter usually sees fewest patient visits, both inpatient and outpatient, mainly due to the Chinese New Year. The fourth quarter is usually the busiest quarter during the year, as most patients, especially patients from the rural areas, will have more free time to visit hospitals.

Since our cooperative centers are located within the government hospitals, they are also subject to seasonality of the patient traffic. Our planned proton center, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals will also be affected by seasonality, although to a lesser degree, as cancer patients need to receive treatment and diagnosis immediately.

Competition

The radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging market in China is fragmented and competition is intense. The cooperative centers in our network and our hospital compete primarily on a regional or local basis with government-owned and private hospitals that offer radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging services either directly or in conjunction with third parties, such as China Renji Medical Group Ltd. In addition, since hospitals typically establish radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers located on their premises through long term lease and management services arrangements with us or our competitors, in a given locality over a given period only a limited number of top-tier hospitals may not yet have entered into long-term arrangements with us or other companies.

Certain medical equipment that can be purchased by us or our hospital partners, such as head gamma knife systems of PET-CT scanners, further limit the number of top-tier hospitals that we or our competitors can enter into arrangements with in a given period. We primarily compete with our competitors based on the range of services provided, the reputation of cooperative centers in our network and our hospital among doctors and patients in China and level of patient service and satisfaction.

In addition, we compete with those who offer other types of available treatment methods that we do not offer, such as chemotherapy, surgery, different forms of radiotherapy that we do not offer, other alternative treatment methods commercialized in recent years and certain treatments that are currently in the experimental stage. These treatments may be more effective or less costly, or both, compared to the treatment methods that our centers and hospital provide.

Intellectual Property

To protect our corporate name, we have applied to the PRC Trademark Office of the State Administration for Market Regulation (formerly known as the State Administration for Industry and Commerce) for and obtained the registration of our trademark “Medstar” in October 2009 and a total of 56 other trademarks, including “Concord Medical,” as of the date of this annual report. We also own the rights to 110 domain names that we use in connection with the operation of our business. Many of the domain names that we own include domain names in Chinese that contain relevant key words associated with various types of cancer, radiotherapy, gamma knife systems, linear accelerators or other medical equipment used or treatments and services provided in our network. We believe that such domain names provide us with the opportunity to enhance our marketing efforts for the treatments and services provided in our network and enhance patients’ knowledge as to cancers, the benefits of radiotherapy and the various treatment options that are available.

Other than the use of our trademark and domain names, our business generally does not directly depend on any patents, licensed technology or other intellectual property. However, we cannot be certain that the equipment manufacturers from which we purchase equipment have all requisite third-party consents and licenses for the intellectual property used in the equipment they manufacture.

As a result, those equipment manufacturers may be exposed to risks associated with intellectual property infringement and misappropriation claims by third parties which, in turn, may subject us to claims that the equipment we have purchased infringes the intellectual property rights of third parties. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Company—We may fail to protect our intellectual property rights or we may be exposed to misappropriation and infringement claims by third parties, either of which may materially adversely affect our business.”

As we begin to operate specialty cancer hospitals under our own brand name in the future and as our brand name gains more recognition among the general public, we will work to increase, maintain and enforce our rights in our trademark portfolio. The protection of these rights is important to our reputation and branding strategy and the continued growth of our business.

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Environmental Matters

The NHC enacted the Administrative Measures on Medical Wastes Management of Medical Institutions in 2003, which sets forth the management of and criteria for the disposal of medical waste generated in the operation of medical institutions. As the supervising authority, the environmental protection authority at the county or higher levels is responsible for environmental inspections of hospitals within their jurisdictions. The NHC and the environmental protection authorities have also promulgated a series of regulations on the disposal of dangerous medical waste and the requirements of vehicles used to transport medical wastes.

In addition, certain medical equipment used in our network of centers, such as gamma knife systems, use radioactive sources. In accordance with the Regulation on Radioisotope and Radiation Equipment Safety and Protection promulgated by the PRC State Council in 2005, these radioactive sources should be returned to the manufacturer of such radioactive materials or sent to dedicated radioactive waste disposal units appointed by the MEP. Radioactive materials are generally obtained from, and returned to, the medical equipment manufacturers or other third parties, which then have the ultimate responsibility for their proper disposal.

However, as all centers in our network are located on the premises of our hospital partners, we do not directly oversee the disposal of certain medical waste generated in the centers. The failure of any of our hospital partners to dispose of such waste in accordance with PRC laws and regulations may have an adverse effect on the operation of centers in our network. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Company—Most of our radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging equipment contains radioactive materials or emits radiation during operation.”

For our planned proton center, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals, we will be responsible for the disposal of the medical waste generated.

Insurance

We maintain property insurance on many of the medical equipment used in our network of centers to protect against loss in the event of fire, earthquake, flood and a wide range of natural disasters.

We do not typically maintain any professional malpractice liability insurance since we do not employ the doctors and other medical personnel providing services in cooperative centers, except in very limited cases and the centers are located on the premises of our hospital partners. We have entered into framework agreements to establish proton center, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals that are to be majority-owned by us. We are in the process of employing all of the personnel of such hospitals, including doctors, nurses and medical technicians. As a result, we have obtained professional malpractice liability insurance for such centers and hospitals. However, there can be no assurance that such insurance will be available at a reasonable price or that we will be able to maintain adequate levels of professional and general liability insurance coverage.

We are not directly responsible for any incidents that occur in the course of providing treatment. However, as certain agreements entered into with our hospital partners require us to share in the expenses related to medical disputes and for such expenses to be included as the expenses of the cooperative centers, while the centers will purchase the professional malpractice liability insurance themselves, we have obtained professional malpractice liability insurance for a limited number of centers.

We do not maintain product liability insurance for medical equipment. We also do not maintain real property insurance on the cooperative centers as this is the responsibility of our hospital partners.

We do not maintain business interruption insurance or key employee insurance for our executive offices as we believe it is not the normal industry practice in China to maintain such insurance. We consider our current insurance coverage to be adequate. However, uninsured damage to any of the medical equipment in our network of centers or inadequate insurance carried by our partner hospitals as to their respective centers could significantly disrupt the operation of centers in our network and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Legal and Administrative Proceedings

One of our suppliers brought an arbitration against us and claimed we had failed to make a payment on time. As of the date of this annual report, we have reached a conciliation agreement with that supplier.

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We sued one of the shareholders of Beijing Proton Medical Center Co., Ltd for the failure to perform its obligations, which caused the delay and suspension of the construction project of Beijing Proton Medical Center. As of the date of this annual report, the litigation is pending.

Other than as described above, we are not currently involved in any material litigation, arbitration or administrative proceedings. However, we may from time to time become a party to various other litigation, arbitration or administrative proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business.

Regulation of Our Industry

This section sets forth a summary of the most significant regulations or requirements that affect our business activities in China or our shareholders’ right to receive dividends and other distributions from us.

Regulations in China

General Regulatory Environment

China’s healthcare industry is regulated by various government agencies, including the NHC. The NHC has branch offices across China that oversee the healthcare industry at the provincial and county levels, which branch offices, together with the NHC, we refer to as the healthcare administrative authorities. The healthcare administrative authorities and other government agencies, such as the NDRC, the SFDA, the MEP and MOFCOM, have promulgated rules and regulations relating to the procurement of large medical equipment, the pricing of medical services, the operation of radiotherapy equipment, the licensing and operation of medical institutions and the licensing of medical staff.

Permits Required by Our Company

Medical Equipment Operating Enterprise Permits

The SFDA categorizes medical equipment into three classes according to the level of control by the government authorities that, in the judgment of the SFDA, is required for their safe and effective operation. Class I medical equipment are those medical equipment that require only an ordinary level of control in order to ensure their safe and effective operation. Class II medical equipment are those medical equipment that require a heightened level of control in order to ensure their safe and effective operation. Class III medical equipment are those medical equipment that are used to support or maintain human life, are implanted into the human body or otherwise pose a potential danger to the human body. Class III medical equipment require strict control in order to ensure their safe and effective operation. In order to ensure an adequate level of control in the operation of Class II and Class III medical equipment, enterprises that engage in the operation of such equipment, which include gamma knife systems, linear accelerators, MRI systems and PET-CT systems, must each obtain a medical equipment operating enterprise permit from the relevant provincial drug supervision and administration agency. As a result, our subsidiaries Shanghai Medstar and Aohua Technology must each obtain a medical equipment operating enterprise permit from the relevant provincial drug supervision and administration agency pursuant to the Medical Equipment Supervision and Administration Regulation effective as of April 1, 2000. Each such permit is valid for a term of five years and, prior to expiration, must be reviewed by and an extension of its term must be obtained from the relevant authorities. All our aforementioned subsidiaries have obtained medical equipment operating enterprise permits.

Radiation Safety Permits

As organizations that produce, sell or use radioactive materials or devices in the PRC, our subsidiaries Shanghai Medstar, Aohua Technology are required to obtain radiation safety permits from the relevant national or provincial environmental protection authorities pursuant to the Regulation on Radioisotope and Radiation Equipment Safety and Protection issued on September 14, 2005 by the PRC State Council and the Rules on Radioisotopes and Radiation Device Safety Permit issued on January 18, 2006 by the State Environmental Protection Administration (now the MEP) and amended on December 6, 2008 by the MEP. Each such radiation safety permit is valid for a term of five years and, prior to expiration, must be reviewed by and an extension of its term must be obtained from the relevant authorities. Shanghai Medstar has received a radiation safety permit, but the radiation safety permit of Aohua Technology expired on October 14, 2014 and has not been obtained from the relevant authorities due to the fact that Aohua Technology has stopped selling radioactive materials or devices in the PRC.

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Any organization that is subject to radiation safety permitting requirements is required to strictly observe state regulations regarding individual radiation dosage monitoring and health administration, conduct individual dosage monitoring and occupational health examinations for its staff that are directly involved in the production, sale or use of radioactive materials or devices and maintain individual dosage files and occupational health files. Any used radioactive source materials must be returned to the manufacturer or the original exporter of the equipment. If return to the manufacturer or the original exporter is not possible, the used radioactive materials must be delivered to a qualified radioactive waste consolidation and storage unit for storage.

Regulation of Medical Institutions

Distinction between For-Profit and Non-Profit Medical Institutions

Medical institutions in China can be divided into three main categories: public non-profit medical institutions, private non-profit medical institutions and for-profit medical institutions. Medical institutions falling under each category have differing registered business purposes and governing financial, tax, pricing and accounting standards than medical institutions falling under one of the other categories. Public non-profit medical institutions, including those owned by the government and military hospitals, are set up and operated to provide a public service and are eligible for financial subsidies from the government. In contrast, private non-profit medical institutions are not eligible for government financial subsidies. Both public and private nonprofit medical institutions are required to set their medical service fees within a range stipulated by the relevant governmental price control authorities, to implement financial and accounting systems in accordance with standards promulgated by government authorities and to retain any profits for the continued development of such institutions.

For-profit medical institutions are permitted to set prices for their medical services in accordance with the market, to implement financial and accounting systems in accordance with market practice for business enterprises and to distribute profits to their shareholders. Like private non-profit medical institutions, for-profit medical institutions are not entitled to government financial subsidies. The proton center, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals that we plan to develop will be established as for-profit medical institutions.

Medical Institution Practicing License

Pursuant to the Regulation on Medical Institution issued on February 26, 1994 and amended on February 6, 2016 by the PRC State Council, any organization or individual that intends to establish a medical institution must obtain a medical institution practicing license from the relevant healthcare administrative authorities. In determining whether to approve any application, the relevant healthcare administrative authorities are to consider whether the proposed medical institution comports with the population, medical resources, medical needs and geographic distribution of existing medical institutions in the regions for which such authorities are responsible as well as whether the proposed medical institution meets the basic medical standards set by the NHC. Each of the independent proton center, premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals that we intend to establish would need to obtain such a medical institution practicing license.

Large Medical Equipment Procurement License

The procurement, installation and operation in China of large medical equipment, which is defined as any medical equipment valued at over RMB5.0 million or listed in the medical equipment administration catalogue of the NHC, is regulated by the Rules on Procurement and Use of Large Medical Equipment issued on December 31, 2004 by the NHC, the NDRC and the Ministry of Finance, which became effective on March 1, 2005. Pursuant to these rules, quotas for large medical equipment are set by the NHC and the NDRC or the relevant provincial healthcare administrative authorities, and hospitals must obtain a large medical equipment procurement license prior to the procurement of any such equipment that is covered by the rules on procurement. For large medical equipment classified as Class A large medical equipment, which includes proton beam therapy systems and PET-MR, quotas are set by the NHC and the NDRC and large medical equipment procurement licenses are issued by the NHC. For large medical equipment classified as Class B large medical equipment, which includes gamma knife system, PET-CT scanners and linear accelerators, procurement planning and approval is conducted by the relevant provincial healthcare administrative authorities conduct procurement planning and approval. These rules apply to public and private civilian medical institutions, whether non-profit or for-profit.

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According to “2018 to 2020 Plan” issued by NHC on July 31, 2020, the national master plan configures a maximum of 16 newly added proton therapy treatment systems between 2018 and 2020. The allocation will depend on the actual situation of regional function orientation, radiation capacity of medical services and the service level of diagnosis and treatment of medical institutions. In addition, “2018 to 2020 Plan” stipulates provincial the procurement planning and quotas for Class B large medical equipment procurement licenses.

In accordance with “2018 to 2020 Plan,” the total number of PET-CT large medical equipment procurement licenses issued in China cannot exceed 884 from the date of the plan through the end of 2020, and the total number of large medical equipment procurement licenses issued for gamma knife systems cannot exceed 296 nationwide. There is currently no guidance as to the total number of large medical equipment procurement licenses that may be issued for other types of medical equipment that the cooperative centers in our network operate.

With respect to any Class A or Class B large medical equipment purchased before the Rules on Procurement and Use of Large Medical Equipment came into effect on March 1, 2005, the medical institution that houses such equipment must apply to the NHC or the relevant provincial healthcare administrative authorities for a large medical equipment procurement license for such equipment. If such medical institution is unable to obtain a procurement license as a result of a lack of procurement quotas for such medical equipment allocated to the region in which the medical institution is located, an interim procurement permit for large medical equipment is required to be obtained instead. Moreover, any medical institution holding an interim permit must pay taxes on income derived from the use of the equipment covered by the interim permit and, upon the expiration of the useful life of such medical equipment, the medical institution must dispose of such equipment and is not permitted to replace it with a newer model. Some of our medical equipment have not yet received a large medical equipment procurement license or interim permits. For more information, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Industry—A few of our hospital partners have not received large medical equipment procurement licenses or interim procurement permits for some of the medical equipment in our network of centers which could result in fines or the suspension from use of such medical equipment.”

Radiotherapy Permit

Medical institutions that engage in radiotherapy are governed by the Regulatory Rules on Radiotherapy issued on January 24, 2006 by the NHC and are required to obtain a radiotherapy permit from the relevant healthcare administrative authorities. These rules require such medical institutions to possess qualifications sufficient for radiotherapy work, which include having adequate facilities for housing radiotherapy equipment as well as having qualified, properly trained personnel. Medical institutions that operate medical equipment containing radioactive materials are also required to obtain a radiation safety permit. See “—Permits Required by Our Company—Radiation Safety Permits.”

Radiation Worker Permit

Medical institutions that engage in the operation of medical equipment that contains radioactive materials or emits radiation during operation are required to obtain a radiation worker permit from the competent healthcare administrative authorities for each medical technician who operates such equipment.

Regulation of Military Hospitals

The procurement, installation and operation of large medical equipment by medical institutions of the PLA is regulated by the healthcare administrative authority of the general logistics department of the PLA with reference to the Rules on Procurement and Use of Large Medical Equipment. The general logistic department of the PLA issues a large equipment application permit to those military hospitals approved for procurement. The procurement planning records and annual reviews are provided to the NHC for its records.

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Restrictions on Cooperation Agreements

Since the effectiveness in September 2000 of the Implementation Opinions on the Management by Classification of Urban Medical Institutions by the NHC, the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Ministry of Finance and the NDRC, non-profit medical institutions other than military hospitals have been prohibited from entering into new cooperation agreements or continuing to operate under existing cooperation agreements with third parties pursuant to which the parties jointly invest in or cooperate to set up for-profit centers or units that are not independent legal entities. However, according to the Opinions on Certain Issues Regarding Management by Classification of Urban Medical Institutions issued on July 20, 2001 by the NHC, the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Ministry of Finance and the NDRC, a non-profit medical institution that lacks sufficient funds to purchase medical equipment outright may enter into a leasing agreement pursuant to which the medical institution leases medical equipment at market rates. In response to this regulatory change, we have replaced the majority of our cooperation agreements with non-profit civilian hospitals with leasing and management agreements.

Regulation of Proton Treatment Centers

Pursuant to the Administrative Measures on Clinical Application of Medical Technology, effective as of May 1, 2009, medical institutions must apply to the NHC for approval before utilizing certain medical technologies. On November 13, 2009, the NHC issued the Trial Administrative Rules on Proton and Heavy Ion Radiotherapy Technologies, which provide the guidelines for government authorities to review and approve applications of medical institutions for clinical use of proton and heavy ion radiotherapy technologies. Furthermore, these rules and their subsequent amendments set out the minimum requirements for medical institutions and their medical staff to provide proton and heavy ion radiotherapy. Such requirements include, among other things, that medical institutions that are eligible for providing proton and heavy ion radiotherapy must (i) be 3A hospitals, (ii) have a radiotherapy department with 10 or more years of radiotherapy experience and 30 or more inpatient beds, (iii) have a diagnostic imaging department with five or more years of diagnostic imaging experience and equipped with diagnostic imaging equipment such as MRI, CT and PET-CT, and (iv) have at least two staff doctors possessing technical competence in the clinical application of proton and heavy ion radiotherapy technologies. Our Beijing Proton Medical Center has already received preliminary approval from the NHC prior to the promulgation of these new rules. These rules will apply to any proton or heavy ion radiotherapy treatment centers that we or our hospital partners may build and operate in the future.

Registration of Doctors

Doctors in China must obtain a doctor practitioner or assistant doctor practitioner license in accordance with the Law on Medical Practitioners, effective as of May 1, 1999, and the Interim Measures for Registration of Medical Practitioners, effective as of July 16, 1999. Currently, each doctor is required to practice in the medical institution specified in such doctor’s registration. If a doctor intends to change his/her practice location, including but not limited to moving to or from a non-profit medical institution or to or from a for-profit medical institution, practice classification, practice scope or other registered matters, such doctor is required to apply for such change with the competent healthcare administrative authorities. However, with the approval of the medical institution with which a doctor is affiliated, a doctor may, within his/her scope of practice, undertake outside consultations, including diagnostic and treatment activities, for patients of another medical institution.

The Notice Concerning the Doctors to Practice in Different Locations, which is issued by the NHC on September 11, 2009, sets forth the basic principles for doctors to practice in different medical institutions. Pursuant to the notice doctors are allowed to be employed by more than two medical institutions subject to the approval of the NHC. On January 1, 2010, the Trial Management Measures Concerning the Doctors to Practice in Different Locations issued by Guangdong provincial branches of the NHC became effective, which provides that doctors, who meet the requirements set forth therein, may apply to practice in different medical institutions. The amended measures are currently effective for a period of five years.

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Pricing of Medical Services

Pursuant to the Opinion Concerning the Reform of Medical Service Pricing Management issued by the NDRC and the NHC on July 20, 2000, medical services fees generated through the use of both Class A and Class B large medical equipment at nonprofit medical institutions and military hospitals are subject to the pricing guidelines of the relevant provincial or regional price control authorities and healthcare administrative authorities. The pricing guidance sets forth the range of medical services fees that can be charged by non-profit medical institutions and military hospitals. For-profit medical institutions are not subject to such pricing restrictions and are entitled to set medical services fees based on their cost structures, market demand and other factors. According to the Implementation Plan for the Recent Priorities of the Health Care System Reform (2009-2011), which was issued by the State Council on March 18, 2009, the Chinese government is aiming to reduce the examination fees for large medical equipment. In addition, according to the Opinion on the Reform of Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare Service Pricing Structures issued on November 9, 2009 by the NDRC, the NHC and the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (the “MHRSS”), the Chinese government is also aiming to reduce treatment fees for large medical equipment. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Industry—Pricing for the services provided by our network of centers may suffer from reductions in treatment and examination fees set by the Chinese government.”

Medical Insurance Coverage

China has a complex medical insurance system that is currently undergoing reform. Typically, those covered by medical insurance must pay for medical services out of their own pocket at the time services are rendered and must then seek reimbursement from the relevant insurer. For public servants and others covered by the 1989 Administrative Measure on State Provision of Healthcare and the 1997 Circular on Reimbursement Coverage of Large Medical Equipment under State Provision of Healthcare, the PRC government currently either fully or partially reimburses medical expenses for certain approved cancer diagnosis and radiotherapy treatment services, including treatments utilizing linear accelerators and diagnostic imaging services utilizing CT and MRI scanners. However, gamma knife treatments and PET scans are currently not eligible for reimbursement under this plan.

Urban residents in China that are not covered by the 1989 Administrative Measure on State Provision of Healthcare and the 1997 Circular on Reimbursement Coverage of Large Medical Equipment under State Provision of Healthcare are covered by one of two nationwide public medical insurance schemes, which are the Urban Employees Basic Medical Insurance Program and the Urban Residents Basic Medical Insurance Program. Rural residents in China are covered under a new Rural Cooperative Medical Program launched in 2003. The Urban Employees Basic Medical Insurance Program, which covers employed urban residents, partially reimburses urban workers for treatments utilizing linear accelerators and gamma knife systems and diagnostic imaging services utilizing CT and MRI scanners, with reimbursement levels varying from province to province. However, diagnostic imaging services utilizing PET and PET-CT scans are currently not reimbursable under the Urban Employees Basic Medical Insurance Program. For urban non-workers who are covered by the Urban Residents Basic Medical Insurance Program and rural residents who are covered by the new Rural Cooperative Medical Program, the types of cancer diagnosis and radiotherapy treatments that are covered are generally set with reference to the policy for urban employees in the same region of the country. However, the reimbursement levels for covered medical expenses for urban non-workers and rural residents, which vary widely from region to region and treatment to treatment, are generally lower than those for urban employees in the same region. Currently no reimbursement is available for proton beam therapy treatments.

The table below summarizes certain key aspects of these three medical insurance programs:

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Urban Employee Basic
Medical Insurance
Program

    

Urban Residents Basic
Medical Insurance
Program

    

Rural Cooperative
Medical Program

Launch Time

1998 

2007 

2003 

Participants

Urban employees

Urban non-employees

Rural residents

Participation

Mandatory

Voluntary

Voluntary

Number of People covered in 2010

Approximately 237 million (36% of China’s urban population)

Approximately 195 million (29% of China’s urban population)

Approximately 815 million (96% of China’s rural population)

Total reimbursement amount

RMB180 billion in 2009

N/A

RMB66.2 billion in 2010

Funding

Employers and employees:       employer contributes approximately 6% of each employee’s total salary; and

Households and the government:
      monthly premium are paid by each household; and

Individuals and the government:
      individual pays no less than RMB20.0 per year and local government subsidizes no less than RMB40.0 per person annually; and

      employee contributes approximately 2% of such employee’s total salary.

      government subsidizes no less than RMB80.0 per person annually and RMB40.0 per person annually for the mid/western regions of China, with greater subsidies provided to low-income families and disabled persons.

      government subsidizes RMB40.0 per person annually for the middle and western regions of the country and a smaller amount for the eastern region.

General Reimbursement Policy

Reimbursement comes from two sources—individual’s reimbursement account and the social medical expense pool:

There is no specific requirement or guidance from the central government. Reimbursement policy is separately determined by local governments.

The central government suggests that, beginning in the second half of 2009, the reimbursement cap for all regions should be no less than six times the average annual per capita net income of rural residents in the region.

      all of the employee’s contribution and 30% of the employer’s contribution are allocated to the individual’s reimbursement account; the reimbursement cap from the individual account is the balance of that account; and

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Urban Employee Basic
Medical Insurance
Program

    

Urban Residents Basic
Medical Insurance
Program

    

Rural Cooperative
Medical Program

      the remaining 70% of the employers’ contribution is aggregated into a social medical expense pool; the reimbursement cap from the social medical expense pool for an individual participant in a calendar year is around four times the regional average annual salary.

Examples of Local Reimbursement Policy

Shanghai: reimbursement cap from the social medical expense pool for an individual participant in a calendar year is approximately four times the average annual salary in Shanghai from the previous year.

Jiangsu Province: approximately 50% to 60% of medical expense can be reimbursed by the program.

Guangdong Province: maximum reimbursement amount is approximately RMB50,000 per person per year.

Inner Mongolia: reimbursement cap from the social medical expense pool for an individual participant in a calendar year is RMB25,000.

Sichuan Province: approximately 60% (and not less than 50%) of medical expense can be reimbursed by the program.

Hubei Province: maximum reimbursement amount for hospitalization is approximately RMB30,000 per person per year.

Guangdong Province: approximately 40% to 60% of medical expense can be reimbursed by the program; maximum reimbursement amount is approximately two times the average annual salary in Guangdong Province from the previous year.

Anhui Province: maximum reimbursement amount for hospitalization is approximately RMB30,000 per person per year.

Sources: Ministry of Health, MHRSS, National Bureau of Statistics, and various other central and local PRC government websites.

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Foreign Exchange Control and Administration

Pursuant to the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulation promulgated on January 29, 1996, as amended on January 14, 1997 and August 5, 2008, and various regulations issued by the SAFE and other relevant PRC government authorities, the Renminbi is freely convertible only with respect to current account items, such as trade-related receipts and payments, interest and dividends. Capital account items, such as direct equity investments, loans and repatriations of investments, require the prior approval of the SAFE or its local branches for conversion of Renminbi into foreign currency, such as U.S. dollars, and remittance of the foreign currency outside the PRC. Payments for transactions that take place within the PRC must be made in Renminbi. Foreign exchange transactions under the capital account are still subject to limitations and require approvals from, or registration with, the SAFE and other relevant PRC governmental authorities, or their competent local branches.

On August 29, 2008, the SAFE promulgated SAFE Circular No. 142, a notice regulating the conversion by a foreign-invested company of foreign currency into Renminbi by restricting how converted Renminbi may be used. This notice requires that Renminbi converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested company only be used for purposes within the business scope approved by the applicable governmental authority and may not be used for equity investments within the PRC unless specifically provided for otherwise in its business scope. In addition, the SAFE strengthened its oversight of the flow and use of Renminbi funds converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested company. The use of such Renminbi may not be changed without SAFE’s approval and may not be used to repay Renminbi loans if the proceeds of such loans have not yet been used for purposes within the company’s approved business scope. Violations of SAFE Circular No. 142 may result in severe penalties, including substantial fines as set forth in the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulation. Furthermore, SAFE promulgated a circular on November 19, 2010 (generally known as Circular No. 59), which tightens the examination on the authenticity of settlement of net proceeds from an offering and requires that the settlement of net proceeds shall be in accordance with the description in its prospectus. On August 4, 2014, SAFE issued SAFE Circular 36 that launched the pilot reform of administration regarding conversion of foreign currency registered capitals of foreign-invested enterprises in 16 pilot areas. According to SAFE Circular 36, an ordinary foreign-invested enterprise in the pilot areas is permitted to use Renminbi converted from its foreign-currency registered capital to make equity investments in the PRC, subject to certain registration and settlement procedure as set forth in SAFE Circular 36.

On July 4, 2014, SAFE promulgated the Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control of Domestic Residents’ Overseas Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Offshore Special Purpose Vehicles (“SAFE Circular No. 37”), which replaced the former Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for PRC Residents to Engage in Financing and Inbound Investment via Overseas Special Purpose Vehicles (“SAFE Circular No. 75”) promulgated by SAFE on October 21, 2005.

SAFE Circular No. 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, which is referred to in SAFE Circular No. 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” SAFE Circular No. 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as an increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC residents share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material events. In the event that a PRC resident holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to complete the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiaries. Furthermore, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls.

Currently, several of our beneficial owners who are residents in the PRC and are or may be subject to the requirements of making registration with the competent local branch of SAFE with respect to their investments in our company as required by SAFE Circular No. 75 and will update their registration filings with SAFE under SAFE Circular No. 37 when there are any changes that should be registered under SAFE Circular No. 37. However, we cannot assure you that all of our beneficial owners who are PRC residents will at all times comply with, or in the future make or obtain any applicable registrations or approvals required by, SAFE Circular No. 37 or other related regulations. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—PRC foreign exchange rules may limit our ability to acquire PRC companies and adversely affect the implementation of our strategy, business and prospects.”

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Dividend Distributions

Pursuant to the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulation promulgated in 1996, as amended in 1997 and 2008, and various regulations issued by the SAFE and other relevant PRC government authorities, the PRC government imposes restrictions on the convertibility of Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, on the remittance of currency out of China. Our PRC subsidiaries are regulated under the Foreign Investment Law of the PRC and Regulations for the Implementation of the Foreign Investment Law of the PRC which became effective as of January 1, 2020, and the newly revised PRC Company Law, which became effective as of December 28, 2013. Pursuant to these regulations, each of our PRC subsidiaries must allocate at least 10.0% of its after-tax profits to a statutory common reserve fund. When the accumulated amount of the statutory common reserve fund exceeds 50.0% of the registered capital of such subsidiary, no further allocation is required. Funds allocated to a statutory common reserve fund may not be distributed to equity owners as cash dividends. Furthermore, each of our PRC subsidiaries may allocate a portion of its after-tax profits, as determined by such subsidiary’s ultimate decision-making body, to its staff welfare and bonus funds, which allocated portion may not be distributed as cash dividends.

Regulations Relating to Employee Share Options

Pursuant to the Administration Measure for Individual Foreign Exchange issued in December 2006 and the Implementation Rules of Administration Measure for Individual Foreign Exchange, issued in January 2007 by the SAFE, all foreign exchange matters relating to employee stock award plans or stock option plans for PRC residents may only be transacted upon the approval of the SAFE or its authorized branch. On March 28, 2007, the SAFE promulgated the Application Procedure of Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Employee Stock Award Plan or Stock Option Plan of Overseas-Listed Company, or the Stock Option Rule. Under the Stock Option Rule, PRC citizens who participate in employee stock award and share option plans of an overseas publicly-listed company must register with the SAFE and complete certain related procedures. These procedures must be conducted by a PRC agent designated by the subsidiary of such overseas publicly-listed company with which the PRC citizens affiliate. The PRC agent may be a subsidiary of such overseas publicly-listed company, any such PRC subsidiary’s trade union having legal person status, a trust and investment company or other financial institution qualified to act as a custodian of assets. Such participant’s foreign exchange income received from the sale of shares or dividends distributed by the overseas publicly-listed company must first be remitted into a collective foreign exchange account opened and managed by the PRC agent prior to any distribution of such income to such participants in a foreign currency or in Renminbi.

Pursuant to Circular No. 106, employee stock award plans and employee share option plans of special purpose vehicles must be filed with the SAFE while applying for the registration for the establishment of the special purpose vehicles. After employees exercise their options, they must apply for an amendment to the registration for the special purpose vehicle with the SAFE. We intend to comply with these regulations and to ask our PRC optionees to comply with these regulations. In accordance with the Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Issues concerning the Administration of Foreign Exchange Used for Domestic Individuals’ Participation in Equity Incentive Plans of Companies Listed Overseas issued by SAFE on February 15, 2012, individuals who participate in equity incentive plans of the same overseas listed company shall, through the domestic company to which the said company is affiliated, collectively entrust a domestic agency to handle issues like foreign exchange registration, account establishment, funds transfer and remittance, and entrust an overseas institution to handle issues like exercise of options, purchase and sale of corresponding stocks or equity, and transfer of corresponding funds. It is currently unclear how these rules will be interpreted and implemented. If the applicable authorities determine that we or our PRC optionees have failed to comply with these regulations, we or our PRC optionees may be subject to fines and legal sanctions.

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Provisions Regarding Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors and Overseas Listings

On August 8, 2006, six PRC regulatory agencies, including MOFCOM, the State Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, the State Administration for Taxation, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, the CSRC and the SAFE, jointly issued the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rule, which became effective on September 8, 2006. The M&A Rule, among other things, includes provisions that require any offshore special purpose vehicle, formed for the purpose of an overseas listing of equity interests in a PRC company that is controlled directly or indirectly by one or more PRC companies or individuals, to obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. The application of the M&A Rule is currently unclear. However, our PRC counsel, Jingtian & Gongcheng Attorneys At Law, has advised us that based on its understanding of the current PRC laws, rules and regulations and the M&A Rule, the M&A Rule does not require that we obtain prior CSRC approval for the listing and trading of our ADSs on the NYSE, because our acquisition of the equity interests in our PRC subsidiaries is not subject to the M&A Rule due to the fact that Shanghai Medstar and Aohua Technology were already foreign-invested enterprises before September 8, 2006, the effective date of the M&A Rule. Jingtian & Gongcheng Attorneys At Law has further advised us that their opinions summarized above are subject to the timing and content of any new laws, rules and regulations or clear implementations and interpretations from the CSRC in any form relating to the M&A Rule.

Regulation of Loans between a Foreign Company and its Chinese Subsidiary

A loan made by foreign investors as shareholders in a foreign-invested enterprise is considered to be foreign debt in China and is subject to several Chinese laws and regulations, including the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulation of 1996 and its amendments of 1997 and 2008, the Interim Measures on Foreign Debts Administration of 2003 (the “Interim Measures”), the Statistical Monitoring of Foreign Debts Tentative Provisions of 1987 and its implementing rules of 1998, the Administration Provisions on the Settlement, Sale and Payment of Foreign Exchange of 1996, and the Notice of the SAFE on Issues Related to Perfection of Foreign Debts Administration, dated October 21, 2005.

Under these rules and regulations, a shareholder loan in the form of foreign debt made to a Chinese entity does not require the prior approval of the SAFE. However, such foreign debt must be registered with and recorded by the SAFE or its local branch in accordance with the relevant PRC laws and regulations. Our PRC subsidiaries can legally borrow foreign exchange loans up to their respective borrowing limits, which is defined as the difference between the amount of their respective “total investment” and “registered capital” as approved by the MOFCOM, or its local counterparts. Interest payments, if any, on the loans are subject to a 10% withholding tax unless any such foreign shareholder’s jurisdiction of incorporation has a tax treaty with China that provides for a different withholding arrangement. Pursuant to Article 18 of the Interim Measures, if the amount of foreign exchange debt of our PRC subsidiaries exceeds their respective borrowing limits, we are required to apply to the relevant Chinese authorities to increase the total investment amount and registered capital to allow the excess foreign exchange debt to be registered with the SAFE.

Taxation

For a discussion of applicable PRC tax regulations, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.”

Regulation on Employment

On June 29, 2007, the National People’s Congress promulgated the Labor Contract Law of PRC (the “Labor Law”), which became effective as of January 1, 2008. On September 18, 2008, the PRC State Council issued the PRC Labor Contract Law Implementation Rules, which became effective as of the date of issuance. The Labor Law and its implementation rules are intended to give employees long-term job security by, among other things, requiring employers to enter into written contracts with their employees and restricting the use of temporary workers. The Labor Law and its implementation rules impose greater liabilities on employers, require certain terminations to be based upon seniority rather than merit and significantly affect the cost of an employer’s decision to reduce its workforce. Employment contracts lawfully entered into prior to the implementation of the Labor Law and continuing after the date of its implementation remain legally binding and the parties to such contracts are required to continue to perform their respective obligations thereunder. However, employment relationships established prior to the implementation of the Labor Law without a written employment agreement were required to be memorialized by a written employment agreement that satisfies the requirements of the Labor Law within one month after it became effective on January 1, 2008.

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C.

Organizational Structure

The following diagram illustrates our company’s organizational structure, and the place of formation, ownership interest and affiliation of each of our principal subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities as of December 31, 2020.

GRAPHIC

D.Property, Plants and Equipment

Our principal headquarters are located at Room 2701-05, Tower A, Global Trade Center, 36 North Third Ring Road East, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100013. We occupy and use this office space with a gross floor area of approximately 1,379 square meters, pursuant to lease agreements entered into in July 2020.

The following table sets forth our leased properties for office space use as of the date of this annual report:

Location

    

Size (in square meters)

    

Expiration Date

    

Usage of Property

 

Beijing

1,379

July 2023

Office space

Beijing

29

June 2021

Office space

Beijing

253

May 2022

Office space

Shanghai

30

January 2021

Office space

Shenzhen

242

December 2024

Office space

Tianjin

10

March 2022

Office space

Guangzhou

373

July 2025

Office space

Guangzhou

586

October 2021

Office space

Guangzhou

588

February 2025

Office space

We also own certain properties in China to establish and operate premium cancer hospitals and specialty cancer hospitals as part of our business expansion. When we state that we own certain properties in China, we own the relevant land use rights because land is owned by the PRC government under the PRC land system.

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The following table sets forth the details of our leased and self-owned properties for hospital and medical center use as of the date of this annual report:

Location

    

Planned/
Actual Size
(in square
meters)

    

Planned/
Actual
Capacity
(beds)

    

Usage of
Property

    

Nature of
Properties

    

Status(3)(4)

 

Shanghai(1)

158,769

400

Shanghai Concord Cancer Center

Owned

Held for future development

Guangzhou(2)

40,000

400

Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center

Owned

Held for future development

Datong

5,983

100

Datong Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center

Leased (Expire in September 2034)

In operation

Shanghai

2,500

0

Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center

Leased (Expire in September 2026)

In operation

Shanghai

10,986

0

Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Medical Imaging Diagnosis Center

Leased (Expire in September 2036)

In operation

(1) In July 2015, we entered into the land use rights grant contract for a parcel of land in Shanghai with an aggregate site area of approximately 47,867 square meters for the construction of our planned Shanghai Concord Cancer Center.
(2) In August 2012, we entered into the land use rights grant contract for a parcel of land in Guangzhou with an aggregate site area of approximately 33,340 square meters for the construction of our planned Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center.
(3) See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Our Network of Centers,” “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Our Premium Cancer Hospitals” and “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Our Proton Centers” for more details of each our hospital projects.
(4) See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Acquisitions and Capital Expenditures” for more details of the capital expenditures plans of our planned hospital projects.

The cooperative centers in our network typically have gross floor area ranging from approximately 100 to 400 square meters depending on the services provided at the cooperative center.

We owned the following primary medical equipment as of December 31, 2020, which are located in the various centers across our network:

Number of primary medical equipment owned(1):

    

    

Linear accelerators

 

7

Head gamma knife systems

 

2

Body gamma knife systems

 

2

MRI scanners

 

9

Others(2)

 

2

Total

 

22

(1) Excluding data from five centers under service-only agreements as of December 31, 2020.
(2) Included a neutron knife therapy system and a surgical robot.

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See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Environment Matter” regarding the environment issues which may affect our utilization of our assets.

ITEM 4A.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 5.OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this annual report. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. See “—G. Safe Harbor.” Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Item 3. Key Information —D. Risk Factors” or in other parts of this annual report.

A.Operating Results

Overview

We operate an extensive network of radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers in China. We have established most of the cooperative centers in our network through long-term lease and management services arrangements with hospitals typically ranging from 5 to 20 years. Under these arrangements, we receive a contracted percentage of each center’s revenue. Such contracted percentages typically range from 50% to 90% and are adjusted based on a declining scale over the term of the arrangement. Each cooperative center is located on the premises of our hospital partners and is typically equipped with a primary unit of advanced radiotherapy or diagnostic imaging equipment, such as a linear accelerator, head gamma knife system, body gamma knife system, PET-CT scanner or MRI scanner. We manage each cooperative center jointly with our hospital partners and we purchase the medical equipment used in our network of centers and lease such equipment to our hospital partners.

In January 2016, we acquired a 100% equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship, which held a 55% equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center, with a total consideration of RMB100.6 million. After the completion of this acquisition, we held a total of 80% of the equity interests in Beijing Proton Medical Center through Beijing Century Friendship and King Cheers and the results of operations of Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center were consolidated into our results of operation commencing in the first quarter of 2016. In April 2017, more investments were injected to Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center. Upon the capital injection, our equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship decreased from 100% to 42.1% and our total equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center decreased to 48.16% (through Beijing Century Friendship and King Cheers) from 80%. As a result, we lost the control in Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center in April 2017 and accounted for it as a deemed disposal and recognized a gain. Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center were not our consolidated subsidiaries commencing in the third quarter of 2017. During 2018, we, through our majority-owned subsidiary, acquired all the equity interests in Beijing Century Friendship which held a 55% equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—History and Development of the Company.” As a result, as of December 31, 2018, our effective equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship was 60% and our total effective equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center was 58% (through Beijing Century Friendship and King Cheers). As of December 31, 2019, our effective equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship was 60% and our total effective equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center was 58% (through Beijing Century Friendship and King Cheers). In October 2018, we obtained the control of Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center. The results of operations of Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center were therefore consolidated into our results of operation commencing in the fourth quarter of 2018.

During 2018, Guofu Huimei was undergoing certain restructuring. Upon the completion, we became a holder of 90% equity interest in Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center. As of December 31, 2018, our effective equity interest in Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center was 55.42%. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—History and Development of the Company.” In October 2018, we obtained the control of Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center. The results of operations of Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center was consolidated into our results of operation commencing in the fourth quarter of 2018.

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In 2016, ZR Guofu and we established an offshore fund, SP, and an onshore fund, Guofu Huimei, for the purpose of investments in our hospital business. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—A. History and Development of the Company.” The offshore fund SP was determined as a variable interest entity as the cash injection from ZR Guofu was not equity at risk. The 75% equity interest in SP held by the ZR Guofu was contractually required to be repurchased by us at the end of four years from the establishment of SP in November 2016 at a consideration equivalent to the investment cost of RMB521.4 million. ZR Guofu was also entitled to an annual premium at 15% for its capital contribution of RMB521.4 million in SP in the form of interest expense and consultation expense. In addition, our shares in Beijing Century Friendship, certain construction in progress and certain land use rights have been pledged to secure our obligation to repurchase capital contribution from ZR Guofu. As we maintained the power to direct the activities that most significantly affect SP’s economic performances through agreed terms of supplemental contracts and absorbed the expected losses of SP, we were the primary beneficiary of SP and consolidated SP and its subsidiaries in 2016. In November 2017, ZR Guofu transferred its rights to the mandatorily redeemable non-controlling interest in SP to Tianjin Jiatai. As of December 31, 2017, we held a 26.07% equity interest in Guofu Huimei. The onshore fund Guofu Huimei was not a variable interest entity, we did not control but we could exercise significant influence over Guofu Huimei and thus we recorded Guofu Huimei as an investment under equity method. In 2018, ZR Guofu and Guofu Huimei reached an agreement pursuant to which ZR Guofu withdrew its investments in Guofu Huimei. In September 2018, ZR Guofu completed the withdrawal of its investments in Guofu Huimei and exited Guofu Huimei and we became the sole shareholder of Guofu Huimei. We accounted for it as a single transaction and obtained control of Guofu Huimei, Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center on October 8, 2018. We hold a 100% equity interest in Guofu Huimei and Guofu Huimei was consolidated into our results of operation commencing in the fourth quarter of 2018. In addition, after Guofu Huimei became our wholly-owned subsidiary, SH Rongchi and Tianjin Jiatai became our equity investees and were accounted for as investments under equity method in 2018. During 2019, Tianjin Jiatai made capital injection in a total of RMB34.5 million to Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnostic Center, and increased the equity interests in it from 56.77% to 78.34%. In July 2019, we entered into an agreement with Tianjin Jiatai, to purchase all of its 90% equity interests in Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd. at a consideration of RMB27.0 million. After the acquisition, Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd. became our wholly owned subsidiary. In August 2019, we further injected capital of RMB82.1 million to Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd.  In September 2019, we entered into an agreement with ZR Guofu, pursuant to which ZR Guofu sold its 77.18% equity interests in Tianjin Jiatai to us at a cash consideration of RMB421.7 million. We paid the consideration in August and September 2019 and completed the related registration on November 18, 2019. In November 2019, ZR Guofu entered into another agreement with us and Tianjin Jiatai to withdraw from Tianjin Jiatai and its subsidiaries.  As a result of ZR Guofu’s withdrawal, we became the sole shareholder of Tianjin Jiatai and its subsidiaries, including Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnostic Center, Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd., Heze Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd., SH Rongchi and Oriental Light Group Limited, and their results of operation were consolidated into our results of operation. Immediately prior to the acquisition of Tianjin Jiatai, including its subsidiaries, in November 2019, the rights to the mandatory redeemable to non-controlling interest in SP held by Tianjin Jiatai amounted to RMB434.2 million. The mandatorily redeemable non-controlling interest, being a pre-existing relationship between the parties, was settled as a result of the business combination. Upon the completion of the acquisition and the settlement of mandatorily redeemable non-controlling interest, SP is no longer a variable interest entity.  However, we continue to consolidate SP under the voting model.

Our business has dropped in recent years due to termination of some cooperative centers. In 2020, the the COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact over our business. Revenues from our network business decreased to RMB116.0 million (US$17.8 million) in 2020 from RMB121.5 million in 2019 and RMB138.1 million in 2018, primarily due to a decrease in the sharing amount resulted from the decreased number of patient cases caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, revenues from our hospital business increased to RMB107.0 million (US$16.4 million) in 2020 from RMB76.8 million in 2019 and RMB52.8 million in 2018, primarily due to increases in revenues generated from Datong Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center, Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnostics Center and Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center in PRC upon the normal operation.

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On January 1, 2018, we changed our method of accounting for revenue from contracts with customers, our method of accounting the recognition of the income tax consequence of intra-entity transfer of assets, the presentation of the cash flows and our method of accounting for certain long-term investments in the year ended December 31, 2018. We adopted ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, (“ASC 606”), which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 605, Revenue Recognition, (“ASC 605”), using the modified retrospective transition method applied to those contracts which were not completed as of January 1, 2018. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 are presented under ASC 606, while prior period amounts have not been adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with historic accounting under ASC 605. The impact of adopting the new revenue standard was not material to our consolidated financial statements and there was no adjustment to beginning retained earnings on January 1, 2018. We adopted ASU 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory, which requires the recognition of the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset, other than inventory, on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective adoption method. The adoption of this accounting standard resulted in an adjustment to beginning accumulated deficit for deferred tax liability and beginning accumulated deficit. This deferred tax liability is entirely offset and therefore resulted in a change to beginning accumulated deficit. The cumulative effect of changes made to our consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2018 for the adoption of ASU 2016-16 was RMB5.6 million. We also adopted ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash, effective January 1, 2018 using the retrospective transition method and included all restricted cash with cash and cash equivalent when reconciling beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts presented in the consolidated statements of cash flows. Net increase (decrease) in cash in 2016 and 2017 was adjusted. The impact of adopting this new standard was not material to our consolidated financial statements. Furthermore, we adopted ASC Topic 321, Investments-Equity Securities, (“ASC 321”) and the cumulative effect of adopting the new standard on opening accumulated deficit is nil. See “—Critical Accounting Policies—Long-term Investments.” The impact of adopting this new standard was not material to our consolidated financial statements. Prior to adopting ASC 842, we accounted for the prepaid land use right in the PRC cost less accumulated amortization. We recorded amortization on a straight-line basis over the terms of the land use rights agreement of 50 years. Upon the adoption of ASC 842, operating leases related to land use right are subject to ASC 842 and right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are recognized on the consolidated balance sheet.

Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations

Our financial performance and results of operations are generally affected by the number of cancer patients in China and in the regions in which we have operations. According to the latest data issued by National Cancer Center in January 2019 and the 2020 World Report on Cancer issued by WHO, the burden of cancer rose to 18.1 million new cases and 9.6 million cancer death in 2018 globally and there were 3.92 million new cancer cases and 2.33 million cancer-caused deaths in China. Moreover, according to the China Health Statistics Yearbook 2018, cancer is still one of the leading causes of death (26.1% of total death) in China. According to the latest Chinese Cancer Report issued by the Chinese National Cancer Institute in January 2019, the burden of cancer showed a continuous upward trend in China in recent 10 years, the incidence of cancer increased by about 3.9% from 2005 to 2015 and the mortality increased by 2.5% annually from 2005 to 2015.

Based on a survey conducted by the NHC, the increase in cancer cases is primarily attributable to demographic changes and urbanization. With the continued increase in disposable income, government healthcare spending and medical insurance coverage, there has been a considerable increase in demand for cancer diagnosis and treatments and we have been able to grow our business significantly by providing high quality radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging services in China to address these needs. In addition, public hospitals generally lack the financial resources to purchase, or the expertise to operate, radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers. Such factors combined have contributed favorably to the growth of our business.

We believe that the radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging market will remain favorable in the future. However, changes in the cancer treatment market in China, whether due to changes in government policy or any decrease in the number of cancer cases treated by radiotherapy in China, may adversely affect our results of operations. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation of Our Industry.”

In addition to general industry and regulatory factors, our financial performance and results of operations are affected by company-specific factors. We believe that the most significant of these factors are:

our ability to expand our network and our hospitals in and out of China;
the number of patient cases treated in our network and our hospitals;

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the operational arrangements with our hospital partners;
the range and mix of services provided in our network and our hospitals; and
the cost of our medical equipment.

Our Ability to Expand Our Network of Centers and Our Hospitals in and out of China

As of December 31, 2020, our network consisted of 27 cooperative centers based in 20 hospitals, spanning over 20 cities across 13 provinces and administrative regions in China. Our ability to expand, and to optimize the number of, our network of centers is one of the most important factors affecting our results of operation and financial condition. Historically, our business growth has been primarily driven by developing new cooperative centers by entering into new arrangements with hospital partners or acquisitions from third parties. In addition to our cooperative centers, we are establishing specialty cancer hospitals in our network as well as proton centers and premium cancer hospitals in China.

The development of these hospitals is an important step of our broader strategy and is expected to become the key driver of our future growth. Each additional center and hospital that we develop increases the number of patient cases treated in our network and hospitals and contributes to our revenue growth. However, new cooperative centers developed by entering into new arrangements with hospital partners and our planned hospitals generally involve a ramp-up period during which time the operating efficiency of such centers and hospitals may be lower than that of our established centers, which may negatively affect our profitability. In addition, if we establish additional cooperative centers and hospitals through acquisition, our acquired intangible assets will increase and the resulting amortization expenses may, to a significant extent, offset the benefit of the increase in revenues generated from cooperative centers and hospitals established through acquisitions.

Furthermore, other factors such as the financial resources and know-how of hospitals in China to purchase medical equipment directly and to operate radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging centers independently, and the number of units of radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging equipment that are allocated by the PRC government for purchase, will also affect our ability to expand our network and our hospitals. Our ability to expand, and to optimize the number of cooperative centers and specialty cancer hospitals in our network and our hospitals will depend on a number of factors, such as:

the reputation of our existing network of cooperative centers and doctors providing services in our network of centers and our hospitals;
our financial resources;
our ability to timely establish and manage new cooperative centers in conjunction with our hospital partners and our own planned hospitals;
our relationship with our hospital partners; and
performance of our hospital partners and our own planned hospitals.

We closed 13 cooperative centers and 4 cooperative centers in 2018 and 2020, respectively, due to expiration of the arrangements with certain of these cooperative centers as well as our focus on developing our hospital business going forward. We did not close any cooperative center in 2019. Our first specialty cancer hospital, Datong Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center, opened preliminarily in May 2016 and officially opened for operation in May 2017.

Our premium cancer hospitals, which will provide premium cancer treatment services to our patients, currently include two planned hospitals in China, namely Shanghai Concord Cancer Center and Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center. We commenced construction of Shanghai Concord Cancer Center in September 2017 with an estimated construction period of five years. The construction project was prolonged due to the suspension of construction activities caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. We also commenced construction of Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center in November 2017 and the construction was completed in October 2020. Guangzhou Concord Cancer Center has been in operation since June 2021.

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We commenced construction of Beijing Proton Medical Center in June 2017 and the construction project was suspended and delay due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the failure of one of the shareholders to perform its obligations.

The Number of Patient Cases Treated in Our Network and Our Hospitals

Increasing the number of patient cases diagnosed and treated at our existing centers and hospital is important for the growth of our business. The number of patient cases is primarily driven by reputation of the doctors, centers and hospitals. Doctors decide whether to refer patients to centers in our network and our hospitals based on factors such as the reputation of the center and hospital, the location of the center and hospital and the reputation of the doctors who provide services in the center and hospital. In addition, the referring doctors’ awareness of the efficacy and benefits of radiotherapy treatments and their preference as to other cancer treatment methods contribute to their willingness to refer cases for diagnosis and treatment to the centers in our network and our hospital.

Accordingly, we have focused our marketing efforts on increasing referring doctors’ awareness of the efficacy of radiotherapy treatments and the advantages of the treatment options available to their patients in our network of centers and our hospital. There is also typically a ramp-up period for newly established centers and hospital during which acceptance by doctors and patients of such new centers and hospital gradually pick up and the number of patient cases increase.

However, the numbers of our treatment and diagnostic patient cases in our network decreased from 11,111 and 147,158, respectively, in 2018, to 10,367 and 142,175, respectively, in 2019, and to 8,729 and 88,266, respectively, in 2020, primarily due to the reduction of our network centers and the suspension of operation of cooperative centers caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, our treatment and diagnostic patient cases in Datong Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center in PRC and Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center in PRC increased to 2,973 and 3,070, respectively, in 2018, to 4,145 and 4,269, respectively, in 2019 and 7,045 and 10,773, respectively, in 2020.

The Operational Arrangements with Our Hospital Partners

The majority of our total net revenues is derived from our lease and management services arrangements with our hospital partners which typically range from five to 20 years and under which we receive a contracted percentage of each cooperative center’s revenue. Such contracted percentage typically range from 50% to 90% and are typically adjusted based on a declining scale over the term of the arrangement but in certain circumstances, are fixed for the duration of the arrangement.

In the event that specified operating expenses exceed the revenues of the cooperative center, we would collect no revenues from such center. As a result, our ability to negotiate a higher contracted percentage and our ability to contain operating expenses will significantly affect our revenues and profitability.

In negotiations with hospitals as to our contracted percentage, we consider factors such as:

the size and location of potential hospital partner;
the length of the arrangement;
the type of medical equipment to be installed in the hospital’s center;
the capabilities of the doctors that will provide services at the cooperative centers; and
the potential growth of such center.

Our ability to achieve a higher contracted percentage also depends on our bargaining power relative to our potential hospital partners and on the purchase price of the medical equipment to be used at the new cooperative centers. We believe that our contracted percentage of cooperative centers’ revenue for new arrangements will generally decline over time as the purchase prices of the primary medical equipment used in our network of centers decrease due to technological advancement and increased competition.

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We also provide management services to a small number of cooperative centers through service-only agreements where we receive a management fee equal to a contracted percentage of each cooperative center’s revenue net of specified operating expenses. Such service-only agreements typically increase our profitability as we do not own the medical equipment used by such centers, and thus do not incur the associated depreciation expenses.

However, service-only agreements are usually short-term in nature, and the risk of non-renewal of such agreements is high. We also typically receive a lower contracted percentage under such service-only agreements compared to the percentage we receive from cooperative centers managed under lease and management services arrangements. Accordingly, we do not intend to substantially increase the number of service-only agreements in the future.

The Range and Mix of Services Provided in Our Network and Our Hospitals

The medical service fees charged for the services provided in our network of centers and our hospitals vary by the type of medical equipment used as well as the provinces or regions in China in which such centers and hospitals are located due to the varying applicable price ceilings. Medical service fees in China are subject to government controlled price ceilings established by the relevant government authorities in the different provinces and regions. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Industry—Pricing for the services provided by our network of centers may suffer from reductions in treatment and examination fees set by the Chinese government” and “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation of Our Industry—Regulations in China—Regulation of Medical Institutions—Pricing of Medical Services.”

The maximum medical service fees for the same treatment using the same equipment may differ among provinces and regions. Centers and hospitals established in provinces or regions with a significantly higher price ceiling may result in an increase in our revenues derived from such centers and hospitals and higher profit margin for the centers and hospitals, resulting in an increase in our profitability. In addition, certain medical services allow us to charge higher fees than other types of medical services.

For example, medical service fees for treatments provided through head gamma knife systems typically range from approximately RMB12,000 to RMB16,000 per patient case, with each treatment lasting one session for approximately 30 to 90 minutes, medical service fees for treatments provided through body gamma knife systems typically range from approximately RMB20,000 to RMB30,000 per patient case, with each treatment lasting three to six sessions and 30 to 60 minutes each, and medical service fees for treatments provided through linear accelerators typically range from approximately RMB5,000 to RMB60,000 per patient case, with each treatment lasting from 30 to 40 sessions and 10 to 20 minutes each.

In addition, linear accelerators can be integrated with specialized computer software and advanced imaging and detection equipment to provide more effective and advanced treatments such as three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, which significantly increase the medical service fees per treatment. Furthermore, diagnostic imaging services typically have lower profit margins than radiotherapy treatments.

The Cost of Our Medical Equipment

Depreciation expense associated with the medical equipment that we purchase and use in our centers and hospitals represents a significant portion of our cost of revenues. Our ability to reduce the price of medical equipment purchased, thereby reducing the depreciation expense associated with the medical equipment purchased, will increase our profitability. Our extensive network of centers has provided us with increased bargaining power with equipment manufacturers.

We have entered into strategic agreements with certain medical equipment manufacturers in order to lower the average cost of our equipment. These agreements provide that we will receive preferential pricing if we purchase a certain number of units of equipment from a manufacturer within a given period. However, we are not required by such agreements to commit to purchase a minimum number of units of equipment from such manufacturers or precluded from purchasing equipment from other manufacturers.

We aim to continue to enter into additional strategic agreements with medical equipment manufacturers to reduce the cost of our equipment in the future. Furthermore, we expect the purchase prices of our primary medical equipment to decrease over time as a result of technological advancement and increased competition.

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Financial Impact of Our Acquisitions and Disposals

The consideration we paid for each acquisition was allocated to the net assets acquired at estimated fair value, with the acquired intangible assets amortized over the period of expected benefits to be realized. During 2018, we acquired more equity interests in Beijing Century Friendship, Beijing Proton Medical Center, Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center and Guofu Huimei and ZR Guofu and Guofu Huimei reached an agreement according to which ZR Guofu withdrew its original investments in Guofu Huimei. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—History and Development of the Company.” Upon the completion, we held a 100% equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship, a 80% equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center, a 90% equity interest in Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center and a 100% equity interest in Guofu Huimei through our wholly-owned or majority-owned subsidiaries. We account for it as a single transaction and obtained control of Guofu Huimei, Beijing Century Friendship, Beijing Proton Medical Center and Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center on October 8, 2018. The fair value of the gross assets acquired during the acquisition is not concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets and it meets the definition of a business and was accounted for as business acquisition under ASC 805. Our effective equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship is 60%, our total effective equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center is 52.19% (through Beijing Century Friendship and King Cheers), our effective equity interest in Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center is 46.30% and our effective equity interest in Guofu Huimei is 100%.

During 2019, Tianjin Jiatai made capital injection to Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnostic Center, and increased the equity interests in it from 56.77% to 78.34%. In July 2019, we entered into an agreement with Tianjin Jiatai, to purchase all of its 90% equity interests in Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd. After the acquisition, Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd. became our wholly owned subsidiary. In September 2019, we entered into an agreement with ZR Guofu, pursuant to which ZR Guofu sold its 77.18% equity interests in Tianjin Jiatai to us. We paid the consideration in August and September 2019 and completed the related registration on November 18, 2019. In November 2019, ZR Guofu entered into another agreement with us and Tianjin Jiatai to withdraw from Tianjin Jiatai and its subsidiaries.  As a result of ZR Guofu’s withdrawal, we became the sole shareholder of Tianjin Jiatai and its subsidiaries, including Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnostic Center, Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd., Heze Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd., SH Rongchi and Oriental Light Group Limited. These transactions are entered into in conjunction of each other and therefore, are accounted for as a single transaction. The fair value of the gross assets acquired during the acquisition is not concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets and it meets the definition of a business and was accounted for as business acquisition under ASC 805.

During 2020, we acquired a 70% equity interest in New Spring Group and disposed off a 90% equity interest in CHS. In March 2020, MHM entered into a share purchase agreement with a third party, Guangzhou New Spring Hospital Management Co., Ltd (“New Spring Management”), to purchase 70% or 14,000,000 shares of New Spring Management with a consideration of RMB8.4 million (US$1.3 million). The business substance of the purchase was to acquire Guangzhou New Spring Hospital Clinic (“New Spring Clinic”), which was a wholly owned subsidiary of New Spring Management located in downtown Guangzhou, to attract more patients for our self-built cancer hospital in the suburb of Guangzhou. In November 2020, we entered into a definitive agreement to sell 90% equity interest in Concord Healthcare Singapore Pte Ltd, which operates and owns a general medical and surgical hospital, namely Concord International Hospital, for a total consideration of approximately SG$52.2 million.

Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center

In January 2016, we acquired a 100% equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship, which held a 55% equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center, with a total consideration of RMB100.6 million. As a result, we held a total of 80% of the equity interests in Beijing Proton Medical Center through Beijing Century Friendship and King Cheers Center and the results of operations of Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center were consolidated into our results of operation commencing in the first quarter of 2016.

In April 2017, more investments were injected to Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—History and Development of the Company.” Upon the capital injection, our equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship decreased from 100% to 42.1% and our total equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center decreased to 48.16% (through Beijing Century Friendship and King Cheers) from 80%. As a result, we lost the control in Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center in April 2017 and accounted for it as a deemed disposal and recognized a gain. The gain was measured as the difference between the fair value of the retained non-controlling interest at the date of deconsolidation and the carrying amount of the former subsidiaries’ net assets. The direct interest held in Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center by us was accounted for as equity method investment. Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton were not our consolidated subsidiaries commencing in the third quarter of 2017.

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During 2018, we, through our majority-owned subsidiary, acquired all the equity interests in Beijing Century Friendship (and therefore, a 80% equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center). As a result, as of December 31, 2018, our effective equity interest in Beijing Century Friendship was 60% and our total effective equity interest in Beijing Proton Medical Center was 58% (through Beijing Century Friendship and King Cheers). In addition, in October 2018, we obtained the control of Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center. The results of operations of Beijing Century Friendship and Beijing Proton Medical Center were therefore consolidated into our results of operation commencing in the fourth quarter of 2018.

Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center

As of December 31, 2017, our total effective equity interest in Guofu Huimei was 35.20%. During 2018, Guofu Huimei was undergoing certain restructuring. Upon the completion, we became a holder of 90% equity interest in Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center. Our effective equity interest in Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center was 55.42%. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—History and Development of the Company.” In addition, in October 2018, we obtained the control of Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center. The results of operations of Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center were consolidated into our results of operation commencing in the fourth quarter of 2018.

Guofu Huimei and Tianjin Jiatai

As of December 31, 2017, our total effective equity interest in Guofu Huimei was 26.07%. Guofu Huimei was not a variable interest entity, we did not control Guofu Huimei but we could exercise significant influence over Guofu Huimei and thus we recorded Guofu Huimei as an investment under equity method. In 2018, ZR Guofu and Guofu Huimei reached an agreement pursuant to which ZR Guofu withdrew its investments in Guofu Huimei. In September 2018, ZR Guofu completed the withdrawal of its investments in Guofu Huimei and exited Guofu Huimei and we became the sole shareholder of Guofu Huimei. We obtained control of Guofu Huimei in October 2018. As a result, we hold a 100% equity interest in Guofu Huimei and Guofu Huimei was consolidated into our results of operations commencing in fourth quarter of 2018.

In addition, after Guofu Huimei became our wholly-owned subsidiary, SH Rongchi and Tianjin Jiatai became our equity investees and were accounted for as investments under equity method. During 2019, Tianjin Jiatai made capital injection in a total of RMB34.5 million to Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnostic Center, and increased the equity interests in it from 56.77% to 78.34%. In July 2019, we entered into an agreement with Tianjin Jiatai, to purchase all of its 90% equity interests in Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd. with a consideration of RMB27.0 million. After the acquisition, Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd. became our wholly owned subsidiary. In August 2019, we further injected capital of RMB82.1 million to Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd. In September 2019, we acquired 77.18% equity interests in Tianjin Jiatai from ZR Guofu with a cash consideration of RMB421.7 million. We paid the consideration in August and September 2019 and completed the related registration on November 18, 2019. In November 2019, ZR Guofu entered into another agreement with us and Tianjin Jiatai to withdraw from Tianjin Jiatai and its subsidiaries.   As a result of ZR Guofu’s withdrawal, we became the sole shareholder of Tianjin Jiatai and its subsidiaries, including Shanghai Meizhong Jiahe Imaging Diagnostic Center, Wuxi Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd., Heze Meizhong Jiahe Cancer Center Co., Ltd., SH Rongchi and Oriental Light Group Limited, and their results of operations were consolidated into our results of operation upon the completion of the commercial registration.

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Key Components of Results of Operations

Revenues

Our revenues are generated from our network business and our hospital business. The following table sets forth revenue contribution from our network business and our hospital business for the periods indicated:

Year Ended December 31,

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

    

    

% of 

    

    

% of 

    

    

    

% of

 

Total Net

 

Total Net

 

Total Net

RMB

Revenues

RMB

Revenues

RMB

US$

 

Revenues

(in thousands, except for percentages)

Net Revenues

Network business

 

138,070

 

72.3

 

121,537

 

61.3

 

115,959

 

17,772

 

52.0

Hospital business

 

52,828

 

27.7

 

76,826

 

38.7

 

107,052

 

16,406

 

48.0

Total net revenues

 

190,898

 

100.0

 

198,363

 

100.0

 

223,011

 

34,178

 

100.0

The following table sets forth our total net revenues by geographic regions for the periods indicated:

Year Ended December 31,

 

2018

 

2019

 

2020

    

    

% of Total Net

    

    

% of Total Net

    

    

    

% of Total Net  

RMB

 

Revenues

RMB

Revenues

RMB

US$

Revenues

 

(in thousands, except for percentages)

PRC

 

149,548

 

78.3

 

164,167

 

82.8

 

199,370

 

30,555

 

89.4

Singapore

 

41,350

 

21.7

 

34,196

 

17.2

 

23,641

 

3,623

 

10.6

Total net revenues

 

190,898

 

100.0

 

198,363

 

100.0

 

223,011

 

34,178

 

100.0

Network Business

Revenues generated from our network business consist of revenues derived from our network of centers that are directly related to the number of patient cases treated in our cooperative centers. We receive a contracted percentage of each center’s revenue. Such revenues are derived from medical service fees received by our hospital partners for the services provided in the cooperative centers. The operating expenses of cooperative centers typically include variable expenses, such as salaries and benefits of the medical and other personnel at the cooperative center, the cost of medical consumables, marketing expenses, training expenses, utility expenses and routine equipment repair and maintenance expenses.

Corporate level expenses that cannot be directly attributable to one cooperative center are typically accounted for as our cost of revenues. In addition, under certain lease and management services arrangements with our hospital partners, certain of the center-incurred expenses may be accounted for as our cost of revenues rather than as the expenses of the cooperative centers. Our contracted percentages typically range from 50% to 90% and are typically adjusted on a declining scale over the term of the arrangement. Revenues derived from such cooperative centers are accounted for as “lease and management services” on our consolidated statement of operation.

We also provide management services to a limited number of cooperative centers through service-only agreements under which the hospital or other third parties own the medical equipment. We typically receive a management fee from each cooperative center equal to a contracted percentage of the cooperative center’s revenue net of specified operating expenses. Revenues derived from providing management services through service-only agreements are accounted for as “management services” on our consolidated statement of operations. As of December 31, 2020, we managed five centers under service-only agreements.

For medical services provided at the cooperative centers, patients pay fees directly to our hospital partners and we are not responsible for patient billing and fee collection. Medical service fees in China are typically paid in full upfront by patients prior to receiving services. Generally, patients claim reimbursements, if any is available under the applicable public or private medical insurance plans. As a result, hospitals do not generally experience bad debt problems.

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However, the healthcare reform announced by the PRC government in January 2009 has introduced pilot public medical insurance plans. Under these plans patients are only responsible for paying their deductible amounts upfront and hospitals are responsible for seeking reimbursements from the relevant government authorities after the treatments are provided. Certain of the hospitals in which some of the centers in our network are based are involved in such pilot medical insurance plan. We do not expect such change in payment timing to materially affect our ability to collect our contracted percentage from our hospital partners. However, the ability of our hospital partners to collect medical service fees from government authorities in a timely manner may affect the timing of payments made by our hospital partners to us as a result.

In the past, we recorded uncollectible accounts receivable. Our allowance for doubtful accounts amounted to RMB7.1 million and RMB6.5 million (US$1.0 million) as of December 31, 2019 and 2020, respectively.

We have historically derived a large portion of our total net revenues from a limited number of our hospital partners. For the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020, net revenue derived from our top five hospital partners amounted to approximately 35.0%, 34.6% and 25.9%, respectively, of our total net revenues. Our largest hospital partner accounted for 9.7%, 9.4% and 5.9% of our total net revenues during those periods, respectively.

The following table sets forth revenue contribution from the leases and management service centers whose contracts would expire in the next five fiscal years:

 

Aggregate Revenues in 2020