Annual Report (10-k)

Date : 02/15/2019 @ 9:23PM
Source : Edgar (US Regulatory)
Stock : American Assets Trust Inc (AAT)
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Annual Report (10-k)



 
 
 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
x
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
or
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
 
For the transition period from              to             

 
AMERICAN ASSETS TRUST, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Commission file number: 001-35030

AMERICAN ASSETS TRUST, L.P.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)



Maryland (American Assets Trust, Inc.)
 
27-3338708 (American Assets Trust, Inc.)
Maryland (American Assets Trust, L.P.)
 
27-3338894 (American Assets Trust, L.P.)

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(IRS Employer Identification No.)
 
 
11455 El Camino Real, Suite 200, San Diego, California
 
92130
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(858) 350-2600
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Registrant
Title of Each Class
Name Of Each Exchange On Which Registered
American Assets Trust, Inc.
Common Stock, $.01 par value per share
New York Stock Exchange
American Assets Trust, L.P.
None
None
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
American Assets Trust, Inc.
None
American Assets Trust, L.P.
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   
American Assets Trust, Inc.
  x   Yes      o  No
American Assets Trust, L.P.
  o   Yes      x  No

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
American Assets Trust, Inc.
  o   Yes      x  No

American Assets Trust, L.P.
  o   Yes      x  No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    
American Assets Trust, Inc.
  x   Yes      o  No

American Assets Trust, L.P.
  x   Yes      o  No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit and post such files).    
American Assets Trust, Inc.
  x   Yes      o  No

American Assets Trust, L.P.
  x   Yes      o  No

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.   x
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
American Assets Trust, Inc.
Large Accelerated Filer
 
x
  
Accelerated Filer
 
o
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-Accelerated Filer
 
o
  
Smaller reporting company
 
o
Emerging Growth Company
 
o
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
American Assets Trust, L.P.
Large Accelerated Filer
 
o
  
Accelerated Filer
 
o
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-Accelerated Filer
 
x
  
Smaller reporting company
 
o
Emerging Growth Company
 
o
 
 
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    
American Assets Trust, Inc.
  o   Yes      x  No

American Assets Trust, L.P.
  o   Yes      x  No

The aggregate market value of American Assets Trust, Inc.'s common shares held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based upon the closing sales price of the Registrant's common shares on June 30, 2018 was $1,559.9 million .
The number of American Assets Trust, Inc.’s common shares outstanding on February 15, 2019 was 47,325,507 .
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of American Assets Trust, Inc.'s Proxy Statement with respect to its 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed not later than 120 days after the end of its fiscal year are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.




EXPLANATORY NOTE

This report combines the annual reports on Form 10-K for the year ended  December 31, 2018  of American Assets Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and American Assets Trust, L.P., a Maryland limited partnership, of which American Assets Trust, Inc. is the parent company and sole general partner. Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this report to “we,” “us,” “our” or “the company” refer to American Assets Trust, Inc. together with its consolidated subsidiaries, including American Assets Trust, L.P. Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this report to “our Operating Partnership” or “the Operating Partnership” refer to American Assets Trust, L.P. together with its consolidated subsidiaries.

American Assets Trust, Inc. operates as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, and is the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership. As of  December 31, 2018 , American Assets Trust, Inc. owned an approximate  73.2%  partnership interest in the Operating Partnership. The remaining 26.8% partnership interests are owned by non-affiliated investors and certain of our directors and executive officers. As the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership, American Assets Trust, Inc. has full, exclusive and complete authority and control over the Operating Partnership’s day-to-day management and business, can cause it to enter into certain major transactions, including acquisitions, dispositions and refinancings, and can cause changes in its line of business, capital structure and distribution policies.

The company believes that combining the annual reports on Form 10-K of American Assets Trust, Inc. and the Operating Partnership into a single report will result in the following benefits:
better reflects how management and the analyst community view the business as a single operating unit;
enhance investors' understanding of American Assets Trust, Inc. and the Operating Partnership by enabling them to view the business as a whole and in the same manner as management;
greater efficiency for American Assets Trust, Inc. and the Operating Partnership and resulting savings in time, effort and expense; and
greater efficiency for investors by reducing duplicative disclosure by providing a single document for their review.

Management operates American Assets Trust, Inc. and the Operating Partnership as one enterprise. The management of American Assets Trust, Inc. and the Operating Partnership are the same.

There are a few differences between American Assets Trust, Inc. and the Operating Partnership, which are reflected in the disclosures in this report. We believe it is important to understand the differences between American Assets Trust, Inc. and the Operating Partnership in the context of how American Assets Trust, Inc. and the Operating Partnership operate as an interrelated consolidated company. American Assets Trust, Inc. is a REIT, whose only material asset is its ownership of partnership interests of the Operating Partnership. As a result, American Assets Trust, Inc. does not conduct business itself, other than acting as the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership, issuing public equity from time to time and guaranteeing certain debt of the Operating Partnership. American Assets Trust, Inc. itself does not hold any indebtedness. The Operating Partnership holds substantially all the assets of the company, directly or indirectly holds the ownership interests in the company’s real estate ventures, conducts the operations of the business and is structured as a partnership with no publicly-traded equity. Except for net proceeds from public equity issuances by American Assets Trust, Inc., which are generally contributed to the Operating Partnership in exchange for partnership units, the Operating Partnership generates the capital required by the company’s business through the Operating Partnership’s operations, by the Operating Partnership’s direct or indirect incurrence of indebtedness or through the issuance of operating partnership units.

Noncontrolling interests and stockholders’ equity and partners’ capital are the main areas of difference between the consolidated financial statements of American Assets Trust, Inc. and those of American Assets Trust, L.P. The partnership interests in the Operating Partnership that are not owned by American Assets Trust, Inc. are accounted for as partners’ capital in the Operating Partnership’s financial statements and as noncontrolling interests in American Assets Trust, Inc.’s financial statements. To help investors understand the significant differences between the company and the Operating Partnership, this report presents the following separate sections for each of American Assets Trust, Inc. and the Operating Partnership:
consolidated financial statements;
the following notes to the consolidated financial statements:
Debt;
Equity/Partners' Capital; and
Earnings Per Share/Unit;
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities; and
Liquidity and Capital Resources in Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.





This report also includes separate Item 9A. Controls and Procedures sections and separate Exhibit 31 and 32 certifications for each of American Assets Trust, Inc. and the Operating Partnership in order to establish that the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer of American Assets Trust, Inc. have made the requisite certifications and American Assets Trust, Inc. and the Operating Partnership are compliant with Rule 13a-15 or Rule 15d-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and 18 U.S.C. §1350.






AMERICAN ASSETS TRUST, INC. AND AMERICAN ASSETS TRUST, L.P.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018
T ABLE OF C ONTENTS
 





Forward Looking Statements.
We make statements in this report that are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (set forth in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act). In particular, statements pertaining to our capital resources, portfolio performance and results of operations contain forward-looking statements. Likewise, our statements regarding anticipated growth in our funds from operations and anticipated market conditions, demographics and results of operations are forward-looking statements. You can identify forward-looking statements by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes,” “expects,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “seeks,” “approximately,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates” or “anticipates” or the negative of these words and phrases or similar words or phrases which are predictions of or indicate future events or trends and which do not relate solely to historical matters. You can also identify forward-looking statements by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions.
Forward-looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties and you should not rely on them as predictions of future events. Forward-looking statements depend on assumptions, data or methods which may be incorrect or imprecise and we may not be able to realize them. We do not guarantee that the transactions and events described will happen as described (or that they will happen at all). The following factors, among others, could cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those set forth or contemplated in the forward-looking statements:
adverse economic or real estate developments in our markets;
our failure to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding indebtedness;
defaults on, early terminations of or non-renewal of leases by tenants, including significant tenants;
difficulties in identifying properties to acquire and completing acquisitions;
difficulties in completing dispositions;
our failure to successfully operate acquired properties and operations;
our inability to develop or redevelop our properties due to market conditions;
fluctuations in interest rates and increased operating costs;
risks related to joint venture arrangements;
our failure to obtain necessary outside financing;
on-going litigation;
general economic conditions;
financial market fluctuations;
risks that affect the general retail, office, multifamily and mixed-use environment;
the competitive environment in which we operate;
decreased rental rates or increased vacancy rates;
conflicts of interests with our officers or directors;
lack or insufficient amounts of insurance;
environmental uncertainties and risks related to adverse weather conditions and natural disasters;
other factors affecting the real estate industry generally;
limitations imposed on our business and our ability to satisfy complex rules in order for American Assets Trust, Inc. to continue to qualify as a real estate investment trust, or REIT, for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and
changes in governmental regulations or interpretations thereof, such as real estate and zoning laws and increases in real property tax rates and taxation of REITs.

While forward-looking statements reflect our good faith beliefs, they are not guarantees of future performance. We disclaim any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement to reflect changes in underlying assumptions or factors, or new information, data or methods, future events or other changes. For a further discussion of these and other factors that could impact our future results, performance or transactions, see the section entitled “Item 1A. Risk Factors.”

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PART I
 
ITEM 1.
BUSINESS
General
References to “we,” “our,” “us” and “our company” refer to American Assets Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with our consolidated subsidiaries, including American Assets Trust, L.P., a Maryland limited partnership, of which we are the sole general partner and which we refer to in this report as our Operating Partnership.
We are a full service, vertically integrated and self-administered real estate investment trust, or REIT, that owns, operates, acquires and develops high quality retail, office, multifamily and mixed-use properties in attractive, high-barrier-to-entry markets in Southern California, Northern California, Oregon, Washington, Texas and Hawaii. As of December 31, 2018 , our portfolio is comprised of twelve retail shopping centers; eight office properties; a mixed-use property consisting of a 369-room all-suite hotel and a retail shopping center; and six multifamily properties. Additionally, as of December 31, 2018 , we owned land at three of our properties that we classified as held for development and construction in progress. Our core markets include San Diego, the San Francisco Bay Area, Portland, Oregon, Bellevue, Washington and Oahu, Hawaii.
We are a Maryland corporation that was formed on July 16, 2010 to acquire the entities owning various controlling and noncontrolling interests in real estate assets owned and/or managed by Ernest S. Rady or his affiliates, including the Ernest Rady Trust U/D/T March 13, 1983, or the Rady Trust, and did not have any operating activity until the consummation of our initial public offering and the related acquisition of such interest on January 19, 2011. After the completion of our initial public offering and the related acquisitions, our operations have been carried on through our Operating Partnership. Our company, as the sole general partner of our Operating Partnership, has control of our Operating Partnership and owned 73.2% of our Operating Partnership as of December 31, 2018 . Accordingly, we consolidate the assets, liabilities and results of operations of our Operating Partnership.
Our Competitive Strengths
We believe the following competitive strengths distinguish us from other owners and operators of commercial real estate and will enable us to take advantage of new acquisition and development opportunities, as well as growth opportunities within our portfolio:
Irreplaceable Portfolio of High Quality Retail, Office and Multifamily Properties. We have acquired and developed a high quality portfolio of retail, office and multifamily properties located in affluent neighborhoods and sought-after business centers in Southern California, Northern California, Portland, Oregon, Bellevue, Washington, San Antonio, Texas and Oahu, Hawaii. Many of our properties are located in in-fill locations where developable land is scarce or where we believe current zoning, environmental and entitlement regulations significantly restrict new development. We believe that the location of many of our properties will provide us an advantage in terms of generating higher internal revenue growth on a relative basis.
Experienced and Committed Senior Management Team with Strong Sponsorship. The members of our senior management team have significant experience in all aspects of the commercial real estate industry.
Properties Located in High-Barrier-to-Entry Markets with Strong Real Estate Fundamentals. Our core markets currently include Southern California, Northern California, Oregon, Washington and Hawaii, which we believe have attractive long-term real estate fundamentals driven by favorable supply and demand characteristics.
Extensive Market Knowledge and Long-Standing Relationships Facilitate Access to a Pipeline of Acquisition and Leasing Opportunities. We believe that our in-depth market knowledge and extensive network of long-standing relationships in the real estate industry provide us access to an ongoing pipeline of attractive acquisition and investment opportunities in and near our core markets, while also facilitating our leasing efforts and providing us with opportunities to increase occupancy rates at our properties.
Internal Growth Prospects through Development, Redevelopment and Repositioning. The development and redevelopment potential at several of our properties presents compelling growth prospects and our expertise enhances our ability to capitalize on these opportunities.
Broad Real Estate Expertise with Retail, Office and Multifamily Focus. Our senior management team has strong experience and capabilities across the real estate sector with significant expertise in the retail, office and multifamily asset classes, which provides for flexibility in pursuing attractive acquisition, development and repositioning opportunities. Ernest Rady, our Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, and Robert Barton, our Chief Financial Officer, each have over 30 years of commercial real estate experience, and the other members of senior management each have over 20 years of commercial real estate experience.

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Business and Growth Strategies
Our primary business objectives are to increase operating cash flows, generate long-term growth and maximize stockholder value. Specifically, we pursue the following strategies to achieve these objectives:
Capitalizing on Acquisition Opportunities in High-Barrier-to-Entry Markets. We intend to pursue growth through the strategic acquisition of attractively priced, high quality properties that are well located in their submarkets, focusing on markets that generally are characterized by strong supply and demand characteristics, including high barriers to entry and diverse industry bases, that appeal to institutional investors.
Repositioning/Redevelopment and Development of Office, Retail and Multifamily Properties. Our strategy is to selectively reposition and redevelop several of our existing or newly-acquired properties, and we will also selectively pursue ground-up development of undeveloped land where we believe we can generate attractive risk-adjusted returns.
Disciplined Capital Recycling Strategy. Our strategy is to pursue an efficient asset allocation strategy that maximizes the value of our investments by selectively disposing of properties whose returns appear to have been maximized and redeploying capital into acquisition, repositioning, redevelopment and development opportunities with higher return prospects, in each case in a manner that is consistent with our qualification as a REIT.
Proactive Asset and Property Management. We actively manage our properties, employ targeted leasing strategies, leverage our existing tenant relationships and focus on reducing operating expenses to increase occupancy rates at our properties, attract high quality tenants and increase property cash flows, thereby enhancing the value of our properties.
Employees
At December 31, 2018 , we had 189 employees. None of our employees are represented by a collective bargaining unit. We believe that our relationship with our employees is good.
Tax Status
We have elected to be taxed as a REIT and believe we are organized and operate in a manner that has allowed us to qualify and will allow us to remain qualified as a REIT for federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2011. To maintain REIT status, we must meet a number of organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement that we annually distribute at least 90% of our net taxable income to our stockholders (excluding any net capital gains).
Insurance
We carry comprehensive liability, fire, extended coverage, business interruption and rental loss insurance covering all of the properties in our portfolio under a blanket insurance policy, in addition to other coverages, such as trademark and pollution coverage, that may be appropriate for certain of our properties. We believe the policy specifications and insured limits are appropriate and adequate for our properties given the relative risk of loss, the cost of the coverage and industry practice; however, our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to fully cover our losses. We do not carry insurance for certain losses, including, but not limited to, losses caused by riots or war. Some of our policies, like those covering losses due to terrorism and earthquakes, are insured subject to limitations involving large deductibles or co-payments and policy limits that may not be sufficient to cover losses, for such events. In addition, all but one of our properties are subject to an increased risk of earthquakes. While we carry earthquake insurance on all of our properties, the amount of our earthquake insurance coverage may not be sufficient to fully cover losses from earthquakes. We may reduce or discontinue earthquake, terrorism or other insurance on some or all of our properties in the future if the cost of premiums for any of these policies exceeds, in our judgment, the value of the coverage discounted for the risk of loss. Also, if destroyed, we may not be able to rebuild certain of our properties due to current zoning and land use regulations. As a result, we may be required to incur significant costs in the event of adverse weather conditions and natural disasters. In addition, our title insurance policies may not insure for the current aggregate market value of our portfolio, and we do not intend to increase our title insurance coverage if the market value of our portfolio increases. If we or one or more of our tenants experiences a loss that is uninsured or that exceeds policy limits, we could lose the capital invested in the damaged properties as well as the anticipated future cash flows from those properties. In addition, if the damaged properties are subject to recourse indebtedness, we would continue to be liable for the indebtedness, even if these properties were irreparably damaged. Furthermore, we may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable costs in the future as the costs associated with property and casualty renewals may be higher than anticipated.

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Regulation
Our properties are subject to various covenants, laws, ordinances and regulations, including laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, or ADA, and the Fair Housing Amendment Act of 1988, or FHAA, that impose further restrictions on our properties and operations. Under the ADA and the FHAA, all public accommodations must meet federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. Some of our properties may currently be in non-compliance with the ADA or the FHAA. If one or more of the properties in our portfolio is not in compliance with the ADA, the FHAA or any other regulatory requirements, we may be required to incur additional costs to bring the property into compliance and we might incur governmental fines or the award of damages to private litigants. In addition, we do not know whether existing requirements will change or whether future requirements will require us to make significant unanticipated expenditures.
Under various federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the environment, as a current or former owner or operator of real property, we may be liable for costs and damages resulting from the presence or discharge of hazardous or toxic substances, waste or petroleum products at, on, in, under or migrating from such property, including costs to investigate, clean up such contamination and liability for harm to natural resource. Such laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such contamination, and the liability may be joint and several. These liabilities could be substantial and the cost of any required remediation, removal, fines or other costs could exceed the value of the property and/or our aggregate assets. In addition, the presence of contamination or the failure to remediate contamination at our properties may expose us to third-party liability for costs of remediation and/or personal or property damage or materially adversely affect our ability to sell, lease or develop our properties or to borrow using the properties as collateral. In addition, environmental laws may create liens on contaminated sites in favor of the government for damages and costs it incurs to address such contamination. Moreover, if contamination is discovered on our properties, environmental laws may impose restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require substantial expenditures.
Some of our properties have been or may be impacted by contamination arising from current or prior uses of the property, or adjacent properties, for commercial or industrial purposes. Such contamination may arise from spills of petroleum or hazardous substances or releases from tanks used to store such materials. For example, Del Monte Center is currently undergoing remediation of dry cleaning solvent contamination from a former onsite dry cleaner. The environmental issue is currently in the final stages of remediation which entails the long term ground monitoring by the appropriate regulatory agency over the next five to seven years. The prior owner of Del Monte Center entered into a fixed fee environmental services agreement in 1997 pursuant to which the remediation will be completed for approximately $3.5 million , with the remediation costs paid for through an escrow funded by the prior owner. We expect that the funds in this escrow account will cover all remaining costs and expenses of the environmental remediation. However, if the Regional Water Quality Control Board - Central Coast Region were to require further work costing more than the remaining escrowed funds, we could be required to pay such overage although we may have a claim for such costs against the prior owner or our environmental remediation consultant. In addition to the foregoing, we possess Phase I Environmental Site Assessments for certain of the properties in our portfolio. However, the assessments are limited in scope (e.g., they do not generally include soil sampling, subsurface investigations or hazardous materials survey) and may have failed to identify all environmental conditions or concerns. Furthermore, we do not have Phase I Environmental Site Assessment reports for all of the properties in our portfolio and, as such, may not be aware of all potential or existing environmental contamination liabilities at the properties in our portfolio. As a result, we could potentially incur material liability for these issues, which could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our common stock.
As the owner of the buildings on our properties, we could face liability for the presence of hazardous materials (e.g., asbestos or lead) or other adverse conditions (e.g., poor indoor air quality) in our buildings. Environmental laws govern the presence, maintenance, and removal of hazardous materials in buildings, and if we do not comply with such laws, we could face fines for such noncompliance. Also, we could be liable to third parties (e.g., occupants of the buildings) for damages related to exposure to hazardous materials or adverse conditions in our buildings, and we could incur material expenses with respect to abatement or remediation of hazardous materials or other adverse conditions in our buildings. In addition, some of our tenants routinely handle and use hazardous or regulated substances and wastes as part of their operations at our properties, which are subject to regulation. Such environmental and health and safety laws and regulations could subject us or our tenants to liability resulting from these activities.
Competition
We compete with a number of developers, owners and operators of retail, office, multifamily and mixed-use real estate, many of which own properties similar to ours in the same markets in which our properties are located and some of which have greater financial resources than we do. In operating and managing our portfolio, we compete for tenants based on a number of factors, including location, rental rates, security, flexibility and expertise to design space to meet prospective tenants' needs and

4



the manner in which the property is operated, maintained and marketed. As leases at our properties expire, we may encounter significant competition to renew or re-let space in light of the large number of competing properties within the markets in which we operate. As a result, we may be required to provide rent concessions or abatements, incur charges for tenant improvements and other inducements, including early termination rights or below market renewal options, or we may not be able to timely lease vacant space. In that case, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, per share trading price of our common stock and ability to satisfy our debt service obligations and to pay dividends may be adversely affected.
We also face competition when pursuing acquisition and disposition opportunities. Our competitors may be able to pay higher property acquisition prices, may have private access to opportunities not available to us and otherwise be in a better position to acquire a property. Competition may also have the effect of reducing the number of suitable acquisition opportunities available to us, increasing the price required to consummate an acquisition opportunity and generally reducing the demand for retail, office, mixed-use and multifamily space in our markets. Likewise, competition with sellers of similar properties to locate suitable purchasers may result in us receiving lower proceeds from a sale or in us not being able to dispose of a property at a time of our choosing due to the lack of an acceptable return.
Segments
We operate in four business segments: retail, office, multifamily and mixed-use. Information related to our business segments for 2018 , 2017 and 2016 is set forth in Note 17 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Report.
Tenants Accounting for over 10% of Revenues
None of our tenants accounted for more than 10% of total revenues in any of the years ended December 31, 2018 , 2017 or 2016 . salesforce.com, inc. at The Landmark at One Market accounted for approximately 15.4% , 15.5% and 15.0% of total office segment revenues for the years ended December 31, 2018 , 2017 and 2016 , respectively.
Foreign Operations
We do not engage in any foreign operations or derive any revenue from foreign sources.
Available Information
We file our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. You may obtain copies of these documents by accessing the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. In addition, as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are furnished to the SEC, we make copies of these documents available to the public free of charge through our website at www.americanassetstrust.com, or by contacting our Secretary at our principal office, which is located at 11455 El Camino Real, Suite 200, San Diego, California 92130. Our telephone number is (858) 350-2600. The information contained on our website is not a part of this report and is not incorporated herein by reference.
Our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, Policies and Procedures for Complaints Regarding Accounting, Internal Accounting Controls, Fraud or Auditing Matters and the charters of our audit committee, compensation committee and nominating and corporate governance committee are all available in the Corporate Governance section of the Investor Relations section of our website.

ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS
The following section includes the most significant factors that may adversely affect our business and operations. The risk factors describe risks that may affect these statements but are not all-inclusive, particularly with respect to possible future events. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment.  New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for us to predict all such risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all such risk factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.  This discussion of risk factors includes many forward-looking statements. For cautions about relying on forward-looking statements, please refer to the section entitled “Forward Looking Statements” at the beginning of this Report immediately prior to Item 1.

5



Risks Related to Our Business and Operations
Our portfolio of properties is dependent upon regional and local economic conditions and is geographically concentrated in California, Oregon, Washington, Texas and Hawaii, which may cause us to be more susceptible to adverse developments in those markets than if we owned a more geographically diverse portfolio.
Our properties are located in California, Oregon, Washington, Texas and Hawaii, and substantially all of our properties are concentrated in California, Oregon, Washington and Hawaii, which exposes us to greater economic risks than if we owned a more geographically diverse portfolio. As a result, we are particularly susceptible to adverse economic or other conditions in these markets (such as periods of economic slowdown or recession, business layoffs or downsizing, industry slowdowns, relocations of businesses, increases in real estate and other taxes and the cost of complying with governmental regulations or increased regulation), as well as to natural disasters that occur in these markets (such as earthquakes, wildfires and other events). If there is a downturn in the economy in these markets, our operations and our revenue and cash available for distribution, including cash available to pay distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders, could be materially adversely affected. We cannot assure you that these markets will grow or that underlying real estate fundamentals will be favorable to owners and operators of retail, office, mixed-use or multifamily properties. Our operations may also be affected if competing properties are built in any of these markets. Moreover, submarkets within any of our core markets may be dependent upon a limited number of industries. In addition, the State of California is regarded as more litigious, highly regulated and taxed than many other states, all of which may reduce demand for retail, office, mixed-use or multifamily space in California. Any adverse economic or real estate developments in the California, Oregon, Washington or Hawaii markets, or any decrease in demand for retail, office, multifamily or mixed-use space resulting from the regulatory environment, business climate or energy or fiscal problems, could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations and our ability to pay distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders.
We have a substantial amount of indebtedness, which may expose us to the risk of default under our debt obligations.
At December 31, 2018 , we had total debt outstanding of $1,296.8 million , excluding debt issuance costs, a substantial portion of which contains non-recourse carve-out guarantees and environmental indemnities from us and our Operating Partnership, and we may incur significant additional debt to finance future acquisition and development activities. At December 31, 2018 , we also had a second amended and restated credit facility with a capacity of $450 million, consisting of a revolving line of credit of $350 million and an unsecured term loan of $100 million. Payments of principal and interest on borrowings may leave us with insufficient cash resources to operate our properties or to pay the dividends currently contemplated or necessary to maintain our REIT qualification. Our level of debt and the limitations imposed on us by our debt agreements could have significant adverse consequences, including the following:
our cash flow may be insufficient to meet our required principal and interest payments;
we may be unable to borrow additional funds as needed or on favorable terms, which could, among other things, adversely affect our ability to meet operational needs;
we may be unable to refinance our indebtedness at maturity or the refinancing terms may be less favorable than the terms of our original indebtedness;
we may be forced to dispose of one or more of our properties, possibly on unfavorable terms or in violation of certain covenants to which we may be subject;
we may violate restrictive covenants in our loan documents, which would entitle the lenders to accelerate our debt obligations; and
our default under any loan with cross default provisions could result in a default on other indebtedness.
If any one of these events were to occur, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock could be adversely affected. Furthermore, foreclosures could create taxable income without accompanying cash proceeds, which could hinder our ability to meet the REIT distribution requirements imposed by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or the Code.
Uncertainty relating to the LIBOR calculation process and potential phasing out of LIBOR after 2021 may materially adversely affect us.

On July 27, 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021. Furthermore, in the United States, efforts to identify a set of alternative U.S. dollar reference interest rates include proposals by the Alternative Reference Rates Committee of the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. At this time, it is not possible to predict whether any such changes will occur, whether LIBOR

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will be phased out or any such alternative reference rates or other reforms to LIBOR will be enacted in the United Kingdom, the United States or elsewhere or the effect that any such changes, phase out, alternative reference rates or other reforms, if they occur, would have on the amount of interest paid on, or the market value of, our LIBOR-based securities, including our floating rate notes. Uncertainty as to the nature of such potential changes, phase out, alternative reference rates or other reforms may materially adversely affect the trading market for LIBOR-based securities. Reform of, or the replacement or phasing out of, LIBOR and proposed regulation of LIBOR and other “benchmarks” may materially adversely affect the market value of and the amount of interest paid on our LIBOR-based securities and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations:
We depend on significant tenants in our office properties, and a bankruptcy, insolvency or inability to pay rent of any of these tenants may adversely affect the income produced by our office properties and could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our common stock.
As of December 31, 2018 , the three largest tenants in our office portfolio - salesforce.com , Inc., Autodesk, Inc. and Veterans Benefits Administration - represented approximately 28.3% of the total annualized base rent in our office portfolio. salesforce.com, Inc. is a provider of customer and collaboration relationship management services to various businesses and industries worldwide. Autodesk, Inc. is an American multinational corporation that focuses on 3-D design software for use in the architecture, engineering, construction, manufacturing, media and entertainment industries. The Veterans Benefits Administration is a division of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and is responsible for administering financial and other forms of assistance to veterans and their dependents. The inability of a significant tenant to pay rent or the bankruptcy or insolvency of a significant tenant may adversely affect the income produced by our office properties. If a tenant becomes bankrupt or insolvent, federal law may prohibit us from evicting such tenant based solely upon such bankruptcy or insolvency. In addition, a bankrupt or insolvent tenant may be authorized to reject and terminate its lease with us. Any claim against such tenant for unpaid, future rent would be subject to a statutory cap that might be substantially less than the remaining rent owed under the lease. If any of these tenants were to experience a downturn in its business or a weakening of its financial condition resulting in its failure to make timely rental payments or causing it to default under its lease, we may experience delays in enforcing our rights as landlord and may incur substantial costs in protecting our investment. Any such event could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our common stock.
Our retail shopping center properties depend on anchor stores or major tenants to attract shoppers and could be adversely affected by the loss of, or a store closure by, one or more of these tenants.
Our retail shopping center properties typically are anchored by large, nationally recognized tenants. At any time, our tenants may experience a downturn in their business that may significantly weaken their financial condition. As a result, our tenants, including our anchor and other major tenants, may fail to comply with their contractual obligations to us, seek concessions in order to continue operations or declare bankruptcy, any of which could result in the termination of such tenants' leases and the loss of rental income attributable to the terminated leases. In addition, certain of our tenants may cease operations while continuing to pay rent, which could decrease customer traffic, thereby decreasing sales for our other tenants at the applicable retail property. In addition to these potential effects of a business downturn, mergers or consolidations among large retail establishments could result in the closure of existing stores or duplicate or geographically overlapping store locations, which could include stores at our retail properties.
Loss of, or a store closure by, an anchor or major tenant could significantly reduce our occupancy level or the rent we receive from our retail properties, and we may not have the right to re-lease vacated space or we may be unable to re-lease vacated space at attractive rents or at all. Moreover, in the event of default by a major tenant or anchor store, we may experience delays and costs in enforcing our rights as landlord to recover amounts due to us under the terms of our agreements with those parties. The occurrence of any of the situations described above, particularly if it involves an anchor tenant with leases in multiple locations, could seriously harm our performance and could adversely affect the value of the applicable retail property.
As of December 31, 2018 , our largest anchor tenants were Lowe's , Nordstrom Rack and Sprouts Farmers Market , which together represented approximately 10.6% of our total annualized base rent of our retail portfolio in the aggregate, and 5.0% , 3.0% and 2.6% , respectively, of the annualized base rent generated by our retail properties.
Many of the leases at our retail properties contain “co-tenancy” or “go-dark” provisions, which, if triggered, may allow tenants to pay reduced rent, cease operations or terminate their leases, any of which could adversely affect our performance or the value of the applicable retail property.
Many of the leases at our retail properties contain “co-tenancy” provisions that condition a tenant's obligation to remain open, the amount of rent payable by the tenant or the tenant's obligation to continue occupancy on certain conditions, including:

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(1) the presence of a certain anchor tenant or tenants; (2) the continued operation of an anchor tenant's store; and (3) minimum occupancy levels at the applicable retail property. If a co-tenancy provision is triggered by a failure of any of these or other applicable conditions, a tenant could have the right to cease operations, to terminate its lease early or to a reduction of its rent. In periods of prolonged economic decline, there is a higher than normal risk that co-tenancy provisions will be triggered as there is a higher risk of tenants closing stores or terminating leases during these periods. In addition to these co-tenancy provisions, certain of the leases at our retail properties contain “go-dark” provisions that allow the tenant to cease operations while continuing to pay rent. This could result in decreased customer traffic at the applicable retail property, thereby decreasing sales for our other tenants at that property, which may result in our other tenants being unable to pay their minimum rents or expense recovery charges. These provisions also may result in lower rental revenue generated under the applicable leases. To the extent co-tenancy or go-dark provisions in our retail leases result in lower revenue or tenant sales or tenants' rights to terminate their leases early or to a reduction of their rent, our performance or the value of the applicable retail property could be adversely affected.
We may be unable to renew leases, lease vacant space or re-let space as leases expire, thereby increasing or prolonging vacancies, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.
As of December 31, 2018 , leases representing 5.6% of the square footage and 7.9% of the annualized base rent of the properties in our office, retail and retail portion of our mixed-use portfolios will expire in 2019 , and an additional 7.4% of the square footage of the properties in our office, retail and retail portion of our mixed-use portfolios was available. We cannot assure you that leases will be renewed or that our properties will be re-let at rental rates equal to or above the current average rental rates or that substantial rent abatements, tenant improvements, early termination rights or below market renewal options will not be offered to attract new tenants or retain existing tenants. In addition, our ability to lease our multifamily properties at favorable rates, or at all, is dependent upon the overall level of spending in the economy, which is adversely affected by, among other things, job losses and unemployment levels, recession, personal debt levels, the downturn in the housing market, stock market volatility and uncertainty about the future. If the rental rates for our properties decrease, our existing tenants do not renew their leases or we do not re-let a significant portion of our available space and space for which leases will expire, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock could be adversely affected.
We may be unable to identify and complete acquisitions of properties that meet our criteria, which may impede our growth.
Our business strategy involves the acquisition of retail, office, multifamily and mixed-use properties. These activities require us to identify suitable acquisition candidates or investment opportunities that meet our criteria and are compatible with our growth strategies. We continue to evaluate the market of available properties and may attempt to acquire properties when strategic opportunities exist. However, we may be unable to acquire properties identified as potential acquisition opportunities. Our ability to acquire properties on favorable terms, or at all, may be exposed to the following significant risks:
we may incur significant costs and divert management attention in connection with evaluating and negotiating potential acquisitions, including ones that we are subsequently unable to complete;
even if we enter into agreements for the acquisition of properties, these agreements are subject to conditions to closing, which we may be unable to satisfy; and
we may be unable to finance the acquisition on favorable terms or at all.
If we are unable to finance property acquisitions or acquire properties on favorable terms, or at all, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock could be adversely affected. In addition, failure to identify or complete acquisitions of suitable properties could slow our growth.

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We face significant competition for acquisitions of real properties, which may reduce the number of acquisition opportunities available to us and increase the costs of these acquisitions.
The current market for acquisitions continues to be extremely competitive. This competition may increase the demand for the types of properties in which we typically invest and, therefore, reduce the number of suitable acquisition opportunities available to us and increase the prices paid for such acquisition properties. We also face significant competition for attractive acquisition opportunities from an indeterminate number of investors, including publicly traded and privately held REITs, private equity investors and institutional investment funds, some of which have greater financial resources than we do, a greater ability to borrow funds to acquire properties and the ability to accept more risk than we can prudently manage, including risks with respect to the geographic proximity of investments and the payment of higher acquisition prices. This competition will increase if investments in real estate become more attractive relative to other forms of investment. Competition for investments may reduce the number of suitable investment opportunities available to us and may have the effect of increasing prices paid for such acquisition properties and/or reducing the rents we can charge and, as a result, adversely affecting our operating results.
Our future acquisitions may not yield the returns we expect, and we may otherwise be unable to operate these properties to meet our financial expectations, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.
Our future acquisitions and our ability to successfully operate the properties we acquire in such acquisitions may be exposed to the following significant risks:
even if we are able to acquire a desired property, competition from other potential acquirers may significantly increase the purchase price;
we may acquire properties that are not accretive to our results upon acquisition, and we may not successfully manage and lease those properties to meet our expectations;
our cash flow may be insufficient to meet our required principal and interest payments;
we may spend more than budgeted amounts to make necessary improvements or renovations to acquired properties;
we may be unable to quickly and efficiently integrate new acquisitions, particularly acquisitions of portfolios of properties, into our existing operations, and as a result our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected;
market conditions may result in higher than expected vacancy rates and lower than expected rental rates; and
we may acquire properties subject to liabilities and without any recourse, or with only limited recourse, with respect to unknown liabilities, such as liabilities for clean-up of undisclosed environmental contamination, claims by tenants, vendors or other persons dealing with the former owners of the properties, liabilities incurred in the ordinary course of business and claims for indemnification by general partners, directors, officers and others indemnified by the former owners of the properties.
If we cannot operate acquired properties to meet our financial expectations, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock could be adversely affected.
We may not be able to control our operating costs or our expenses may remain constant or increase, even if our revenues do not increase, causing our results of operations to be adversely affected.
Factors that may adversely affect our ability to control operating costs include the need to pay for insurance and other operating costs, including real estate taxes, which could increase over time, the need periodically to repair, renovate and re-lease space, the cost of compliance with governmental regulation, including zoning and tax laws, the potential for liability under applicable laws, interest rate levels and the availability of financing. If our operating costs increase as a result of any of the foregoing factors, our results of operations may be adversely affected.
The expense of owning and operating a property is not necessarily reduced when circumstances such as market factors and competition cause a reduction in income from the property. As a result, if revenues decline, we may not be able to reduce our expenses accordingly. Costs associated with real estate investments, such as real estate taxes, insurance, loan payments and maintenance, generally will not be reduced even if a property is not fully occupied or other circumstances cause our revenues to decrease. If we are unable to decrease operating costs when demand for our properties decreases and our revenues decline, our financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders may be adversely affected.

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Our ability to grow will be limited if we cannot obtain additional capital.
If economic conditions and conditions in the capital markets are not favorable at the time we need to raise capital, we may need to obtain capital on less favorable terms than our current debt financings. Equity capital could include our common shares or preferred shares. We cannot guarantee that additional financing, refinancing or other capital will be available in the amounts we desire or on favorable terms. Our access to debt or equity capital depends on a number of factors, including the market's perception of our growth potential, our ability to pay dividends, and our current and potential future earnings. Depending on the outcome of these factors as well as the impact of the economic environment, we could experience delay or difficulty in implementing our growth strategy, including the development and redevelopment of our assets, on satisfactory terms, or be unable to implement this strategy.
High mortgage rates and/or unavailability of mortgage debt may make it difficult for us to finance or refinance properties, which could reduce the number of properties we can acquire, our net income and the amount of cash distributions we can make.
If mortgage debt is unavailable at reasonable rates, we may not be able to finance the purchase of properties. If we place mortgage debt on properties, we may be unable to refinance the properties when the loans become due, or to refinance on favorable terms. If interest rates are higher when we refinance our properties, our income could be reduced. If any of these events occur, our cash flow could be reduced. This, in turn, could reduce cash available for distribution to our stockholders and may hinder our ability to raise more capital by issuing more stock or by borrowing more money.
Mortgage debt obligations expose us to the possibility of foreclosure, which could result in the loss of our investment in a property or group of properties subject to mortgage debt.
Incurring mortgage and other secured debt obligations increases our risk of property losses because defaults on indebtedness secured by properties may result in foreclosure actions initiated by lenders and ultimately our loss of the property securing any loans for which we are in default. Any foreclosure on a mortgaged property or group of properties could adversely affect the overall value of our portfolio of properties. Moreover, repayment of mortgage and other secured debt obligations could limit the funds that are available to repay our unsecured debt obligations. For tax purposes, a foreclosure on any of our properties that is subject to a nonrecourse mortgage loan would be treated as a sale of the property for a purchase price equal to the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage. If the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage exceeds our tax basis in the property, we would recognize taxable income on foreclosure, but would not receive any cash proceeds, which could hinder our ability to meet the REIT distribution requirements imposed by the Code.
Some of our financing arrangements involve balloon payment obligations, which may adversely affect our ability to make distributions.
Some of our financing arrangements require us to make a lump-sum or “balloon” payment at maturity. Our ability to make a balloon payment at maturity is uncertain and may depend upon our ability to obtain additional financing or our ability to sell the property. At the time the balloon payment is due, we may or may not be able to refinance the existing financing on terms as favorable as the original loan or sell the property at a price sufficient to make the balloon payment. The effect of a refinancing or sale could affect the rate of return to stockholders and the projected time of disposition of our assets. In addition, payments of principal and interest made to service our debts may leave us with insufficient cash to pay the distributions that we are required to pay to maintain our qualification as a REIT.
Failure to hedge effectively against interest rate changes may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.
The REIT rules impose certain restrictions on our ability to utilize hedges, swaps and other types of derivatives to hedge our liabilities. Subject to these restrictions, we may enter into hedging transactions to protect us from the effects of interest rate fluctuations on floating rate debt. Our hedging transactions may include entering into interest rate cap agreements or interest rate swap agreements. As described under Note 8. "Derivative and Hedging Activities," to the accompanying consolidated financial statements, we have entered into several interest rate swap agreements that are intended to reduce the interest rate variability exposure with respect to certain of our indebtedness. These agreements involve risks, such as the risk that such arrangements would not be effective in reducing our exposure to interest rate changes or that a court could rule that such an agreement is not legally enforceable. In addition, interest rate hedging can be expensive, particularly during periods of rising and volatile interest rates. Hedging could reduce the overall returns on our investments. Failure to hedge effectively against interest rate changes could materially adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock. In addition, while such agreements would be intended to lessen the impact of rising interest rates on us, they could also expose us to the risk that the other parties to the agreements would not perform, we could incur significant costs associated with the settlement of the agreements or that the underlying transactions could fail to qualify as

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highly-effective cash flow hedges under Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging .
Our second amended and restated credit facility, note purchase agreements and amended term loan agreement restrict our ability to engage in some business activities, including our ability to incur additional indebtedness, make capital expenditures and make certain investments, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.
Our second amended and restated credit facility, note purchase agreements and amended term loan agreement contain customary negative covenants and other financial and operating covenants that, among other things:
restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness;
restrict our ability to incur additional liens;
restrict our ability to make certain investments (including certain capital expenditures);
restrict our ability to merge with another company;
restrict our ability to sell or dispose of assets;
restrict our ability to make distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders; and
require us to satisfy minimum financial coverage ratios, minimum tangible net worth requirements and/or maximum leverage ratios.
These limitations restrict our ability to engage in some business activities, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock. In addition, our credit facility contains specific cross-default provisions with respect to specified other indebtedness, giving the lenders and/or note purchasers the right to declare a default if we are in default under other loans in some circumstances.
The effective subordination of our unsecured indebtedness may reduce amounts available for payment on our unsecured indebtedness.
Our second amended and restated credit facility, the notes issued under our note purchase agreements and our amended term loan agreement represent unsecured indebtedness. The holders of our secured debt may foreclose on the assets securing such debt, reducing the cash flow from the foreclosed property available for payment of unsecured debt. The holders of any of our secured debt also would have priority over unsecured creditors in the event of a bankruptcy, liquidation or similar proceeding.
If we invest in mortgage receivables, including originating mortgages, such investment would be subject to several risks, any of which could decrease the value of such investments and result in a significant loss to us.
From time to time, we may invest in mortgage receivables, including originating mortgages. In general, investments in mortgages are subject to several risks, including:
borrowers may fail to make debt service payments or pay the principal when due, which may make it necessary for us to foreclose our mortgages or engage in costly negotiations;
the value of the mortgaged property may be less than the principal amount of the mortgage note securing the property;
interest rates payable on the mortgages may be lower than our cost for the funds to acquire these mortgages; and
the mortgages may be or become subordinated to mechanics' or materialmen's liens or property tax liens, in which case we would need to make payments to maintain the current status of a prior lien or discharge it in its entirety to protect such mortgage investment.
If any of these risks were to be realized, the total amount we would recover from our mortgage receivables may be less than our total investment, resulting in a loss and our mortgage receivables may be materially and adversely affected.
Adverse economic and geopolitical conditions and dislocations in the credit markets could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.
Our business may be affected by market and economic challenges experienced by the U.S. economy or real estate industry as a whole, including dislocations in the credit markets. These conditions, or similar conditions existing in the future, may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock as a result of the following potential consequences, among others:

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decreased demand for retail, office, multifamily and mixed-use space, which would cause market rental rates and property values to be negatively impacted;
reduced values of our properties may limit our ability to dispose of assets at attractive prices or to obtain debt financing secured by our properties and may reduce the availability of unsecured loans;
our ability to obtain financing on terms and conditions that we find acceptable, or at all, may be limited, which could reduce our ability to pursue acquisition and development opportunities and refinance existing debt, reduce our returns from our acquisition and development activities and increase our future interest expense; and
one or more lenders under our second amended and restated credit facility could refuse to fund their financing commitment to us or could fail and we may not be able to replace the financing commitment of any such lenders on favorable terms, or at all.
We are subject to risks that affect the general retail environment, such as weakness in the economy, the level of consumer spending, the adverse financial condition of large retailing companies and competition from discount and internet retailers, any of which could adversely affect market rents for retail space and the willingness or ability of retailers to lease space in our shopping centers.
A portion of our properties are in the retail real estate market. This means that we are subject to factors that affect the retail sector generally, as well as the market for retail space. The retail environment and the market for retail space have previously been, and could again be, adversely affected by weakness in the national, regional and local economies, the level of consumer spending and consumer confidence, the adverse financial condition of some large retailing companies, the ongoing consolidation in the retail sector, the excess amount of retail space in a number of markets and increasing competition from discount retailers, outlet malls, internet retailers (including Amazon.com) and other online businesses. Increases in consumer spending via the internet may significantly affect our retail tenants' ability to generate sales in their stores and could affect the way future tenants lease space. In addition, some of our retail tenants face competition from the expanding market for digital content and hardware. New and enhanced technologies, including new digital technologies and new web services technologies, may increase competition for certain of our retail tenants. While we devote considerable effort and resources to analyze and respond to tenant trends, preferences and consumer spending patterns, we cannot predict with certainty what future tenants will want, what future retail spaces will look like and how much revenue will be generated at traditional “brick and mortar” locations. If we are unable to anticipate and respond promptly to trends in the market, our occupancy levels and rental amounts may decline.
Any of the foregoing factors could adversely affect the financial condition of our retail tenants and the willingness of retailers to lease space in our shopping centers. In turn, these conditions could negatively affect market rents for retail space and could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, the trading price of our common shares and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations and to pay distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders.
We face significant competition in the leasing market, which may decrease or prevent increases of the occupancy and rental rates of our properties.
We compete with numerous developers, owners and operators of real estate, many of which own properties similar to ours in the same submarkets in which our properties are located. If our competitors offer space at rental rates below current market rates, or below the rental rates we currently charge our tenants, we may lose existing or potential tenants and we may be pressured to reduce our rental rates below those we currently charge or to offer more substantial rent abatements, tenant improvements, early termination rights or below market renewal options in order to retain tenants when our tenants' leases expire. As a result, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock could be adversely affected.
We may be required to make rent or other concessions and/or significant capital expenditures to improve our properties in order to retain and attract tenants, causing our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock to be adversely affected.
We may be required, upon expiration of leases at our properties, to make rent or other concessions to tenants, accommodate requests for renovations, build-to-suit remodeling and other improvements or provide additional services to our tenants. As a result, we may have to make significant capital or other expenditures in order to retain tenants whose leases expire and to attract new tenants in sufficient numbers. Additionally, we may need to raise capital to make such expenditures. If we are unable to do so or capital is otherwise unavailable, we may be unable to make the required expenditures. This could result in non-renewals by tenants upon expiration of their leases, which could cause an adverse effect to our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.

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The actual rents we receive for the properties in our portfolio may be less than our asking rents, and we may experience lease roll down from time to time, which could negatively impact our ability to generate cash flow growth.
As a result of various factors, including competitive pricing pressure in our submarkets, adverse conditions in the California, Oregon, Washington, Texas and Hawaii real estate markets and the desirability of our properties compared to other properties in our submarkets, we may be unable to realize the asking rents across the properties in our portfolio. In addition, the degree of discrepancy between our asking rents and the actual rents we are able to obtain may vary both from property to property and among different leased spaces within a single property. If we are unable to obtain rental rates that are on average comparable to our asking rents across our portfolio, then our ability to generate cash flow growth will be negatively impacted. In addition, depending on asking rental rates at any given time as compared to expiring leases in our portfolio, from time to time rental rates for expiring leases may be higher than starting rental rates for new leases.
We may acquire properties or portfolios of properties through tax deferred contribution transactions, which could result in stockholder dilution and limit our ability to sell or refinance such assets.
In the future we may acquire properties or portfolios of properties through tax deferred contribution transactions in exchange for partnership interests in our Operating Partnership, which may result in stockholder dilution through the issuance of Operating Partnership units that may be exchanged for shares of our common stock. This acquisition structure may have the effect of, among other things, reducing the amount of tax depreciation we could deduct over the tax life of the acquired properties, and may require that we agree to protect the contributors' ability to defer recognition of taxable gain through restrictions on our ability to dispose of, or refinance the debt on, the acquired properties. Similarly, we may be required to incur or maintain debt we would otherwise not incur so we can allocate the debt to the contributors to maintain their tax bases. These restrictions could limit our ability to sell an asset at a time, or on terms, that would be favorable absent such restrictions.
We are subject to the business, financial and operating risks inherent to the hospitality industry, including competition for guests with other hospitality properties and general and local economic conditions that may affect demand for travel in general, any of which could adversely affect the revenues generated by our hospitality properties.
Because we own the Waikiki Beach Walk-Embassy Suites™ in Hawaii and the Santa Fe Park RV Resort in California, we are susceptible to risks associated with the hospitality industry, including:
competition for guests with other hospitality properties, some of which may have greater marketing and financial resources than the managers of our hospitality properties;
increases in operating costs from inflation, labor costs (including the impact of unionization), workers' compensation and healthcare related costs, utility costs, insurance and other factors that the managers of our hospitality properties may not be able to offset through higher rates;
the fluctuating and seasonal demands of business travelers and tourism, which seasonality may cause quarterly fluctuations in our revenues;
general and local economic conditions that may affect demand for travel in general;
periodic oversupply resulting from excessive new development;
unforeseen events beyond our control, such as terrorist attacks, travel-related health concerns, including pandemics and epidemics, imposition of taxes or surcharges by regulatory authorities, travel-related accidents and unusual weather patterns, including natural disasters such as earthquakes or wildfires; and
decreased reimbursement revenue from the licensor for traveler reward programs.
If our hospitality properties do not generate sufficient revenues, our financial position, results of operations, cash flow, per share trading price of our common stock and ability to satisfy our debt service obligations and to pay distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders may be adversely affected.
We must rely on third-party management companies to operate the Waikiki Beach Walk-Embassy Suites™ in order to maintain our qualification as a REIT under the Code, and, as a result, we will have less control than if we were operating the hotel directly.
In order to assist us in maintaining our qualification as a REIT, we have leased the Waikiki Beach Walk-Embassy Suites™ to WBW Hotel Lessee, LLC, our taxable REIT subsidiary, or TRS, lessee, and engaged a third-party management company to operate our hotel. While we have some input into operating decisions for the hotel leased by our TRS lessee and operated under a management agreement, we have less control than if we managed the hotel ourselves. Even if we believe that our hotel is not being operated efficiently, we may not have sufficient rights under the management agreement to enable us to force the management company to change its method of operation. We cannot assure you that the management company will successfully manage our hotel. A failure by the management company to successfully manage the hotel could lead to an

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increase in our operating expenses or a decrease in our revenue, or both, which could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations and our ability to pay distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders.
If our relationship with the franchisor of the Waikiki Beach Walk-Embassy Suites™ was to deteriorate or terminate, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders.
We cannot assure you that disputes between us and the franchisor of the Waikiki Beach Walk- Embassy Suites™ will not arise. If our relationship with the franchisor were to deteriorate as a result of disputes regarding the franchise agreement under which our hotel operates or for other reasons, the franchisor could, under certain circumstances, terminate our current license with them or decline to provide licenses for hotels that we may acquire in the future. If any of the foregoing were to occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to make distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders.
Our franchisor, Embassy Suites™, could cause us to expend additional funds on upgraded operating standards, which may adversely affect our results of operations and reduce cash available for distribution to stockholders.
Under the terms of our franchise license agreement, our hotel operator must comply with operating standards and terms and conditions imposed by the franchisor of the hotel brand, Embassy Suites™. Failure by us, our TRS lessees or any hotel management company that we engage to maintain these standards or other terms and conditions could result in the franchise license being canceled or the franchisor requiring us to undertake a costly property improvement program. If the franchise license is terminated due to our failure to make required improvements or to otherwise comply with its terms, we may be liable to the franchisor for a termination payment, which we expect could be as high as approximately $7.6 million based on operating performance through December 31, 2018 . In addition, our franchisor may impose upgraded or new brand standards, such as substantially upgrading the bedding, enhancing the complimentary breakfast or increasing the value of guest awards under its “frequent guest” program, which can add substantial expense for the hotel. Furthermore, under certain circumstances, the franchisor may require us to make certain capital improvements to maintain the hotel in accordance with system standards, the cost of which can be substantial and may adversely affect our results of operations and reduce cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
Embassy Suites™, our franchisor, has a right of first offer with respect to the Waikiki Beach Walk-Embassy Suites™, which may limit our ability to obtain the highest price possible for the hotel.
Pursuant to the terms of our franchise agreement for the Waikiki Beach Walk-Embassy Suites™, the franchisor has a right of first offer to purchase the hotel if we propose to sell all or a portion of the hotel or any interest therein. In the event that we choose to dispose of the hotel, we would be required to notify the franchisor, prior to offering the hotel to any other potential buyer, of the price and conditions on which we would be willing to sell the hotel, and the franchisor would have the right, within 30 days of receiving such notice, to make an offer to purchase the hotel. If the franchisor makes an offer to purchase that is equal to or greater than the price and on substantially the same terms set forth in our notice, then we will be obligated to sell the hotel to the franchisor at that price and on those terms. If the franchisor makes an offer to purchase for less than the price stated in our notice or on less favorable terms, then we may reject the franchisor's offer. The existence of this right of first offer could adversely impact our ability to obtain the highest possible price for the hotel as, during the term of the franchise agreement, we would not be able to offer the hotel to potential purchasers through a competitive bid process or in a similar manner designed to maximize the value obtained for the property without first offering to sell this property to the franchisor.
Our real estate development activities are subject to risks particular to development, such as unanticipated expenses, delays and other contingencies, any of which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our common stock.
We may engage in development and redevelopment activities with respect to certain of our properties. To the extent that we do so, we will be subject to the following risks associated with such development and redevelopment activities:
unsuccessful development or redevelopment opportunities could result in direct expenses to us;
construction or redevelopment costs of a project may exceed original estimates, possibly making the project less profitable than originally estimated, or unprofitable;
time required to complete the construction or redevelopment of a project or to lease up the completed project may be greater than originally anticipated, thereby adversely affecting our cash flow and liquidity;
contractor and subcontractor disputes, strikes, labor disputes or supply disruptions;

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failure to achieve expected occupancy and/or rent levels within the projected time frame, if at all;
delays with respect to obtaining or the inability to obtain necessary zoning, occupancy, land use and other governmental permits, and changes in zoning and land use laws;
occupancy rates and rents of a completed project may not be sufficient to make the project profitable;
our ability to dispose of properties developed or redeveloped with the intent to sell could be impacted by the ability of prospective buyers to obtain financing given the current state of the credit markets; and
the availability and pricing of financing to fund our development activities on favorable terms or at all.
These risks could result in substantial unanticipated delays or expenses and, under certain circumstances, could prevent completion of development or redevelopment activities once undertaken, any of which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our common stock.
Our success depends on key personnel whose continued service is not guaranteed, and the loss of one or more of our key personnel could adversely affect our ability to manage our business and to implement our growth strategies, or could create a negative perception in the capital markets.
Our continued success and our ability to manage anticipated future growth depend, in large part, upon the efforts of key personnel, particularly Messrs. Rady and Barton, who have extensive market knowledge and relationships and exercise substantial influence over our operational, financing, acquisition and disposition activity. Among the reasons that these individuals are important to our success is that each has a national or regional industry reputation that attracts business and investment opportunities and assists us in negotiations with lenders, existing and potential tenants and industry personnel. If we lose their services, our relationships with such personnel could diminish.
Our Board has implemented an emergency succession plan in case of the sudden or unanticipated resignation, termination, death or temporary or permanent disability of Mr. Rady, or otherwise in case Mr. Rady is unable to perform his duties as Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer.   This plan is reviewed at least annually by our Board with input from our Nominating and Governance Committee and currently includes Dr. Robert Sullivan (Board member), Mr. Barton and Adam Wyll, our SVP and General Counsel, as potential interim candidates for the roles of Chairman, President and/or Chief Executive Officer and/or as emergency interim executive committee members. 
Many of our other senior executives also have extensive experience and strong reputations in the real estate industry, which aid us in identifying opportunities, having opportunities brought to us and negotiating with tenants and build-to-suit prospects. The loss of services of one or more members of our senior management team, or our inability to attract and retain highly qualified personnel, could adversely affect our business, diminish our investment opportunities and weaken our relationships with lenders, business partners, existing and prospective tenants and industry participants, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.
Mr. Rady is involved in outside businesses, which may interfere with his ability to devote time and attention to our business and affairs.
We rely on our senior management team, including Mr. Rady, for the day-to-day operations of our business. Our employment agreement with Mr. Rady requires him to devote a substantial portion of his business time and attention to our business. Mr. Rady continues to serve as chairman of the board of directors and president of American Assets, Inc. and chairman of the board of directors of Insurance Company of the West. As such, Mr. Rady has certain ongoing duties to American Assets, Inc., Insurance Company of the West and other business ventures that could require a portion of his time and attention. Although we expect that Mr. Rady will continue to devote a majority of his business time and attention to us, we cannot accurately predict the amount of time and attention that will be required of Mr. Rady to perform such ongoing duties. To the extent that Mr. Rady is required to dedicate time and attention to American Assets, Inc. and/or Insurance Company of the West, his ability to devote a majority of his business time and attention to our business and affairs may be limited and could adversely affect our operations.
We may be subject to on-going or future litigation and otherwise in the ordinary course of business, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.
We may be subject to on-going litigation at our properties and otherwise in the ordinary course of business. Some of these claims may result in significant defense costs and potentially significant judgments against us, some of which are not, or cannot be, insured against. We generally intend to vigorously defend ourselves; however, we cannot be certain of the ultimate outcomes of currently asserted claims or of those that may arise in the future. Resolution of these types of matters against us may result in our having to pay significant fines, judgments, or settlements, which, if uninsured, or if the fines, judgments, and

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settlements exceed insured levels, could adversely impact our earnings and cash flows, thereby having an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock. Certain litigation or the resolution of certain litigation may affect the availability or cost of some of our insurance coverage, which could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows, expose us to increased risks that would be uninsured, and/or adversely impact our ability to attract officers and directors.
Potential losses from earthquakes in California, Oregon, Washington and Hawaii may not be fully covered by insurance.
Many of the properties we currently own are located in California, Oregon, Washington and Hawaii, which are areas especially subject to earthquakes. While we carry earthquake insurance on all of our properties, the amount of our earthquake insurance coverage may not be sufficient to fully cover losses from earthquakes and will be subject to limitations involving large deductibles or co-payments. In addition, we may reduce or discontinue earthquake insurance on some or all of our properties in the future if the cost of premiums for any such policies exceeds, in our judgment, the value of the coverage discounted for the risk of loss. As a result, in the event of an earthquake, we may be required to incur significant costs, and, to the extent that a loss exceeds policy limits, we could lose the capital invested in the damaged properties as well as the anticipated future cash flows from those properties. In addition, if the damaged properties are subject to recourse indebtedness, we would continue to be liable for the indebtedness, even if these properties were irreparably damaged.
We may not be able to rebuild our existing properties to their existing specifications if we experience a substantial or comprehensive loss of such properties.
In the event that we experience a substantial or comprehensive loss of one of our properties, we may not be able to rebuild such property to its existing specifications. Further, reconstruction or improvement of such a property would likely require significant upgrades to meet zoning and building code requirements. Environmental and legal restrictions could also restrict the rebuilding of our properties. For example, if we experienced a substantial or comprehensive loss of Torrey Reserve Campus in San Diego, California, reconstruction could be delayed or prevented by the California Coastal Commission, which regulates land use in the California coastal zone.
Joint venture investments could be adversely affected by our lack of sole decision-making authority, our reliance on co-venturers' financial condition and disputes between us and our co-venturers.
We may co-invest in the future with other third parties through partnerships, joint ventures or other entities, acquiring non-controlling interests in or sharing responsibility for managing the affairs of a property, partnership, joint venture or other entity. Consequently, with respect to any such arrangement we may enter into in the future, we would not be in a position to exercise sole decision-making authority regarding the property, partnership, joint venture or other entity. Investments in partnerships, joint ventures or other entities may, under certain circumstances, involve risks not present were a third party not involved, including the possibility that partners or co-venturers might become bankrupt or fail to fund their share of required capital contributions. Partners or co-venturers may have economic or other business interests or goals which are inconsistent with our business interests or goals, and may be in a position to take actions contrary to our policies or objectives, and they may have competing interests in our markets that could create conflict of interest issues. Such investments may also have the potential risk of impasses on decisions, such as a sale, because neither we nor the partner or co-venturer would have full control over the partnership or joint venture. In addition, a sale or transfer by us to a third party of our interests in the joint venture may be subject to consent rights or rights of first refusal, in favor of our joint venture partners, which would in each case restrict our ability to dispose of our interest in the joint venture. Where we are a limited partner or non-managing member in any partnership or limited liability company, if such entity takes or expects to take actions that could jeopardize our status as a REIT or require us to pay tax, we may be forced to dispose of our interest in such entity. Disputes between us and partners or co-venturers may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase our expenses and prevent our officers and/or directors from focusing their time and effort on our business. Consequently, actions by or disputes with partners or co-venturers might result in subjecting properties owned by the partnership or joint venture to additional risk. In addition, we may in certain circumstances be liable for the actions of our third-party partners or co-venturers. Our joint ventures may be subject to debt and, in the current volatile credit market, the refinancing of such debt may require equity capital calls.
Increased competition and increased affordability of residential homes could limit our ability to retain our residents, lease apartment homes or increase or maintain rents at our multifamily apartment communities.
Our multifamily apartment communities compete with numerous housing alternatives in attracting residents, including other multifamily apartment communities and single-family rental homes, as well as owner occupied single and multifamily homes. Competitive housing in a particular area and an increase in the affordability of owner occupied single and multifamily homes due to, among other things, housing prices, oversupply, mortgage interest rates and tax incentives and government

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programs to promote home ownership, could adversely affect our ability to retain residents, lease apartment homes and increase or maintain rents.
Our growth depends on external sources of capital that are outside of our control and may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms or at all, which could limit our ability, among other things, to meet our capital and operating needs or make the cash distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders necessary to maintain our qualification as a REIT.
In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we are required under the Code, among other things, to distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding any net capital gain. In addition, we will be subject to income tax at regular corporate rates to the extent that we distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, including any net capital gains. Because of these distribution requirements, we may not be able to fund future capital needs, including any necessary acquisition financing, from operating cash flow. Consequently, we intend to rely on third-party sources to fund our capital needs. We may not be able to obtain such financing on favorable terms or at all and any additional debt we incur will increase our leverage and likelihood of default. Our access to third-party sources of capital depends, in part, on:
general market conditions;
the market's perception of our growth potential;
our current debt levels;
our current and expected future earnings;
our cash flow and cash distributions; and
the market price per share of our common stock.
If we cannot obtain capital from third-party sources, we may not be able to acquire or develop properties when strategic opportunities exist, meet the capital and operating needs of our existing properties, satisfy our debt service obligations or make the cash distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders necessary to maintain our qualification as a REIT.
We rely on information technology in our operations, and any breach, interruption or security failure of that technology could have a negative impact on our business, operations and/or financial condition.
Information security risks have generally increased in recent years due to the rise in new technologies and the increased sophistication and activities of perpetrators of cyber-attacks.  We face risks associated with security breaches, whether through cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusions over the internet, malware, computer viruses, attachments to e-mails and/or employees or third-parties with access to our systems. We face the risk of ransomware of other cyber-attacks aimed at disrupting the availability of systems, applications, networks or data important to our business operations.
Our information technology, or IT, networks and related systems, are essential to the operation of our business and our ability to perform day-to-day operations, and, in some cases, may be critical to the operations of certain of our tenants.
Additionally, we collect and hold personal information of our residents and prospective residents in connection with our leasing activities at our multifamily locations.  We also collect and hold personal information of our employees in connection with their employment. In addition, we engage third-party service providers that may have access to such personal information in connection with providing business services to us, whether through our own IT networks and related systems, or through the third-party service providers’ IT networks and related systems.

We mitigate the risk of disruptions, breaches or disclosure of this confidential personally identifiable information by implementing a variety of security measures including (among others) engaging reputable, recognized firms to help us design and maintain our information technology and data security systems, and to test and verify their proper and secure operations on a periodic basis.
There can be no assurance that our efforts to maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and availability and controls of our (or our third-party service providers') IT networks and related data and systems will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging.  A security breach or other significant disruption involving our (or our third-party service providers') IT networks and related systems could materially and adversely impact our income, cash flow, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, the ability to service our debt obligations, the market price of our common stock, our ability to pay dividends and/or other distributions to our shareholders. A security breach could additionally cause the disclosure or misuse of confidential or proprietary information (including personal information of our residents and/or employees) and damage to our reputation.

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Risks Related to the Real Estate Industry
Our performance and value are subject to risks associated with real estate assets and the real estate industry, including local oversupply, reduction in demand or adverse changes in financial conditions of buyers, sellers and tenants of properties, which could decrease revenues or increase costs, which would adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our common stock.
Our ability to make expected distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders depends on our ability to generate revenues in excess of expenses, scheduled principal payments on debt and capital expenditure requirements. Events and conditions generally applicable to owners and operators of real property that are beyond our control may decrease cash available for distribution and the value of our properties. These events include many of the risks set forth above under “Risks Related to Our Business and Operations,” as well as the following:
local oversupply or reduction in demand for retail, office, multifamily or mixed-use space;
adverse changes in financial conditions of buyers, sellers and tenants of properties;
vacancies or our inability to rent space on favorable terms, including possible market pressures to offer tenants rent abatements, tenant improvements, early termination rights or below market renewal options, and the need to periodically repair, renovate and re-let space;
increased operating costs, including insurance premiums, utilities, real estate taxes and state and local taxes;
a favorable interest rate environment that may result in a significant number of potential residents of our multifamily apartment communities deciding to purchase homes instead of renting;
rent control or stabilization laws, or other laws regulating rental housing, which could prevent us from raising rents to offset increases in operating costs;
civil unrest, acts of war, terrorist attacks and natural disasters, including earthquakes and floods, which may result in uninsured or underinsured losses;
decreases in the underlying value of our real estate;
changing submarket demographics; and
changing traffic patterns.
In addition, periods of economic downturn or recession, rising interest rates or declining demand for real estate, or the public perception that any of these events may occur, could result in a general decline in rents or an increased incidence of defaults under existing leases, which would adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.
Illiquidity of real estate investments could significantly impede our ability to respond to adverse changes in the performance of our properties and harm our financial condition.
The real estate investments made, and to be made, by us are relatively difficult to sell quickly. As a result, our ability to promptly sell one or more properties in our portfolio in response to changing economic, financial and investment conditions is limited. Return of capital and realization of gains, if any, from an investment generally will occur upon disposition or refinancing of the underlying property. We may be unable to realize our investment objectives by sale, other disposition or refinancing at attractive prices within any given period of time or may otherwise be unable to complete any exit strategy. In particular, our ability to dispose of one or more properties within a specific time period is subject to weakness in or even the lack of an established market for a property, changes in the financial condition or prospects of prospective purchasers, changes in national or international economic conditions, such as the recent economic downturn, and changes in laws, regulations or fiscal policies of jurisdictions in which the property is located.
In addition, the Code imposes restrictions on a REIT's ability to dispose of properties that are not applicable to other types of real estate companies. In particular, the tax laws applicable to REITs effectively require that we hold our properties for investment, rather than primarily for sale in the ordinary course of business, which may cause us to forego or defer sales of properties that otherwise would be in our best interest. Therefore, we may not be able to vary our portfolio in response to economic or other conditions promptly or on favorable terms, which may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.
Our property taxes could increase due to property tax rate changes or reassessment, which would adversely impact our cash flows.
Even if we continue to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we will be required to pay some state and local taxes on our properties. The real property taxes on our properties may increase as property tax rates change or as our properties

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are assessed or reassessed by taxing authorities. If the property taxes we pay increase, our cash flow would be adversely impacted, and our ability to pay any expected dividends to our stockholders could be adversely affected.
As an owner of real estate, we could incur significant costs and liabilities related to environmental matters.
Under various federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the environment, as a current or former owner or operator of real property, we may be liable for costs and damages resulting from the presence or discharge of hazardous or toxic substances, waste or petroleum products at, on, in, under or migrating from such property, including costs to investigate, clean up such contamination and liability for harm to natural resources. Such laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such contamination, and the liability may be joint and several. These liabilities could be substantial and the cost of any required remediation, removal, fines or other costs could exceed the value of the property and/or our aggregate assets. In addition, the presence of contamination or the failure to remediate contamination at our properties may expose us to third-party liability for costs of remediation and/or personal or property damage or materially adversely affect our ability to sell, lease or develop our properties or to borrow using the properties as collateral. In addition, environmental laws may create liens on contaminated sites in favor of the government for damages and costs it incurs to address such contamination. Moreover, if contamination is discovered on our properties, environmental laws may impose restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require substantial expenditures.
Some of our properties have been or may be impacted by contamination arising from current or prior uses of the property, or adjacent properties, for commercial or industrial purposes. Such contamination may arise from spills of petroleum or hazardous substances or releases from tanks used to store such materials. For example, Del Monte Center is currently undergoing remediation of dry cleaning solvent contamination from a former onsite dry cleaner. The environmental issues is currently in the final stages of remediation which entails the long term ground monitoring by the appropriate regulatory agency over the next five to seven years. The prior owner of Del Monte Center entered into a fixed fee environmental services agreement in 1997 pursuant to which the remediation will be completed for approximately $3.5 million , with the remediation costs paid for through an escrow funded by the prior owner. We expect that the funds in this escrow account will cover all remaining costs and expenses of the environmental remediation. However, if the Regional Water Quality Control Board - Central Coast Region were to require further work costing more than the remaining escrowed funds, we could be required to pay such overage although we may have a claim for such costs against the prior owner or our environmental remediation consultant. In addition to the foregoing, we possess Phase I Environmental Site Assessments for certain of the properties in our portfolio. However, the assessments are limited in scope (e.g., they do not generally include soil sampling, subsurface investigations or hazardous materials survey) and may have failed to identify all environmental conditions or concerns. Furthermore, we do not have Phase I Environmental Site Assessment reports for all of the properties in our portfolio and, as such, may not be aware of all potential or existing environmental contamination liabilities at the properties in our portfolio. As a result, we could potentially incur material liability for these issues, which could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and the per share trading price of our common stock.
As the owner of the buildings on our properties, we could face liability for the presence of hazardous materials (e.g., asbestos or lead) or other adverse conditions (e.g., poor indoor air quality) in our buildings. Environmental laws govern the presence, maintenance, and removal of hazardous materials in buildings, and if we do not comply with such laws, we could face fines for such noncompliance. Also, we could be liable to third parties (e.g., occupants of the buildings) for damages related to exposure to hazardous materials or adverse conditions in our buildings, and we could incur material expenses with respect to abatement or remediation of hazardous materials or other adverse conditions in our buildings. In addition, some of our tenants routinely handle and use hazardous or regulated substances and wastes as part of their operations at our properties, which are subject to regulation. Such environmental and health and safety laws and regulations could subject us or our tenants to liability resulting from these activities. Environmental liabilities could affect a tenant's ability to make rental payments to us, and changes in laws could increase the potential liability for noncompliance. This may result in significant unanticipated expenditures or may otherwise materially and adversely affect our operations, or those of our tenants, which could in turn have an adverse effect on us.
We cannot assure you that costs or liabilities incurred as a result of environmental issues will not affect our ability to make distributions to you or that such costs or other remedial measures will not have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock. If we do incur material environmental liabilities in the future, we may face significant remediation costs, and we may find it difficult to sell any affected properties.
Our properties may contain or develop harmful mold or suffer from other air quality issues, which could lead to liability for adverse health effects and costs of remediation.

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When excessive moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or is not addressed over a period of time. Some molds may produce airborne toxins or irritants. Indoor air quality issues can also stem from inadequate ventilation, chemical contamination from indoor or outdoor sources, and other biological contaminants such as pollen, viruses and bacteria. Indoor exposure to airborne toxins or irritants above certain levels can be alleged to cause a variety of adverse health effects and symptoms, including allergic or other reactions. As a result, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants at any of our properties could require us to undertake a costly remediation program to contain or remove the mold or other airborne contaminants from the affected property or increase indoor ventilation. In addition, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants could expose us to liability from our tenants, employees of our tenants or others if property damage or personal injury is alleged to have occurred.
We may incur significant costs complying with various federal, state and local laws, regulations and covenants that are applicable to our properties.
The properties in our portfolio are subject to various covenants and federal, state and local laws and regulatory requirements, including permitting and licensing requirements. Local regulations, including municipal or local ordinances, zoning restrictions and restrictive covenants imposed by community developers may restrict our use of our properties and may require us to obtain approval from local officials or restrict our use of our properties and may require us to obtain approval from local officials of community standards organizations at any time with respect to our properties, including prior to acquiring a property or when undertaking renovations of any of our existing properties. Among other things, these restrictions may relate to fire and safety, seismic or hazardous material abatement requirements. There can be no assurance that existing laws and regulatory policies will not adversely affect us or the timing or cost of any future acquisitions or renovations, or that additional regulations will not be adopted that increase such delays or result in additional costs. Our growth strategy may be affected by our ability to obtain permits, licenses and zoning relief. Our failure to obtain such permits, licenses and zoning relief or to comply with applicable laws could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.
In addition, federal and state laws and regulations, including laws such as the ADA and the FHAA, impose further restrictions on our properties and operations. Under the ADA and the FHAA, all public accommodations must meet federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. Some of our properties may currently be in non-compliance with the ADA or the FHAA. If one or more of the properties in our portfolio is not in compliance with the ADA, the FHAA or any other regulatory requirements, we may be required to incur additional costs to bring the property into compliance and we might incur governmental fines or the award of damages to private litigants. In addition, we do not know whether existing requirements will change or whether future requirements will require us to make significant unanticipated expenditures that will adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.
Risks Related to Our Organizational Structure
Ernest S. Rady and his affiliates, directly or indirectly, own a substantial beneficial interest in our company on a fully diluted basis and have the ability to exercise significant influence on our company and our Operating Partnership, including the approval of significant corporate transactions.
As of December 31, 2018 , Mr. Rady and his affiliates owned approximately 14.0% of our outstanding common stock and 23.1% of our outstanding common units, which together represent an approximate 37.0% beneficial interest in our company on a fully diluted basis. Consequently, Mr. Rady may be able to significantly influence the outcome of matters submitted for stockholder action, including the approval of significant corporate transactions, including business combinations, consolidations and mergers. In addition, we may not, without prior limited partner approval, directly or indirectly transfer all or any portion of our interest in the Operating Partnership before the later of the death of Mr. Rady and the death of his wife, in connection with a merger, consolidation or other combination of our assets with another entity, a sale of all or substantially all of our assets, a reclassification, recapitalization or change in any outstanding shares of our stock or other outstanding equity interests or an issuance of shares of our stock, in any case that requires approval by our common stockholders. As a result, Mr. Rady has substantial influence on us and could exercise his influence in a manner that conflicts with the interests of other stockholders.
Conflicts of interest may exist or could arise in the future between the interests of our stockholders and the interests of holders of units in our Operating Partnership, which may impede business decisions that could benefit our stockholders.
Conflicts of interest may exist or could arise in the future as a result of the relationships between us and our affiliates, on the one hand, and our Operating Partnership or any partner thereof, on the other. Our directors and officers have duties to our company under Maryland law in connection with their management of our company. At the same time, we, as the general

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partner of our Operating Partnership, have fiduciary duties and obligations to our Operating Partnership and its limited partners under Maryland law and the partnership agreement of our Operating Partnership in connection with the management of our Operating Partnership. Our fiduciary duties and obligations as the general partner of our Operating Partnership may come into conflict with the duties of our directors and officers to our company.
Under Maryland law, a general partner of a Maryland limited partnership has fiduciary duties of loyalty and care to the partnership and its partners and must discharge its duties and exercise its rights as general partner under the partnership agreement or Maryland law consistently with the obligation of good faith and fair dealing. The partnership agreement provides that, in the event of a conflict between the interests of our Operating Partnership or any partner, on the one hand, and the separate interests of our company or our stockholders, on the other hand, we, in our capacity as the general partner of our Operating Partnership, are under no obligation not to give priority to the separate interests of our company or our stockholders, and that any action or failure to act on our part or on the part of our directors that gives priority to the separate interests of our company or our stockholders that does not result in a violation of the contract rights of the limited partners of the Operating Partnership under its partnership agreement does not violate the duty of loyalty that we, in our capacity as the general partner of our Operating Partnership, owe to the Operating Partnership and its partners.
Additionally, the partnership agreement provides that we will not be liable to the Operating Partnership or any partner for monetary damages for losses sustained, liabilities incurred or benefits not derived by the Operating Partnership or any limited partner, except for liability for our intentional harm or gross negligence. Our Operating Partnership must indemnify us, our directors and officers, officers of our Operating Partnership and our designees from and against any and all claims that relate to the operations of our Operating Partnership, unless (1) an act or omission of the person was material to the matter giving rise to the action and either was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, (2) the person actually received an improper personal benefit in violation or breach of the partnership agreement or (3) in the case of a criminal proceeding, the indemnified person had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. Our Operating Partnership must also pay or reimburse the reasonable expenses of any such person upon its receipt of a written affirmation of the person's good faith belief that the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification has been met and a written undertaking to repay any amounts paid or advanced if it is ultimately determined that the person did not meet the standard of conduct for indemnification. Our Operating Partnership will not indemnify or advance funds to any person with respect to any action initiated by the person seeking indemnification without our approval (except for any proceeding brought to enforce such person's right to indemnification under the partnership agreement) or if the person is found to be liable to our Operating Partnership on any portion of any claim in the action. No reported decision of a Maryland appellate court has interpreted provisions similar to the provisions of the partnership agreement of our Operating Partnership that modify and reduce our fiduciary duties or obligations as the general partner or reduce or eliminate our liability for money damages to the Operating Partnership and its partners, and we have not obtained an opinion of counsel as to the enforceability of the provisions set forth in the partnership agreement that purport to modify or reduce the fiduciary duties that would be in effect were it not for the partnership agreement.
Our charter and bylaws, the partnership agreement of our Operating Partnership and Maryland law contain provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a change of control transaction that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interest.
Our charter contains certain ownership limits with respect to our stock. Our charter, subject to certain exceptions, authorizes our board of directors to take such actions as it determines are advisable to preserve our qualification as a REIT. Our charter also prohibits the actual, beneficial or constructive ownership by any person of more than 7.275% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of our common stock or more than 7.275% in value of the aggregate outstanding shares of all classes and series of our stock, excluding any shares that are not treated as outstanding for federal income tax purposes. Our board of directors, in its sole and absolute discretion, may exempt a person, prospectively or retroactively, from these ownership limits if certain conditions are satisfied. Our board of directors has granted to each of (1) Mr. Rady (and certain of his affiliates), (2) Cohen & Steers Management, Inc. and (3) BlackRock, Inc. an exemption from the ownership limits that will allow them to own, in the aggregate, up to 19.9% , 10.0% and 10.0% , respectively, in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our outstanding common stock, subject to various conditions and limitations. The restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock may:
discourage a tender offer or other transactions or a change in management or of control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interests; or
result in the transfer of shares acquired in excess of the restrictions to a trust for the benefit of a charitable beneficiary and, as a result, the forfeiture by the acquirer of the benefits of owning the additional shares.

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We could increase the number of authorized shares of stock, classify and reclassify unissued stock and issue stock without stockholder approval.
Our board of directors, without stockholder approval, has the power under our charter to amend our charter to increase the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that we are authorized to issue, to authorize us to issue authorized but unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock and to classify or reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock or preferred stock into one or more classes or series of stock and set the terms of such newly classified or reclassified shares. As a result, we may issue series or classes of common stock or preferred stock with preferences, dividends, powers and rights, voting or otherwise, that are senior to, or otherwise conflict with, the rights of holders of our common stock. Although our board of directors has no such intention at the present time, it could establish a class or series of preferred stock that could, depending on the terms of such series, delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interest.
Certain provisions of Maryland law could inhibit changes in control, which may discourage third parties from conducting a tender offer or seeking other change of control transactions that could involve a premium price for our common stock or that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interest.
Certain provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law, or MGCL, may have the effect of inhibiting a third party from making a proposal to acquire us or of impeding a change of control under circumstances that otherwise could provide the holders of shares of our common stock with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then-prevailing market price of such shares, including:
“business combination” provisions that, subject to limitations, prohibit certain business combinations between us and an “interested stockholder” (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of our shares or an affiliate thereof or an affiliate or associate of ours who was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of the voting power of our then outstanding voting stock at any time within the two-year period immediately prior to the date in question) for five years after the most recent date on which the stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, and thereafter impose fair price and/or supermajority and stockholder voting requirements on these combinations; and
“control share” provisions that provide that “control shares” of our company (defined as shares that, when aggregated with other shares controlled by the stockholder, entitle the stockholder to exercise one of three increasing ranges of voting power in electing directors) acquired in a “control share acquisition” (defined as the direct or indirect acquisition of ownership or control of issued and outstanding “control shares”) have no voting rights with respect to their control shares, except to the extent approved by our stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding all interested shares.
As permitted by the MGCL, our board of directors has, by board resolution, elected to opt out of the business combination provisions of the MGCL. However, we cannot assure you that our board of directors will not opt to be subject to such business combination provisions of the MGCL in the future.
Certain provisions of the MGCL permit our board of directors, without stockholder approval and regardless of what is currently provided in our charter or bylaws, to implement certain corporate governance provisions, some of which (for example, a classified board) are not currently applicable to us. These provisions may have the effect of limiting or precluding a third party from making an unsolicited acquisition proposal for us or of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us under circumstances that otherwise could provide the holders of shares of our common stock with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then current market price. Our charter contains a provision whereby we elected to be subject to the provisions of Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the MGCL relating to the filling of vacancies on our board of directors.
Certain provisions in the partnership agreement of our Operating Partnership may delay or prevent unsolicited acquisitions of us.
Provisions in the partnership agreement of our Operating Partnership may delay, or make more difficult, unsolicited acquisitions of us or changes of our control. These provisions could discourage third parties from making proposals involving an unsolicited acquisition of us or change of our control, although some stockholders might consider such proposals, if made, desirable. These provisions include, among others:
redemption rights of qualifying parties;
a requirement that we may not be removed as the general partner of our Operating Partnership without our consent;
transfer restrictions on common units;

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our ability, as general partner, in some cases, to amend the partnership agreement and to cause the Operating Partnership to issue units with terms that could delay, defer or prevent a merger or other change of control of us or our Operating Partnership without the consent of the limited partners; and
the right of the limited partners to consent to direct or indirect transfers of the general partnership interest, including as a result of a merger or a sale of all or substantially all of our assets, in the event that such transfer requires approval by our common stockholders.
In particular, we may not, without prior “partnership approval,” directly or indirectly transfer all or any portion of our interest in our Operating Partnership, before the later of the death of Mr. Rady and the death of his wife, in connection with a merger, consolidation or other combination of our assets with another entity, a sale of all or substantially all of our assets, a reclassification, recapitalization or change in any outstanding shares of our stock or other outstanding equity interests or an issuance of shares of our stock, in any case that requires approval by our common stockholders. The “partnership approval” requirement is satisfied, with respect to such a transfer, when the sum of (1) the percentage interest of limited partners consenting to the transfer of our interest, plus (2) the product of (a) the percentage of the outstanding common units held by us multiplied by (b) the percentage of the votes that were cast in favor of the event by our common stockholders equals or exceeds the percentage required for our common stockholders to approve the event resulting in the transfer. As of December 31, 2018 , the limited partners, including Mr. Rady and his affiliates and our other executive officers and directors, owned approximately 28.2% of our outstanding common units and approximately 20.3% of our outstanding common stock, which together represent an approximate 41.5% beneficial interest in our company on a fully diluted basis.
Our charter and bylaws, the partnership agreement of our Operating Partnership and Maryland law also contain other provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interest.
Our board of directors may change our investment and financing policies without stockholder approval and we may become more highly leveraged, which may increase our risk of default under our debt obligations.
Our investment and financing policies are exclusively determined by our board of directors. Accordingly, our stockholders do not control these policies. Further, our charter and bylaws do not limit the amount or percentage of indebtedness, funded or otherwise, that we may incur. Our board of directors may alter or eliminate our current policy on borrowing at any time without stockholder approval. If this policy changed, we could become more highly leveraged which could result in an increase in our debt service. Higher leverage also increases the risk of default on our obligations. In addition, a change in our investment policies, including the manner in which we allocate our resources across our portfolio or the types of assets in which we seek to invest, may increase our exposure to interest rate risk, real estate market fluctuations and liquidity risk. Changes to our policies with regards to the foregoing could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.
Our rights and the rights of our stockholders to take action against our directors and officers are limited.
As permitted by Maryland law, our charter eliminates the liability of our directors and officers to us and our stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from:
actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or
a final judgment based upon a finding of active and deliberate dishonesty by the director or officer that was material to the cause of action adjudicated.
As a result, we and our stockholders may have more limited rights against our directors and officers than might otherwise exist. Accordingly, in the event that actions taken in good faith by any of our directors or officers impede the performance of our company, your ability to recover damages from such director or officer will be limited.
We are a holding company with no direct operations and, as such, we will rely on funds received from our Operating Partnership to pay liabilities, and the interests of our stockholders will be structurally subordinated to all liabilities and obligations of our Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries.
We are a holding company and conduct substantially all of our operations through our Operating Partnership. We do not have, apart from an interest in our Operating Partnership, any independent operations. As a result, we rely on distributions from our Operating Partnership to pay any dividends we might declare on shares of our common stock. We also rely on distributions from our Operating Partnership to meet our obligations, including any tax liability on taxable income allocated to us from our Operating Partnership. In addition, because we are a holding company, claims of stockholders are structurally subordinated to all existing and future liabilities and obligations (whether or not for borrowed money) of our Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries. Therefore, in the event of our bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization, our assets and those of our Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries will be available to satisfy the claims of our stockholders only after all of our and our Operating Partnership's and its subsidiaries' liabilities and obligations have been paid in full.

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Our Operating Partnership may issue additional partnership units to third parties without the consent of our stockholders, which would reduce our ownership percentage in our Operating Partnership and would have a dilutive effect on the amount of distributions made to us by our Operating Partnership and, therefore, the amount of distributions we can make to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders.
We may, in connection with our acquisition of properties or otherwise, issue additional partnership units to third parties. Such issuances would reduce our ownership percentage in our Operating Partnership and affect the amount of distributions made to us by our Operating Partnership and, therefore, the amount of distributions we can make to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders. To the extent that our stockholders do not directly own partnership units, our stockholders will not have any voting rights with respect to any such issuances or other partnership level activities of our Operating Partnership.
Our operating structure subjects us to the risk of increased hotel operating expenses.
Our lease with our TRS lessee requires our TRS lessee to pay us rent based in part on revenues from the Waikiki Beach Walk-Embassy Suites™. Our operating risks include decreases in hotel revenues and increases in hotel operating expenses, which would adversely affect our TRS lessee's ability to pay us rent due under the lease, including but not limited to the increases in:
wage and benefit costs;
repair and maintenance expenses;
energy costs;
property taxes;
insurance costs; and
other operating expenses.
Increases in these operating expenses can have an adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations, the market price of our common stock and our ability to make distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders.

Future sales of common stock or common units by our directors and officers, or their pledgees, as a result of margin calls or foreclosures could adversely affect the price of our common stock and could, in the future, result in a loss of control of our company.
Our directors and officers may pledge shares of common stock or common units owned or controlled by them as collateral for loans or for margin purposes in favor of third parties. Depending on the status of the various loan obligations for which the stock or units ultimately serve as collateral and the trading price of our common stock, our directors and/or officers, and their affiliates, may experience a foreclosure or margin call that could result in the sale of the pledged stock or units, in the open market or otherwise. Unlike for our directors and officers, sales by these pledgees may not be subject to the volume limitations of Rule 144 of the Securities Act. A sale of pledged stock or units by pledgees could result in a loss of control of our company, depending upon the number of shares of stock or units sold and the ownership interests of other stockholders. In addition, sale of these shares or units, or the perception of possible future sales, could have a materially adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock or make it more difficult for us to raise additional capital through sales of equity securities.
Risks Related to Our Status as a REIT
Failure to maintain our qualification as a REIT would have significant adverse consequences to us and the value of our common stock.
We have elected to be taxed as a REIT and believe we are organized and operate in a manner that has allowed us to qualify and will allow us to remain qualified as a REIT for federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2011. We have not requested and do not plan to request a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, that we qualify as a REIT. Therefore, we cannot assure you that we have qualified as a REIT, or that we will remain qualified as such in the future. If we lose our REIT status, we will face serious tax consequences that would substantially reduce the funds available for distribution to you for each of the years involved because:
we would not be allowed a deduction for distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders in computing our taxable income and would be subject to the regular U.S. federal corporate income tax rate;
we also could be subject to increased state and local taxes; and

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unless we are entitled to relief under applicable statutory provisions, we could not elect to be taxed as a REIT for four taxable years following the year during which we were disqualified.
Any such corporate tax liability could be substantial and would reduce our cash available for, among other things, our operations and distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders. In addition, if we fail to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we will not be required to make distributions to our American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders. As a result of all these factors, our failure to maintain our qualification as a REIT also could impair our ability to expand our business and raise capital, and could materially and adversely affect the value of our common stock.
Qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which there are only limited judicial and administrative interpretations. The complexity of these provisions and of the applicable Treasury regulations that have been promulgated under the Code, or the Treasury Regulations, is greater in the case of a REIT that, like us, holds its assets through a partnership. The determination of various factual matters and circumstances not entirely within our control may affect our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT. In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we must satisfy a number of requirements, including requirements regarding the ownership of our stock, requirements regarding the composition of our assets and a requirement that at least 95% of our gross income in any year must be derived from qualifying sources, such as “rents from real property.” Also, we must make distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders aggregating annually at least 90% of our net taxable income, excluding net capital gains. In addition, legislation, new regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions may materially adversely affect our investors, our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes or the desirability of an investment in a REIT relative to other investments.
Even if we maintain our qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we may be subject to some federal, state and local income, property and excise taxes on our income or property and, in certain cases, a 100% penalty tax, in the event we sell property as a dealer. In addition, our taxable REIT subsidiaries will be subject to tax as regular corporations in the jurisdictions they operate.
If our Operating Partnership failed to qualify as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, we would cease to qualify as a REIT and suffer other adverse consequences.
We believe that our Operating Partnership is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. As a partnership, our Operating Partnership is not subject to federal income tax on its income. Instead, each of its partners, including us, is allocated, and may be required to pay tax with respect to, its share of our Operating Partnership's income. We cannot be assured, however, that the IRS will not challenge the status of our Operating Partnership or any other subsidiary partnership in which we own an interest as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. If the IRS were successful in treating our Operating Partnership or any such other subsidiary partnership as an entity taxable as a corporation for federal income tax purposes, we would fail to meet the gross income tests and certain of the asset tests applicable to REITs and, accordingly, we would likely cease to qualify as a REIT. Also, the failure of our Operating Partnership or any subsidiary partnerships to qualify as a partnership could cause it to become subject to federal and state corporate income tax, which would reduce significantly the amount of cash available for debt service and for distribution to its partners, including us.
Our ownership of taxable REIT subsidiaries will be limited, and we will be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on certain income or deductions if our transactions with our taxable REIT subsidiaries are not conducted on arm's length terms.
We own an interest in one taxable REIT subsidiary, our TRS lessee, and may acquire securities in additional taxable REIT subsidiaries in the future. A taxable REIT subsidiary is a corporation other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. If a taxable REIT subsidiary owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care facilities, a taxable REIT subsidiary may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A taxable REIT subsidiary is subject to federal income tax as a regular C corporation. In addition, a 100% excise tax will be imposed on certain transactions between a taxable REIT subsidiary and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm's length basis.
Not more than 20% (25% for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018) of the value of a REIT’s total assets may be represented by the securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries. A REIT's ownership of securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary is not subject to the 5% or 10% asset tests applicable to REITs. Not more than 25% of a REIT's total assets may be represented by securities (including securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries), other than those securities includable in the 75% asset test. We anticipate that the aggregate value of the stock and securities of our taxable REIT subsidiaries and other nonqualifying assets will be less than 25% of the value of our total assets, and we will monitor the value of these

25



investments to ensure compliance with applicable ownership limitations. In addition, we intend to structure our transactions with our taxable REIT subsidiaries to ensure that they are entered into on arm's length terms to avoid incurring the 100% excise tax described above. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to comply with these ownership limitations or to avoid application of the 100% excise tax discussed above.
To maintain our REIT status, we may be forced to borrow funds during unfavorable market conditions, and the unavailability of such capital on favorable terms at the desired times, or at all, may cause us to curtail our investment activities and/or to dispose of assets at inopportune times, which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.
To maintain our REIT status, we generally must distribute to our stockholders at least 90% of our net taxable income each year, excluding net capital gains, and we will be subject to regular corporate income taxes to the extent that we distribute less than 100% of our net taxable income each year, including net capital gains. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the amount, if any, by which distributions paid by us in any calendar year are less than the sum of 85% of our ordinary income, 95% of our capital gain net income and 100% of our undistributed income from prior years. In order to maintain our REIT status and avoid the payment of income and excise taxes, we may need to borrow even if the then prevailing market conditions are not favorable for these borrowings. These borrowing needs could result from, among other things, differences in timing between the actual receipt of cash and inclusion of income for federal income tax purposes, or the effect of non-deductible capital expenditures, the creation of reserves or required debt or amortization payments. These sources, however, may not be available on favorable terms or at all. Our access to third-party sources of capital depends on a number of factors, including the market's perception of our growth potential, our current debt levels, the market price of our common stock, and our current and potential future earnings. We cannot assure you that we will have access to such capital on favorable terms at the desired times, or at all, which may cause us to curtail our investment activities and/or to dispose of assets at inopportune times, and could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and per share trading price of our common stock.

We may in the future choose to make dividends payable partly in our common stock, in which case you may be required to pay tax in excess of the cash you receive.

To maintain our REIT status, we generally must distribute to our stockholders at least 90% of our net taxable income each year, excluding net capital gains.  In order to preserve cash to repay debt or for other reasons, we may choose to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements by distributing taxable dividends that are payable partly in our stock and partly in cash. Taxable stockholders receiving such dividends will be required to include the full amount of the dividend as ordinary income to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for federal income tax purposes. As a result, a U.S. stockholder may be required to pay tax with respect to such dividends in excess of the cash received. If a U.S. stockholder sells the stock it receives as a dividend in order to pay this tax, the sales proceeds may be less than the amount included in income with respect to the dividend, depending on the market price of our stock at the time of the sale. Furthermore, with respect to non-U.S. stockholders, we may be required to withhold U.S. tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in stock. In addition, if a significant number of our stockholders determine to sell shares of our stock in order to pay taxes owed on dividends, such sales may have an adverse effect on the per share trading price of our common stock.
Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.
The maximum tax rate applicable to income from “qualified dividends” payable to U.S. stockholders that are individuals, trusts and estates is 20%. Dividends payable by REITs, however, generally are not eligible for the 20% rate. Although these rules do not adversely affect the taxation of REITs or dividends payable by REITs investors who are individuals, trusts and estates may perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including the per share trading price of our common stock. Non-corporate stockholders, including individuals, generally may deduct 20% of dividends from a REIT, other than capital gain dividends and dividends treated as qualified dividend income, for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. If we fail to qualify as a REIT, such stockholders may not claim this deduction with respect to dividends paid by us.
The tax imposed on REITs engaging in “prohibited transactions” may limit our ability to engage in transactions which would be treated as sales for federal income tax purposes.
A REIT's net income from prohibited transactions is subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. Although we do not intend to hold any properties that would be characterized as held for sale to customers

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in the ordinary course of our business, unless a sale or disposition qualifies under certain statutory safe harbors, such characterization is a factual determination and no guarantee can be given that the IRS would agree with our characterization of our properties or that we will always be able to make use of the available safe harbors.
Complying with REIT requirements may affect our profitability and may force us to liquidate or forgo otherwise attractive investments.
To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the nature and diversification of our assets, the sources of our income and the amounts we distribute to our stockholders. We may be required to liquidate or forgo otherwise attractive investments in order to satisfy the asset and income tests or to qualify under certain statutory relief provisions. We also may be required to make distributions to American Assets Trust, Inc.'s stockholders or American Assets Trust, L.P.'s unitholders at disadvantageous times or when we do not have funds readily available for distribution. As a result, having to comply with the distribution requirement could cause us to: (1) sell assets in adverse market conditions; (2) borrow on unfavorable terms; or (3) distribute amounts that would otherwise be invested in future acquisitions, capital expenditures or repayment of debt. Accordingly, satisfying the REIT requirements could have an adverse effect on our business results, profitability and ability to execute our business plan. Moreover, if we are compelled to liquidate our investments to meet any of these asset, income or distribution tests, or to repay obligations to our lenders, we may be unable to comply with one or more of the requirements applicable to REITs or may be subject to a 100% tax on any resulting gain if such sales constitute prohibited transactions.
Legislative or other actions affecting REITs could have a negative effect on our investors or us, including our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT or the federal income tax consequences of such qualification.
The rules dealing with federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Changes to the tax laws, with or without retroactive application, could adversely affect our investors or us. We cannot predict how changes in the tax laws might affect our investors or us. New legislation, Treasury Regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions could significantly and negatively affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, the federal income tax consequences of such qualification or the federal income tax consequences of such qualification or the federal income tax consequences of an investment in us. Also, the law relating to the tax treatment of other entities, or an investment in other entities, could change, making an investment in such other entities more attractive relative to an investment in a REIT.
The 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or TCJA, has significantly changed the U.S. federal income taxation of U.S. businesses and their owners, including REITs and their stockholders. Changes made by the legislation that could affect us and our stockholders include:
temporarily reducing individual U.S. federal income tax rates on ordinary income; the highest individual U.S. federal income tax rate has been reduced from 39.6% to 37% for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026;
permanently eliminating the progressive corporate tax rate structure, with a maximum corporate tax rate of 35% and replacing it with a flat corporate tax rate of 21%;
permitting a deduction for certain pass-through business income, including dividends received by our stockholders from us that are not designated by us as capital gain dividends or qualified dividend income, which will allow individuals, trusts, and estates to deduct up to 20% of such amounts for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026;
reducing the highest rate of withholding with respect to our distributions to non-U.S. stockholders that are treated as attributable to gains from the sale or exchange of U.S. real property interests from 35% to 21%;
limiting our deduction for net operating losses arising in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 to 80% of REIT taxable income (prior to the application of the dividends paid deduction);
generally limiting the deduction for net business interest expense in excess of 30% of a business’s “adjusted taxable income,” except for taxpayers that engage in certain real estate businesses and elect out of this rule (provided that such electing taxpayers must use an alternative depreciation system); and
eliminating the corporate alternative minimum tax.
Many of these changes that are applicable to us are effective with our 2018 taxable year, without any transition periods or grandfathering for existing transactions. The legislation is unclear in many respects and could be subject to potential amendments and technical corrections, as well as interpretations and implementing regulations by the Treasury and IRS, any of which could lessen or increase certain adverse impacts of the legislation. In addition, it is unclear how these U.S. federal income tax changes will affect state and local taxation, which often uses U.S. federal taxable income as a starting point for computing state and local tax liabilities.

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While some of the changes made by the tax legislation may adversely affect us in one or more reporting periods and prospectively, other changes may be beneficial on a going forward basis. We continue to work with our tax advisors and auditors to determine the full impact that the TCJA as a whole will have on us. We urge our investors to consult with their legal and tax advisors with respect to the TCJA and the potential tax consequences of investing in our common stock.
ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.


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ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES
Our Portfolio
As of December 31, 2018 , our operating portfolio was comprised of 27 retail, office, multifamily and mixed-use properties with an aggregate of approximately 5.8 million  rentable square feet of retail and office space (including mixed-use retail space), 2,112 residential units (including 122 RV spaces) and a 369-room hotel. Additionally, as of December 31, 2018 , we owned land at three of our properties that we classified as held for development and construction in progress.
Retail and Office Portfolios
Property
Location
 
Year Built/
Renovated
 
Number
of
Buildings
 
Net
Rentable
Square
Feet
 
Percentage
Leased
 
Annualized
Base Rent
 
Annualized
Base Rent
Per Leased
Square
Foot
RETAIL PROPERTIES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carmel Country Plaza
San Diego, CA
 
1991
 
9

 
78,098

 
94.6
%
 
$
3,841,618

 
$
52.00

Carmel Mountain Plaza (1)
San Diego, CA
 
1994/2014
 
15

 
528,416

 
77.4

 
12,234,245

 
29.91

South Bay Marketplace (1)
San Diego, CA
 
1997
 
9

 
132,877

 
88.7

 
2,222,421

 
18.86

Gateway Marketplace
San Diego, CA
 
1997/2016
 
3

 
127,861

 
98.7

 
2,403,614

 
19.05

Lomas Santa Fe Plaza
Solana Beach, CA
 
1972/1997
 
9

 
208,030

 
97.0

 
5,971,638

 
29.59

Solana Beach Towne Centre
Solana Beach, CA
 
1973/2000/2004
 
12

 
246,730

 
93.5

 
5,929,000

 
25.70

Del Monte Center (1)
Monterey, CA
 
1967/1984/2006
 
16

 
673,572

 
98.3

 
11,680,190

 
17.64

Geary Marketplace
Walnut Creek, CA
 
2012
 
3

 
35,156

 
95.6

 
1,156,036

 
34.40

The Shops at Kalakaua
Honolulu, HI
 
1971/2006
 
3

 
11,671

 
100.0

 
1,981,378

 
169.77

Waikele Center
Waipahu, HI
 
1993/2008
 
9

 
418,047

 
100.0

 
10,798,380

 
25.83

Alamo Quarry Market  (1)
San Antonio, TX
 
1997/1999
 
16

 
588,970

 
99.5

 
14,745,038

 
25.16

Hassalo on Eighth - Retail (2)
Portland, OR
 
2015
 
3

 
44,153

 
76.6

 
1,079,577

 
31.92

Subtotal / Weighted Average Retail Portfolio
 
 
 
107

 
3,093,581

 
93.9
%
 
$
74,043,135

 
$
25.49

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
OFFICE PROPERTIES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Torrey Reserve Campus
San Diego, CA
 
1996-2000/2014-2016
 
14

 
516,676

 
84.1
%
 
$
18,162,561

 
$
41.80

Torrey Point
San Diego, CA
 
2017
 
2

 
92,614

 
32.2

 
983,599

 
32.98

Solana Beach Corporate Centre
Solana Beach, CA
 
1982/2005
 
4

 
212,495

 
87.8

 
7,172,493

 
38.44

The Landmark at One Market (3)
San Francisco, CA
 
1917/2000
 
1

 
419,371

 
100.0

 
26,940,554

 
64.24

One Beach Street
San Francisco, CA
 
1924/1972/1987/1992
 
1

 
97,614

 
100.0

 
4,358,102

 
44.65

First & Main
Portland, OR
 
2010
 
1

 
360,641

 
98.7

 
11,182,650

 
31.42

Lloyd District Portfolio
Portland, OR
 
1940-2015
 
2

 
459,603

 
87.6

 
10,065,764

 
25.00

City Center Bellevue
Bellevue, WA
 
1987
 
1

 
497,472

 
98.2

 
18,719,712

 
38.32

Subtotal / Weighted Average Office Portfolio
 
 
 
26

 
2,656,486

 
90.9
%
 
$
97,585,435

 
$
40.41

Total / Weighted Average Retail and Office Portfolio
 
 
 
133

 
5,750,067

 
92.5
%
 
$
171,628,570

 
$
32.27

Mixed-Use Portfolio
Retail Portion
Location
 
Year Built/
Renovated
 
Number
of
Buildings
 
Net
Rentable
Square
Feet
 
Percent
Leased
 
Annualized
Base Rent
 
Annualized
Base Rent
Per Leased
Square
Foot
Waikiki Beach Walk—Retail  (4)
Honolulu, HI
 
2006
 
3

 
96,707

 
96.1
%
 
$
10,752,372

 
$
115.70

Hotel Portion
Location
 
Year Built/
Renovated
 
Number
of
Buildings
 
Units
 
Average
Occupancy
 
Average
Daily Rate
 
Revenue
per
Available
Room
Waikiki Beach Walk—Embassy Suites TM
Honolulu, HI
 
2008/2014
 
2

 
369

 
93.0
%
 
$
319.58

 
$
297.36


29



Multifamily Portfolio
 
Property
Location
 
Year Built/
Renovated
 
Number
of
Buildings
 
Units
 
Percentage
Leased
 
Annualized
Base Rent
 
Average Monthly Base Rent per Leased Unit
Loma Palisades
San Diego, CA
 
1958/2001-2008
 
80

 
548

 
94.3
%
 
$
13,393,860

 
$
2,160

Imperial Beach Gardens
Imperial Beach, CA
 
1959/2008
 
26

 
160

 
90.6

 
3,507,960

 
2,017

Mariner’s Point
Imperial Beach, CA
 
1986
 
8

 
88

 
90.9

 
1,707,156

 
1,778

Santa Fe Park RV Resort (5)
San Diego, CA
 
1971/2007-2008
 
1

 
126

 
88.1

 
1,230,864

 
924

Pacific Ridge Apartments
San Diego, CA
 
2013
 
3

 
533

 
96.1

 
16,747,488

 
2,725

Hassalo on Eighth - Multifamily (2)
Portland, OR
 
2015
 
3

 
657

 
93.2

 
11,942,347

 
1,625

Total / Weighted Average Multifamily
 
121

 
2,112

 
93.6
%
 
$
48,529,675

 
$
2,046

 
(1)
Net rentable square feet at certain of our retail properties includes square footage leased pursuant to ground leases, as described in the following table:
    
Property
Number of Ground Leases
 
Square Footage Leased Pursuant to Ground Leases
 
Aggregate Annualized Base Rent
Carmel Mountain Plaza
5

 
17,607

 
$
709,740

South Bay Marketplace
1

 
2,824

 
$
102,276

Del Monte Center
1

 
212,500

 
$
96,000

Alamo Quarry Market
4

 
31,994

 
$
509,880

 
(2)
The Hassalo on Eighth property is comprised of three multifamily buildings, each with a ground floor retail component: Velomor, Aster Tower and Elwood.
(3)
This property contains 419,371 net rentable square feet consisting of The Landmark at One Market ( 375,151 net rentable square feet) as well as a separate long-term leasehold interest in approximately 44,220 net rentable square feet of space located in an adjacent six-story leasehold known as the Annex. We currently lease the Annex from an affiliate of the Paramount Group pursuant to a long-term master lease effective through June 30, 2021 , which we have the option to extend until 2031 pursuant to two five -year extension options.
(4)
Waikiki Beach Walk-Retail contains 96,707 net rentable square feet consisting of 94,093 net rentable square feet that we own in fee and approximately 2,614 net rentable square feet of space in which we have a subleasehold interest pursuant to a sublease from First Hawaiian Bank effective through December 31, 2021.
(5)
The Santa Fe Park RV Resort is subject to seasonal variation, with higher rates of occupancy occurring during the summer months. The number of units at the Santa Fe Park RV Resort includes 122 RV spaces and four apartments.

In the tables above:
The net rentable square feet for each of our retail properties and the retail portion of our mixed-use property is the sum of (1) the square footages of existing leases, plus (2) for available space, the field-verified square footage. The net rentable square feet for each of our office properties is the sum of (1) the square footages of existing leases, plus (2) for available space, management's estimate of net rentable square feet based, in part, on past leases. The net rentable square feet included in such office leases is generally determined consistently with the Building Owners and Managers Association, or BOMA, 2010 measurement guidelines. Net rentable square footage may be adjusted from the prior period to reflect re-measurement of leased space at the properties.
Percentage leased for each of our retail and office properties and the retail portion of the mixed-use property is calculated as square footage under leases as of December 31, 2018 , divided by net rentable square feet, expressed as a percentage. The square footage under lease includes leases which may not have commenced as of December 31, 2018 . Percentage leased for our multifamily properties is calculated as total units rented as of December 31, 2018 , divided by total units available, expressed as a percentage.
Annualized base rent is calculated by multiplying base rental payments (defined as cash base rents, before abatements) for the month ended December 31, 2018 , by 12. Annualized base rent per leased square foot is calculated by dividing annualized base rent, by square footage under lease as of December 31, 2018 . In the case of triple net or modified gross leases, annualized base rent does not include tenant reimbursements for real estate taxes, insurance, common area or other operating expenses. Total abatements for leases in effect as of December 31, 2018 for our retail and office portfolio equaled approximately $3.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 . There were no abatements for the retail portion of our mixed-use portfolio for the year ended December 31, 2018 . Total abatements for leases in effect as of December 31, 2018 for our multifamily portfolio equaled approximately $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 .
Units represent the total number of units available for sale/rent at December 31, 2018 .

30



Average occupancy represents the percentage of available units that were sold during the 12-month period ended December 31, 2018 , and is calculated by dividing the number of units sold by the product of the total number of units and the total number of days in the period. Average daily rate represents the average rate paid for the units sold and is calculated by dividing the total room revenue (i.e., excluding food and beverage revenues or other hotel operations revenues such as telephone, parking and other guest services) for the 12-month period ended December 31, 2018 , by the number of units sold. Revenue per available room, or RevPAR, represents the total unit revenue per total available units for the 12-month period ended December 31, 2018 and is calculated by multiplying average occupancy by the average daily rate. RevPAR does not include food and beverage revenues or other hotel operations revenues such as telephone, parking and other guest services.
Average monthly base rent per leased unit represents the average monthly base rent per leased units as of December 31, 2018 .

31



Tenant Diversification
At December 31, 2018 , our operating portfolio had approximately 741 leases with office and retail tenants, of which 4 expired on December 31, 2018 and there were 18 that had not yet commenced as of such date. Our residential properties had approximately 1,866 leases with residential tenants at December 31, 2018 , excluding Santa Fe Park RV Resort. The retail portion of our mixed-use property had approximately 70 leases with retailers. No one tenant or affiliated group of tenants accounted for more than 8.2% of our annualized base rent as of December 31, 2018 for our retail, office and retail portion of our mixed-use property portfolio. The following table sets forth information regarding the 25 tenants with the greatest annualized base rent for our combined retail, office and retail portion of our mixed-use property portfolios as of December 31, 2018 .
Tenant
 
Property(ies)
 
Lease
Expiration
 
Total Leased
Square Feet
 
Rentable
Square
Feet as a
Percentage
of Total
 
Annualized
Base Rent  (1)
 
Annualized
Base Rent
as a
Percentage
of Total
salesforce.com, inc.
 
The Landmark at One Market
 
12/31/2018
6/30/2019
 
254,118

 
4.3
%
 
$
15,002,748

 
8.2
%
Autodesk, Inc.
 
The Landmark at One Market
 
12/31/2022
12/31/2023
 
114,664

 
2.0

 
9,547,099

 
5.2

Lowe's
 
Waikele Center
 
5/31/2028
 
155,000

 
2.7

 
3,720,000

 
2.0

Veterans Benefits Administration
 
First & Main
 
8/31/2020
 
93,572

 
1.6

 
3,006,453

 
1.6

Clearesult Operating, LLC (as successor to Portland Energy Conservation)
 
First & Main
 
4/30/2025
 
101,848

 
1.7

 
2,735,895

 
1.5

State of Oregon: Department of Environmental Quality
 
Lloyd District Portfolio
 
10/31/2031
 
87,787

 
1.5

 
2,607,730

 
1.4

Alliant International University
 
One Beach Street
 
10/31/2019
 
64,161

 
1.1

 
2,510,982

 
1.4

VMware, Inc.(2)
 
City Center Bellevue
 
11/30/2022
3/31/2025
 
72,883

 
1.2

 
2,404,668

 
1.3

Nordstrom Rack
 
Carmel Mountain Plaza,
Alamo Quarry Market
 
9/30/2022
10/31/2022
 
69,047

 
1.2

 
2,189,648

 
1.2

Treasury Call Center (3)
 
First & Main
 
8/31/2020
 
63,648

 
1.1

 
2,184,302

 
1.2

Quiksilver
 
Waikiki Beach Walk
 
12/31/2021
 
8,365

 
0.1

 
2,101,039

 
1.2

Sprouts Farmers Market
 
Solana Beach Towne Centre,
Carmel Mountain Plaza,
Geary Marketplace
 
6/30/2024
3/31/2025
9/30/2032
 
71,431

 
1.2

 
1,919,436

 
1.1

California Bank & Trust
 
Torrey Reserve Campus
 
2/29/2024
 
34,731

 
0.6

 
1,807,609

 
1.0

Industrious
 
City Center Bellevue
 
11/30/2033
 
37,166

 
0.6

 
1,728,219

 
0.9

Troutman Sanders, LLP
 
Torrey Reserve Campus
First & Main
 
11/30/2019
4/30/2025
 
33,812

 
0.6

 
1,603,658

 
0.9

Smartsheet, Inc.
 
City Center Bellevue
 
11/30/2022
 
53,972

 
0.9

 
1,593,788

 
0.9

Eisneramper LLP
 
The Landmark at One Market
 
12/31/2018
 
19,126

 
0.3

 
1,568,332

 
0.9

Vons
 
Lomas Santa Fe Plaza
 
12/31/2022
 
49,895

 
0.9

 
1,399,205

 
0.8

Old Navy
 
Waikele Center,
South Bay Marketplace,
Alamo Quarry Market
 
7/31/2020
4/30/2021
9/30/2022
 
59,780

 
1.0

 
*

 
*

Marshalls
 
Solana Beach Towne Centre,
Carmel Mountain Plaza
 
1/31/2025
1/31/2029
 
68,055

 
1.2

 
1,335,447

 
0.7

GE Healthcare
 
City Center Bellevue
 
12/31/2021
 
32,304

 
0.6

 
1,324,464

 
0.7

Cisco Systems, Inc.
 
City Center Bellevue
 
2/28/2023
 
29,415

 
0.5

 
1,264,845

 
0.7

Regal Cinemas
 
Alamo Quarry Market
 
3/31/2023
 
72,447

 
1.2

 
1,231,599

 
0.7

Ruth's Chris Steak House
 
Torrey Reserve Campus,
Waikiki Beach Walk
 
1/31/2020
2/29/2028
 
14,741

 
0.3

 
1,228,570

 
0.7

Esterline Technologies
 
City Center Bellevue
 
9/30/2023
 
36,870

 
0.6

 
1,220,468

 
0.7

TOTAL
 
 
 
 
 
1,698,838

 
29.0
%
 
$
67,236,204

 
36.9
%

*
Data withheld at tenant’s request.
(1)
Annualized base rent is calculated by multiplying (i) base rental payments (defined as cash base rents before abatements) for the month ended December 31, 2018 for the applicable lease(s) by (ii) 12.
(2)
The tenant may terminate 17,173 square feet of its lease by giving 6 month notice on or before April 30, 2021.
(3)
The tenant may terminate its lease at any time with 90 days notice.




32



Geographic Diversification
Our properties are located in Southern California, Northern California, Oregon, Washington, Texas and Hawaii. The following table shows the number of properties, the net rentable square feet and the percentage of total portfolio net rentable square footage in each region as of December 31, 2018 . Our six multifamily properties are excluded from the table below and are located in Southern California and Portland, Oregon. The hotel portion of our mixed-use property is also excluded and is located in Hawaii.
      
Region
Number of Properties
 
Net Rentable Square Feet
 
Percentage of Net Rentable Square Feet  (1)
Southern California
9

 
2,143,797

 
36.7
%
Northern California
4

 
1,225,713

 
21.0

Oregon
3

 
864,397

 
14.8

Washington
1

 
497,472

 
8.5

Texas
1

 
588,970

 
10.1

Hawaii (2)
3

 
526,425

 
9.0

Total
21

 
5,846,774

 
100.0
%
 
(1)
Percentage of Net Rentable Square Feet is calculated based on the total net rentable square feet available in our retail portfolio, office portfolio and the retail portion of our mixed-use portfolio.
(2)
Includes the retail portion related to the mixed-use property.
Segment Diversification
The following table sets forth information regarding the total property operating income for each of our segments for the year ended December 31, 2018 (dollars in thousands).
      
Segment
Number of Properties
 
Property Operating Income
 
Percentage of Property Operating Income
Retail
12

 
$
75,474

 
36.0
%
Office
8

 
78,502

 
37.5

Mixed-Use
1

 
30,186

 
14.4

Multifamily
6

 
25,250

 
12.1

Total
27

 
$
209,412

 
100.0
%
Lease Expirations
The following table sets forth a summary schedule of the lease expirations for leases in place as of December 31, 2018 , plus available space, for each of the ten calendar years beginning January 1, 2019 at the properties in our retail portfolio, office portfolio and the retail portion of our mixed-use portfolio. The square footage of available space includes the space from 5 leases that terminated on December 31, 2018 . In 2019 , we expect a similar level of leasing activity for new and expiring leases compared to prior years with overall positive increases in rental income. However, changes in rental income associated with individual signed leases on comparable spaces may be positive or negative, and we can provide no assurance that the rents on new leases will continue to increase at the above disclosed levels, if at all.

33



The lease expirations for our multifamily portfolio and the hotel portion of our mixed-use portfolio are excluded from this table because multifamily unit leases generally have lease terms ranging from seven to 15 months, with a majority having 12-month lease terms, and because rooms in the hotel are rented on a nightly basis. The information set forth in the table assumes that tenants do not exercise any renewal options.

Year of Lease Expiration
 
Square
Footage of
Expiring
Leases
 
Percentage
of Portfolio
Net
Rentable
Square
Feet
 
Annualized Base
Rent (1)
 
Percentage
of Portfolio
Annualized
Base Rent
 
Annualized Base Rent Per Leased Square Foot  (2)
Available
 
434,660

 
7.4
%
 
$

 
%
 
$

Month to Month
 
42,049

 
0.7

 
783,344

 
0.4

 
18.63

2019
 
326,002

 
5.6

 
14,350,194

 
7.9

 
44.02

2020
 
591,945

 
10.1

 
19,568,840

 
10.7

 
33.06

2021
 
446,021

 
7.6

 
21,405,902

 
11.7

 
47.99

2022
 
697,099

 
11.9

 
26,447,949

 
14.5

 
37.94

2023
 
671,492

 
11.5

 
25,225,628

 
13.8

 
37.57

2024
 
489,759

 
8.4

 
14,843,574

 
8.1

 
30.31

2025
 
421,536

 
7.2

 
12,307,787

 
6.7

 
29.20

2026
 
233,098

 
4.0

 
7,542,467

 
4.1

 
32.36

2027
 
148,677

 
2.5

 
5,053,036

 
2.8

 
33.99

2028
 
555,573

 
9.5

 
10,511,685

 
5.8

 
18.92

Thereafter
 
571,257

 
9.8

 
24,340,533

 
13.3

 
42.61

Signed Leases Not Commenced
 
217,606

 
3.7

 

 

 

Total:
 
5,846,774

 
100.0
%
 
$
182,380,939

 
100.0
%
 
$
31.19

 
(1)
Annualized base rent is calculated by multiplying base rental payments (defined as cash base rents (before abatements)) for the month ended December 31, 2018 for the leases expiring during the applicable period, by 12.
(2)
Annualized base rent per leased square foot is calculated by dividing annualized base rent for leases expiring during the applicable period by square footage under such expiring leases.

ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are not currently a party, as plaintiff or defendant, to any legal proceedings that we believe to be material or which, individually or in the aggregate, would be expected to have a material effect on our business, financial condition or results of operation if determined adversely to us. We may be subject to ongoing litigation and we expect to otherwise be party from time to time to various lawsuits, claims and other legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business.
ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

34



PART II
ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR OUR COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
American Assets Trust, Inc.
Shares of American Assets Trust, Inc.'s common stock began trading on the NYSE under the symbol “AAT” on January 13, 2011. Prior to that time there was no public market for the company's common stock. On February 8, 2019 , the reported close sale price per share was $43.99 . The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low close prices in dollars on the NYSE for the company's common stock and the dividends we declared per share.
 
 
Per Share Price
 
Dividend per Common Share
Period
 
Low
 
High
 
First Quarter 2017
 
$
40.80

 
$
44.57

 
$
0.2600

Second Quarter 2017
 
$
38.38

 
$
44.53

 
$
0.2600

Third Quarter 2017
 
$
38.25

 
$
40.95

 
$
0.2600

Fourth Quarter 2017
 
$
37.66

 
$
41.37

 
$
0.2700

First Quarter 2018
 
$
31.72

 
$
38.16

 
$
0.2700

Second Quarter 2018
 
$
32.45

 
$
38.79

 
$
0.2700

Third Quarter 2018
 
$
36.75

 
$
39.64

 
$
0.2700

Fourth Quarter 2018
 
$
35.46

 
$
42.81

 
$
0.2800

On February 8, 2019 , we had 109 stockholders of record of our common stock.  Certain shares are held in “street” name and accordingly, the number of beneficial owners of such shares is not known or included in the foregoing number.
American Assets Trust, L.P.
There is no established trading market for American Assets Trust, L.P.'s operating partnership units. The following table sets forth the distributions we declared with respect to American Assets Trust, L.P.'s operating partnership units for the periods indicated:
Period
 
Distribution per Unit
First Quarter 2017
 
$
0.26

Second Quarter 2017
 
$
0.26

Third Quarter 2017
 
$
0.26

Fourth Quarter 2017
 
$
0.27

First Quarter 2018
 
$
0.27

Second Quarter 2018
 
$
0.27

Third Quarter 2018
 
$
0.27

Fourth Quarter 2018
 
$
0.28

As of February 8, 2019 , we had 23 holders of record of American Assets Trust, L.P.'s operating partnership units, including American Assets Trust, Inc.
Distribution Policy
We pay and intend to continue to pay regular quarterly dividends to holders of our common stock and unitholders of our Operating Partnership and to make dividend distributions that will enable us to meet the distribution requirements applicable to REITs and to eliminate or minimize our obligation to pay income and excise taxes. Dividend amounts depend on our available cash flows, financial condition and capital requirements, the annual distribution requirements under the REIT provisions of the Code and such other factors as our board of directors deems relevant.


35




Recent Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities
No unregistered equity securities were sold by us during 2018 .
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
No equity securities were purchased by us during 2018 .
Equity Compensation Plan Information
Information about our equity compensation plans is incorporated by reference in Item 12 of Part III of this annual report on Form 10-K.
Stock Performance Graph
The information below shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C, other than as provided in Item 201 of Regulation S-K, or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, except to the extent we specifically request that such information be treated as soliciting material or specifically incorporate it by reference into a filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.
 The graph below compares the cumulative total return on the company’s common stock with that of the Standard & Poor's 500 Stock Index, or S&P 500 Index, and an industry peer group, SNL US REIT Equity Index from December 31, 2013 through December 31, 2018 .  The stock price performance graph assumes that an investor invested $100 in each of AAT and the indices, and the reinvestment of any dividends.  The comparisons in the graph are provided in accordance with the SEC disclosure requirements and are not intended to forecast or be indicative of the future performance of AAT’s shares of common stock. A2018PERFGRAPH.GIF

36



ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following tables set forth, on a historical basis, selected financial and operating data. The financial information has been derived from our consolidated balance sheets and statements of operations. You should read the following summary selected financial data in conjunction with “Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.” The following data is in thousands, except per share and share data.
 
American Assets Trust, Inc.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Statement of Operations Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rental income
$
309,537

 
$
298,803

 
$
279,498

 
$
261,887

 
$
246,078

Other property income
21,330

 
16,180

 
15,590

 
13,736

 
13,922

Total revenues
330,867

 
314,983

 
295,088

 
275,623

 
260,000

Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rental expenses
86,482

 
84,006

 
79,553

 
73,187

 
68,267

Real estate taxes
34,973

 
32,671

 
28,378

 
24,819

 
22,964

General and administrative
22,784

 
21,382

 
17,897

 
20,074

 
18,532

Depreciation and amortization
107,093

 
83,278

 
71,319

 
63,392

 
66,568

Total operating expenses
251,332

 
221,337

 
197,147

 
181,472

 
176,331

Operating income
79,535

 
93,646

 
97,941

 
94,151

 
83,669

Interest expense
(52,248
)
 
(53,848
)
 
(51,936
)
 
(47,260
)
 
(52,965
)
Gain on sale of real estate

 

 

 
7,121

 

Other income (expense), net
(85
)
 
334

 
(368
)
 
(97
)
 
441

Net income
27,202

 
40,132

 
45,637

 
53,915

 
31,145

Net income attributable to restricted shares
(311
)
 
(241
)
 
(189
)
 
(168
)
 
(374
)
Net income attributable to unitholders in the Operating Partnership
(7,205
)
 
(10,814
)
 
(12,863
)
 
(15,238
)
 
(9,015
)
Net income attributable to American Assets Trust, Inc. stockholders
$
19,686

 
$
29,077

 
$
32,585

 
$
38,509

 
$
21,756

Income from operations attributable to common stockholders per share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings (loss) per share
$
0.42

 
$
0.62

 
$
0.72

 
$
0.87

 
$
0.52

Diluted earnings (loss) per share
$
0.42

 
$
0.62

 
$
0.72

 
$
0.86

 
$
0.51

Net income attributable to common stockholders per share
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings per share
$
0.42

 
$
0.62

 
$
0.72

 
$
0.87

 
$
0.52

Diluted earnings per share
$
0.42

 
$
0.62

 
$
0.72

 
$
0.86

 
$
0.51

Weighted average shares of common stock outstanding - basic
46,950,812

 
46,715,520

 
45,332,471

 
44,439,112

 
42,041,126

Weighted average shares of common stock outstanding - diluted
64,136,559

 
64,087,250

 
63,228,159

 
62,339,163

 
59,947,474

Dividends declared per share
$
1.0900

 
$
1.0500

 
$
1.0100

 
$
0.9475

 
$
0.8925



37



 
American Assets Trust, Inc.
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net real estate
$
2,039,853

 
$
2,076,707

 
$
1,831,546

 
$
1,834,862

 
$
1,775,400

Total assets
2,198,250

 
2,259,864

 
1,986,933

 
1,974,289

 
1,936,401

Notes payable and line of credit
1,290,772

 
1,325,020

 
1,061,530

 
1,055,613

 
1,057,450

Total liabilities
1,395,779

 
1,415,720

 
1,148,382

 
1,145,362

 
1,169,825

Stockholders' equity
802,977

 
833,710

 
809,556

 
799,562

 
735,303

Noncontrolling interests
(506
)
 
10,434

 
28,995

 
29,365

 
31,273

Total equity
802,471

 
844,144

 
838,551

 
828,927

 
766,576

Total liabilities and equity
2,198,250

 
2,259,864

 
1,986,933

 
1,974,289

 
1,936,401

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Other Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Funds from operations (FFO)  (1)
$
134,295

 
$
123,410

 
$
116,956

 
$
110,186

 
$
97,713

FFO attributable to common stock and units
133,990

 
123,174

 
116,773

 
110,027

 
97,576


(1)
We present FFO because we consider FFO an important supplemental measure of our operating performance and believe it is frequently used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties in the evaluation of REITs, many of which present FFO when reporting their results. We calculate FFO in accordance with the standards established by the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts, or NAREIT. FFO represents net income (loss) (computed in accordance with GAAP), excluding gains (or losses) from sales of depreciable operating property, impairment losses, real estate related depreciation and amortization (excluding amortization of deferred financing costs) and after adjustments for unconsolidated partnerships and joint ventures. FFO is a supplemental non-GAAP financial measure. Management uses FFO as a supplemental performance measure because it believes that FFO is beneficial to investors as a starting point in measuring our operational performance. Specifically, in excluding real estate related depreciation and amortization and gains and losses from property dispositions, which do not relate to or are not indicative of operating performance, FFO provides a performance measure that, when compared year over year, captures trends in occupancy rates, rental rates and operating costs. We also believe that, as a widely recognized measure of the performance of REITs, FFO will be used by investors as a basis to compare our operating performance with that of other REITs. However, because FFO excludes depreciation and amortization and captures neither the changes in the value of our properties that result from use or market conditions nor the level of capital expenditures and leasing commissions necessary to maintain the operating performance of our properties, all of which have real economic effects and could materially impact our results from operations, the utility of FFO as a measure of our performance is limited. In addition, other equity REITs may not calculate FFO in accordance with the NAREIT definition as we do, and, accordingly, our FFO may not be comparable to such other REITs' FFO. Accordingly, FFO should be considered only as a supplement to net income as a measure of our performance. FFO should not be used as a measure of our liquidity, nor is it indicative of funds available to fund our cash needs, including our ability to pay dividends or service indebtedness. FFO also should not be used as a supplement to or substitute for cash flow from operating activities computed in accordance with GAAP.

The following table sets forth a reconciliation of our FFO to net income, the nearest GAAP equivalent, for the periods presented (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Net income
$
27,202

 
$
40,132

 
$
45,637