Prospectus Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5) (424b5)

Date : 06/10/2019 @ 8:21PM
Source : Edgar (US Regulatory)
Stock : American Assets Trust Inc (AAT)
Quote : 47.23  0.0 (0.00%) @ 12:00AM

Prospectus Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5) (424b5)

Table of Contents

This preliminary prospectus supplement relates to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, but is not complete and may be changed. This preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell these securities and are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-222876

Subject to completion, dated June 10, 2019

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus dated February 5, 2018)

9,500,000 Shares

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

We are offering 9,500,000 shares of our common stock, $0.01 par value per share.

We are organized and conduct our operations to qualify as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. To assist us in complying with certain U.S. federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, our charter contains certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of our capital stock, including an ownership limit of 7.275% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock and 7.275% in value of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE, under the symbol “AAT.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on the NYSE on June 7, 2019 was $46.61 per share.

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “ Risk Factors ” beginning on page S-9 of this prospectus supplement and the risks set forth under the caption “Item 1A. Risk Factors” beginning on page 5 of the Annual Report on Form 10-K of American Assets Trust, Inc. and American Assets Trust, L.P. for the year ended December 31, 2018, which is incorporated by reference herein, for certain risks relevant to an investment in our common stock.

 

     Per
Share
     Total  

Public offering price

   $                $            

Underwriting discount

   $        $    

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

   $        $    

We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to 1,425,000 additional shares of our common stock on the same terms and conditions set forth above for 30 days after the date of this prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

Entities affiliated with Ernest S. Rady, our Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Robert F. Barton, our Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Adam Wyll, our Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary, Jerry Gammieri, our Vice President of Construction and Development, and Duane A. Nelles, Thomas S. Olinger and Dr. Robert S. Sullivan, each members of our Board of Directors, and Joy L. Schaefer, a nominee for election to our Board of Directors at our annual meeting on June 11, 2019, have indicated an interest in purchasing an aggregate of $27.0 million of shares of the common stock offered in this offering at the price offered to the public. Because these indications of interest are not binding agreements or commitments to purchase, any or all of these entities may determine to purchase fewer or more shares than it has indicated an interest in purchasing, or elect not to purchase any shares in this offering. The underwriters may also determine to sell fewer, more or no shares in this offering to any or all of these entities.

The common stock sold in this offering will be ready for delivery in book-entry form through The Depository Trust Company on or about June    , 2019.

 

 

 

Morgan Stanley   Wells Fargo Securities

The date of this prospectus supplement is June    , 2019.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prospectus Supplement

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND THE PROSPECTUS

     S-ii  

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

     S-iii  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-1  

RISK FACTORS

     S-9  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-14  

CAPITALIZATION

     S-15  

SUPPLEMENTAL FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     S-16  

UNDERWRITING

     S-17  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-23  

EXPERTS

     S-23  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-23  

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     S-24  

Prospectus

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     2  

THE COMPANY

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

     13  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     16  

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

     18  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     19  

RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

     20  

DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF AMERICAN ASSETS TRUST, L.P

     24  

MATERIAL PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     31  

FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     37  

SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

     61  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     62  

LEGAL MATTERS

     63  

EXPERTS

     63  

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any applicable free writing prospectus in making a decision about whether to invest in our common stock. We have not, and the underwriters have not, authorized any other person to provide you with different or additional information. If anyone provides you with different or additional information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to purchase, any securities in any jurisdiction where it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, any applicable free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate only as of their respective dates or on the date or dates which are specified in these documents. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND THE PROSPECTUS

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, gives more general information, some of which may not apply to this offering.

To the extent the information contained in this prospectus supplement differs or varies from the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, the information in this prospectus supplement will supersede such information. In addition, any statement in a filing we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission that adds to, updates or changes information contained in an earlier filing we made with the Securities and Exchange Commission shall be deemed to modify and supersede such information in the earlier filing.

This prospectus supplement does not contain all of the information that is important to you. You should read the accompanying prospectus as well as the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. See “Incorporation by Reference” in this prospectus supplement and “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference” in the accompanying prospectus. Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, references in this prospectus supplement to “we,” “our,” “us” and “our company” refer to American Assets Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation, American Assets Trust, L.P., and any of our other consolidated subsidiaries. American Assets Trust, L.P. is a Maryland limited partnership of which we are the sole general partner and to which we refer in this prospectus supplement as our operating partnership.

As used in this prospectus supplement:

 

   

“second amended and restated credit facility” means our $450  million credit facility; and

 

   

“amended term loan agreement” means our term loan agreement, as amended, which maintains the $150  million unsecured term loan to the operating partnership maturing on March  1, 2023.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in each contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act). Also, documents we subsequently file with the Securities and Exchange Commission and incorporate by reference will contain forward-looking statements. In particular, statements pertaining to our liquidity and capital resources, portfolio performance and results of operations contain forward-looking statements. Furthermore, all of the statements regarding future financial performance (including anticipated funds from operations, market conditions, demographics and the anticipated initial full-year investment yield and our estimated stabilized investment yield of acquisitions) are forward-looking statements. We are including this cautionary statement to make applicable and take advantage of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 for any such forward-looking statements. We caution investors that any forward-looking statements presented in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in each are based on management’s beliefs and assumptions made by, and information currently available to, management. When used, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “estimate,” “project,” “should,” “will,” “result” and similar expressions that do not relate solely to historical matters are intended to identify forward-looking statements. You can also identify forward-looking statements by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions.

Forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions and may be affected by known and unknown risks, trends, uncertainties and factors that are beyond our control. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those anticipated, estimated or projected. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all).

Some of the risks and uncertainties that may cause our actual results, performance, liquidity or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements include, among others, the following:

 

   

adverse economic or real estate developments in our markets;

 

   

our failure to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding indebtedness;

 

   

defaults on, early terminations of or non-renewal of leases by tenants, including significant tenants;

 

   

difficulties in identifying properties to acquire and completing acquisitions, including the pending acquisition of La Jolla Commons;

 

   

difficulties in completing dispositions;

 

   

our failure to successfully operate acquired properties and operations;

 

   

our inability to develop or redevelop our properties due to market conditions;

 

   

fluctuations in interest rates and increased operating costs;

 

   

risks related to joint venture arrangements;

 

   

our failure to obtain necessary outside financing;

 

   

on-going litigation;

 

   

general economic conditions;

 

   

financial market fluctuations;

 

   

risks that affect the general retail, office, multifamily and mixed-use environment;

 

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the competitive environment in which we operate;

 

   

decreased rental rates or increased vacancy rates;

 

   

conflicts of interests with our officers or directors;

 

   

lack or insufficient amounts of insurance;

 

   

environmental uncertainties and risks related to adverse weather conditions and natural disasters;

 

   

other factors affecting the real estate industry generally;

 

   

limitations imposed on our business and our ability to satisfy complex rules in order for American Assets Trust, Inc. to continue to qualify as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

 

   

changes in governmental regulations or interpretations thereof, such as real estate and zoning laws and increases in real property tax rates and taxation of REITs.

While forward-looking statements reflect our good faith beliefs, they are not guarantees of future performance. We expressly disclaim any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement to reflect changes in underlying assumptions or factors, or new information, data or methods, future events or other changes. Accordingly, investors should use caution in relying on past forward-looking statements, which were based on results and trends at the time they were made, to anticipate future results or trends. For a further discussion of these and other factors that could impact our future results, performance or transactions, see the section of this prospectus supplement entitled “Risk Factors,” including the risks incorporated therein from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 and our other reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and incorporated by reference herein.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our common stock. We urge you to read this entire prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference carefully, including the financial statements and notes to those financial statements incorporated by reference herein and therein. Please read “Risk Factors” for more information about important risks that you should consider before investing in our common stock.

Our Company

We are a full service, vertically integrated and self-administered REIT that owns, operates, acquires and develops high quality retail, office, multifamily and mixed-use properties in attractive, high-barrier-to-entry markets in Southern California, Northern California, Oregon, Washington, Texas and Hawaii. As of March 31, 2019, our portfolio was comprised of twelve retail shopping centers; eight office properties; a mixed-use property consisting of a 369-room all-suite hotel and a retail shopping center; and six multifamily properties. Additionally, as of March 31, 2019, we owned land at three of our properties that we classified as held for development and/or construction in progress. As of March 31, 2019, the weighted average remaining lease term in our office and retail portfolios was approximately 5.7 years. Our core markets include San Diego; the San Francisco Bay Area; Portland, Oregon; Bellevue, Washington; and Oahu, Hawaii.

We are a Maryland corporation that was formed on July 16, 2010, and elected to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2011. We intend to continue operating in a manner that will allow us to maintain our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. To maintain REIT status, we must meet a number of organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement that we annually distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (excluding capital gains) to our stockholders.

Recent Developments

La Jolla Commons Acquisition

On June 10, 2019, through a subsidiary, we entered into a definitive purchase agreement to acquire La Jolla Commons, an approximately 724,000 square foot class A office campus located in the University Town Center (“UTC”) submarket of San Diego, California, for a purchase price of approximately $525 million, less a seller credit of $11.5 million. The property consists of two office towers, one of which is 100% leased to LPL Financial and the other of which is currently 71.7% leased. We expect closing to occur by the end of the second quarter of 2019, subject to customary closing conditions. In addition, the property includes an approximately 224,000 square foot development parcel, which is currently entitled for an office tower, a hotel tower or a hybrid office and hotel tower.



 

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La Jolla Commons Overview

Below is a summary of key information regarding the La Jolla Commons properties:

 

Property

   Location    Year
Built
     Ownership
Interest at
Closing
   

Key Tenants

  Annualized
Base Rent
    Annualized
Base

Rent per
Leased
Square
Foot
    Rentable
Square
Feet
    Percent
Leased
    Weighted
Average
Remaining
Lease
Term
 

La Jolla Commons I

   San
Diego,
CA
     2008        100   US Bank (1) , Paul Hastings (2) , Cushman and Wakefield, Finch, Thornton & Baird (3) , Moss Adams, Fisher & Phillips   $ 6,630,636     $
 
30.68
NNN
 
 
    303,051       71.7     4.4 years  

La Jolla Commons II

   San
Diego,
CA
     2014        100   LPL Financial (4)   $ 17,303,136     $
 
41.10
NNN
 
 
    421,001       100.0     9.9 years  

 

(1)

Lease consists of 34,562 net rentable square feet and is effective through August 31, 2027, with an option to extend for five years, subject to certain conditions. Current monthly rent under the lease is $96,428 on a triple net basis.

(2)

Lease consists of 24,368 net rentable square feet and is effective through September 30, 2023, with two options to extend for five years, subject to certain conditions. Current monthly rent under the lease is $65,063 on a triple net basis.

(3)

Lease consists of 24,111 net rentable square feet and is effective through January 31, 2022, with an option to extend for five years, subject to certain conditions. Current monthly rent under the lease is $53,261 on a triple net basis.

(4)

Lease consists of 421,001 net rentable square feet and is effective through April 30, 2029, with two options to extend for five years, subject to certain conditions. Current monthly rent under the lease is $1,441,928 on a triple net basis.

As a part of our standard due diligence process in connection with the acquisition of this property, we analyzed the anticipated initial full-year investment yield and the expected stabilized investment yield that we expect to derive from the acquisition. We define initial full-year investment yield as the percentage of the net purchase price for the property represented by expected net operating income from the property. We calculated the expected net operating income as cash rent for the initial year from in-place leases and leases that will commence in the initial year, plus non-cash straight line rent (computed in accordance with U.S. general accounting principles). On this basis, we estimate that the anticipated initial full-year investment yield for La Jolla Commons would be approximately 5.4%. In addition, as part of our underwriting of the La Jolla Commons acquisition, we estimate that the stabilized investment yield will be approximately 6.0% upon expected stabilization of the acquisition in the second half of 2020, based on expected incremental leasing of available space. For purposes of these calculations, we calculated the net purchase price for La Jolla Commons as $525 million, less a seller credit of $11.5 million, less $20 million that we have preliminarily allocated to the value of the development parcel included in the purchase. After closing, we intend to execute a capital expenditure plan for the property, including upgrades to amenities at La Jolla Commons to add best-in-class fitness and dining experiences that we believe will allow us to better position the property in its submarket. We caution you not to place undue reliance on our anticipated initial full-year investment yield or our estimated stabilized investment yield for this property because they are based solely on data made available to us in the diligence process in connection with the acquisition. Our experience operating this property may change our expectations with respect to the anticipated initial full-year investment yield and our estimated stabilized investment yield. In addition, the actual initial full-year investment yield and stabilized investment yield for La Jolla Commons may differ from our expectations based on numerous other factors, including difficulties collecting anticipated rental revenues, tenant bankruptcies, property tax reassessments and unanticipated expenses at the property that we cannot pass on to tenants, as well as the risk factors set forth in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and documents incorporated by reference herein and therein.



 

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Although we have entered into a definitive purchase agreement to acquire La Jolla Commons, as reported in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 10, 2019, we can make no assurance that we will close this acquisition. Additionally, other than capital expenditures to fund upgrades to amenities at La Jolla Commons to add best-in-class fitness and dining experiences, and other normally recurring capital expenditures, we have no present plans with respect to renovation, improvement or redevelopment of this asset.

Rationale for the La Jolla Commons Acquisition

The La Jolla Commons acquisition is intended to give us a strategic position in the UTC office submarket. The acquisition is projected to provide cash flow stability through its anchor tenant, LPL Financial, and has near-term upside potential from the significant leasing opportunity, as well as future growth potential associated with the fully entitled development parcel included in the acquisition. The acquisition also offers an attractive basis below replacement cost, is projected to be immediately accretive to funds from operations and we project that it, together with this offering (without giving any effect to the potential exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase an additional 1,425,000 shares), will delever our balance sheet from our March 31, 2019 ratio of net debt to EBITDA (as defined below) of 6.3x to approximately 6.0x.

Financing of the La Jolla Commons Acquisition

We intend to finance the acquisition of La Jolla Commons with the net proceeds of this offering and the balance of the purchase price funded with approximately $100 million of borrowings under our second amended and restated credit facility.

Corporate Information

Our principal executive office is located at 11455 El Camino Real, Suite 200, San Diego, California 92130. Our telephone number is (858) 350-2600. Our website address is www.americanassetstrust.com. The information on, or accessible through, our website is not incorporated into and does not constitute a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.



 

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The Offering

The offering terms are summarized below solely for your convenience. For a more complete description of the terms of our common stock, see “Description of Common Stock” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Issuer

American Assets Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation.

 

Securities offered by us

9,500,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share. We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an additional 1,425,000 shares for 30 days after the date of this prospectus supplement.

 

New York Stock Exchange symbol

“AAT”

 

Shares of common stock outstanding

47,486,894 shares.

 

Shares of common stock outstanding upon completion of this offering

56,986,894 (1) shares (58,411,894 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full).     

 

Shares of common stock and common units outstanding upon completion of this offering

74,164,502 (1)(2) shares and common units (75,589,502 shares and common units if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full).     

 

Use of proceeds

We estimate that the net proceeds that we will receive from this offering will be approximately $                million, or approximately $                million if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full, in each case after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and our estimated offering expenses. We will contribute the net proceeds that we will receive from this offering to our operating partnership in exchange for common units.

 

  Our operating partnership intends to use the net proceeds from this offering to finance the acquisition of La Jolla Commons and, to the extent such acquisition is not completed, to repay amounts outstanding from time to time under our second amended and restated credit facility or other debt financing obligations, fund our development or redevelopment activities, fund potential acquisition opportunities and/or for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

  Affiliates of Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC and the other underwriters in this offering are lenders under our second amended and restated credit facility. As described above, our operating partnership intends to use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay borrowings outstanding under our second amended and restated credit facility. As a result, affiliates of our underwriters will receive their proportionate share of any amount of our second amended and restated credit facility that is repaid with the net proceeds of this offering.

 

Restrictions on ownership

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock that are intended to assist us in complying with the requirements


 

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for qualification as a REIT. Among other things, our charter provides that, subject to certain exceptions, no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, more than 7.275% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of our common stock, or 7.275% in value of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Risk factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk and the purchasers of our common stock may lose all or part of their investment. Before deciding to invest in our common stock, please carefully read the section of this prospectus supplement entitled “Risk Factors,” including the risks incorporated therein from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 and our other reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and incorporated by reference herein.

The number of shares of our common stock and common units to be outstanding after this offering is based on 47,486,894 shares of common stock and 17,177,608 common units held by limited partners as of March 31, 2019 and assumes the sale of 9,500,000 shares of our common stock.

 

(1)

Excludes (i) 1,425,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares in full, (ii) the issuance of restricted stock with a value of $50,000 to each of our of nonemployee directors at our annual meeting of stockholders to be held on June 11, 2019, (iii) a maximum of 2,595,189 shares of common stock available for issuance in the future under our equity incentive plan, (iv) 787,060 shares of our common stock issued after March 31, 2019 upon the conversion of common units and (v) 519,382 shares of our common stock issued after March 31, 2019 in connection with our at-the-market equity distribution program.

(2)

Includes 17,177,608 common units held by limited partners of our operating partnership, which units may, subject to certain limitations and adjustments, be redeemed for cash or, at our option, exchanged for shares of common stock on a one-for-one basis.

Entities affiliated with Ernest S. Rady, our Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Robert F. Barton, our Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Adam Wyll, our Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary, Jerry Gammieri, our Vice President of Construction and Development, Duane A. Nelles, Thomas S. Olinger and Dr. Robert S. Sullivan, each members of our Board of Directors, and Joy L. Schaefer, a nominee for election to our Board of Directors at our annual meeting on June 11, 2019, have indicated an interest in purchasing an aggregate of $27.0 million of shares of the common stock offered in this offering at the price offered to the public. Because these indications of interest are not binding agreements or commitments to purchase, any or all of these entities may determine to purchase fewer or more shares than it has indicated an interest in purchasing, or elect not to purchase any shares in this offering. The underwriters may also determine to sell fewer, more or no shares in this offering to any or all of these entities.



 

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Certain Results of Operations, Financial Condition and Other Data

The tables below present certain information regarding our results of operations, financial condition and other data.

Funds From Operations

The table below presents a reconciliation of net income to Funds From Operations, or FFO, per share for the eight-year period ended December 31, 2018 (dollars in thousands, except per share amounts):

 

    2011     2012     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2018  

Net Income

  $ 19,324     $ 51,601     $ 22,594     $ 31,145     $ 53,915     $ 45,637     $ 40,132     $ 27,202  

Depreciation and Amortization of Real Estate Assets

    58,543       63,011       66,775       66,568       63,392       71,319       83,278       107,093  

Depreciation and Amortization on Unconsolidated JV

    688       —         —         —         —         —         —         —    

Gain on Sale of Real Estate

    (3,981     (36,720     —         —         (7,121     —         —         —    
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

FFO, as defined by NAREIT

  $ 74,574     $ 77,892     $ 89,369     $ 97,713     $ 110,186     $ 116,956     $ 123,410     $ 134,295  

Less: Nonforfeitable dividends on restricted stock awards

    (316     (354     (357     (137     (159     (183     (236     (305

Less: FFO attributable to Predecessor’s controlled and noncontrolled owners’ equity

    (16,973     —         —         —         —         —         —         —    
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

FFO Attributable to Common Stock

  $ 57,285     $ 77,538     $ 89,012     $ 97,576     $ 110,027     $ 116,773     $ 123,174     $ 133,990  

FFO, as defined by NAREIT

  $ 74,574                

Early extinguishment of debt

    25,867       —         —         —         —         —         —         —    

Loan transfer and consent fees

    9,019       —         —         —         —         —         —         —    

Gain on acquisition of controlling interests

    (46,371     —         —         —         —         —         —         —    
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

FFO As Adjusted

  $ 63,089     $ 77,538     $ 89,012     $ 97,576     $ 110,027     $ 116,773     $ 123,174     $ 133,990  

Less: Nonforfeitable dividends on restricted stock awards

    (316     —         —         —         —         —         —         —    

Less: FFO attributable to Predecessor’s controlled and noncontrolled owners’ equity

    (2,462     —         —         —         —         —         —         —    
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

FFO As Adjusted Attributable to Common Stock

  $ 60,311     $ 77,538     $ 89,012     $ 97,576     $ 110,027     $ 116,773     $ 123,174     $ 133,990  

FFO per Diluted Share

    1.05       1.35       1.54       1.62       1.76       1.85       1.92       2.09  

FFO As Adjusted per Diluted Share

    1.11       1.35       1.54       1.62       1.76       1.85       1.92       2.09  

Weighted Average Number of Common Shares

    54,417,123       57,262,767       57,726,012       60,256,335       62,342,953       63,230,829       64,089,921       64,139,437  


 

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We present FFO because we consider FFO an important supplemental measure of our operating performance and believe it is frequently used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties in the evaluation of REITs, many of which present FFO when reporting their results. We calculate FFO in accordance with the standards established by the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts, or NAREIT. FFO represents net income (loss) (computed in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP), excluding gains (or losses) from sales of depreciable operating property, impairment losses, real estate related depreciation and amortization (excluding amortization of deferred financing costs) and after adjustments for unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures. FFO is a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure. Management uses FFO as a supplemental performance measure because it believes that FFO is beneficial to investors as a starting point in measuring our operational performance. Specifically, in excluding real estate related depreciation and amortization and gains and losses from property dispositions, which do not relate to or are not indicative of operating performance, FFO provides a performance measure that, when compared year over year, captures trends in occupancy rates, rental rates and operating costs. We also believe that, as a widely recognized measure of the performance of REITs, FFO will be used by investors as a basis to compare our operating performance with that of other REITs. However, because FFO excludes depreciation and amortization and captures neither the changes in the value of our properties that result from use or market conditions nor the level of capital expenditures and leasing commissions necessary to maintain the operating performance of our properties, all of which have real economic effects and could materially impact our results from operations, the utility of FFO as a measure of our performance is limited. In addition, other equity REITs may not calculate FFO in accordance with the NAREIT definition as we do, and, accordingly, our FFO may not be comparable to such other REITs’ FFO. Accordingly, FFO should be considered only as a supplement to net income as a measure of our performance. FFO should not be used as a measure of our liquidity, nor is it indicative of funds available to fund our cash needs, including our ability to pay dividends or service indebtedness. FFO also should not be used as a supplement to or substitute for cash flow from operating activities computed in accordance with GAAP.

Dividends

For the eight-year period ended December 31, 2018, our dividends per share of common stock grew at a compound annual growth rate of 4.5%.

Cash Net Operating Income

The table below presents a calculation of our cash NOI (as defined below) for the three months ended March 31, 2019 (dollars in thousands):

 

     Three Months
Ended March

31, 2019
(unaudited)
 

Net income

   $ 15,243  

Interest expense

     13,349  

Other income, net

     229  
  

 

 

 

Operating income

   $ 28,821  

Non-cash revenue and other operating expenses

     (5,449

General and administrative

     6,073  

Depreciation and amortization

     20,583  
  

 

 

 

Total Cash NOI

   $ 50,028  
  

 

 

 


 

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We define cash NOI as operating revenues (rental income, tenant reimbursements, lease termination fees, ground lease rental income and other property income) less property and related expenses (property expenses, ground lease expense, property marketing costs, real estate taxes and insurance), adjusted for non-cash revenue and operating expense items such as straight-line rent, amortization of lease intangibles, amortization of lease incentives and other adjustments. Cash NOI also excludes general and administrative expenses, depreciation and amortization, interest expense, other non-property income and losses, acquisition-related expense, gains and losses from property dispositions, extraordinary items, tenant improvements, and leasing commissions. Other REITs may use different methodologies for calculating cash NOI, and accordingly, our cash NOI may not be comparable to the cash NOIs of other REITs. We believe cash NOI provides useful information to investors regarding our financial condition and results of operations because it reflects only those income and expense items that are incurred at the property level, and when compared across periods, can be used to determine trends in earnings of our properties as this measure is not affected by (1) the non-cash revenue and expense recognition items, (2) the cost of funds of the property owner, (3) the impact of depreciation and amortization expenses as well as gains or losses from the sale of operating real estate assets that are included in net income computed in accordance with GAAP or (4) general and administrative expenses and other gains and losses that are specific to the property owner. We believe the exclusion of these items from net (loss) income is useful because the resulting measure captures the actual revenue generated and actual expenses incurred in operating our properties as well as trends in occupancy rates, rental rates and operating costs. Cash NOI is a measure of the operating performance of our properties but does not measure our performance as a whole. Cash NOI is therefore not a substitute for net income as computed in accordance with GAAP.

EBITDA

The table below presents a reconciliation of net income to EBITDA for the eight-year period ended December 31, 2018 and the three-month period ended March 31, 2019 (dollars in thousands):

 

     2011     2012     2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2018     March 31, 2019  

Net Income

     19,324       51,601       22,594       31,145       53,915       45,637       40,132       27,202       15.243  

Depreciation and Amortization

     58,543       63,011       66,775       66,568       63,392       71,319       83,278       107,093       20,583  

Interest Expense

     56,552       59,043       58,020       52,965       47,260       51,936       53,848       52,248       13,349  

Interest Income

     (1,621     (336     (148     (155     (90     (72     (548     (238     (7

Income Tax Expense

     831       1,016       645       460       295       566       214       327       236  

Gain on Sale of Real Estate

     (3,981     (36,720     —         —         (7,121     —         —         —         —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

     129,648       137,615       147,886       150,983       157,651       169,386       176,924       186,632       49,404  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA is a non-GAAP measure that means net income or loss plus depreciation and amortization, net interest expense, income taxes, gain or loss on sale of real estate and impairments of real estate, if any. EBITDA is presented because it approximates a key performance measure in our debt covenants, but it should not be considered an alternative measure of operating results or cash flow from operations as determined in accordance with GAAP.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves risks. You should carefully consider the following risks, the risks described beginning on page 5 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, as well as the other information and data set forth in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein before making an investment decision with respect to the common stock. The risks associated with our business and properties described or incorporated by reference herein, to the extent that they relate generally to the ownership and operation of real estate, will also apply to the ownership and operation of La Jolla Commons if the acquisition is consummated. The occurrence of any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make cash distributions to our stockholders, which could cause you to lose all or a part of your investment in our common stock. Some statements in this prospectus supplement, including statements in the following risk factors, constitute forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements.”

Risks Related to Our Business

We may fail to consummate the acquisition of La Jolla Commons, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, earnings and cash flow.

We intend to use the net proceeds of this offering to fund the cash consideration for (or indebtedness incurred in connection with) the acquisition of La Jolla Commons described in the section entitled “Prospectus Supplement Summary—Recent Developments.” This acquisition is subject to customary closing conditions, and there can be no assurances those conditions will be satisfied or that this acquisition will close on the terms described herein or at all. In the event that we fail to consummate the acquisition of La Jolla Commons, we will have issued a significant number of additional shares of our common stock without realizing a corresponding increase in earnings and cash flow from acquiring this property. In addition, we will have broad authority to use the net proceeds of this offering for other purposes that may not be accretive to our results of operations. As a result, our failure to consummate the acquisition of La Jolla Commons could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and the market price of our common stock.

If we are unable to complete the acquisition of La Jolla Commons, we may lose a $10.0 million initial deposit we made upon execution of the definitive purchase agreement.

We made a $10.0 million initial deposit upon execution of the definitive purchase agreement to acquire La Jolla Commons that is non-refundable except in the case of a material default by the seller or the seller’s failure to satisfy a closing condition. If we are unable to complete the acquisition of La Jolla Commons, we may lose the initial deposit without our stockholders realizing the expected benefits.

The actual density of the undeveloped parcel at La Jolla Commons may not be consistent with the estimated potential density set forth in this prospectus supplement.

As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we estimate that the undeveloped land parcel at La Jolla Commons provides more than 224,000 square feet of estimated potential density. We caution you not to place undue reliance on the potential density estimate for the undeveloped parcel because it is based solely on our estimates, using data made available to us in the acquisition diligence process. The actual density of the undeveloped land parcel at La Jolla Commons may differ substantially from our estimates based on numerous factors, including our inability to utilize necessary zoning, land use and other required entitlements prior to expiration or obtain such entitlements should the current entitlements expire, our inability to obtain building, occupancy and other required governmental permits and authorizations, and changes in the entitlement, permitting and authorization processes that restrict or delay our ability to develop the undeveloped parcel at anticipated density levels. Moreover, we may strategically choose not to develop or use the undeveloped parcel to its maximum potential

 

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density or may be unable to do so as a result of factors beyond our control, including the expiration of current entitlements or our ability to obtain capital on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all, to fund our development activities. We can provide no assurance that the actual density of the undeveloped parcel will be consistent with our potential density estimates.

The actual initial full-year investment yield and stabilized investment yield on the La Jolla Commons acquisition may not be consistent with the anticipated initial full-year investment yield or expected stabilized investment yield set forth in this prospectus supplement.

As a part of our standard due diligence process in connection with the acquisition of a property, we analyze the initial full-year investment yield and stabilized investment yield that we expect to derive from a property acquisition and establish an anticipated full-year investment yield and expected stabilized investment yield. Anticipated full-year investment yield reflects expected property net operating income reported as a percentage of estimated net purchase price for the property. We calculate the anticipated initial full-year net operating income by subtracting the asset’s anticipated initial full-year operating expenses (before interest expense, income taxes (if any), depreciation and amortization and related property management fees) from anticipated initial full-year revenues (calculated as cash rent for the initial year from in-place leases and leases that will commence in the initial year, plus non-cash straight line rent). We calculate estimated stabilized investment yield based on the foregoing methodology plus the effects of expected incremental leasing of available space. For purposes of these calculations, we calculated the net purchase price for La Jolla Commons as $525 million, less a seller credit of $11.5 million, less $20 million that we have preliminarily allocated to the value of the development parcel included in the purchase.

We caution you not to place undue reliance on the anticipated investment yields we present in this prospectus supplement because they are based solely on our estimates, using data available to us in our diligence process. Our anticipated initial full-year net operating income, estimated property-related revenue, estimated operating expenses and/or estimated incremental investment may differ substantially from our estimates due to various factors, including unanticipated capital expenditures and other expenses, , delays and/or difficulties in leasing and stabilizing these assets, failure to obtain estimated incremental lease-up, occupancy and rental rates, inability to collect anticipated rental revenues, tenant bankruptcies and unanticipated expenses at these assets that we cannot pass on to tenants. We can provide no assurance that the actual initial full-year investment yield or expected stabilized investment yield on La Jolla Commons will be consistent with the anticipated yields set forth in this prospectus supplement.

Risks Related to this Offering

The market price and trading volume of our common stock may be volatile following this offering.

The market price of our common stock may be volatile. In addition, the trading volume in our common stock may fluctuate and cause significant price variations to occur. If the market price of our common stock declines significantly, you may be unable to resell your shares at or above the purchase price. We cannot assure you that the market price of our common stock will not fluctuate or decline significantly in the future.

Some of the factors that could negatively affect our share price or result in fluctuations in the price or trading volume of our common stock include:

 

   

actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results or dividends;

 

   

changes in our funds from operations or earnings estimates;

 

   

publication of research reports about us or the real estate industry;

 

   

prevailing interest rates;

 

   

the market for similar securities;

 

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changes in market valuations of similar companies;

 

   

adverse market reaction to any additional debt we may incur in the future;

 

   

additions or departures of key management personnel;

 

   

actions by institutional stockholders;

 

   

speculation in the press or investment community;

 

   

the realization of any of the other risk factors presented in this prospectus supplement and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018;

 

   

the extent of investor interest in our securities;

 

   

the general reputation of REITs and the attractiveness of our equity securities in comparison to other equity securities, including securities issued by other real estate-based companies;

 

   

our underlying asset value;

 

   

investor confidence in the stock and bond markets, generally;

 

   

changes in tax laws;

 

   

future equity issuances;

 

   

failure to meet earnings estimates;

 

   

failure to meet the REIT qualification requirements and maintain our REIT status;

 

   

changes in our credit ratings;

 

   

general economic and financial market conditions;

 

   

our issuance of debt or preferred equity securities; and

 

   

our financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the price of their common stock. This type of litigation could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention and resources, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.

Affiliates of the underwriters may receive benefits in connection with this offering.

Affiliates of Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, Wells Fargo Securities, LLC and the other underwriters in this offering are lenders under our second amended and restated credit facility. As described above, our operating partnership intends to use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay borrowings outstanding under our second amended and restated credit facility. To the extent that we use a portion of the net proceeds of this offering to repay borrowings outstanding under our second amended and restated credit facility, these affiliates of our underwriters will receive their proportionate shares of any amount of our second amended and restated credit facility that is repaid with the net proceeds of this offering. This creates potential conflicts of interest because the underwriters have an interest in the successful completion of this offering beyond the underwriting discounts they will receive. Such conflicts of interest may influence the decision regarding the terms and circumstances under which the offering is completed.

Market interest rates may have an effect on the value of our common stock.

One of the factors that will influence the market price of our common stock will be the dividend yield on our common stock (as a percentage of the price of our common stock) relative to market interest rates. An increase in

 

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market interest rates, which are currently at low levels relative to historical rates, may lead prospective purchasers of our common stock to expect a higher dividend yield and higher interest rates would likely increase our borrowing costs and potentially decrease funds available for distribution. Thus, higher market interest rates could cause the market price of our common stock to decrease.

The number of shares of our common stock available for future issuance or sale could adversely affect the per share trading price of our common stock.

We cannot predict whether future issuances or sales of shares of our common stock or the availability of shares for resale in the open market will decrease the trading price per share of our common stock. The issuance of substantial numbers of shares of our common stock in the public market, or upon exchange of common units, or the perception that such issuances might occur could adversely affect the per share trading price of our common stock. In particular, we entered into a registration rights agreement with various persons who received shares of our common stock and/or common units in our formation transactions, pursuant to which we filed a registration statement and registered shares of our common stock on behalf of the selling stockholders named therein and the holders of shares of our common stock that may be issued in exchange for common units in our operating partnership. As a result, a substantial number of shares may be sold pursuant to the registration rights granted to the parties to such registration rights agreement. The sale of a substantial amount of such shares, or the perception that such a sale may occur, could materially and adversely affect the per share trading price of our common stock.

The exchange of common units for common stock, the exercise of any options or the vesting of any restricted stock granted to certain directors, executive officers and other employees under our equity incentive plan, the issuance of our common stock or common units in connection with future property, portfolio or business acquisitions and other issuances of our common stock could have an adverse effect on the per share trading price of our common stock, and the existence of common units, options, shares of our common stock reserved for issuance as restricted shares of our common stock or upon exchange of common units may adversely affect the terms upon which we may be able to obtain additional capital through the sale of equity securities. In addition, future issuances of shares of our common stock may be dilutive to existing stockholders.

You may experience significant dilution as a result of this offering, which may adversely affect the per share trading price of our common stock.

This offering may have a dilutive effect on our earnings per share and funds from operations per share after giving effect to the issuance of our common stock in this offering and the receipt of the expected net proceeds. The actual amount of dilution from this offering, or from any future offering of common or preferred stock, will be based on numerous factors, particularly the use of proceeds and the return generated by such investment, and cannot be determined at this time. Additionally, we are not restricted from issuing additional common stock or issuing preferred stock, including securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for, or that represent the right to receive, our common stock or our preferred stock or any substantially similar securities in the future. The per share trading price of our common stock could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of our common stock in the market pursuant to this offering, or otherwise, or as a result of the perception or expectation that such sales could occur.

Future offerings of debt securities, which would be senior to our common stock upon liquidation, and/or preferred equity securities, which may be senior to our common stock for purposes of dividend distributions or upon liquidation, may adversely affect the per share trading price of our common stock.

In the future, we may attempt to increase our capital resources by making offerings of debt or additional equity securities (or causing our operating partnership to issue debt securities), including medium-term notes, senior or subordinated notes and classes or series of preferred stock. Upon liquidation, holders of our debt securities and shares of preferred stock or preferred units of partnership interest in our operating partnership and lenders with

 

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respect to other borrowings will be entitled to receive our available assets prior to distribution to the holders of our common stock. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our common stock and may result in dilution to owners of our common stock. Holders of our common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights or other protections against dilution. Any shares of preferred stock or preferred units that we issue in the future could have a preference on liquidating distributions or a preference on dividend payments that could limit our ability pay dividends to the holders of our common stock. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, our stockholders bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the per share trading price of our common stock and diluting their interest in us.

Our ability to pay dividends is limited by the requirements of Maryland law.

Our ability to pay dividends on our common stock is limited by the laws of Maryland. Under applicable Maryland law, a Maryland corporation generally may not make a distribution if, after giving effect to the distribution, the corporation would not be able to pay its debts as the debts become due in the usual course of business or the corporation’s total assets would be less than the sum of its total liabilities plus, unless the corporation’s charter permits otherwise, the amount that would be needed, if the corporation were dissolved at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of stockholders whose preferential rights are superior to those receiving the distribution. Accordingly, we generally may not make a distribution on our common stock if, after giving effect to the distribution, we would not be able to pay our debts as they become due in the usual course of business or our total assets would be less than the sum of our total liabilities plus, unless the terms of such class or series provide otherwise, the amount that would be needed to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of the holders of shares of any class or series of preferred stock then outstanding, if any, with preferences upon dissolution senior to those of our common stock.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds that we will receive from this offering will be approximately $            million, or approximately $            million if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full, in each case after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and our estimated offering expenses. We will contribute the net proceeds that we receive from this offering to our operating partnership in exchange for common units.

Our operating partnership intends to use the net proceeds from this offering to finance the acquisition of La Jolla Commons and, to the extent such acquisition is not completed, to repay amounts outstanding from time to time under our second amended and restated credit facility or other debt financing obligations, fund our development or redevelopment activities, fund potential acquisition opportunities and/or for general corporate purposes.

As of May 31, 2019, we have approximately $168 million outstanding under our second amended and restated credit facility, consisting of $68 million outstanding under a revolving line of credit (the “Revolver Loan”) and $100 million outstanding under a term loan (the “Term Loan A”). Borrowings under the second amended and restated credit facility initially bear interest at floating rates equal to, at our option, either (1) LIBOR, plus a spread which ranges from (a) 1.05% to 1.50% (with respect to the Revolver Loan) and (b) 1.20% to 1.70% (with respect to Term Loan A), in each case based on our consolidated leverage ratio, or (2) a base rate equal to the highest of (a) the prime rate, (b) the federal funds rate plus 50 bps or (c) LIBOR plus 100 bps, plus a spread which ranges from (i) 0.10% to 0.50% (with respect to the Revolver Loan) and (ii) 0.20% to 0.70% (with respect to Term Loan A), in each case based on our consolidated leverage ratio. The Revolver Loan initially matures on January 9, 2022, subject to our option to extend the Revolver Loan up to two times, with each such extension for a six-month period. The Term Loan A matures on January 9, 2021, subject to three, one-year extension options. As of May 31, 2019, the Revolver Loan bore interest at LIBOR plus 1.05% per annum and the Term Loan A bore interest at LIBOR plus 1.20% per annum.

Affiliates of Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, Wells Fargo Securities, LLC and the other underwriters in this offering are lenders under our second amended and restated credit facility. See “Underwriting—Other Relationships.” To the extent that we use a portion of the net proceeds of this offering to repay borrowings outstanding under our second amended and restated credit facility, such affiliates of the underwriters will receive their proportionate shares of any such amount.

Pending application of cash proceeds, our operating partnership will invest the net proceeds from this offering in interest-bearing accounts and short-term, interest-bearing securities in a manner that is consistent with our intention to maintain our qualification as a REIT.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our actual cash and cash equivalents and consolidated capitalization as of March 31, 2019 and our cash and cash equivalents and consolidated capitalization as of March 31, 2019, adjusted to give effect to the issuance of (i) 787,060 shares of our common stock after March 31, 2019 upon the conversion of common units and (ii) 519,382 shares of our common stock after March 31, 2019 in connection with our at-the-market equity distribution program. No adjustments have been made to reflect normal course operations by us or other developments with our business after March 31, 2019, including this offering and the funding of the purchase price in connection with our expected acquisition of La Jolla Commons. As a result, the adjusted information provided below is not indicative of our actual cash and cash equivalents position or consolidated capitalization as of any date.

You should read this table in conjunction with “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus supplement, the consolidated financial statements and related notes in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019 and the consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, which are incorporated herein by reference.

 

     As of March 31, 2019  
     Actual     As Adjusted (1)  
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)       

Cash and cash equivalents

   $ 54,538     $ 77,972  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Debt :

    

Secured notes payable, net

   $ 162,688     $ 162,688  

Unsecured notes payable, net (2)

     1,045,709       1,045,709  

Unsecured line of credit, net

     86,438       86,438  

Equity :

    

American Assets Trust, Inc. stockholders’ equity:

    

Common Stock: $0.01 par value, 490,000,000 shares authorized, 47,486,894 shares issued and outstanding on an actual basis and 48,793,336 shares issued and outstanding on an as adjusted basis

     475       488 (3)  

Additional paid-in capital

     928,792       965,200  

Accumulated dividends in excess of net income

     (130,841     (130,841

Accumulated other comprehensive income

     8,825       8,973  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total America Assets Trust, Inc. stockholders’ equity

     807,251       843,820  

Noncontrolling interests

     (1,918     (15,053
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Capitalization

   $ 2,100,168     $ 2,123,602  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

Does not reflect the payment of the purchase price in connection with our expected acquisition of La Jolla Commons. Following the completion of this offering, we intend to pay such purchase price using cash on hand (including from the net proceeds of this offering) and borrowings under our second amended and restated credit facility. This information is illustrative only and our capitalization following the closing of this offering will be adjusted based on the actual offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. Also does not reflect the issuance of restricted stock with a value of $50,000 to each of our of nonemployee directors at our annual meeting of stockholders to be held on June 11, 2019.

(2)

As of March 31, 2019, we had approximately $450 million of total capacity under our second amended and restated credit facility, of which $88 million had been drawn under the Revolver Loan and of which $100 million had been drawn under Term Loan A. As of March 31, 2019, we had $150 million of total capacity under our amended term loan agreement, which was fully drawn. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we have approximately $68 million of borrowings outstanding under the Revolver Loan, Term Loan A was fully drawn and the term loans under our amended term loan agreement were fully drawn.

(3)

Excludes (i) 1,425,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares in full and (ii) a maximum of 2,595,189 shares of common stock available for issuance in the future under our equity incentive plan.

 

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SUPPLEMENTAL FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

For a discussion of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding us and an investment in the shares of our common stock offered hereby, please see Exhibit 99.2 to our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 15, 2019, or the February 15, 2019 Form 8-K, which was filed pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K. The February 15, 2019 Form 8-K (including Exhibit 99.2 thereto) is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and supersedes and replaces, in its entirety, the discussion under the heading “Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus and the related registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-222876) filed by us with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 5, 2018. The February 15, 2019 Form 8-K may be obtained as described under “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference” in the accompanying prospectus. See “Incorporation By Reference.” Prospective investors in shares of our common stock offered hereby should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income and other tax considerations to them of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of the shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Prospective investors should also carefully review the discussion appearing in Exhibit 99.2 to the February 15, 2019 Form 8-K before acquiring any of the shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

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UNDERWRITING

Under the terms and subject to the conditions in an underwriting agreement dated the date of this prospectus supplement, the underwriters named below, for whom Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC are acting as representatives, have severally agreed to purchase, and we have agreed to sell to them, severally, the number of shares indicated below:

 

Name

   Number of Shares  

Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC

  

Wells Fargo Securities, LLC

                       
  

 

 

 

Total:

  
  

 

 

 

The underwriters and the representatives are collectively referred to as the “underwriters” and the “representatives,” respectively. The underwriters are offering the shares of common stock subject to their acceptance of the shares from us and subject to prior sale. The underwriting agreement provides that the obligations of the several underwriters to pay for and accept delivery of the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus supplement are subject to the approval of certain legal matters by their counsel and to certain other conditions. The underwriters are obligated to take and pay for all of the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus supplement if any such shares are taken. However, the underwriters are not required to take or pay for the shares covered by the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares described below.

The underwriters initially propose to offer part of the shares of common stock directly to the public at the offering price listed on the cover page of this prospectus supplement and part to certain dealers at a price that represents a concession not in excess of $            per share under the public offering price. After the initial offering of the shares of common stock, the offering price and other selling terms may from time to time be varied by the representative.

We have granted to the underwriters an option, exercisable for 30 days from the date of this prospectus supplement, to purchase up to 1,425,000 additional shares of common stock at the public offering price listed on the cover page of this prospectus supplement, less underwriting discounts and commissions. To the extent the option is exercised, each underwriter will become obligated, subject to certain conditions, to purchase about the same percentage of the additional shares of common stock as the number listed next to the underwriter’s name in the preceding table bears to the total number of shares of common stock listed next to the names of all underwriters in the preceding table.

The following table shows the per share and total public offering price, underwriting discounts and commissions, and proceeds before expenses to us. These amounts are shown assuming both no exercise and full exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase up to an additional 1,425,000 shares of common stock.

 

            Total  
     Per
Share
     No
Exercise
     Full
Exercise
 

Public offering price

   $        $        $    

Underwriting discounts and commissions to be paid by us

   $        $        $    

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

   $        $        $    

The estimated offering expenses payable by us, exclusive of the underwriting discounts and commissions, are approximately $                 .

Our common stock is listed for trading on the NYSE under the symbol “AAT”.

We and our operating partnership and our directors and officers have agreed that, without the prior written consent of Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, on behalf of the underwriters, we and

 

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they will not, during the period ending 60 days after the date of this prospectus supplement (the “restricted period”):

 

   

offer, pledge, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase, lend or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of common stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for shares of common stock;

 

   

file any registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission relating to the offering of any shares of common stock or any securities convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock; or

 

   

enter into any swap or other arrangement that transfers to another, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of the common stock;

whether any such transaction described above is to be settled by delivery of common stock or such other securities, in cash or otherwise. In addition, we and our operating partnership and each such person agrees that, without the prior written consent of Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, on behalf of the underwriters, we, our operating partnership or such other person will not, during the restricted period, make any demand for, or exercise any right with respect to, the registration of any shares of common stock or any security convertible into or exercisable or exchangeable for common stock.

The restrictions described in the immediately preceding paragraph to do not apply to:

 

   

the sale of shares to the underwriters; or

 

   

the issuance by the company of shares of common stock upon the exercise of an option or a warrant or the conversion of a security outstanding on the date of this prospectus supplement of which the underwriters have been advised in writing;

 

   

transactions by any person other than us relating to shares of common stock or other securities acquired in open market transactions after the completion of the offering of the shares; provided that no filing under Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act, is required or voluntarily made in connection with subsequent sales of the common stock or other securities acquired in such open market transactions; or

 

   

the establishment of a trading plan pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act for the transfer of shares of common stock, provided that (i) such plan does not provide for the transfer of common stock during the restricted period and (ii) to the extent a public announcement or filing under the Exchange Act, if any, is required or voluntarily made regarding the establishment of such plan, such announcement or filing shall include a statement to the effect that no transfer of common stock may be made under such plan during the restricted period.

Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC may release the common stock and other securities subject to the lock-up agreements described above in whole or in part at any time.

In order to facilitate the offering of the common stock, the underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the common stock. Specifically, the underwriters may sell more shares than they are obligated to purchase under the underwriting agreement, creating a short position. A short sale is covered if the short position is no greater than the number of shares available for purchase by the underwriters under the option. The underwriters can close out a covered short sale by exercising the option or purchasing shares in the open market. In determining the source of shares to close out a covered short sale, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the open market price of shares compared to the price available under the option. The underwriters may also sell shares in excess of the option, creating a naked short position. The underwriters must close out any naked short position by purchasing shares in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on

 

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the price of the common stock in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in this offering. As an additional means of facilitating this offering, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, shares of common stock in the open market to stabilize the price of the common stock. These activities may raise or maintain the market price of the common stock above independent market levels or prevent or retard a decline in the market price of the common stock. The underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

We and our operating partnership have agreed to indemnify the underwriters and the underwriters have agreed to indemnify us and our operating partnership against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

A prospectus supplement in electronic format may be made available on websites maintained by one or more underwriters, or selling group members, if any, participating in this offering. The representative may agree to allocate a number of shares of common stock to underwriters for sale to their online brokerage account holders. Internet distributions will be allocated by the representative to underwriters that may make Internet distributions on the same basis as other allocations.

Other Relationships

Affiliates of Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, Wells Fargo Securities, LLC and the other underwriters in this offering are lenders under our second amended and restated credit facility. As described in this prospectus supplement, our operating partnership intends to use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay borrowings outstanding under our second amended and restated credit facility. To the extent that we use a portion of the net proceeds of this offering to repay borrowings outstanding under our second amended and restated credit facility, these affiliates will receive their proportionate shares of any amount of our second amended and restated credit facility that is repaid with the net proceeds of this offering.

The underwriters and their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. Certain of the underwriters and their respective affiliates have, from time to time, performed, and may in the future perform, various financial advisory and investment banking services for us, for which they received or will receive customary fees and expenses.

In addition, in the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriters and their respective affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers and may at any time hold long and short positions in such securities and instruments. Such investment and securities activities may involve our securities and instruments. The underwriters and their respective affiliates may also make investment recommendations or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long or short positions in such securities and instruments.

Selling Restrictions

European Economic Area

In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area which has implemented the Prospectus Directive (each, a “Relevant Member State”) an offer to the public of any shares of our common stock may not be made in that Relevant Member State, except that an offer to the public in that Relevant Member State of any shares of our common stock may be made at any time under the following exemptions under the Prospectus Directive, if they have been implemented in that Relevant Member State:

 

(a)

to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Directive;

 

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(b)

to fewer than 100 or, if the Relevant Member State has implemented the relevant provision of the 2010 PD Amending Directive, 150, natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Directive), as permitted under the Prospectus Directive, subject to obtaining the prior consent of the representatives for any such offer; or

 

(c)

in any other circumstances falling within Article 3(2) of the Prospectus Directive, provided that no such offer of shares of our common stock shall result in a requirement for the publication by us or any underwriter of a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive.

For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any shares of our common stock in any Relevant Member State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any shares of our common stock to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase any shares of our common stock, as the same may be varied in that Member State by any measure implementing the Prospectus Directive in that Member State, the expression “Prospectus Directive” means Directive 2003/71/EC (and amendments thereto, including the 2010 PD Amending Directive, to the extent implemented in the Relevant Member State), and includes any relevant implementing measure in the Relevant Member State, and the expression “2010 PD Amending Directive” means Directive 2010/73/EU.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Kingdom

Each underwriter has represented and agreed that:

 

(a)

it has only communicated or caused to be communicated and will only communicate or cause to be communicated an invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity (within the meaning of Section 21 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (“FSMA”)) received by it in connection with the issue or sale of the shares of our common stock in circumstances in which Section 21(1) of the FSMA does not apply to us; and

 

(b)

it has complied and will comply with all applicable provisions of the FSMA with respect to anything done by it in relation to the shares of our common stock in, from or otherwise involving the United Kingdom.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the Dubai International Financial Centre

This prospectus supplement relates to an Exempt Offer in accordance with the Offered Securities Rules of the Dubai Financial Services Authority (“DFSA”). This prospectus supplement is intended for distribution only to persons of a type specified in the Offered Securities Rules of the DFSA. It must not be delivered to, or relied on by, any other person. The DFSA has no responsibility for reviewing or verifying any documents in connection with Exempt Offers. The DFSA has not approved this prospectus supplement nor taken steps to verify the information set forth herein and has no responsibility for the prospectus supplement. The shares to which this prospectus supplement relates may be illiquid and/or subject to restrictions on their resale. Prospective purchasers of the shares offered should conduct their own due diligence on the shares. If you do not understand the contents of this prospectus supplement you should consult an authorized financial advisor.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Australia

No placement document, prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document has been lodged with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission, in relation to the offering. This prospectus supplement does not constitute a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act 2001 (the “Corporations Act”), and does not purport to include the information required for a prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under the Corporations Act.

Any offer in Australia of the shares may only be made to persons (the “Exempt Investors”) who are “sophisticated investors” (within the meaning of section 708(8) of the Corporations Act), “professional investors” (within the meaning of section 708(11) of the Corporations Act) or otherwise pursuant to one or more exemptions contained in section 708 of the Corporations Act so that it is lawful to offer the shares without disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act.

 

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The shares applied for by Exempt Investors in Australia must not be offered for sale in Australia in the period of 12 months after the date of allotment under the offering, except in circumstances where disclosure to investors under Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act would not be required pursuant to an exemption under section 708 of the Corporations Act or otherwise or where the offer is pursuant to a disclosure document which complies with Chapter 6D of the Corporations Act. Any person acquiring shares must observe such Australian on-sale restrictions.

This prospectus contains general information only and does not take account of the investment objectives, financial situation or particular needs of any particular person. It does not contain any securities recommendations or financial product advice. Before making an investment decision, investors need to consider whether the information in this prospectus is appropriate to their needs, objectives and circumstances, and, if necessary, seek expert advice on those matters.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Canada

The securities may be sold only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations . Any resale of the securities must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus supplement (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

Pursuant to section 3A.3 (or, in the case of securities issued or guaranteed by the government of a non-Canadian jurisdiction, section 3A.4) of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts ( NI 33-105 ), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the Netherlands

Neither this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus we may provide in connection with this offering is addressed to or intended for, and the common shares described in the prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not and will not be, directly or indirectly, offered, sold, transferred or delivered to, any individual or legal entity in the Netherlands except to individuals or entities that are qualified investors ( gekwalificeerde beleggers ) within the meaning of Article 1:1 of the Dutch Financial Supervision Act ( Wet op het financieel toezicht, Wft ). As a consequence no approved prospectus has to be published in the Netherlands pursuant to Article 3 of the European Directive 2003/71/EC as amended (including by Directive 2010/73/EU) and implemented in Netherlands law.

Notice to prospective investors in Norway

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus have not been produced in accordance with the prospectus requirements laid down in Chapter 7 of the Norwegian Securities Trading Act 2007 and ancillary regulations, and has not been approved or disapproved by, or registered with, the Oslo Stock Exchange, the Norwegian Financial Supervisory Authority (Finanstilsynet) nor the Norwegian Registry of Business Enterprises or any other Norwegian regulatory body. Each recipient of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in Norway should note that it may not contain all information required to be disclosed in prospectuses within the meaning of Chapter 7 of the Norwegian Securities Trading Act 2007.

 

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The securities referred to in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not marketed or offered in Norway other than in circumstances where Norwegian prospectus requirements do not apply or exemption from such requirements are available.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP, Los Angeles, California, and for the underwriters by Hogan Lovells US LLP, Washington, DC. Venable LLP will pass upon the validity of the shares of common stock sold in this offering and certain other matters under Maryland law.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of American Assets Trust, Inc. and American Assets Trust, L.P. appearing in American Assets Trust, Inc.’s and American Assets Trust, L.P.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2018, including the schedule appearing therein, and the effectiveness of American Assets Trust, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

American Assets Trust, Inc. has filed a registration statement on Form S-3 with the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with this offering. In addition, American Assets Trust, Inc. and American Assets Trust, L.P. file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Such filings are available to the public through the Securities and Exchange Commission’s website at www.sec.gov. In addition, we maintain a website that contains information about us at http:// www.americanassetstrust.com. The information found on, or otherwise accessible through, our website is not incorporated into, and does not form a part of, this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement or any other report or document we file with or furnish to the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

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INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The Securities and Exchange Commission allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The incorporated documents contain significant information about us, our business and our finances. Any statement contained in a document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is automatically updated and superseded if information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, or information that we later file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, modifies or replaces this information. We incorporate by reference the following documents we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission:

 

   

the Annual Report on Form 10-K of American Assets Trust, Inc. and American Assets Trust, L.P. for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 15, 2019;

 

   

the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q of American Assets Trust, Inc. and American Assets Trust, L.P. for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on May 3, 2019;

 

   

the portions of the Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A of American Assets Trust, Inc., incorporated by reference in the Annual Report on Form 10-K of American Assets Trust, Inc. and American Assets Trust, L.P. for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 12, 2019;

 

   

the Current Reports on Form 8-K of American Assets Trust, Inc. and American Assets Trust, L.P., as applicable, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January  9, 2019 , February  15, 2019 (solely with respect to Item 8.01 and Exhibit 99.2 thereto) and June 10, 2019 (solely with respect to Item 1.01);

 

   

the description of our Common Stock contained in the our registration statement on Form 8-A , dated January 11, 2011, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 11, 2011 and any amendment or report filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission for the purpose of updating the description; and

 

   

all documents filed by American Assets Trust, Inc. or American Assets Trust, L.P. with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the termination of the offering of the underlying securities.

To the extent that any information contained in any current report on Form 8-K, or any exhibit thereto, was furnished to, rather than filed with, the Securities and Exchange Commission, such information or exhibit is specifically not incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

We will provide without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is delivered, on written or oral request of that person, a copy of any or all of the documents we are incorporating by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, other than exhibits to those documents, unless those exhibits are specifically incorporated by reference into those documents. A written request should be addressed to American Assets Trust, Inc., 11455 El Camino Real, Suite 200, San Diego, California 92130, Attention: General Counsel or by telephone at (858) 350-2600.

 

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PROSPECTUS

 

 

LOGO

AMERICAN ASSETS TRUST, INC.

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Warrants

Rights

Units

 

 

We may offer and sell the securities identified above, and the selling securityholders may offer and sell shares of common stock, in each case from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our common stock by the selling securityholders.

Each time we or any of the selling securityholders offer and sell securities, we or such selling securityholders will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and, if applicable, the selling securityholders, as well as the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. In addition, the selling securityholders may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time, together or separately. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

 

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “ RISK FACTORS ” ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “AAT.” On February 2, 2018, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the New York Stock Exchange was $34.47 per share.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is February 5, 2018.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     2  

THE COMPANY

     4  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

     10  

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

     13  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     16  

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

     18  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     19  

RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

     20  

DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF AMERICAN ASSETS TRUST, L.P.

     24  

MATERIAL PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

     31  

FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

     37  

SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

     61  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     62  

LEGAL MATTERS

     63  

EXPERTS

     63  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings and the selling securityholders to be named in a supplement to this prospectus may, from time to time, sell shares of common stock from time to time in one or more offerings as described in this prospectus. Each time that we or the selling securityholders offer and sell securities, we or the selling securityholders will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, you should rely on the prospectus supplement. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

Neither we, nor the selling securityholders, have authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We and the selling securityholders will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate as of the date on its respective cover, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

When we refer to “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean American Assets Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation, American Assets Trust, L.P., and any of our other subsidiaries, unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the holders of the applicable class or series of securities. American Assets Trust, L.P. is a Maryland limited partnership of which we are the sole general partner and to which we refer in this prospectus as our operating partnership.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Available Information

We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Information filed with the SEC by us can be inspected and copied at the Public Reference Room maintained by the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may also obtain copies of this information by mail from the Public Reference Room of the SEC at prescribed rates. Further information on the operation of the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov .

Our web site address is www.americanassetstrust.com. The information on our web site, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement at the SEC’s Public Reference Room in Washington, D.C. or through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies or replaces that statement.

We incorporate by reference our documents listed below and any future filings made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the “Exchange Act” in this prospectus, between the date of this prospectus and the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed below or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including our Compensation Committee report and performance graph or any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, filed with the SEC on February 17, 2017.

 

   

Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2017 , June 30, 2017 , and September 30, 2017 , filed with the SEC on May 5, 2017, August 4, 2017 and November 3, 2017, respectively.

 

   

Our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A , filed with the SEC on April 13, 2017.

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 1, 2017 , March 27, 2017 , April  28, 2017 , May 5, 2017 , May  23, 2017 , June 13, 2017 , July  19, 2017 and January  9, 2018 and our Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed with the SEC on June 28, 2017.

 

   

The description of our Common Stock contained in the our registration statement on Form 8-A , dated January 11, 2011, filed with the SEC on January 11, 2011 and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description.

 

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All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the termination of this offering but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus (other than exhibits, unless they are specifically incorporated by reference in the documents) by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

AMERICAN ASSETS TRUST, INC.

11455 EL CAMINO REAL, SUITE 200

SAN DEIGO, CALIFORNIA 92130

ATTENTION: GENERAL COUNSEL

(858) 350-2600

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

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THE COMPANY

We are a full service, vertically integrated and self-administered real estate investment trust, or REIT, that owns, operates, acquires and develops high quality retail, office, multifamily and mixed-use properties in attractive, high-barrier-to-entry markets in Southern California, Northern California, Oregon, Washington, Texas and Hawaii. As of December 31, 2017, our portfolio is comprised of twelve retail shopping centers; seven office properties; a mixed-use property consisting of a 369-room all-suite hotel and a retail shopping center; and six multifamily properties. Additionally, as of December 31, 2017, we owned land at four of our properties that we classified as held for development and construction in progress. Our core markets include San Diego, the San Francisco Bay Area, Portland, Oregon, Bellevue, Washington and Oahu, Hawaii.

We are a Maryland corporation that was formed on July 16, 2010, and elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2011. We intend to continue operating in a manner that will allow us to maintain our qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. To maintain REIT status, we must meet a number of organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement that we annually distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (excluding capital gains) to our stockholders.

Our principal executive office is located at 11455 El Camino Real, Suite 200, San Diego, California 92130, and our telephone number is (858) 350-2600.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless we indicate otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to contribute the net proceeds from any sale of the securities pursuant to this prospectus to our operating partnership. Our operating partnership will subsequently use the net proceeds received from us to potentially acquire or develop additional properties and for general corporate purposes, which may include payment of dividends, the repayment of existing indebtedness and capital expenditures for improvements to the properties in our portfolio. Pending application of cash proceeds, we will invest the net proceeds in interest-bearing accounts, money market accounts and interest-bearing securities in a manner that is consistent with our intention to qualify for taxation as a REIT. Such investments may include, for example, government and government agency certificates, government bonds, certificates of deposit, interest-bearing bank deposits, money market accounts and mortgage loan participations. Further details regarding the use of the net proceeds from the sale of a specific series or class of the securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of our common stock by the selling securityholders, if any, pursuant to this prospectus.

 

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RATIO OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

The following table sets forth the historical ratios of earnings to fixed charges for the periods indicated.

 

     For the
period from
January 1,
2017 to
September 30,
2017
    

 

For the Year Ended December 31,

 
     2016      2015      2014      2013      2012  

Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

     1.7x        1.8x        1.7x        1.4x        1.3x        1.2x  

Our ratios of earnings to fixed charges were computed by dividing earnings by fixed charges for the Company and our majority owned subsidiaries. For this purpose, “earnings” consist of pre-tax income (loss) from continuing operations before non-controlling interests, equity in earnings (losses) of real estate joint ventures and fixed charges, plus distributed income of real estate joint ventures, less capitalized interest. “Fixed charges” consist of interest expense, capitalized interest, amortization of deferred financing fees, whether expensed or capitalized, amortization of debt fair value adjustments and the interest portion of rent expense.

For the periods shown, we had neither issued any shares of, nor paid any dividends on, preferred stock. Accordingly, the ratios of earnings to fixed charges and preferred stock dividends are not presented because they are identical to the ratios of earnings to fixed charges for each of the periods.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

General

This prospectus describes the general terms of our common stock. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law, or MGCL, and our charter and bylaws. When we or any selling securityholders offer to sell a particular class or series of common stock, we or such selling securityholders will describe the specific terms of the class or series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of common stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 490,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share, or common stock. Our charter authorizes our board of directors, with the approval of a majority of the entire board of directors and without any action by our stockholders, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of any class or series of our stock that we have authority to issue. As of November 3, 2017, 47,127,760 shares of our common stock were issued and outstanding.

Under Maryland law, stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.

All shares of our common stock offered hereby will be duly authorized, fully paid and nonassessable. Subject to the preferential rights of holders of any other class or series of our stock and to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends and other distributions on such shares if, as and when authorized by our board of directors out of assets legally available therefor and declared by us and to share ratably in the assets of our company legally available for distribution to our stockholders in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up after payment or establishment of reserves for all known debts and liabilities of our company.

Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of our stock, each outstanding share of our common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors, and the holders of shares of our common stock will possess the exclusive voting power. There is no cumulative voting in the election of our directors. Directors are elected by a plurality of all of the votes cast in the election of directors.

Holders of shares of our common stock have no preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund or redemption rights and have no preemptive rights to subscribe for any securities of our company. Our charter provides that our stockholders generally have no appraisal rights unless our board of directors determines prospectively that appraisal rights will apply to one or more transactions in which holders of our common stock would otherwise be entitled to exercise appraisal rights. Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, holders of our common stock will have equal dividend, liquidation and other rights.

Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally cannot dissolve, amend its charter, merge, convert, consolidate, sell all or substantially all of its assets or engage in a statutory share exchange unless declared advisable by its board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is set forth in the corporation’s charter. Our charter provides for approval of any of these matters by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on such matters, except that the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors is required to remove a director and the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on such matter is required to amend the provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors, specifying that our stockholders may act without a meeting only by unanimous consent, or specifying the vote required to amend such provisions. Maryland law also permits a Maryland corporation to transfer all or substantially all of its assets without the approval of its stockholders to an entity if all of the equity interests of the entity are owned, directly or indirectly, by the corporation. Because our operating assets may be held by our operating partnership or its subsidiaries, these subsidiaries may be able to merge or transfer all or substantially all of their assets without the approval of our stockholders.

 

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Our charter authorizes our board of directors to reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock into other classes or series of stock, to establish the designation and number of shares of each such class or series and to set, subject to the provisions of our charter relating to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions for redemption of each such class or series.

Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Shares of Common Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Common Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of common stock, to authorize us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our common stock and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our common stock and thereafter to authorize us to issue such classified or reclassified shares will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series, as well as the additional authorized shares of common stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders unless such action is required by the terms of any class or series of our stock that we may issue or by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests. See “Material Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws-Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws.”

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

To assist us in complying with certain federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, among other purposes, our charter contains certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of our common stock. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

General

This prospectus describes the general terms of our preferred stock. For a more detailed description of these securities, you should read the applicable provisions of the MGCL and our charter and bylaws. When we offer to sell a particular class or series of preferred stock, we will describe the specific terms of the class or series in a prospectus supplement. Accordingly, for a description of the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, you must refer to both the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series and the description of preferred stock in this prospectus. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

Our charter provides that we may issue up to 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share, or preferred stock. Subject to the terms of any class or series of our preferred stock that we may issue, our charter authorizes our board of directors, with the approval of a majority of the entire board and without any action by our stockholders, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of stock or the number of authorized shares of any class or series of our stock.

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to classify any unissued shares of preferred stock and to reclassify any previously classified but unissued shares of preferred stock into one or more classes or series of preferred stock. Prior to issuance of shares of each new class or series, our board of directors is required by the MGCL and our charter to set, subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption of each such class or series. As a result, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of preferred stock that have priority over shares of our common stock with respect to dividends or other distributions or rights upon liquidation or with other terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests. As of the date hereof, no shares of preferred stock are outstanding and we have no present plans to issue any preferred stock.

The specific terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that class or series, including a prospectus supplement providing that preferred stock may be issuable upon the exercise of warrants we issue. The description of preferred stock set forth below and the description of the terms of a particular class or series of preferred stock set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement do not purport to be complete and are qualified in their entirety by reference to the articles supplementary or other charter provisions relating to that class or series.

Under Maryland law, stockholders generally are not personally liable for our debts or obligations solely as a result of their status as stockholders.

The preferences and other terms of the preferred stock of each class or series will be fixed by the articles supplementary relating to such class or series. A prospectus supplement, relating to each class or series, will specify the terms of the class or series of preferred stock as follows:

 

   

the designation and par value of such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

the number of shares of such class or series of preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

the dividend rate(s), period(s), and/or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

whether dividends on such class or series of preferred stock are cumulative or not and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on such class or series of preferred stock shall accumulate,

 

   

the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for such class or series of preferred stock,

 

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the provision for redemption, if applicable, of such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

any listing of such class or series of preferred stock on any securities exchange,

 

   

preemptive rights, if any,

 

   

the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which shares such class or series of preferred stock will be convertible into shares of our common stock or shares of any other class or series of our stock, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof),

 

   

a discussion of any additional material federal income tax consequences applicable to an investment in such class or series of preferred stock,

 

   

any limitations on actual, beneficial and constructive ownership and restrictions on transfer, in each case as may be appropriate to preserve our status as a REIT,

 

   

the relative ranking and preferences of such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company,

 

   

any limitations on issuance of any class or series of stock ranking senior to or on a parity with such class or series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company,

 

   

any voting rights of such class or series of preferred stock, and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of such class or series of preferred stock.

Rank

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, each class or series of preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, rank: (1) senior to all classes or series of our common stock, and to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking junior to such class or series of preferred stock; (2) on parity with any class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking on parity with such class or series of preferred stock; and (3) junior to any other class or series of our stock expressly designated as ranking senior to such class or series of preferred stock.

Conversion Rights

The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any shares of any class or series of preferred stock are convertible into our common stock or shares of any other class or series of our stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Such terms will include the number of shares of our common stock or shares of any other class or series of our stock into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof), the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the option of the holders of such class or series of preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of such class or series of preferred stock.

 

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Power to Increase or Decrease Authorized Preferred Stock and Issue Additional Shares of Our Preferred Stock

We believe that the power of our board of directors to amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares of preferred stock, to authorize us to issue additional authorized but unissued shares of our preferred stock in one or more classes or series and to classify or reclassify unissued shares of our preferred stock and thereafter to cause us to issue such classified or reclassified shares will provide us with increased flexibility in structuring possible future financings and acquisitions and in meeting other needs that might arise. The additional classes or series of preferred stock, as well as the additional authorized shares of preferred stock, will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders unless such action is required by the terms of any class or series of our stock or by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. Although our board of directors does not currently intend to do so, it could authorize us to issue a class or series of stock that could, depending upon the terms of the particular class or series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our common stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests. See “Material Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws-Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws.”

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

To assist us in complying with certain federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, we expect that each class or series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus will be subject to certain restrictions relating to the ownership and transfer of such class or series of preferred stock set forth in our charter, including the articles supplementary for each such class or series. The applicable prospectus supplement will specify any ownership limitation relating to such class or series. See “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer” for a description of the restrictions on ownership and transfer applicable to shares of our common stock and to shares of our capital stock in the aggregate (including any and all classes or series of our preferred stock).

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

We may, at our option, elect to offer depositary shares rather than full shares of preferred stock. Each depositary share will represent ownership of and entitlement to all rights and preferences of a fraction of a share of preferred stock of a specified class or series (including dividend, voting, redemption and liquidation rights). The applicable fraction will be specified in a prospectus supplement. The shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares will be deposited with a depositary named in the applicable prospectus supplement, under a deposit agreement, among us, the depositary and the holders of the certificates evidencing depositary shares, or depositary receipts. Depositary receipts will be delivered to those persons purchasing depositary shares in the offering. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges.

The summary of the terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, the provisions of the deposit agreement and our charter, including articles supplementary for the applicable class or series of preferred stock.

Dividends

The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions received in respect of the class or series of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares to the record holders of depositary receipts in proportion to the number of depositary shares owned by such holders on the relevant record date, which will be the same date as the record date fixed by us for the applicable series of preferred stock. The depositary, however, will distribute only such amount as can be distributed without attributing to any depositary share a fraction of one cent, and any balance not so distributed will be added to and treated as part of the next sum received by the depositary for distribution to record holders of depositary receipts then outstanding.

In the event of a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property received by it to the record holders of depositary receipts entitled thereto, in proportion, as nearly as may be practicable, to the number of depositary shares owned by such holders on the relevant record date, unless the depositary determines (after consultation with us) that it is not feasible to make such distribution, in which case the depositary may (with our approval) adopt any other method for such distribution as it deems equitable and appropriate, including the sale of such property (at such place or places and upon such terms as it may deem equitable and appropriate) and distribution of the net proceeds from such sale to such holders.

Liquidation Preference

In the event of the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of our company, whether voluntary or involuntary, the holders of each depositary share will be entitled to the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of the applicable class or series of preferred stock as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Redemption

If the class or series of preferred stock represented by the applicable series of depositary shares is redeemable, such depositary shares will be redeemed from the proceeds received by the depositary resulting from the redemption, in whole or in part, of the preferred stock held by the depositary. Whenever we redeem any preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing the shares of preferred stock so redeemed. The depositary will mail the notice of redemption promptly upon receipt of such notice from us and not less than 30 nor more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption of the preferred stock and the depositary shares to the record holders of the depositary receipts.

 

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Voting

Promptly upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the class or series of preferred stock represented by the applicable series of depositary shares are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in such notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts as of the record date for such meeting. Each such record holder of depositary receipts will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of shares of preferred stock represented by such record holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote such preferred stock represented by such depositary shares in accordance with such instructions, and we will agree to take all action which may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will abstain from voting any of the preferred stock to the extent that it does not receive specific instructions from the holders of depositary receipts.

Withdrawal of Preferred Stock

Upon surrender of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary and payment of any unpaid amount due the depositary, and subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, the owner of the depositary shares evidenced thereby is entitled to delivery of the number of whole shares of preferred stock and all money and other property, if any, represented by such depositary shares. Partial shares of preferred stock will not be issued. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of whole shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to such holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing such excess number of depositary shares. Holders of preferred stock thus withdrawn will not thereafter be entitled to deposit such shares under the deposit agreement or to receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares therefor.

Amendment and Termination of Deposit Agreement

The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may at any time and from time to time be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. However, any amendment which materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders (other than any change in fees) of depositary shares will not be effective unless such amendment has been approved by at least a majority of the depositary shares then outstanding. No such amendment may impair the right, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, of any owner of any depositary shares to surrender the depositary receipt evidencing such depositary shares with instructions to the depositary to deliver to the holder of the preferred stock and all money and other property, if any, represented thereby, except in order to comply with mandatory provisions of applicable law.

The deposit agreement will be permitted to be terminated by us upon not less than 30 days’ prior written notice to the applicable depositary if (1) such termination is necessary to preserve our status as a REIT or (2) a majority of each class or series of preferred stock affected by such termination consents to such termination, whereupon such depositary will be required to deliver or make available to each holder of depositary receipts, upon surrender of the depositary receipts held by such holder, such number of whole or fractional shares of preferred stock as are represented by the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipts together with any other property held by such depositary with respect to such depositary receipts. We will agree that if the deposit agreement is terminated to preserve our status as a REIT, then we will use our best efforts to list the preferred stock issued upon surrender of the related depositary shares on a national securities exchange. In addition, the deposit agreement will automatically terminate if (a) all outstanding depositary shares thereunder shall have been redeemed, (b) there shall have been a final distribution in respect of the related preferred stock in connection with any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company and such distribution shall have been distributed to the holders of depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares representing such preferred stock or (c) each share of the related preferred stock shall have been converted into stock of our company not so represented by depositary shares.

 

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Charges of Depositary

We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and initial issuance of the depositary shares, and redemption of the preferred stock and all withdrawals of preferred stock by owners of depositary shares. Holders of depositary receipts will pay transfer, income and other taxes and governmental charges and certain other charges as are provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts. In certain circumstances, the depositary may refuse to transfer depositary shares, may withhold dividends and distributions and sell the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipt if such charges are not paid. The applicable prospectus supplement will include information with respect to fees and charges, if any, in connection with the deposit or substitution of the underlying securities, the receipt and distribution of dividends, the sale or exercise of rights, the withdrawal of the underlying security, and the transferring, splitting or grouping of receipts. The applicable prospectus supplement will also include information with respect to the right to collect the fees and charges, if any, against dividends received and deposited securities.

Miscellaneous

The depositary will forward to the holders of depositary receipts all notices, reports and proxy soliciting material from us which are delivered to the depositary and which we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred stock. In addition, the depositary will make available for inspection by holders of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, and at such other places as it may from time to time deem advisable, any notices, reports and proxy soliciting material received from us which are received by the depositary as the holder of preferred stock. The applicable prospectus supplement will include information about the rights, if any, of holders of receipts to inspect the transfer books of the depositary and the list of holders of receipts.

Neither the depositary nor our company assumes any obligation or will be subject to any liability under the deposit agreement to holders of depositary receipts other than for its negligence or willful misconduct. Neither the depositary nor our company will be liable if it is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations under the deposit agreement. The obligations of our company and the depositary under the deposit agreement will be limited to performance in good faith of their duties thereunder, and they will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. Our company and the depositary may rely on written advice of counsel or accountants, on information provided by holders of the depositary receipts or other persons believed in good faith to be competent to give such information and on documents believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties.

In the event the depositary shall receive conflicting claims, requests or instructions from any holders of depositary receipts, on the one hand, and us, on the other hand, the depositary shall be entitled to act on such claims, requests or instructions received from us.

Resignation and Removal of Depositary

The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may at any time remove the depositary, any such resignation or removal to take effect upon the appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. Such successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice for resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having a combined capital and surplus of at least $150,000,000.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock or depositary shares and may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock or depositary shares or attached to or separate from such securities. We will issue each series of warrants under a separate warrant agreement between us and a bank or trust company as warrant agent, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not act for or on behalf of warrant holders. The following sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that may be offered under this registration statement. Further terms of the warrants and the applicable warrant agreement will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Equity Warrants

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the warrants to purchase depositary shares, common stock or preferred stock, or equity warrants, in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, including, where applicable, the following:

 

   

the title of the equity warrants,

 

   

the aggregate number of the equity warrants outstanding,

 

   

the price or prices at which the equity warrants will be issued,

 

   

the type and number of securities purchasable upon exercise of the equity warrants,

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the equity warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable,

 

   

the price at which each security purchasable upon exercise of the equity warrants may be purchased,

 

   

the provisions, if any, for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price,

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the equity warrants shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire,

 

   

the minimum or maximum amount of equity warrants that may be exercised at any one time,

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any,

 

   

any anti-dilution protection,

 

   

a discussion of certain federal income tax considerations applicable to the equity warrants, and

 

   

any other terms of the equity warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the transferability, exercise and exchange of such warrants.

Equity warrant certificates will be exchangeable for new equity warrant certificates of different denominations and warrants may be exercised at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Prior to the exercise of their equity warrants, holders of equity warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise or to any dividend payments or voting rights as to which holders of the depositary shares, common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon such exercise may be entitled.

 

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Except as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the exercise price and the number of depositary shares, shares of common stock or shares of preferred stock purchasable upon the exercise of each equity warrant will be subject to adjustment in certain events, including the issuance of a stock dividend to the holders of the underlying common stock or preferred stock or a stock split, reverse stock split, combination, subdivision or reclassification of the underlying common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be. In lieu of adjusting the number of shares purchasable upon exercise of each equity warrant, we may elect to adjust the number of equity warrants. Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, no adjustments in the number of shares purchasable upon exercise of the equity warrants will be required until all cumulative adjustments require an adjustment of at least 1% thereof. We may, at our option, reduce the exercise price at any time. No fractional shares will be issued upon exercise of equity warrants, but we will pay the cash value of any fractional shares otherwise issuable. Notwithstanding the foregoing, except as otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, in case of any consolidation, merger or sale or conveyance of our property as an entirety or substantially as an entirety, the holder of each outstanding equity warrant will have the right to the kind and amount of shares of stock and other securities and property, including cash, receivable by a holder of the number of depositary shares, shares of common stock or shares of preferred stock into which each equity warrant was exercisable immediately prior to the particular triggering event.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase for cash such number of depositary shares, shares of common stock or shares of preferred stock, at such exercise price as shall, in each case, be set forth in, or be determinable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered thereby. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, warrants may be exercised at any time up to 5:00 p.m. New York City time on the expiration date set forth in applicable prospectus supplement. After 5:00 p.m. New York City time on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will be void.

Warrants may be exercised as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to the warrants. Upon receipt of payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If less than all of the warrants that are represented by such warrant certificate are exercised, a new warrant certificate will be issued for the remaining amount of warrants.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

We may issue rights to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock or other securities. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of the series of certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The statements made in this section relating to the rights are summaries only. These summaries are not complete. When we issue rights, we will provide the specific terms of the rights and the applicable rights agreement in a prospectus supplement. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement. For more detail, we refer you to the applicable rights agreement itself, which we will file as an exhibit to, or incorporate by reference in, the registration statement.

We will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the rights being issued:

 

   

the date of determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution,

 

   

the aggregate number of shares of our common stock or other securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights,

 

   

the exercise price,

 

   

the aggregate number of rights issued,

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the rights will be separately transferable,

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence, and the date on which the right will expire,

 

   

a discussion of certain federal income tax considerations applicable to the rights, and

 

   

any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights.

Exercise of Rights

Each right will entitle the holder of rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of shares of our common stock or other securities at the exercise price provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, all unexercised rights will be void.

Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the shares of common stock or other securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby underwriting arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of two or more other constituent securities. These units may be issuable as, and for a specified period of time may be transferable as, a single security only, rather than as the separate constituent securities comprising such units. The statements made in this section relating to the units are summaries only. These summaries are not complete. When we issue units, we will provide the specific terms of the units in a prospectus supplement. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement.

When we issue units, we will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the units being issued:

 

   

the title of any series of units,

 

   

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units,

 

   

the price or prices at which the units will be issued,

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable,

 

   

information with respect to any book-entry procedures,

 

   

a discussion of certain federal income tax considerations applicable to the units, and

 

   

any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

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RESTRICTIONS ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER

The following summary with respect to restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock sets forth certain general terms and provisions of our charter documents to which any prospectus supplement may relate. This summary does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our charter documents, as amended and supplemented from time to time, including any articles supplementary relating to any class or series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus. Copies of our existing charter documents are filed with the SEC and are incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Any amendment or supplement to our charter documents relating to a class or series of securities offered pursuant to this prospectus shall be filed with the SEC and shall be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the applicable prospectus supplement. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

In order for us to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, our stock must be beneficially owned by 100 or more persons during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made) or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Also, not more than 50% of the value of the outstanding shares of stock (after taking into account options to acquire shares of stock) may be owned, directly, indirectly or through application of certain attribution rules by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities such as private foundations) at any time during the last half of a taxable year (other than the first year for which an election to be a REIT has been made).

Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock that are intended to assist us in complying with these requirements and continuing to qualify as a REIT. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to the exceptions described below, no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 7.275% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of our common stock, or 7.275% in value of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock, in each case excluding any shares of our common stock that are not treated as outstanding for federal income tax purposes. We refer to each of these restrictions as an “ownership limit” and collectively as the “ownership limits.” A person or entity that would have acquired actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock but for the application of the ownership limits or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock discussed below is referred to as a “prohibited owner.”

The constructive ownership rules under the Code are complex and may cause stock owned actually or constructively by a group of related individuals and/or entities to be owned constructively by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than 7.275% of our common stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity that owns, actually or constructively, our common stock) by an individual or entity, could, nevertheless cause that individual or entity, or another individual or entity, to own constructively in excess of 7.275% of our outstanding common stock and thereby violate the applicable ownership limit.

Our board of directors, in its sole and absolute discretion, prospectively or retroactively, may exempt a person from either or both of the ownership limits if doing so would not result in us being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT and our board of directors reasonably determines that such waiver will not cause or allow:

 

   

five or fewer individuals to actually or beneficially own more than 49% in value of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock; and

 

   

subject to certain exceptions, us to own, actually or constructively, more than a 9.9% interest (as set forth in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code) in a tenant of ours (or a tenant of an entity owned in whole or in part by us).

 

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As a condition of the exception, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, ruling, in either case in form and substance satisfactory to our board of directors, in its sole and absolute discretion, in order to determine or ensure our status as a REIT and such representations, covenants and undertakings from the person requesting the exception as are reasonably necessary or prudent to make the determinations above. Our board of directors may impose such conditions or restrictions as it deems appropriate in connection with such an exception.

In connection with past offerings of our common stock, our board of directors has granted to Mr. Rady (and certain of his affiliates) an exemption from the ownership limits that will allow him to own, in the aggregate, up to 19.9% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding common stock, subject to various conditions and limitations.

In connection with a waiver of an ownership limit or at any other time, our board of directors may, in its sole and absolute discretion, increase or decrease one or both of the ownership limits for one or more persons, except that a decreased ownership limit will not be effective for any person whose actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock exceeds the decreased ownership limit at the time of the decrease until the person’s actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of our stock equals or falls below the decreased ownership limit, although any further acquisition of our stock will violate the decreased ownership limit. Our board of directors may not increase or decrease any ownership limit if, among other limitations, the new ownership limit would allow five or fewer persons to actually or beneficially own more than 49% in value of our outstanding stock or could otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT.

Our charter provisions further prohibit:

 

   

any person from actually, beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that could result in us being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT (including, but not limited to, actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that could result in (i) us owning (actually or constructively) an interest in a tenant that is described in Section 856(d)(2)(B) of the Code, or (ii) any manager of a “qualified lodging facility,” within the meaning of Section 856(d)(9)(D) of the Code, leased by us to one of our taxable REIT subsidiaries failing to qualify as an “eligible independent contractor” within the meaning of Section 856(d)(9)(A) of the Code, in each case if the income we derive from such tenant or such taxable REIT subsidiary, taking into account our other income that would not qualify under the gross income requirements of Section 856(c) of the Code, would cause us to fail to satisfy any of the gross income requirements imposed on REITs); and

 

   

any person from transferring shares of our stock if such transfer would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution).

Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire actual, beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our stock that will or may violate the ownership limits or any of the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above must give written notice immediately to us or, in the case of a proposed or attempted transaction, provide us at least 15 days’ prior written notice, and provide us with such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect of such transfer on our status as a REIT.

The ownership limits and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above will not apply if our board of directors determines that it is no longer in our best interest to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT or that compliance is no longer required in order for us to qualify as a REIT.

Pursuant to our charter, if any purported transfer of our stock or any other event would otherwise result in any person violating the ownership limits or such other limit established by our board of directors, or could result in us being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the ownership interest is held during the last half of a taxable year) or otherwise failing to qualify as a REIT, then that number of shares causing the violation (rounded up to the nearest whole share) will be automatically transferred to, and held by, a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable organizations selected by us. The prohibited owner will have no rights in shares of our stock held by the trustee. The automatic transfer will be effective as of the close of business on the business day prior to the date of the violative transfer or other event that results in the transfer to the trust. Any dividend or other distribution paid to the prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares had been automatically transferred to a trust as described above, must be repaid

 

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to the trustee upon demand. If the transfer to the trust as described above is not automatically effective, for any reason, to prevent violation of the applicable restriction on ownership and transfer of our stock, then that transfer of the number of shares that otherwise would cause any person to violate the above restrictions will be void. If any transfer of our stock would result in shares of our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons (determined without reference to any rules of attribution), then any such purported transfer will be void and of no force or effect and the intended transferee will acquire no rights in the shares.

Shares of our stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (1) the price per share paid in the transaction that resulted in the transfer of the shares to the trust (or, in the event of a gift, devise or other such transaction, the last reported sale price on the NYSE on the day of the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust) and (2) the last reported sale price on the NYSE on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We must reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee and pay the amount of such reduction to the trustee for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the trust. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the prohibited owner, and any dividends or other distributions held by the trustee with respect to such stock will be paid to the charitable beneficiary.

If we do not buy the shares, the trustee must, within 20 days of receiving notice from us of the transfer of shares to the trust, sell the shares to a person or persons designated by the trustee who could own the shares without violating the ownership limits or other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock. Upon such sale, the trustee must distribute to the prohibited owner an amount equal to the lesser of (1) the price paid by the prohibited owner for the shares (or, if the prohibited owner did not give value in connection with the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer to the trust (e.g., a gift, devise or other such transaction), the last reported sale price on the NYSE on the day of the transfer or other event that resulted in the transfer of such shares to the trust) and (2) the sales proceeds (net of commissions and other expenses of sale) received by the trustee for the shares. The trustee will reduce the amount payable to the prohibited owner by the amount of dividends and other distributions paid to the prohibited owner and owed by the prohibited owner to the trustee. Any net sales proceeds in excess of the amount payable to the prohibited owner will be immediately paid to the charitable beneficiary, together with any dividends or other distributions thereon. In addition, if prior to discovery by us that shares of our stock have been transferred to the trustee, such shares of stock are sold by a prohibited owner, then such shares shall be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and, to the extent that the prohibited owner received an amount for or in respect of such shares that exceeds the amount that such prohibited owner was entitled to receive, such excess amount shall be paid to the trustee upon demand.

The trustee will be designated by us and will be unaffiliated with us and with any prohibited owner. Prior to the sale of any shares by the trust, the trustee will receive, in trust for the charitable beneficiary, all dividends and other distributions paid by us with respect to such shares, and may exercise all voting rights with respect to such shares for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary.

Subject to Maryland law, effective as of the date that the shares have been transferred to the trust, the trustee may, at the trustee’s sole discretion:

 

   

rescind as void any vote cast by a prohibited owner prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust; and

 

   

recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the beneficiary of the trust.

However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee may not rescind and recast the vote.

If our board of directors determines in good faith that a proposed transfer or other event has taken place that violates the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter, our board of directors may take such action as it deems advisable in its sole discretion to refuse to give effect to or to prevent such transfer, including, but not limited to, causing us to redeem shares of stock, refusing to give effect to the transfer on our books or instituting proceedings to enjoin the transfer.

 

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Every owner of 5% or more (or such lower percentage as required by the Code or the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder) of the outstanding shares of our stock, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, must give written notice to us stating the name and address of such owner, the number of shares of each class and series of our stock that the owner beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner also must provide us with any additional information that we request in order to determine the effect, if any, of the person’s actual or beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits. In addition, any person that is an actual owner, beneficial owner or constructive owner of shares of our stock and any person (including the stockholder of record) who is holding shares of our stock for an actual owner, beneficial owner or constructive owner must, on request, disclose to us such information as we may request in good faith in order to determine our status as a REIT and comply with requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance.

Any certificates representing shares of our stock will bear a legend referring to the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock described above.

These restrictions on ownership and transfer could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for our common stock that our stockholders believe to be in their best interest.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT OF AMERICAN ASSETS TRUST, L.P.

We have summarized the material terms and provisions of the Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership of American Assets Trust, L.P., which we refer to as the “partnership agreement.” This summary is not complete. For more detail, you should refer to the partnership agreement itself, a copy of which is filed with the SEC and is incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. For purposes of this section, references to “we,” “our,” “us,” “our company” and the “general partner” refer to American Assets Trust, Inc. in our capacity as the general partner of our operating partnership.

General

Substantially all of our assets are held by, and substantially all of our operations are conducted through, our operating partnership, either directly or through its subsidiaries. We are the sole general partner of our operating partnership and, as of December 31, 2017, we owned 73.2% of the outstanding common units in the operating partnership.

Certain persons who contributed interests in properties and/or other assets pursuant to the formation transactions related to our initial public offering received common units of partnership interest in our operating partnership, which we refer to as common units and have the terms described below. Our operating partnership is also authorized to issue a class of units of partnership interest designated as LTIP units, which have the terms described below. The units in the operating partnership are not listed on any exchange or quoted on any national market system.

Provisions in the partnership agreement may delay or make more difficult unsolicited acquisitions of us or changes in our control. These provisions could discourage third parties from making proposals involving an unsolicited acquisition of us or change of our control, although some stockholders might consider such proposals, if made, desirable. These provisions also make it more difficult for third parties to alter the management structure of our operating partnership without the concurrence of our board of directors. These provisions include, among others:

 

   

redemption rights of limited partners and certain assignees of common units;

 

   

transfer restrictions on units and other partnership interests;

 

   

a requirement that we may not be removed as the general partner of our operating partnership without our consent;

 

   

our ability in some cases to amend the partnership agreement and to cause our operating partnership to issue preferred partnership interests in our operating partnership with terms that we may determine, in either case, without the approval or consent of any limited partner; and

 

   

the rights of the limited partners to consent to certain direct or indirect transfers of our interest in our operating partnership, including in connection with certain mergers, consolidations and other business combinations involving us, recapitalizations and reclassifications of our outstanding stock and issuances of our stock that require approval of our stockholders.

Purposes, Business and Management

Our operating partnership was formed for the purpose of conducting any business, enterprise or activity permitted by or under the Maryland Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act. Our operating partnership may enter into any partnership, joint venture, business trust arrangement, limited liability company or other similar arrangement and may own interests in any entity engaged in any business permitted by or under the Maryland Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act. However, our operating partnership may not, without our specific consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion, take, or refrain from taking, any action that, in our judgment, in our sole and absolute discretion:

 

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could adversely affect our ability to continue to qualify as a REIT;

 

   

could subject us to any taxes under Section 857 or Section 4981 of the Code or any other related or successor provision under the Code; or

 

   

could violate any law or regulation of any governmental body or agency having jurisdiction over us, our securities or our operating partnership.

In general, our board of directors manages the business and affairs of our operating partnership by directing our business and affairs, in our capacity as the sole general partner of our operating partnership. Except as otherwise expressly provided in the partnership agreement and subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of partnership interest, all management powers over the business and affairs of our operating partnership are exclusively vested in us, in our capacity as the sole general partner of our operating partnership. We may not be removed as the general partner of our operating partnership, with or without cause, without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion.

Restrictions on General Partner’s Authority

The partnership agreement prohibits us, in our capacity as general partner, from taking any action that would make it impossible to carry out the ordinary business of our operating partnership or performing any act that would subject a limited partner to liability as a general partner in any jurisdiction or any other liability except as provided under the partnership agreement. We generally may not, without the prior consent of the partners of our operating partnership (including us), amend, modify or terminate the partnership agreement, except for certain amendments described below that require the consent of a majority in interest of the limited partners (excluding us and any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by us) and certain amendments described below that require the approval of each affected partner. We may not, in our capacity as the general partner of our operating partnership, without the consent of a majority in interest of the limited partners (excluding us and any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by us):

 

   

take any action in contravention of an express provision or limitation of the partnership agreement;

 

   

transfer all or any portion of our general partnership interest in our operating partnership or admit any person as a successor general partner, subject to the exceptions described in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests-Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner”;

 

   

voluntarily withdraw as the general partner; or

 

   

amend the partnership agreement to alter the restrictions on the general partner’s power to transfer all or any portion of its interest in our operating partnership or voluntarily withdraw as the general partner.

Without the consent of each affected limited partner, we may not enter into any contract, mortgage, loan or other agreement that expressly prohibits or restricts us or our operating partnership from performing our or its specific obligations in connection with a redemption of units or expressly prohibits or restricts a limited partner from exercising its redemption rights in full. For the avoidance of doubt, because we have the right to elect to acquire common units tendered for redemption in exchange for shares of common stock, the approval of the limited partners generally should not be required in order for us or our operating partnership to enter into loan agreements which conditionally restrict our operating partnership from redeeming common units for cash. In addition to any approval or consent required by any other provision of the partnership agreement, we may not, without the consent of each affected partner, amend the partnership agreement or take any other action that would:

 

   

convert a limited partner interest into a general partner interest (except as a result of our acquisition of that interest);

 

   

modify the limited liability of a limited partner;

 

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alter the rights of any partner to receive the distributions to which such partner is entitled, or alter the allocations specified in the partnership agreement, except to the extent permitted by the partnership agreement in connection with the creation or issuance of any new class or series of partnership interest;

 

   

alter or modify the redemption rights of holders of common units or the related definitions specified in the partnership agreement;

 

   

remove, alter or amend certain provisions of the partnership agreement relating to the requirements for us to qualify as a REIT or permitting us to avoid paying tax under Sections 857 or 4981 of the Code; or

 

   

amend the provisions of the partnership agreement requiring the consent of each affected partner before taking any of the actions described above.

Additional Partnership Interests and Limited Partners

We may cause our operating partnership to issue additional units or other partnership interests and to admit additional limited partners to our operating partnership from time to time, on such terms and conditions and for such capital contributions as we may establish in our sole and absolute discretion, without the approval or consent of any limited partner.

The partnership agreement authorizes our operating partnership to issue common units and LTIP units, and our operating partnership may issue additional partnership interests in one or more additional classes, or one or more series of any of such classes, with such designations, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers or rights, restrictions, limitations as to distributions, qualifications or terms or conditions of redemption (including, without limitation, terms that may be senior or otherwise entitled to preference over existing units) as we may determine, in our sole and absolute discretion, without the approval of any limited partner or any other person. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, we may specify, as to any such class or series of partnership interest:

 

   

the allocations of items of partnership income, gain, loss, deduction and credit to each such class or series of partnership interest;

 

   

the right of each such class or series of partnership interest to share, on a junior, senior or pari passu basis, in distributions;

 

   

the rights of each such class or series of partnership interest upon dissolution and liquidation of our operating partnership;

 

   

the voting rights, if any, of each such class or series of partnership interest; and

 

   

the conversion, redemption or exchange rights applicable to each such class or series of partnership interest.

If we issue shares of preferred stock, we anticipate that we will contribute the net proceeds of such issuance to our operating partnership in exchange for preferred units with substantially similar distribution rights.

Ability to Engage in Other Businesses; Conflicts of Interest

We may not conduct any business other than in connection with the ownership, acquisition and disposition of partnership interests, the management of the business and affairs of our operating partnership, our operation as a reporting company with a class (or classes) of securities registered under the Exchange Act, our operations as a REIT, the offering, sale, syndication, private placement or public offering of stock, bonds, securities or other interests, financing or refinancing of any type related to our operating partnership or its assets or activities and such activities as are incidental to those activities discussed above. In general, we must contribute any assets or funds that we acquire to our operating partnership in exchange for additional partnership interests. We may, however, in our sole and absolute discretion, from time to time hold or acquire assets in our own name or otherwise other than through our operating partnership so long as we take commercially reasonable measures to ensure that the economic benefits and burdens of such property are otherwise vested in our operating partnership.

 

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Distributions

Our operating partnership will make distributions at such times and in such amounts, as we may in our sole and absolute discretion determine:

 

   

first, with respect to any partnership interests that are entitled to any preference in distribution, in accordance with the rights of the holders of such class(es) or series of partnership interest, and, within each such class, among the holders of such class pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests of such class; and

 

   

second, with respect to any partnership interests that are not entitled to any preference in distribution, including the common units and, except as described below under “—LTIP Units” with respect to liquidating distributions and as may be provided in our 2011 Equity Incentive Award Plan, or the 2011 Plan, or any other incentive award plan, or any applicable award agreement, the LTIP units, in accordance with the rights of the holders of such class(es) or series of partnership interest, and, within each such class, among the holders of each such class, pro rata in proportion to their respective percentage interests of such class.

Exculpation and Indemnification of General Partner

The partnership agreement provides that we are not liable to our operating partnership or any partner for monetary damages for losses sustained, liabilities incurred or benefits not derived by our operating partnership or any limited partner, except for liability for our intentional harm or gross negligence. The partnership agreement also provides that any obligation or liability in our capacity as the general partner of our operating partnership that may arise at any time under the partnership agreement or any other instrument, transaction or undertaking contemplated by the partnership agreement will be satisfied, if at all, out of our assets or the assets of our operating partnership only, and no such obligation or liability will be personally binding upon any of our directors, stockholders, officers, employees or agents.

In addition, the partnership agreement requires our operating partnership to indemnify us, our directors and officers, officers of our operating partnership and any other person designated by us against any and all losses, claims, damages, liabilities (whether joint or several), expenses (including, without limitation, attorneys’ fees and other legal fees and expenses), judgments, fines, settlements and other amounts arising from any and all claims, demands, actions, suits or proceedings, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, that relate to the operations of our operating partnership, unless (1) an act or omission of the person was material to the matter giving rise to the action and either was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (2) such person actually received an improper personal benefit in violation or breach of any provision of the partnership agreement or (3) in the case of a criminal proceeding, the person had reasonable cause to believe the act or omission was unlawful. Our operating partnership must also pay or reimburse the reasonable expenses of any such person upon its receipt of a written affirmation of the person’s good faith belief that the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification has been met and a written undertaking to repay any amounts paid or advanced if it is ultimately determined that the person did not meet the standard of conduct for indemnification. Our operating partnership will not indemnify or advance funds to any person with respect to any action initiated by the person seeking indemnification without our approval (except for any proceeding brought to enforce such person’s right to indemnification under the partnership agreement) or if the person is found to be liable to our operating partnership on any portion of any claim in the action.

Business Combinations and Dissolution of Our Operating Partnership

Subject to the limitations on the transfer of our interest in our operating partnership described in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests-Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner,” we generally have the exclusive power to cause our operating partnership to merge, reorganize, consolidate, sell all or substantially all of its assets or otherwise combine its assets with another entity. We may also elect to dissolve our operating partnership without the consent of any limited partner. However, in connection with the acquisition of properties from persons to whom our operating partnership issues units or other partnership interests as part of the purchase price, in order to preserve such persons’ tax deferral, our operating partnership may contractually agree, in general, not to sell or otherwise transfer the properties for a specified period of time, or in some instances, not to sell or otherwise transfer the properties without compensating the sellers of the properties for their loss of the tax deferral.

 

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Redemption Rights of Qualifying Parties

Beginning 14 months after first becoming a holder of common units, each limited partner and some assignees of limited partners will have the right, subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the partnership agreement, to require our operating partnership to redeem all or a portion of the common units held by such limited partner or assignee in exchange for a cash amount per common unit equal to the value of one share of our common stock, determined in accordance with and subject to adjustment under the partnership agreement. Our operating partnership’s obligation to redeem common units does not arise and is not binding against our operating partnership until the sixth business day after we receive the holder’s notice of redemption or, if earlier, the day we notify the holder seeking redemption that we have declined to acquire some or all of the common units tendered for redemption. If we do not elect to acquire the common units tendered for redemption in exchange for shares of our common stock (as described below), our operating partnership must deliver the cash redemption amount on or before the tenth business day after we receive the holder’s notice of redemption.

On or before the close of business on the fifth business day after a holder of common units gives notice of redemption to us, we may, in our sole and absolute discretion but subject to the restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock set forth in our charter and described in “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer,” elect to acquire some or all of the common units tendered for redemption from the tendering party in exchange for shares of our common stock, based on an exchange ratio of one share of common stock for each common unit, subject to adjustment as provided in the partnership agreement. The partnership agreement does not require us to register, qualify or list any shares of common stock issued in exchange for common units with the Securities and Exchange Commission, with any state securities commissioner, department or agency, under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act or with any stock exchange.

Transfers of Partnership Interests

Restrictions on Transfers by Limited Partners

Until the expiration of 14 months after the date on which a limited partner first acquires a partnership interest, the limited partner generally may not directly or indirectly transfer all or any portion of its partnership interest without our consent, which we may give or withhold in our sole and absolute discretion, except for certain permitted transfers to certain affiliates, family members and charities, and certain pledges of partnership interests to lending institutions in connection with bona fide loans. After the expiration of 14 months after the date on which a limited partner first acquires a partnership interest, the limited partner will have the right to transfer all or any portion of its partnership interest without our consent to any person that is an “accredited investor,” within meaning set forth in Rule 501 promulgated under the Securities Act, upon ten business days prior notice to us, subject to the satisfaction of conditions specified in the partnership agreement, including minimum transfer requirements and our right of first refusal.

Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner

Except as described below, any transfer of all or any portion of our interest in our operating partnership, whether by sale, disposition, statutory merger or consolidation, liquidation or otherwise, must be approved by the consent of a majority in interest of the limited partners (excluding us and any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by us). Subject to the rights of our stockholders and the limited partners of our operating partnership to approve certain direct or indirect transfers of our interests in our operating partnership described below and the rights of holders of any class or series of partnership interest, we may transfer all (but not less than all) of our general partnership interest without the consent of the limited partners, voting as a separate class, in connection with a merger, consolidation or other combination of our assets with another entity, a sale of all or substantially all of our assets or a reclassification, recapitalization or change in any outstanding shares of our stock if:

 

   

in connection with such event, all of the limited partners will receive or have the right to elect to receive, for each common unit, the greatest amount of cash, securities or other property paid to a holder of one share of our common stock (subject to adjustment in accordance with the partnership agreement) in the transaction and, if a purchase, tender or exchange offer is made and accepted by holders of our common stock in connection with the event, each holder of common units receives, or has the right to elect to receive, the greatest amount of cash, securities or other property that the holder would have received if it had exercised its redemption right and received shares of our common stock in exchange for its common units immediately before the expiration of the purchase, tender or exchange offer and had accepted the purchase, tender or exchange offer; or

 

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substantially all of the assets of our operating partnership will be owned by a surviving entity (which may be our operating partnership) in which the limited partners of our operating partnership holding common units immediately before the event will hold a percentage interest based on the relative fair market value of the net assets of our operating partnership and the other net assets of the surviving entity immediately before the event, which interest will be on terms that are at least as favorable as the terms of the common units in effect immediately before the event and as those applicable to any other limited partners or non-managing members of the surviving entity and will include a right to redeem interests in the surviving entity for the consideration described in the preceding bullet or cash on similar terms as those in effect with respect to the common units immediately before the event, or, if common equity securities of the person controlling the surviving entity are publicly traded, such common equity securities.

We may also transfer all (but not less than all) of our interest in our operating partnership to a controlled affiliate of ours without the consent of any limited partner, subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of partnership interest.

We may not, without prior “partnership approval,” directly or indirectly transfer all or any portion of our interest in our operating partnership, before the later of the death of Mr. Rady and the death of his wife, in connection with a merger, consolidation or other combination of our assets with another entity, a sale of all or substantially all of our assets, a reclassification, recapitalization or change in any outstanding shares of our stock or other outstanding equity interests or an issuance of shares of our stock, in any case that requires approval by our common stockholders. The “partnership approval” requirement is satisfied, with respect to such a transfer, when the sum of the (1) the percentage interest of limited partners consenting to the transfer of our interest, plus (2) the product of (a) the percentage of the outstanding common units held by us multiplied by (b) the percentage of the votes that were cast in favor of the event by our common stockholders equals or exceeds the percentage required for our common stockholders to approve the event resulting in the transfer. Limited partners will be entitled to cast one vote for each common unit or LTIP unit, subject to adjustment under the partnership agreement.

In addition, any transferee of our interest in our operating partnership must be admitted as a general partner of our operating partnership, assume, by operation of law or express agreement, all of our obligations as general partner under the partnership agreement, accept all of the terms and conditions of the partnership agreement and execute such instruments as may be necessary to effectuate the transferee’s admission as a general partner.

We may not voluntarily withdraw as the general partner of our operating partnership without the consent of a majority in interest of the limited partners (excluding us and any limited partner 50% or more of whose equity is owned, directly or indirectly, by us) other than upon the transfer of our entire interest in our operating partnership and the admission of our successor as a general partner of our operating partnership.

LTIP Units

Our operating partnership is authorized to issue a class of units of partnership interest designated as LTIP units. We may cause our operating partnership to issue LTIP units to persons who provide services to or for the benefit of our operating partnership, for such consideration or for no consideration as we may determine to be appropriate, and we may admit such persons as limited partners of our operating partnership, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. Further, we may cause our operating partnership to issue LTIP units in one or more classes or series, with such terms as we may determine, without the approval or consent of any limited partner. LTIP units may be subject to vesting, forfeiture and restrictions on transfer and receipt of distributions pursuant to the terms of any applicable equity-based plan and the terms of the 2011 Plan or any other award agreement relating to the issuance of the LTIP units.

Conversion Rights

Vested LTIP units are convertible at the option of each limited partner and some assignees of limited partners into common units, upon notice to us and our operating partnership, to the extent that the capital account balance of the LTIP unitholder with respect to all of his or her LTIP units is at least equal to our capital account balance with respect to an equal number of common units. We may cause our operating partnership to convert vested LTIP units eligible for conversion into an equal number of common units at any time, upon at least 10 and not more than 60 days’ notice to the holder of the LTIP units.

 

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If we or our operating partnership is party to a transaction, including a merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other business combination, as a result of which common units are exchanged for or converted into the right, or holders of common units are otherwise entitled, to receive cash, securities or other property (or any combination thereof), we must cause our operating partnership to convert any vested LTIP units then eligible for conversion into common units immediately before the transaction, taking into account any special allocations of income that would be made as a result of the transaction. Our operating partnership must use commercially reasonable efforts to cause each limited partner (other than a party to such a transaction or an affiliate of such a party) holding LTIP units that will be converted into common units in such a transaction to be afforded the right to receive the same kind and amount of cash, securities and other property (or any combination thereof) for such common units that each holder of common units receives in the transaction.

Transfer

Unless the 2011 Plan, any other applicable equity-based plan or the terms of an award agreement specify additional restrictions on transfer of LTIP units, LTIP units are transferable to the same extent as common units, as described above in “—Transfers of Partnership Interests.”

Voting Rights

Limited partners holding LTIP units are entitled to vote together with limited partners holding common units on all matters on which limited partners holding common units are entitled to vote or consent, and may cast one vote for each LTIP unit so held.

Adjustment of LTIP Units

If our operating partnership takes certain actions, including making a distribution of units on all outstanding common units, combining or subdividing the outstanding common units into a different number of common units or reclassifying the outstanding common units, we must adjust the number of outstanding LTIP units or subdivide or combine outstanding LTIP units to maintain a one-for-one conversion ratio and economic equivalence between common units and LTIP units.

 

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MATERIAL PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS

The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and our charter and bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to Maryland law and our charter and bylaws, copies of which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Our Board of Directors

Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors of our company may be established, increased or decreased only by a majority of our entire board of directors but may not be fewer than the minimum number required under the MGCL nor, unless our bylaws are amended, more than 15.

We have elected by a provision of our charter to be subject to a provision of Maryland law requiring that, except as otherwise provided in the terms of any class or series of our stock, vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by the remaining directors and that any individual elected to fill a vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies.

Removal of Directors

Our charter provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred stock to elect or remove one or more directors, a director may be removed only for cause (as defined in our charter) and only by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, may preclude stockholders from removing incumbent directors except for cause and by a substantial affirmative vote and filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.

Business Combinations

Under the MGCL, certain “business combinations” (including a merger, consolidation, share exchange or, in certain circumstances specified under the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities) between a Maryland corporation and any interested stockholder, or an affiliate of such an interested stockholder, are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Maryland law defines an interested stockholder as:

 

   

any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or

 

   

an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which the person otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. In approving a transaction, however, a board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of the approval, with any terms and conditions determined by it.

After such five-year period, any such business combination must be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least:

 

   

80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and

 

   

two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares held by the interested stockholder with whom (or with whose affiliate) the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.

 

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These supermajority approval requirements do not apply if, among other conditions, the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price (as defined in the MGCL) for their shares and the consideration is received in cash or in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares.

These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by a corporation’s board of directors prior to the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. Our board of directors has, by board resolution, elected to opt out of the business combination provisions of the MGCL. However, we cannot assure you that our board of directors will not opt to be subject to such business combination provisions in the future. Notwithstanding the foregoing, an alteration or repeal of this resolution will not have any effect on any business combinations that have been consummated or upon any agreements existing at the time of such modification or repeal.

Control Share Acquisitions

The MGCL provides that holders of “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights with respect to any control shares except to the extent approved by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast in the election of directors, generally, excluding shares of stock in a corporation in respect of which any of the following persons is entitled to exercise or direct the exercise of the voting power of such shares in the election of directors: (1) the person who made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, (2) an officer of the corporation or (3) an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock that, if aggregated with all other such shares of stock previously acquired by the acquirer or in respect of which the acquirer is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:

 

   

one-tenth or more but less than one-third;

 

   

one-third or more but less than a majority; or

 

   

a majority or more of all voting power.

Control shares do not include shares that the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition, directly or indirectly, of ownership of, or the power to direct the exercise of voting power with respect to, issued and outstanding control shares, subject to certain exceptions.

A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition, upon satisfaction of certain conditions (including an undertaking to pay expenses and making an “acquiring person statement” as described in the MGCL), may compel the corporation to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of demand to consider the voting rights of the control shares. If no request for a special meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.

If voting rights of control shares are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then, subject to certain conditions and limitations, the corporation may redeem any or all of the control shares (except those for which voting rights have previously been approved) for fair value determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of such shares are considered and not approved or, if no such meeting is held, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquirer. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders meeting and the acquirer becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares as determined for purposes of such appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquirer in the control share acquisition.

The control share acquisition statute does not apply to: (1) shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (2) acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.

Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock. We cannot provide you any assurance, however, that our board of directors will not amend or eliminate this provision at any time in the future.

 

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Subtitle 8

Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of the following five provisions:

 

   

a classified board;

 

   

a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director;

 

   

a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors;

 

   

a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors in which the vacancy occurred; or

 

   

a majority requirement for the calling of a stockholder-requested special meeting of stockholders.

We have elected by a provision in our charter to be subject to the provisions of Subtitle 8 relating to the filling of vacancies on our board of directors. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (1) require a two-thirds vote for the removal of any director from the board, which removal will be allowed only for cause, (2) vest in the board the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships, subject to limitations set forth in our charter and bylaws, and (3) require, unless called by the chairman of our board of directors, our president, our chief executive officer or our board of directors, the request of stockholders entitled to cast not less than a majority of all votes entitled to be cast on a matter at such meeting to call a special meeting to consider and vote on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders. We have not elected to create a classified board. In the future, our board of directors may elect, without stockholder approval, to create a classified board or elect to be subject to one or more of the other provisions of Subtitle 8.

Amendments to Our Charter and Bylaws

Other than amendments to certain provisions of our charter described below and amendments permitted to be made without stockholder approval under Maryland law or by a specific provision in the charter, our charter may be amended only if such amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. The provisions of our charter relating to the removal of directors or specifying that our stockholders may act without a meeting only by unanimous consent, or the provision specifying the vote required to amend such provisions, may be amended only if such amendment is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast not less than two-thirds of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Our board of directors has the exclusive power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws or to make new bylaws.

Transactions Outside the Ordinary Course of Business

We generally may not merge with or into, convert into or consolidate with another company, sell all or substantially all of our assets or engage in a statutory share exchange unless such transaction is declared advisable by our board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. In addition, to the extent that such a merger, conversion, consolidation, sale of assets of statutory share exchange would require the approval of our stockholders, such transaction may also require the approval of the limited partners of our operating partnership. See “Description of the Partnership Agreement of American Assets Trust, L.P.-Restrictions on Transfers by the General Partner.”

Dissolution of Our Company

The dissolution of our company must be declared advisable by a majority of our entire board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.

 

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Meetings of Stockholders

Under our bylaws, annual meetings of stockholders must be held each year at a date, time and place determined by our board of directors. Special meetings of stockholders may be called by the chairman of our board of directors, our chief executive officer, our president and our board of directors. Additionally, subject to the provisions of our bylaws, a special meeting of stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be considered at a meeting of stockholders must be called by our secretary upon the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter at such meeting who have requested the special meeting in accordance with the procedures specified in our bylaws and provided the information and certifications required by our bylaws. Only matters set forth in the notice of a special meeting of stockholders may be considered and acted upon at such a meeting.

Advance Notice of Director Nominations and New Business

Our bylaws provide that, with respect to an annual meeting of stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to the board of directors and the proposal of business to be considered by stockholders at the annual meeting may be made only:

 

   

pursuant to our notice of the meeting;

 

   

by or at the direction of our board of directors; or

 

   

by a stockholder who was a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the annual meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated or on such other business and who has provided the information and certifications required by the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws.

Our bylaws provide that, with respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting of stockholders, and nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only:

 

   

by or at the direction of our board of directors; or

 

   

provided that the meeting has been called for the purpose of electing directors, by a stockholder who is a stockholder of record both at the time of giving of the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting, who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each individual so nominated and who has provided the information and certifications required by the advance notice procedures set forth in our bylaws.

The purpose of requiring stockholders to give advance notice of nominations and other proposals is to afford our board of directors the opportunity to consider the qualifications of the proposed nominees or the advisability of the other proposals and, to the extent considered necessary by our board of directors, to inform stockholders and make recommendations regarding the nominations or other proposals. The advance notice procedures also permit a more orderly procedure for conducting our stockholder meetings.

Anti-takeover Effect of Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws

The restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the provisions of our charter regarding the removal of directors, the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacancies on the board and the advance notice provisions of our bylaws could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control of our company that might involve a premium price for holders of our common stock or otherwise be in their best interests. Likewise, if our board of directors were to opt in to the business combination provisions of the MGCL or the provisions of Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL providing for a classified board of directors, or if the provision in our bylaws opting out of the control share acquisition provisions of the MGCL were amended or rescinded, these provisions of the MGCL could have similar anti-takeover effects.

Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability

Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision eliminating the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates such liability to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.

 

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The MGCL requires a Maryland corporation (unless its charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made or threatened to be made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to indemnify its present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or are threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:

 

  i.

the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and:

 

  1.

was committed in bad faith; or

 

  2.

was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;

 

  ii.

the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or

 

  iii.

in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.

However, under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation may not indemnify a director or officer for an adverse judgment in a suit by or on behalf of the corporation or if the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, unless in either case a court orders indemnification and then only for expenses. In addition, the MGCL permits a Maryland corporation to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer, without requiring a preliminary determination of the director’s or officer’s ultimate entitlement to indemnification, upon the corporation’s receipt of:

 

  i.

a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by the corporation; and

 

  ii.

a written undertaking by the director or officer or on the director’s or officer’s behalf to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by the corporation if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.

Our charter authorizes us to obligate our company and our bylaws obligate us, to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and to pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding, without requiring a preliminary determination of the director’s or officer’s ultimate entitlement to indemnification, to:

 

  i.

any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or

 

  ii.

any individual who, while serving as our director or officer and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, trustee, member or manager of another corporation, real estate investment trust, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.

Our charter and bylaws also permit us, with the approval of our board of directors, to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of ours in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of our company or a predecessor of our company.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our executive officers and directors whereby we have agreed to indemnify such executive officers and directors to the fullest extent permitted by Maryland law against all expenses and liabilities, subject to limited exceptions. These indemnification agreements also provide that, upon an application for indemnity by an executive officer or director to a court of appropriate jurisdiction, such court may order us to indemnify such executive officer or director.

The partnership agreement also provides that we, as general partner, and our directors, officers, employees, agents and designees are indemnified to the extent provided therein. See “Description of the Partnership Agreement of American Assets Trust, L.P.-Exculpation and Indemnification of General Partner.”

 

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Insofar as the foregoing provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer

Subject to certain exceptions, our charter provides that no person or entity may actually or beneficially own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Code, more than 7.275% (in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock or more than 7.275% in value of the aggregate outstanding shares of our stock. For a fuller description of this and other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, see “Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.”

REIT Qualification

Our charter provides that our board of directors may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is no longer in our best interests to continue to be qualified as a REIT.

 

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FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following is a general summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations regarding our election to be taxed as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) and this offering of our capital stock. For purposes of this discussion, references to “we,” “our” and “us” mean only American Assets Trust, Inc. and do not include any of its subsidiaries, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is for general information only and is not tax advice. The information in this summary is based on:

 

   

the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”);

 

   

current, temporary and proposed Treasury regulations promulgated under the Code (the “Treasury Regulations”);

 

   

the legislative history of the Code;

 

   

administrative interpretations and practices of the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”); and

 

   

court decisions;

in each case, as of the date of this prospectus. In addition, the administrative interpretations and practices of the IRS include its practices and policies as expressed in private letter rulings that are not binding on the IRS except with respect to the particular taxpayers who requested and received those rulings. The sections of the Code and the corresponding Treasury Regulations that relate to qualification and taxation as a REIT are highly technical and complex. The following discussion sets forth certain material aspects of the sections of the Code that govern the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a REIT and its stockholders. This summary is qualified in its entirety by the applicable Code provisions, Treasury Regulations promulgated under the Code, and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof. Potential tax reforms may result in significant changes to the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations and practices and/or court decisions may significantly and adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of such qualification, or the U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in us, including those described in this discussion. Any such changes could apply retroactively to transactions preceding the date of the change. We have not requested, and do not plan to request, any rulings from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT, and the statements in this prospectus are not binding on the IRS or any court. Thus, we can provide no assurance that the tax considerations contained in this discussion will not be challenged by the IRS or will be sustained by a court if challenged by the IRS. This summary does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences, or any tax consequences arising under any U.S. federal tax laws other than U.S. federal income tax laws, associated with the purchase, ownership or disposition of our capital stock, or our election to be taxed as a REIT.

You are urged to consult your tax advisor regarding the tax consequences to you of:

 

   

the purchase, ownership and disposition of our capital stock, including the U.S. federal, state, local, non-U.S. and other tax consequences;

 

   

our election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and

 

   

potential changes in applicable tax laws.

Taxation of Our Company

General . We have elected to be taxed as a REIT under Sections 856 through 860 of the Code commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2011. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us to qualify for taxation as a REIT under the Code commencing with such taxable year, and we intend to continue to be organized and operate in this manner. However, qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that we have been organized and have operated, or will continue to be organized and operate, in a manner so as to qualify or remain qualified as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for potential tax consequences if we fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

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Latham & Watkins LLP has acted as our tax counsel in connection with this prospectus and our election to be taxed as a REIT. Latham & Watkins LLP has rendered an opinion to us to the effect that, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2011, we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and our proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code. It must be emphasized that this opinion was based on various assumptions and representations as to factual matters, including representations made by us in a factual certificate provided by one or more of our officers. In addition, this opinion was based upon our factual representations set forth in this prospectus. Moreover, our qualification and taxation as a REIT depend upon our ability to meet the various qualification tests imposed under the Code, which are discussed below, including through actual operating results, asset composition, distribution levels and diversity of stock ownership, the results of which have not been and will not be reviewed by Latham & Watkins LLP. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operation for any particular taxable year have satisfied or will satisfy those requirements. Further, the anticipated U.S. federal income tax treatment described herein may be changed, perhaps retroactively, by legislative, administrative or judicial action at any time. Latham & Watkins LLP has no obligation to update its opinion subsequent to the date of such opinion.

Provided we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we generally will not be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income taxes on our REIT taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” that ordinarily results from investment in a C corporation. A C corporation is a corporation that generally is required to pay tax at the corporate level. Double taxation means taxation once at the corporate level when income is earned and once again at the stockholder level when the income is distributed. We will, however, be required to pay U.S. federal income tax as follows:

 

   

First, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on any undistributed REIT taxable income, including undistributed capital gain.

 

   

Second, if we have (1) net income from the sale or other disposition of “foreclosure property” held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or (2) other nonqualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on this income. To the extent that income from foreclosure property is otherwise qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test, this tax is not applicable. Subject to certain other requirements, foreclosure property generally is defined as property we acquired through foreclosure or after a default on a loan secured by the property or a lease of the property.

 

   

Third, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any net income from prohibited transactions. Prohibited transactions are, in general, sales or other taxable dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.

 

   

Fourth, if we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as described below, but have otherwise maintained our qualification as a REIT because certain other requirements are met, we will be required to pay a tax equal to (1) the greater of (A) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test and (B) the amount by which we fail to satisfy the 95% gross income test, multiplied by (2) a fraction intended to reflect our profitability.

 

   

Fifth, if we fail to satisfy any of the asset tests (other than a de minimis failure of the 5% or 10% asset tests), as described below, due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, and we nonetheless maintain our REIT qualification because of specified cure provisions, we will be required to pay a tax equal to the greater of $50,000 or the corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets that caused us to fail such test.

 

   

Sixth, if we fail to satisfy any provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT (other than a violation of the gross income tests or certain violations of the asset tests, as described below) and the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, we may retain our REIT qualification but we will be required to pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure.

 

   

Seventh, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (1) 85% of our ordinary income for the year, (2) 95% of our capital gain net income for the year, and (3) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods.

 

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Eighth, if we acquire any asset from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, and we subsequently recognize gain on the disposition of the asset during the five-year period beginning on the date on which we acquired the asset, then we generally will be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income tax on this gain to the extent of the excess of (1) the fair market value of the asset over (2) our adjusted tax basis in the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset. The results described in this paragraph with respect to the recognition of gain assume that the C corporation will refrain from making an election to receive different treatment under applicable Treasury Regulations on its tax return for the year in which we acquire the asset from the C corporation. Under applicable Treasury Regulations, any gain from the sale of property we acquired in an exchange under Section 1031 (a like-kind exchange) or Section 1033 (an involuntary conversion) of the Code generally is excluded from the application of this built-in gains tax.

 

   

Ninth, our subsidiaries that are C corporations, including our “taxable REIT subsidiaries” described below, generally will be required to pay U.S. federal corporate income tax on their earnings.

 

   

Tenth, we will be required to pay a 100% tax on any “redetermined rents,” “redetermined deductions,” “excess interest” or “redetermined TRS service income,” as described below under “—Penalty Tax.” In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours. Redetermined deductions and excess interest generally represent amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations. Redetermined TRS service income generally represents income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf.

 

   

Eleventh, we may elect to retain and pay income tax on our net capital gain. In that case, a stockholder would include its proportionate share of our undistributed capital gain (to the extent we make a timely designation of such gain to the stockholder) in its income, would be deemed to have paid the tax that we paid on such gain, and would be allowed a credit for its proportionate share of the tax deemed to have been paid, and an adjustment would be made to increase the tax basis of the stockholder in our capital stock.

 

   

Twelfth, if we fail to comply with the requirement to send annual letters to our stockholders holding at least a certain percentage of our stock, as determined by Treasury Regulations, requesting information regarding the actual ownership of our stock, and the failure is not due to reasonable cause or due to willful neglect, we will be subject to a $25,000 penalty, or if the failure is intentional, a $50,000 penalty.

We and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes other than U.S. federal income tax, including payroll taxes and state and local income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations.

Requirements for Qualification as a REIT . The Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association:

 

  (1)

that is managed by one or more trustees or directors;

 

  (2)

that issues transferable shares or transferable certificates to evidence its beneficial ownership;

 

  (3)

that would be taxable as a domestic corporation, but for Sections 856 through 860 of the Code;

 

  (4)

that is not a financial institution or an insurance company within the meaning of certain provisions of the Code;

 

  (5)

that is beneficially owned by 100 or more persons;

 

  (6)

not more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of which is owned, actually or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, including certain specified entities, during the last half of each taxable year; and

 

  (7)

that meets other tests, described below, regarding the nature of its income and assets and the amount of its distributions.

 

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The Code provides that conditions (1) to (4), inclusive, must be met during the entire taxable year and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a taxable year of less than 12 months. Conditions (5) and (6) do not apply until after the first taxable year for which an election is made to be taxed as a REIT. For purposes of condition (6), the term “individual” includes a supplemental unemployment compensation benefit plan, a private foundation or a portion of a trust permanently set aside or used exclusively for charitable purposes, but generally does not include a qualified pension plan or profit sharing trust.

We believe that we have been organized and have operated in a manner that has allowed us, and will continue to allow us, to satisfy conditions (1) through (7) inclusive, during the relevant time periods. In addition, our charter provides for restrictions regarding ownership and transfer of our shares that are intended to assist us in continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. A description of the share ownership and transfer restrictions relating to our capital stock is contained in the discussion in this prospectus under the heading “Description of Our Securities-Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer.” These restrictions, however, do not ensure that we have previously satisfied, and may not ensure that we will, in all cases, be able to continue to satisfy, the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. If we fail to satisfy these share ownership requirements, except as provided in the next sentence, our status as a REIT will terminate. If, however, we comply with the rules contained in applicable Treasury Regulations that require us to ascertain the actual ownership of our shares and we do not know, or would not have known through the exercise of reasonable diligence, that we failed to meet the requirement described in condition (6) above, we will be treated as having met this requirement. See “—Failure to Qualify.”

In addition, we may not maintain our status as a REIT unless our taxable year is the calendar year. We have and will continue to have a calendar taxable year.

Ownership of Interests in Partnerships, Limited Liability Companies and Qualified REIT Subsidiaries . In the case of a REIT that is a partner in a partnership or a member in a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Treasury Regulations provide that the REIT will be deemed to own its proportionate share of the assets of the partnership or limited liability company, as the case may be, based on its interest in partnership capital, subject to special rules relating to the 10% asset test described below. Also, the REIT will be deemed to be entitled to its proportionate share of the income of that entity. The assets and gross income of the partnership or limited liability company retain the same character in the hands of the REIT for purposes of Section 856 of the Code, including satisfying the gross income tests and the asset tests. Thus, our pro rata share of the assets and items of income of our operating partnership, including our operating partnership’s share of these items of any partnership or limited liability company treated as a partnership or disregarded entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes in which it owns an interest, is treated as our assets and items of income for purposes of applying the requirements described in this discussion, including the gross income and asset tests described below. A brief summary of the rules governing the U.S. federal income taxation of partnerships and limited liability companies is set forth below in “—Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies.”

We have control of our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies and intend to operate them in a manner consistent with the requirements for our qualification as a REIT. If we become a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership or limited liability company and such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. In addition, it is possible that a partnership or limited liability company could take an action which could cause us to fail a gross income or asset test, and that we would not become aware of such action in time to dispose of our interest in the partnership or limited liability company or take other corrective action on a timely basis. In that case, we could fail to qualify as a REIT unless we were entitled to relief, as described below.

We may from time to time own and operate certain properties through wholly-owned subsidiaries that we intend to be treated as “qualified REIT subsidiaries” under the Code. A corporation will qualify as our qualified

 

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REIT subsidiary if we own 100% of the corporation’s outstanding stock and do not elect with the subsidiary to treat it as a “taxable REIT subsidiary,” as described below. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not treated as a separate corporation, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of a qualified REIT subsidiary are treated as assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the parent REIT for all purposes under the Code, including all REIT qualification tests. Thus, in applying the U.S. federal tax requirements described in this discussion, any qualified REIT subsidiaries we own are ignored, and all assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of such corporations are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit. A qualified REIT subsidiary is not subject to U.S. federal income tax, and our ownership of the stock of a qualified REIT subsidiary will not violate the restrictions on ownership of securities, as described below under “—Asset Tests.”

Ownership of Interests in Taxable REIT Subsidiaries . We and our operating partnership own interests in one company that has elected, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiary, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a corporation (or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a taxable REIT subsidiary owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a taxable REIT subsidiary may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation. A REIT’s ownership of securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset test described below. See “—Asset Tests.” For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, taxpayers are subject to a 30% limitation on their ability to deduct net business interest, subject to certain exceptions. See “—Annual Distribution Requirements.” While not clear, this provision may limit the ability of our taxable REIT subsidiaries to deduct interest, which could increase their taxable income.

Income Tests . We must satisfy two gross income requirements annually to maintain our qualification as a REIT. First, in each taxable year we must derive directly or indirectly at least 75% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including “rents from real property,” dividends from other REITs and, in certain circumstances, interest, or certain types of temporary investments. Second, in each taxable year we must derive at least 95% of our gross income (excluding gross income from prohibited transactions, certain hedging transactions and certain foreign currency gains) from the real property investments described above or dividends, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, or from any combination of the foregoing. For these purposes, the term “interest” generally does not include any amount received or accrued, directly or indirectly, if the determination of all or some of the amount depends in any way on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount received or accrued generally will not be excluded from the term “interest” solely by reason of being based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales.

Rents we receive from a tenant will qualify as “rents from real property” for the purpose of satisfying the gross income requirements for a REIT described above only if all of the following conditions are met:

 

   

The amount of rent is not based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. However, an amount we receive or accrue generally will not be excluded from the term “rents from real property” solely because it is based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales;

 

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Neither we nor an actual or constructive owner of 10% or more of our capital stock actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the interests in the assets or net profits of a non-corporate tenant, or, if the tenant is a corporation, 10% or more of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or 10% or more of the total value of all classes of stock of the tenant. Rents we receive from such a tenant that is a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, however, will not be excluded from the definition of “rents from real property” as a result of this condition if at least 90% of the space at the property to which the rents relate is leased to third parties, and the rents paid by the taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by our other tenants for comparable space. Whether rents paid by a taxable REIT subsidiary are substantially comparable to rents paid by other tenants is determined at the time the lease with the taxable REIT subsidiary is entered into, extended, and modified, if such modification increases the rents due under such lease. Notwithstanding the foregoing, however, if a lease with a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is modified and such modification results in an increase in the rents payable by such taxable REIT subsidiary, any such increase will not qualify as “rents from real property.” For purposes of this rule, a “controlled taxable REIT subsidiary” is a taxable REIT subsidiary in which the parent REIT owns stock possessing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the total value of the outstanding stock of such taxable REIT subsidiary;

 

   

Rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease. If this condition is not met, then the portion of the rent attributable to personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property.” To the extent that rent attributable to personal property, leased in connection with a lease of real property, exceeds 15% of the total rent received under the lease, we may transfer a portion of such personal property to a taxable REIT subsidiary; and

 

   

We generally may not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to our tenants, subject to a 1% de minimis exception and except as provided below. We may, however, perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and are not otherwise considered “rendered to the occupant” of the property. Examples of these services include the provision of light, heat, or other utilities, trash removal and general maintenance of common areas. In addition, we may employ an independent contractor from whom we derive no revenue to provide customary services to our tenants, or a taxable REIT subsidiary (which may be wholly or partially owned by us) to provide both customary and non-customary services to our tenants without causing the rent we receive from those tenants to fail to qualify as “rents from real property.”

A portion of our rental income is derived from the lease of our hotel property to our taxable REIT subsidiary. In order for the rent payable under this lease to constitute “rents from real property,” the lease must be respected as a true lease for federal income tax purposes and must not be treated as a service contract, joint venture, or some other similar type of arrangement. We believe that this lease is a true lease for federal income tax purposes. However, this determination is inherently a question of fact, and we cannot assure you that the IRS will not successfully assert a contrary position. If this lease is not respected as a true lease, part or all of the payments that we receive as rent from our taxable REIT subsidiary with respect to such lease may not be considered rent or may not otherwise satisfy the various requirements for qualification as “rents from real property.” In that case, we may not be able to satisfy either the 75% or 95% gross income test and could fail to qualify as a REIT.

 

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Also, our taxable REIT subsidiary may not operate or manage a lodging facility or provide rights to any brand name under which any lodging facility is operated. However, rents we receive from a lease of a hotel to our taxable REIT subsidiary will constitute “rents from real property” if the following conditions are satisfied:

 

   

First, the hotel must be a “qualified lodging facility.” A qualified lodging facility is a hotel, motel or other establishment more than one-half of the dwelling units in which are used on a transient basis, unless wagering activities are conducted at or in connection with such facility by any person who is engaged in the business of accepting wagers and who is legally authorized to engage in such business at or in connection with such facility. Accordingly, we are not permitted to have gambling or wagering activity on the premises of our hotel property or to earn income from gambling or wagering activities.

 

   

Second, the hotel manager must be an “eligible independent contractor.” An eligible independent contractor is an independent contractor that, at the time the management contract is entered into, is actively engaged in the trade or business of operating qualified lodging facilities for any person not related to us or any of our taxable REIT subsidiaries. For this purpose, an independent contractor means any person (1) that does not own (taking into account relevant attribution rules) more than 35% of our stock, and (2) with respect to which no person or group owning directly or indirectly (taking into account relevant attribution rules) 35% or more of our stock owns 35% or more directly or indirectly (taking into account relevant attribution rules) of the ownership interest in the contractor.

We believe that our hotel property is a qualified lodging facility, and that the hotel manager engaged by our taxable REIT subsidiary to manage the hotel is an eligible independent contractor. Furthermore, while we monitor the activities of the eligible independent contractor to maximize the value of our hotel investment, neither we nor our taxable REIT subsidiary lessee directly or indirectly operates or manages our hotel. Thus, we believe that the rents we derive from our taxable REIT subsidiary with respect to the lease of our hotel property qualify as “rents from real property.”

We generally do not intend, and, as the general partner of our operating partnership, we do not intend to permit our operating partnership, to take actions we believe will cause us to fail to satisfy the rental conditions described above. However, we may intentionally fail to satisfy some of these conditions to the extent we determine, based on the advice of our tax counsel, that the failure will not jeopardize our tax status as a REIT. For example, as described in “Description of Our Securities-Restrictions on Ownership and Transfer,” an excepted holder limit was established for Mr. Rady and his affiliates in excess of the ownership limit. Because Mr. Rady and his affiliates own 10% or more of our stock and 10% or more of the voting power or value of all classes of stock of certain of our tenants, the rents payable by such tenants do not qualify as “rents from real property” and, therefore, do not qualify under the 95% and 75% gross income tests described above. We believe, however, that we are able to satisfy the REIT gross income tests notwithstanding our receipt of such nonqualifying rental income. In addition, with respect to the limitation on the rental of personal property, we generally have not obtained appraisals of the real property and personal property leased to tenants. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

Income we receive that is attributable to the rental of parking spaces at the properties generally will constitute rents from real property for purposes of the gross income tests if certain services provided with respect to the parking spaces are performed by independent contractors from whom we derive no revenue, either directly or indirectly, or by a taxable REIT subsidiary, and certain other conditions are met. We believe that the income we receive that is attributable to parking spaces will meet these tests and, accordingly, will constitute rents from real property for purposes of the gross income tests.

From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income from a hedging transaction, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction as specified in the Code will not constitute gross income under, and thus will be exempt from, the 75% and 95% gross income tests.

 

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The term “hedging transaction,” as used above, generally means (A) any transaction we enter into in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of (1) interest rate changes or fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made by us to acquire or carry real estate assets, or (2) currency fluctuations with respect to an item of qualifying income under the 75% or 95% gross income test or any property which generates such income and (B) new transactions entered into to hedge the income or loss from prior hedging transactions, where the property or indebtedness which was the subject of the prior hedging transaction was extinguished or disposed of. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, the income from those transactions is not likely to be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our status as a REIT.

To the extent our taxable REIT subsidiaries pay dividends or interest, our allocable share of such dividend or interest income will qualify under the 95%, but not the 75%, gross income test (except to the extent the interest is paid on a loan that is adequately secured by real property).

We will monitor the amount of the dividend and other income from our taxable REIT subsidiaries and will take actions intended to keep this income, and any other nonqualifying income, within the limitations of the gross income tests. Although we expect these actions will be sufficient to prevent a violation of the gross income tests, we cannot guarantee that such actions will in all cases prevent such a violation.

If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may nevertheless qualify as a REIT for the year if we are entitled to relief under certain provisions of the Code. We generally may make use of the relief provisions if:

 

   

following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be issued; and

 

   

our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect.

It is not possible, however, to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions. For example, if we fail to satisfy the gross income tests because nonqualifying income that we intentionally accrue or receive exceeds the limits on nonqualifying income, the IRS could conclude that our failure to satisfy the tests was not due to reasonable cause. If these relief provisions do not apply to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. As discussed above in “—Taxation of Our Company-General,” even if these relief provisions apply, and we retain our status as a REIT, a tax would be imposed with respect to our nonqualifying income. We may not always be able to comply with the gross income tests for REIT qualification despite periodic monitoring of our income.

Prohibited Transaction Income . Any gain that we realize on the sale of property held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, including our share of any such gain realized by our operating partnership, either directly or through its subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies, will be treated as income from a prohibited transaction that is subject to a 100% penalty tax, unless certain safe harbor exceptions apply. This prohibited transaction income may also adversely affect our ability to satisfy the gross income tests for qualification as a REIT. Under existing law, whether property is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business is a question of fact that depends on all the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction. As the general partner of our operating partnership, we intend to cause our operating partnership to hold its properties for investment with a view to long-term appreciation, to engage in the business of acquiring, developing and owning its properties and to make occasional sales of the properties as are consistent with our investment objectives. We do not intend, and do not intend to permit our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies, to enter into any sales that are prohibited transactions. However, the IRS may successfully contend that some or

 

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all of the sales made by our operating partnership or its subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies are prohibited transactions. We would be required to pay the 100% penalty tax on our allocable share of the gains resulting from any such sales. The 100% penalty tax will not apply to gains from the sale of assets that are held through a taxable REIT subsidiary, but such income will be subject to regular U.S. federal corporate income tax.

Penalty Tax . Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest or redetermined TRS service income we generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a taxable REIT subsidiary that is understated as a result of services provided to us or on our behalf. Rents we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Code.

We do not believe we have been, and do not expect to be, subject to this penalty tax, although any rental or service arrangements we enter into from time to time may not satisfy the safe-harbor provisions described above. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on any overstated rents paid to us, or any excess deductions or understated income of our taxable REIT subsidiaries.

As described above under “Taxation of Our Company-Income Tests,” our taxable REIT subsidiary pays rent to us. We believe the rent payable to us by our taxable REIT subsidiary is at arm’s length rates. In addition, from time to time our taxable REIT subsidiaries may provide services to our tenants. We intend to set any fees paid to our taxable REIT subsidiaries for such services at arm’s length rates, although the amounts paid.

Asset Tests . At the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year, we must also satisfy certain tests relating to the nature and diversification of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by real estate assets, cash, cash items and U.S. government securities. For purposes of this test, the term “real estate assets” generally means real property (including interests in real property and interests in mortgages on real property and, to a limited extent, personal property), shares (or transferable certificates of beneficial interest) in other REITs, any stock or debt instrument attributable to the investment of the proceeds of a stock offering or a public offering of debt with a term of at least five years (but only for the one-year period beginning on the date the REIT receives such proceeds), debt instruments of publicly offered REITs, and personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property for which the rent attributable to personal property is not greater than 15% of the total rent received under the lease.

Second, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test.

Third, of the investments included in the 25% asset class, and except for certain investments in other REITs, our qualified REIT subsidiaries and taxable REIT subsidiaries, the value of any one issuer’s securities may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets, and we may not own more than 10% of the total vote or value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer except, in the case of the 10% value test, securities satisfying the “straight debt” safe-harbor or securities issued by a partnership that itself would satisfy the 75% income test if it were a REIT. Certain types of securities we may own are disregarded as securities solely for purposes of the 10% value test, including, but not limited to, any loan to an individual or an estate, any obligation to pay rents from real property and any security issued by a REIT. In addition, solely for purposes of the 10% value test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership or limited liability company, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Code. From time to time we may own securities (including debt securities) of issuers that do not qualify as a REIT, a qualified REIT subsidiary or a taxable REIT subsidiary. We intend that our ownership of any such securities will be structured in a manner that allows us to comply with the asset tests described above.

 

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Fourth, not more than 25% (20% for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017) of the value of our total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. We and our operating partnership own interests in companies that have elected, together with us, to be treated as our taxable REIT subsidiaries, and we may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. So long as each of these companies qualifies as a taxable REIT subsidiary of ours, we will not be subject to the 5% asset test, the 10% voting securities limitation or the 10% value limitation with respect to our ownership of the securities of such companies. We believe that the aggregate value of our taxable REIT subsidiaries has not exceeded, and in the future will not exceed, 25% (20% for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017) of the aggregate value of our gross assets. We generally do not obtain independent appraisals to support these conclusions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not disagree with our determinations of value.

Fifth, not more than 25% of the value of our total assets may be represented by debt instruments of publicly offered REITs to the extent those debt instruments would not be real estate assets but for the inclusion of debt instruments of publicly offered REITs in the meaning of real estate assets, as described above (e.g., a debt instrument issued by a publicly offered REIT that is not secured by a mortgage on real property).

The asset tests must be satisfied at the close of each calendar quarter of our taxable year in which we (directly or through any partnership, limited liability company or qualified REIT subsidiary) acquire securities in the applicable issuer, and also at the close of each calendar quarter in which we increase our ownership of securities of such issuer (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership or limited liability company that owns such securities). For example, our indirect ownership of securities of each issuer will increase as a result of our capital contributions to our operating partnership or as limited partners exercise any redemption/exchange rights. Also, after initially meeting the asset tests at the close of any quarter, we will not lose our status as a REIT for failure to satisfy the asset tests at the end of a later quarter solely by reason of changes in asset values. If we fail to satisfy an asset test because we acquire securities or other property during a quarter (including as a result of an increase in our interest in any partnership or limited liability company), we may cure this failure by disposing of sufficient nonqualifying assets within 30 days after the close of that quarter. We believe that we have maintained, and we intend to maintain, adequate records of the value of our assets to ensure compliance with the asset tests. If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests within the 30-day cure period, we would cease to qualify as a REIT unless we are eligible for certain relief provisions discussed below.

Certain relief provisions may be available to us if we discover a failure to satisfy the asset tests described above after the 30-day cure period. Under these provisions, we will be deemed to have met the 5% and 10% asset tests if the value of our nonqualifying assets (i) does not exceed the lesser of (a) 1% of the total value of our assets at the end of the applicable quarter or (b) $10,000,000, and (ii) we dispose of the nonqualifying assets or otherwise satisfy such tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued. For violations of any of the asset tests due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and that are, in the case of the 5% and 10% asset tests, in excess of the de minimis exception described above, we may avoid disqualification as a REIT after the 30-day cure period by taking steps including (i) the disposition of sufficient nonqualifying assets, or the taking of other actions, which allow us to meet the asset tests within (a) six months after the last day of the quarter in which the failure to satisfy the asset tests is discovered or (b) the period of time prescribed by Treasury Regulations to be issued, (ii) paying a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 or (b) the corporate tax rate multiplied by the net income generated by the nonqualifying assets, and (iii) disclosing certain information to the IRS.

Although we believe we have satisfied the asset tests described above and plan to take steps to ensure that we satisfy such tests for any quarter with respect to which retesting is to occur, there can be no assurance that we will always be successful, or will not require a reduction in our operating partnership’s overall interest in an issuer (including in a taxable REIT subsidiary). If we fail to cure any noncompliance with the asset tests in a timely manner, and the relief provisions described above are not available, we would cease to qualify as a REIT.

 

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Annual Distribution Requirements . To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required to distribute dividends, other than capital gain dividends, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to the sum of:

 

   

90% of our REIT taxable income; and

 

   

90% of our after-tax net income, if any, from foreclosure property; minus

 

   

the excess of the sum of certain items of non-cash income over 5% of our REIT taxable income.

For these purposes, our REIT taxable income is computed without regard to the dividends paid deduction and our net capital gain. In addition, for purposes of this test, non-cash income generally means income attributable to leveled stepped rents, original issue discount, cancellation of indebtedness, or a like-kind exchange that is later determined to be taxable.

In addition, our REIT taxable income will be reduced by any taxes we are required to pay on any gain we recognize from the disposition of any asset we acquired from a corporation that is or has been a C corporation in a transaction in which our tax basis in the asset is less than the fair market value of the asset, in each case determined as of the date on which we acquired the asset, within the five-year period following our acquisition of such asset, as described above under “—General.”

For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017, our deduction for net business interest expense will generally be limited to 30% of our taxable income, as adjusted for certain items of income, gain, deduction or loss. Any business interest deduction that is disallowed due to this limitation may be carried forward to future taxable years. If we are subject to this interest expense limitation, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased. Taxpayers that conduct certain real estate businesses may elect not to have this interest expense limitation apply to them, provided that they use an alternative depreciation system to depreciate certain property. We believe that we will be eligible to make this election. If we make this election, although we would not be subject to the interest expense limitation described above, our depreciation deductions may be reduced and, as a result, our REIT taxable income for a taxable year may be increased.

We generally must pay, or be treated as paying, the distributions described above in the taxable year to which they relate. At our election, a distribution will be treated as paid in a taxable year if it is declared before we timely file our tax return for such year and paid on or before the first regular dividend payment after such declaration, provided such payment is made during the 12-month period following the close of such year. These distributions are treated as received by our stockholders in the year in which they are paid. This is so even though these distributions relate to the prior year for purposes of the 90% distribution requirement. In order to be taken into account for purposes of our distribution requirement, except as provided below, the amount distributed must not be preferential- i.e. , every stockholder of the class of stock to which a distribution is made must be treated the same as every other stockholder of that class, and no class of stock may be treated other than according to its dividend rights as a class. This preferential limitation will not apply to distributions made by us, provided we qualify as a “publicly offered REIT.” We believe that we are, and expect we will continue to be, a publicly offered REIT. To the extent that we do not distribute all of our net capital gain, or distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our REIT taxable income, as adjusted, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on the undistributed amount. We believe that we have made, and we intend to continue to make, timely distributions sufficient to satisfy these annual distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligations. In this regard, the partnership agreement of our operating partnership authorizes us, as the general partner of our operating partnership, to take such steps as may be necessary to cause our operating partnership to distribute to its partners an amount sufficient to permit us to meet these distribution requirements and to minimize our corporate tax obligation.

We expect that our REIT taxable income will be less than our cash flow because of depreciation and other non-cash charges included in computing REIT taxable income. Accordingly, we anticipate that we generally will have sufficient cash or liquid assets to enable us to satisfy the distribution requirements described above. However, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash or other liquid assets to meet these distribution

 

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requirements due to timing differences between the actual receipt of income and actual payment of deductible expenses, and the inclusion of income and deduction of expenses in determining our taxable income. In addition, we may decide to retain our cash, rather than distribute it, in order to repay debt or for other reasons. If these timing differences occur, we may borrow funds to pay dividends or pay dividends in the form of taxable stock distributions in order to meet the distribution requirements, while preserving our cash.

Under some circumstances, we may be able to rectify an inadvertent failure to meet the 90% distribution requirement for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to our stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for dividends paid for the earlier year. In that case, we may be able to avoid being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends, subject to the 4% excise tax described below. However, we will be required to pay interest to the IRS based upon the amount of any deduction claimed for deficiency dividends. While the payment of a deficiency dividend will apply to a prior year for purposes of our REIT distribution requirements, it will be treated as an additional distribution to our stockholders in the year such dividend is paid.

Furthermore, we will be required to pay a 4% excise tax to the extent we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of 85% of our ordinary income for such year, 95% of our capital gain net income for the year and any undistributed taxable income from prior periods. Any ordinary income and net capital gain on which corporate income tax is imposed for any year is treated as an amount distributed during that year for purposes of calculating this excise tax.

For purposes of the 90% distribution requirement and excise tax described above, dividends declared during the last three months of the taxable year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date during such period and paid during January of the following year, will be treated as paid by us and received by our stockholders on December 31 of the year in which they are declared.

Like-Kind Exchanges . We may dispose of properties in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could require us to pay U.S. federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.

Tax Liabilities and Attributes Inherited in Connection with Acquisitions . From time to time, we or our operating partnership may acquire other corporations or entities and, in connection with such acquisitions, we may succeed to the historical tax attributes and liabilities of such entities. For example, if we acquire a C corporation and subsequently dispose of its assets within five years of the acquisition, we could be required to pay the built-in gain tax described above under “—General.” In addition, in order to qualify as a REIT, at the end of any taxable year, we must not have any earnings and profits accumulated in a non-REIT year. As a result, if we acquire a C corporation, we must distribute the corporation’s earnings and profits accumulated prior to the acquisition before the end of the taxable year in which we acquire the corporation. We also could be required to pay the acquired entity’s unpaid taxes even though such liabilities arose prior to the time we acquired the entity.

Moreover, we may from time to time acquire other REITs through a merger or acquisition. If any such REIT failed to qualify as a REIT for any of its taxable years, such REIT would be liable for (and we, as the surviving corporation in the merger or acquisition, would be obligated to pay) regular U.S. federal corporate income tax on its taxable income, and if the merger or acquisition is a transaction in which our tax basis in the assets of such REIT is less than the fair market value of the assets, in each case, determined at the time of the merger or acquisition, we would be subject to tax on the built-in gain on each asset of such REIT as described above if we were to dispose of the asset in a taxable transaction during the five-year period following the merger or acquisition. Moreover, even if such REIT qualified as a REIT at all relevant times, we would similarly be liable for other unpaid taxes (if any) of such REIT (such as the 100% tax on gains from any sales treated as “prohibited transactions” as described above under “—Prohibited Transaction Income”).

 

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Furthermore, after our acquisition of another corporation or entity, the asset and income tests will apply to all of our assets, including the assets we acquire from such corporation or entity, and to all of our income, including the income derived from the assets we acquire from such corporation or entity. As a result, the nature of the assets that we acquire from such corporation or entity and the income we derive from those assets may have an effect on our tax status as a REIT.

Failure to Qualify . If we discover a violation of a provision of the Code that would result in our failure to qualify as a REIT, certain specified cure provisions may be available to us. Except with respect to violations of the gross income tests and asset tests (for which the cure provisions are described above), and provided the violation is due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect, these cure provisions generally impose a $50,000 penalty for each violation in lieu of a loss of REIT status. If we fail to satisfy the requirements for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions do not apply, we will be required to pay regular U.S. federal corporate income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018, on our taxable income. Distributions to stockholders in any year in which we fail to qualify as a REIT will not be deductible by us. As a result, we anticipate that our failure to qualify as a REIT would reduce the cash available for distribution by us to our stockholders. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to distribute any amounts to our stockholders and all distributions to stockholders will be taxable as regular corporate dividends to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. In such event, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. In addition, non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, may be eligible for the preferential tax rates on qualified dividend income. Non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us. Unless entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be ineligible to elect to be treated as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year for which we lose our qualification. It is not possible to state whether in all circumstances we would be entitled to this statutory relief.

Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership, the Subsidiary Partnerships and the Limited Liability Companies

General . All of our investments are held indirectly through our operating partnership. In addition, our operating partnership holds certain of its investments indirectly through subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies that we believe are and will continue to be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes are “pass-through” entities which are not required to pay U.S. federal income tax. Rather, partners or members of such entities are allocated their shares of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the partnership or limited liability company, and are potentially required to pay tax on this income, without regard to whether they receive a distribution from the partnership or limited liability company. We will include in our income our share of these partnership and limited liability company items for purposes of the various gross income tests, the computation of our REIT taxable income, and the REIT distribution requirements. Moreover, for purposes of the asset tests, we will include our pro rata share of assets held by our operating partnership, including its share of the assets of its subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies, based on our capital interests in each such entity. See “—Taxation of Our Company.”

Entity Classification . Our interests in our operating partnership and the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as partnerships or disregarded entities. For example, an entity that would otherwise be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes may nonetheless be taxable as a corporation if it is a “publicly traded partnership” and certain other requirements are met. A partnership or limited liability company would be treated as a publicly traded partnership if its interests are traded on an established securities market or are readily tradable on a secondary market or a substantial equivalent thereof, within the meaning of applicable

 

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Treasury Regulations. We do not anticipate that our operating partnership or any subsidiary partnership or limited liability company will be treated as a publicly traded partnership that is taxable as a corporation. However, if any such entity were treated as a corporation, it would be required to pay an entity-level tax on its income. In this situation, the character of our assets and items of gross income would change and could prevent us from satisfying the REIT asset tests and possibly the REIT income tests. See “—Taxation of Our Company-Asset Tests” and “—Income Tests.” This, in turn, could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT. See “—Failure to Qualify” for a discussion of the effect of our failure to meet these tests. In addition, a change in the tax status of our operating partnership or a subsidiary partnership or limited liability company to a corporation might be treated as a taxable event. If so, we might incur a tax liability without any related cash payment. We believe our operating partnership and each of the subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies are and will continue to be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Allocations of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction . A partnership agreement (or, in the case of a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the limited liability company agreement) generally will determine the allocation of income and loss among partners. These allocations, however, will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder. Generally, Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder require that partnership allocations respect the economic arrangement of the partners. If an allocation of partnership income or loss does not comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated in accordance with the partners’ interests in the partnership. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to such item. The allocations of taxable income and loss of our operating partnership and any subsidiaries that are treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder.

Tax Allocations With Respect to the Properties . Under Section 704(c) of the Code, income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to appreciated or depreciated property that is contributed to a partnership (including a limited liability company treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) in exchange for an interest in the partnership, must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain or benefits from the unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution. The amount of the unrealized gain or unrealized loss generally is equal to the difference between the fair market value or book value and the adjusted tax basis of the contributed property at the time of contribution (this difference is referred to as a book-tax difference), as adjusted from time to time. These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners.

Our operating partnership may, from time to time, acquire interests in property in exchange for interests in our operating partnership. In that case, the tax basis of these property interests generally will carry over to our operating partnership, notwithstanding their different book ( i.e. , fair market) value. The partnership agreement requires that income and loss allocations with respect to these properties be made in a manner consistent with Section 704(c) of the Code. Treasury Regulations issued under Section 704(c) of the Code provide partnerships (including limited liability companies treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes) with a choice of several methods of accounting for book-tax differences. Depending on the method we choose in connection with any particular contribution, the carryover basis of each of the contributed interests in the properties in the hands of our operating partnership (1) could cause us to be allocated lower amounts of depreciation deductions for tax purposes than would be allocated to us if any of the contributed properties were to have a tax basis equal to its respective fair market value at the time of the contribution and (2) could cause us to be allocated taxable gain in the event of a sale of such contributed interests or properties in excess of the economic or book income allocated to us as a result of such sale, with a corresponding benefit to the other partners in our operating partnership. An allocation described in clause (2) above might cause us or the other partners to recognize taxable income in excess of cash proceeds in the event of a sale or other disposition of property, which might adversely

 

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affect our ability to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “—Taxation of Our Company-Requirements for Qualification as a REIT” and “—Annual Distribution Requirements.”

Any property acquired by our operating partnership in a taxable transaction will initially have a tax basis equal to its fair market value, and Section 704(c) of the Code generally will not apply.

Partnership Audit Rules . The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 changes the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Under the new rules (which are generally effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017), among other changes and subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and any partner’s distributive share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, or penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. Although it is uncertain how certain aspects of these new rules will be implemented, it is possible that they could result in partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest, including our operating partnership, being required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment, and we, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though we, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate-level taxes as a result of the related audit adjustment. The changes created by these new rules are sweeping and in many respects dependent on the promulgation of future regulations or other guidance by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Investors are urged to consult their tax advisors with respect to these changes and their potential impact on their investment in our capital stock.

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences to Holders of Our Capital Stock

The following discussion is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences to you of purchasing, owning and disposing of our capital stock. This discussion is limited to holders who hold our capital stock as a “capital asset” within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all U.S. federal income tax consequences relevant to a holder’s particular circumstances. In addition, except where specifically noted, it does not address consequences relevant to holders subject to special rules, including, without limitation:

 

   

U.S. expatriates and former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;

 

   

persons subject to the alternative minimum tax;

 

   

U.S. holders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar;

 

   

persons holding our capital stock as part of a hedge, straddle or other risk reduction strategy or as part of a conversion transaction or other integrated investment;

 

   

banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions;

 

   

REITs or regulated investment companies;

 

   

brokers, dealers or traders in securities;

 

   

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

   

S corporations, partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);

 

   

tax-exempt organizations or governmental organizations;

 

   

persons subject to special tax accounting rules as a result of any item of gross income with respect to our capital stock being taken into account in an applicable financial statement;

 

   

persons deemed to sell our capital stock under the constructive sale provisions of the Code; and

 

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persons who hold or receive our capital stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation.

THIS DISCUSSION IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS NOT INTENDED AS TAX ADVICE. INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE APPLICATION OF THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX LAWS TO THEIR PARTICULAR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS ANY TAX CONSEQUENCES OF THE PURCHASE, OWNERSHIP AND DISPOSITION OF OUR CAPITAL STOCK ARISING UNDER OTHER U.S. FEDERAL TAX LAWS (INCLUDING ESTATE AND GIFT TAX LAWS), UNDER THE LAWS OF ANY STATE, LOCAL OR NON-U.S. TAXING JURISDICTION OR UNDER ANY APPLICABLE TAX TREATY.

For purposes of this discussion, a “U.S. holder” is a beneficial owner of our capital stock that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is or is treated as:

 

   

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation created or organized under the laws of the United States, any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income tax regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust that (1) is subject to the primary supervision of a U.S. court and the control of one or more “United States persons” (within the meaning of Section 7701(a)(30) of the Code) or (2) has a valid election in effect to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

For purposes of this discussion, a “non-U.S. holder” is any beneficial owner of our capital stock that is neither a U.S. holder nor an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

If an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds our capital stock, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will depend on the status of the partner, the activities of the partnership and certain determinations made at the partner level. Accordingly, partnerships holding our capital stock and the partners in such partnerships should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences to them.

Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

Distributions Generally . Distributions out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as dividends and, other than with respect to capital gain dividends and certain amounts which have previously been subject to corporate level tax, as discussed below, will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as ordinary income when actually or constructively received. See “—Tax Rates” below. As long as we qualify as a REIT, these distributions will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction in the case of U.S. holders that are corporations or, except to the extent described in “—Tax Rates” below, the preferential rates on qualified dividend income applicable to non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals. For purposes of determining whether distributions to holders of our capital stock are out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated first to our outstanding preferred stock, if any, and then to our outstanding common stock.

To the extent that we make distributions on our capital stock in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits allocable to such stock, these distributions will be treated first as a tax-free return of capital to a U.S. holder to the extent of the U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such shares of stock. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits and in excess of a U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in its shares will be taxable as capital gain. Such gain will be taxable as long-term capital gain if the shares have been held for more than one year. Dividends we declare in October, November, or December of any year and which are payable to a holder of record on a specified date in any of these months will be treated as both paid by

 

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us and received by the holder on December 31 of that year, provided we actually pay the dividend on or before January 31 of the following year. U.S. holders may not include in their own income tax returns any of our net operating losses or capital losses.

U.S. holders that receive taxable stock distributions, including distributions partially payable in our common stock and partially payable in cash, would be required to include the full amount of the distribution ( i.e. , the cash and the stock portion) as a dividend (subject to limited exceptions) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as described above. The amount of any distribution payable in our common stock generally is equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of the common stock. Depending on the circumstances of a U.S. holder, the tax on the distribution may exceed the amount of the distribution received in cash, in which case such U.S. holder would have to pay the tax using cash from other sources. If a U.S. holder sells the common stock it received in connection with a taxable stock distribution in order to pay this tax and the proceeds of such sale are less than the amount required to be included in income with respect to the stock portion of the distribution, such U.S. holder could have a capital loss with respect to the stock sale that could not be used to offset such income. A U.S. holder that receives common stock pursuant to such distribution generally has a tax basis in such common stock equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of such common stock as described above, and has a holding period in such common stock that begins on the day immediately following the payment date for the distribution.

Capital Gain Dividends . Dividends that we properly designate as capital gain dividends will be taxable to our taxable U.S. holders as a gain from the sale or disposition of a capital asset held for more than one year, to the extent that such gain does not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year and may not exceed our dividends paid for the taxable year, including dividends paid the following year that are treated as paid in the current year. U.S. holders that are corporations may, however, be required to treat up to 20% of certain capital gain dividends as ordinary income. If we properly designate any portion of a dividend as a capital gain dividend, then, except as otherwise required by law, we presently intend to allocate a portion of the total capital gain dividends paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year to the holders of each class of our capital stock in proportion to the amount that our total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to the holders of each such class of our capital stock for the year bears to the total dividends, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes, paid or made available to holders of all classes of our capital stock for the year. In addition, except as otherwise required by law, we will make a similar allocation with respect to any undistributed long-term capital gains which are to be included in our stockholders’ long-term capital gains, based on the allocation of the capital gain amount which would have resulted if those undistributed long-term capital gains had been distributed as “capital gain dividends” by us to our stockholders.

Retention of Net Capital Gains . We may elect to retain, rather than distribute as a capital gain dividend, all or a portion of our net capital gains. If we make this election, we would pay tax on our retained net capital gains. In addition, to the extent we so elect, our earnings and profits (determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) would be adjusted accordingly, and a U.S. holder generally would:

 

   

include its pro rata share of our undistributed capital gain in computing its long-term capital gains in its return for its taxable year in which the last day of our taxable year falls, subject to certain limitations as to the amount that is includable;

 

   

be deemed to have paid its share of the capital gains tax imposed on us on the designated amounts included in the U.S. holder’s income as long-term capital gain;

 

   

receive a credit or refund for the amount of tax deemed paid by it;

 

   

increase the adjusted tax basis of its capital stock by the difference between the amount of includable gains and the tax deemed to have been paid by it; and

 

   

in the case of a U.S. holder that is a corporation, appropriately adjust its earnings and profits for the retained capital gains in accordance with Treasury Regulations to be promulgated by the IRS.

 

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Passive Activity Losses and Investment Interest Limitations . Distributions we make and gain arising from the sale or exchange by a U.S. holder of our capital stock will not be treated as passive activity income. As a result, U.S. holders generally will not be able to apply any “passive losses” against this income or gain. A U.S. holder generally may elect to treat capital gain dividends, capital gains from the disposition of our capital stock and income designated as qualified dividend income, as described in “—Tax Rates” below, as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation, but in such case, the holder will be taxed at ordinary income rates on such amount. Other distributions made by us, to the extent they do not constitute a return of capital, generally will be treated as investment income for purposes of computing the investment interest limitation.

Dispositions of Our Capital Stock . Except as described below under “—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” if a U.S. holder sells or disposes of shares of our capital stock, it will recognize gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes in an amount equal to the difference between the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received on the sale or other disposition and the holder’s adjusted tax basis in the shares. This gain or loss, except as provided below, will be long-term capital gain or loss if the holder has held such capital stock for more than one year. However, if a U.S. holder recognizes a loss upon the sale or other disposition of capital stock that it has held for six months or less, after applying certain holding period rules, the loss recognized will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent the U.S. holder received distributions from us which were required to be treated as long-term capital gains.

Redemption or Repurchase by Us . A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits as described above under “—Distributions Generally”) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. The redemption or repurchase generally will be treated as a sale or exchange if it:

 

   

is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the U.S. holder,

 

   

results in a “complete redemption” of the U.S. holder’s stock interest in us, or

 

   

is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the U.S. holder,

all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Code.

In determining whether any of these tests has been met, shares of our capital stock, including common stock and other equity interests in us, considered to be owned by the U.S. holder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Code, as well as shares of our capital stock actually owned by the U.S. holder, generally must be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Code will be satisfied with respect to the U.S. holder depends upon the facts and circumstances at the time that the determination must be made, U.S. holders are advised to consult their tax advisors to determine such tax treatment.

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Distributions Generally.” A U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in the redeemed or repurchased shares generally will be transferred to the holder’s remaining shares of our capital stock, if any. If a U.S. holder owns no other shares of our capital stock, under certain circumstances, such basis may be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely. Proposed Treasury Regulations issued in 2009, if enacted in their current form, would affect the basis recovery rules described above. It is not clear whether these proposed regulations will be enacted in their current form or at all. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income tax consequences of a redemption or repurchase of our capital stock.

If a redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Dispositions of Our Capital Stock.”

 

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Tax Rates . The maximum tax rate for non-corporate taxpayers for (1) long-term capital gains, including certain “capital gain dividends,” generally is 20% (although depending on the characteristics of the assets which produced these gains and on designations which we may make, certain capital gain dividends may be taxed at a 25% rate) and (2) “qualified dividend income” generally is 20%. In general, dividends payable by REITs are not eligible for the reduced tax rate on qualified dividend income, except to the extent that certain holding period requirements have been met and the REIT’s dividends are attributable to dividends received from taxable corporations (such as its taxable REIT subsidiaries) or to income that was subject to tax at the corporate/REIT level (for example, if the REIT distributed taxable income that it retained and paid tax on in the prior taxable year). Capital gain dividends will only be eligible for the rates described above to the extent that they are properly designated by the REIT as “capital gain dividends.” U.S. holders that are corporations may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain dividends as ordinary income. In addition, non-corporate U.S. holders, including individuals, generally may deduct 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026.

Taxation of Tax-Exempt Holders of Our Capital Stock

Dividend income from us and gain arising upon a sale of shares of our capital stock generally should not be unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI, to a tax-exempt holder, except as described below. This income or gain will be UBTI, however, to the extent a tax-exempt holder holds its shares as “debt-financed property” within the meaning of the Code. Generally, “debt-financed property” is property the acquisition or holding of which was financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt holder.

For tax-exempt holders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, or qualified group legal services plans exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9), (c)(17) or (c)(20) of the Code, respectively, income from an investment in our shares will constitute UBTI unless the organization is able to properly claim a deduction for amounts set aside or placed in reserve for specific purposes so as to offset the income generated by its investment in our shares. These prospective investors should consult their tax advisors concerning these “set aside” and reserve requirements.

Notwithstanding the above, however, a portion of the dividends paid by a “pension-held REIT” may be treated as UBTI as to certain trusts that hold more than 10%, by value, of the interests in the REIT. A REIT will not be a “pension-held REIT” if it is able to satisfy the “not closely held” requirement without relying on the “look-through” exception with respect to certain trusts or if such REIT is not “predominantly held” by “qualified trusts. ” As a result of restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock contained in our charter, we do not expect to be classified as a “pension-held REIT,” and as a result, the tax treatment described above should be inapplicable to our holders. However, because our capital stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, we cannot guarantee that this will always be the case.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock

The following discussion addresses the rules governing U.S. federal income taxation of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our capital stock by non-U.S. holders. These rules are complex, and no attempt is made herein to provide more than a brief summary of such rules. Accordingly, the discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation and does not address other federal, state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences that may be relevant to a non-U.S. holder in light of its particular circumstances. We urge non-U.S. holders to consult their tax advisors to determine the impact of U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax laws and any applicable tax treaty on the purchase, ownership and disposition of shares of our capital stock, including any reporting requirements.

Distributions Generally . Distributions (including any taxable stock distributions) that are neither attributable to gains from sales or exchanges by us of United States real property interests, or USRPIs, nor

 

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designated by us as capital gain dividends (except as described below) will be treated as dividends of ordinary income to the extent that they are made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. Such distributions ordinarily will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, unless the distributions are treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable). Under certain treaties, however, lower withholding rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from a REIT. Certain certification and disclosure requirements must be satisfied for a non-U.S. holder to be exempt from withholding under the effectively connected income exemption. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business generally will not be subject to withholding but will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net basis at the regular graduated rates, in the same manner as dividends paid to U.S. holders are subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any such dividends received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate (applicable after deducting U.S. federal income taxes paid on such effectively connected income) or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.

Except as otherwise provided below, we expect to withhold U.S. federal income tax at the rate of 30% on any distributions made to a non-U.S. holder unless:

 

  (1)

a lower treaty rate applies and the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable documentation) evidencing eligibility for that reduced treaty rate; or

 

  (2)

the non-U.S. holder furnishes an IRS Form W-8ECI (or other applicable documentation) claiming that the distribution is income effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s trade or business.

Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will not be taxable to a non-U.S. holder to the extent that such distributions do not exceed the adjusted tax basis of the holder’s capital stock, but rather will reduce the adjusted tax basis of such stock. To the extent that such distributions exceed the non-U.S. holder’s adjusted tax basis in such capital stock, they generally will give rise to gain from the sale or exchange of such stock, the tax treatment of which is described below. However, such excess distributions may be treated as dividend income for certain non-U.S. holders. For withholding purposes, we expect to treat all distributions as made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. However, amounts withheld may be refundable if it is subsequently determined that the distribution was, in fact, in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided that certain conditions are met.

Capital Gain Dividends and Distributions Attributable to a Sale or Exchange of United States Real Property Interests . Distributions to a non-U.S. holder that we properly designate as capital gain dividends, other than those arising from the disposition of a USRPI, generally should not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, unless:

 

  (1)

the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such dividends are attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to a branch profits tax of up to 30%, as discussed above; or

 

  (2)

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of such non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses.

 

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Pursuant to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act, which is referred to as “FIRPTA,” distributions to a non-U.S. holder that are attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs, whether or not designated as capital gain dividends, will cause the non-U.S. holder to be treated as recognizing such gain as income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business. Non-U.S. holders generally would be taxed at the regular graduated rates applicable to U.S. holders, subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals. We also will be required to withhold and to remit to the IRS 35% (or 20% to the extent provided in applicable Treasury Regulations) of any distribution to non-U.S. holders attributable to gain from sales or exchanges by us of USRPIs. Distributions subject to FIRPTA may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax in the hands of a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation. The amount withheld is creditable against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability. However, any distribution with respect to any class of stock that is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market located in the United States is not subject to FIRPTA, and therefore, not subject to the 35% U.S. withholding tax described above, if the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of such class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution. Instead, such distributions generally will be treated as ordinary dividend distributions and subject to withholding in the manner described above with respect to ordinary dividends. In addition, distributions to certain non-U.S. publicly traded shareholders that meet certain record-keeping and other requirements (“qualified shareholders”) are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, distributions to “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

Retention of Net Capital Gains . Although the law is not clear on the matter, it appears that amounts we designate as retained net capital gains in respect of our capital stock should be treated with respect to non-U.S. holders as actual distributions of capital gain dividends. Under this approach, the non-U.S. holders may be able to offset as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability their proportionate share of the tax paid by us on such retained net capital gains and to receive from the IRS a refund to the extent their proportionate share of such tax paid by us exceeds their actual U.S. federal income tax liability. If we were to designate any portion of our net capital gain as retained net capital gain, non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the taxation of such retained net capital gain.

Sale of Our Capital Stock . Except as described below under “—Redemption or Repurchase by Us,” gain realized by a non-U.S. holder upon the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless such stock constitutes a USRPI. In general, stock of a domestic corporation that constitutes a “United States real property holding corporation,” or USRPHC, will constitute a USRPI. We believe that we are a USRPHC. Our capital stock will not, however, constitute a USRPI so long as we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” A “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” includes a REIT in which at all times during a five-year testing period less than 50% in value of its stock is held directly or indirectly by non-United States persons, subject to certain rules. For purposes of determining whether a REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity,” a person who at all applicable times holds less than 5% of a class of stock that is “regularly traded” is treated as a United States person unless the REIT has actual knowledge that such person is not a United States person. We believe, but cannot guarantee, that we are a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.” Because our capital stock is (and, we anticipate, will continue to be) publicly traded, no assurance can be given that we will continue to be a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”

Even if we do not qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” at the time a non-U.S. holder sells our capital stock, gain realized from the sale or other taxable disposition by a non-U.S. holder of such capital stock would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax under FIRPTA as a sale of a USRPI if:

 

  (1)

such class of stock is “regularly traded,” as defined by applicable Treasury Regulations, on an established securities market such as the NYSE; and

 

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  (2)

such non-U.S. holder owned, actually and constructively, 10% or less of such class of stock throughout the shorter of the five-year period ending on the date of the sale or other taxable disposition or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period.

In addition, dispositions of our capital stock by qualified shareholders are exempt from FIRPTA, except to the extent owners of such qualified shareholders that are not also qualified shareholders own, actually or constructively, more than 10% of our capital stock. Furthermore, dispositions of our capital stock by “qualified foreign pension funds” or entities all of the interests of which are held by “qualified foreign pension funds” are exempt from FIRPTA. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, gain from the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock not otherwise subject to FIRPTA will be taxable to a non-U.S. holder if either (a) the investment in our capital stock is treated as effectively connected with the conduct by the non-U.S. holder of a trade or business within the United States (and, if required by an applicable income tax treaty, the non-U.S. holder maintains a permanent establishment in the United States to which such gain is attributable), in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to the same treatment as U.S. holders with respect to such gain, except that a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on such gain, as adjusted for certain items, or (b) the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax on the non-U.S. holder’s capital gains (or such lower rate specified by an applicable income tax treaty), which may be offset by U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses. In addition, even if we are a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, upon disposition of our capital stock, a non-U.S. holder may be treated as having gain from the sale or other taxable disposition of a USRPI if the non-U.S. holder (1) disposes of such stock within a 30-day period preceding the ex-dividend date of a distribution, any portion of which, but for the disposition, would have been treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI and (2) acquires, or enters into a contract or option to acquire, or is deemed to acquire, other shares of that stock during the 61-day period beginning with the first day of the 30-day period described in clause (1), unless such stock is “regularly traded” and the non-U.S. holder did not own more than 10% of the stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date of the distribution described in clause (1).

If gain on the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, the non-U.S. holder would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return and would be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax with respect to such gain in the same manner as a taxable U.S. holder (subject to any applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of nonresident alien individuals). In addition, if the sale, exchange or other taxable disposition of our capital stock were subject to taxation under FIRPTA, and if shares of the applicable class of our capital stock were not “regularly traded” on an established securities market, the purchaser of such capital stock generally would be required to withhold and remit to the IRS 15% of the purchase price.

Redemption or Repurchase by Us . A redemption or repurchase of shares of our capital stock will be treated under Section 302 of the Code as a distribution (and taxable as a dividend to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits) unless the redemption or repurchase satisfies one of the tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Code and is therefore treated as a sale or exchange of the redeemed or repurchased shares. See “—Taxation of Taxable U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock-Redemption or Repurchase by Us.” Qualified shareholders and their owners may be subject to different rules, and should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of such rules. If the redemption or repurchase of shares is treated as a distribution, the amount of the distribution will be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received. See “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock-Distributions Generally.” If the redemption or repurchase of shares is not treated as a distribution, it will be treated as a taxable sale or exchange in the manner described under “—Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders of Our Capital Stock-Sale of Our Capital Stock.”

 

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Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

U.S. Holders . A U.S. holder may be subject to information reporting and backup withholding when such holder receives payments on our capital stock or proceeds from the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock. Certain U.S. holders are exempt from backup withholding, including corporations and certain tax-exempt organizations. A U.S. holder will be subject to backup withholding if such holder is not otherwise exempt and:

 

   

the holder fails to furnish the holder’s taxpayer identification number, which for an individual is ordinarily his or her social security number;

 

   

the holder furnishes an incorrect taxpayer identification number;

 

   

the applicable withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the holder previously failed to properly report payments of interest or dividends; or

 

   

the holder fails to certify under penalties of perjury that the holder has furnished a correct taxpayer identification number and that the IRS has not notified the holder that the holder is subject to backup withholding.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their qualification for an exemption from backup withholding and the procedures for obtaining such an exemption.

Non-U.S. Holders . Payments of dividends on our capital stock generally will not be subject to backup withholding, provided the applicable withholding agent does not have actual knowledge or reason to know the holder is a United States person and the holder either certifies its non-U.S. status, such as by furnishing a valid IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or W-8ECI, or otherwise establishes an exemption. However, information returns are required to be filed with the IRS in connection with any dividends on our capital stock paid to the non-U.S. holder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. In addition, proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of such stock within the United States or conducted through certain U.S.-related brokers generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting, if the applicable withholding agent receives the certification described above and does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that such holder is a United States person, or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Proceeds of a disposition of such stock conducted through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker generally will not be subject to backup withholding or information reporting.

Copies of information returns that are filed with the IRS may also be made available under the provisions of an applicable treaty or agreement to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is established.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against a non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Medicare Contribution Tax on Unearned Income

Certain U.S. holders that are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on stock and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock. U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of these rules on their ownership and disposition of our capital stock.

Additional Withholding Tax on Payments Made to Foreign Accounts

Withholding taxes may be imposed under Sections 1471 to 1474 of the Code (such sections commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA) on certain types of payments made to

 

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non-U.S. financial institutions and certain other non-U.S. entities. Specifically, a 30% withholding tax may be imposed on dividends on our capital stock or gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our capital stock, in each case paid to a “foreign financial institution” or a “non-financial foreign entity” (each as defined in the Code), unless (1) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations, (2) the non-financial foreign entity either certifies it does not have any “substantial United States owners” (as defined in the Code) or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial United States owner, or (3) the foreign financial institution or non-financial foreign entity otherwise qualifies for an exemption from these rules. If the payee is a foreign financial institution and is subject to the diligence and reporting requirements in clause (1) above, it must enter into an agreement with the U.S. Department of the Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain “specified United States persons” or “United States owned foreign entities” (each as defined in the Code), annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on certain payments to non-compliant foreign financial institutions and certain other account holders. Foreign financial institutions located in jurisdictions that have an intergovernmental agreement with the United States governing FATCA may be subject to different rules.

Under the applicable Treasury Regulations and administrative guidance, withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our capital stock, and will apply to payments of gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of such stock on or after January 1, 2019. Because we may not know the extent to which a distribution is a dividend for U.S. federal income tax purposes at the time it is made, for purposes of these withholding rules we may treat the entire distribution as a dividend.

Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of withholding under FATCA to their investment in our capital stock.

Other Tax Consequences

State, local and non-U.S. income tax laws may differ substantially from the corresponding U.S. federal income tax laws, and this discussion does not purport to describe any aspect of the tax laws of any state, local or non-U.S. jurisdiction, or any U.S. federal tax other than the income tax. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the effect of state, local and non-U.S. tax laws with respect to our tax treatment as a REIT and on an investment in our capital stock.

 

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SELLING SECURITYHOLDERS

Information about selling securityholders, where applicable, will be set forth in a prospectus supplement, in a post-effective amendment or in filings we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We or any of the selling securityholders may sell the offered securities from time to time:

 

   

through underwriters or dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to one or more purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

We will identify the specific plan of distribution, including any underwriters, dealers, agents or direct purchasers and their compensation in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters will be passed upon for us by Latham & Watkins LLP, San Diego, California. Venable LLP, Baltimore, Maryland, has issued an opinion to us regarding certain matters of Maryland law, including the validity of the securities offered hereby. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us, the selling securityholders or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of American Assets Trust, Inc. appearing in American Assets Trust, Inc.’s and American Assets Trust, L.P.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2016 (including schedules appearing therein), and the effectiveness of American Assets Trust, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their reports thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements and American Assets Trust, Inc.’s management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2016 are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

The statement of revenues over certain operating expenses of Pacific Ridge Apartments for the year ended December 31, 2016, appearing in our Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed on June 28, 2017 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent auditors, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such statement of revenues over certain operating expenses is incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firms as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

LOGO

9,500,000 Shares

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

Morgan Stanley

Wells Fargo Securities

 

 

                , 2019

 

 

 

 

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