Table of Contents

As Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-239499

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus dated July 2, 2020)

 

 

 

LOGO

14,252,670 Shares of Common Stock

Pre-Funded Warrants to Purchase 14,247,330 Shares of Common Stock

We are offering 14,252,670 shares of our common stock in this offering.

We are also offering, in lieu of common stock to certain investors that so choose, warrants to purchase 14,247,330 shares of our common stock, which we refer to as pre-funded warrants. The purchase price of each pre-funded warrant equals the price per share at which shares of our common stock are being sold to the public in this offering, minus $0.001, and the exercise price of each pre-funded warrant equals $0.001 per share. This prospectus supplement also relates to the offering of the shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of such pre-funded warrants.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TRVI.” The last reported sale price for our common stock on September 22, 2022 was $1.935 per share. There is no established public trading market for the pre-funded warrants, and we do not expect a market to develop. We do not intend to list the pre-funded warrants on the Nasdaq Global Market or any other national securities exchange or nationally recognized trading system.

We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company” under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission rules and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company disclosure requirements for this prospectus supplement and future filings. See “Prospectus Supplement Summary—Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company.”

This investment involves risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-9 and in filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.

 

     Per
Share
     Per
Pre-Funded
Warrant
     Total  

Public offering price

   $ 1.930      $ 1.929      $ 54,990,753  

Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)

   $ 0.116      $ 0.116      $ 3,306,000  

Proceeds to us, before expenses

   $ 1.814      $ 1.813      $ 51,684,753  

 

(1)

We have agreed to reimburse the underwriters for certain offering-related expenses. See “Underwriting” beginning on page S-23 for additional information regarding these expenses and the underwriting discounts and commissions payable in this offering.

We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of 30 days to purchase up to an additional 4,275,000 shares of our common stock at the public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions. If the underwriters exercise their option in full, the total underwriting discounts and commissions payable by us will be approximately $3.8 million, and the total proceeds to us, before expenses, will be approximately $59.4 million.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants to investors on or about September 27, 2022.

Joint Bookrunning Managers

 

SVB Securities    Stifel        Oppenheimer & Co.

Lead Manager

Needham & Company

Co-Manager

Aegis Capital Corp.

Prospectus Supplement dated September 22, 2022


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

Prospectus Supplement

  

About This Prospectus Supplement

     S-ii  

Prospectus Supplement Summary

     S-1  

Risk Factors

     S-9  

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     S-11  

Use of Proceeds

     S-13  

Dilution

     S-14  

Description of Pre-Funded Warrants

     S-16  

Material U.S. Tax Considerations for Non-U.S. Holders of Common Stock

     S-18  

Underwriting

     S-23  

Legal Matters

     S-28  

Experts

     S-28  

Where You Can Find More Information

     S-29  

Information Incorporated by Reference

     S-30  

Prospectus

  

About This Prospectus

     1  

Risk Factors

     2  

Where You Can Find More Information

     3  

Information Incorporated by Reference

     4  

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     5  

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

     6  

Use of Proceeds

     7  

Description of Debt Securities

     8  

Description of Capital Stock

     17  

Description of Units

     24  

Description of Warrants

     25  

Forms of Securities

     26  

Plan of Distribution

     28  

Legal Matters

     31  

Experts

     31  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, provides more general information about our business and our securities. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement, on the one hand, and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference herein or therein filed before the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date – for example, a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus – the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

Before buying any of the securities that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, all of the information contained in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as well as the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made.

We have not authorized, and the underwriters have not authorized, anyone to provide you with any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus that we authorize for use in connection with this offering and to which we have referred you. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful.

Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or the underwriters that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any other offering material or advertisements in connection with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus supplement.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiary.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our securities, and it is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. You should read all such documents carefully, including the information contained in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement beginning on page S-9, and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2022, or the 2022 Second Quarter 10-Q, which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before deciding to buy our securities.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of the investigational therapy Haduvio (oral nalbuphine ER) for the treatment of chronic cough in adults with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or IPF, and other chronic cough indications, and for the treatment of prurigo nodularis.

Chronic Cough. On September 19, 2022, we announced positive data from the full set of subjects in our Phase 2 clinical trial of Haduvio for the treatment of chronic cough in adults with IPF, which we refer to as the Phase 2 CANAL trial. The Phase 2 CANAL trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, two-treatment, two-period, crossover study that was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, tolerability and dosing of Haduvio for chronic cough in adults with IPF that we conducted at multiple sites in the United Kingdom. The trial was originally designed to enroll approximately 60 subjects with a goal to have 44 study completers. However, in March 2022, in light of statistically significant efficacy results from an interim analysis that was conducted on 26 subjects, we concluded enrollment early for our Phase 2 CANAL trial. In total, we enrolled 38 subjects in the study.

In the full subject data set, Haduvio demonstrated statistically significant results for the primary efficacy endpoint of daytime cough frequency reduction (p<0.0001) and for key secondary endpoints on patient and clinician reported outcomes.

CANAL Primary Efficacy Endpoint Analysis (N=38):

 

Full analysis set

  

Daytime cough frequency at end of treatment period vs. study baseline

Nalbuphine ER BID    -75.1%
Placebo BID    -22.6%
Placebo-adjusted change    -52.5% (p<0.0001)

Full analysis set includes subjects completing at least one treatment period.

Additional Efficacy Analyses:

 

   

Haduvio subjects had a 76.1% reduction in 24-hour cough frequency at end of treatment period vs. study baseline compared to placebo subjects who had a 25.3% reduction, a 50.8% placebo-adjusted change (p<0.0001).

 

   

In a post-hoc analysis, 97% of Haduvio subjects had at least a 30% reduction in 24-hour cough frequency compared to 35% of placebo subjects, signifying a clinically meaningful reduction in cough (p<0.0001).

 

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Subjects on Haduvio experienced a statistically significant improvement as measured by their patient reported outcomes compared to placebo over the 3-week treatment period in the EXACT2: Cough Frequency Score (p=0.001) and Cough Severity Numerical Rating Scale (p=0.0001).

 

   

Based on the Clinical Global Impression of Change rating measuring clinicians’ view of change since the start of the trial, 62% of Haduvio subjects improved vs. baseline compared to 19% of placebo subjects (p=0.01).

The safety results of the trial were generally consistent with the known safety profile of Haduvio from previous trials in other patient populations. There were two serious adverse events reported during the trial, neither of which was considered by the investigator to be treatment related. Adverse events most commonly observed during the trial were nausea, fatigue, constipation, dizziness, somnolence, vomiting, headache, anxiety and depression.

We are in discussions with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, regarding the design of a planned Phase 2b clinical trial of Haduvio for the treatment of chronic cough in adult patients with IPF. We expect that the trial will be a dose-ranging, parallel arm design trial with four arms (three active dose arms and a placebo arm) and that, in the trial, treatment with Haduvio will be assessed over a period to be determined of between three and six months. The objectives of the trial are expected to be to select the dose for further development, assess reduction of cough and impact on quality of life, assess safety and validate both VitaloJAK (objective cough monitor) and a patient reported outcome acceptable to FDA. The primary efficacy endpoint will be a decrease in 24-hour cough frequency assessed using VitaloJAK. Subject to alignment on the design of the trial and the filing of an IND with the FDA, we aim to initiate the Phase 2b clinical trial in the first half of 2023. We also plan to develop Haduvio for additional chronic cough indications, which we expect will commence initially with a Phase 2 clinical trial of Haduvio for the treatment of refractory chronic cough.

Prurigo Nodularis. In June 2022, we reported positive results in our Phase 2b/3 clinical trial of Haduvio in prurigo nodularis, which we refer to as the Phase 2b/3 PRISM trial. The Phase 2b/3 PRISM trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, two-arm treatment study that was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Haduvio in patients in the United States and Europe. In the Phase 2b/3 PRISM trial, Haduvio demonstrated statistically significant results on the primary and all three key secondary endpoints. The trial results comparing subjects randomized to Haduvio (n=168) or placebo (n=176) showed that:

 

   

25% of Haduvio subjects evaluated at week 14 met the primary endpoint of a 4-point reduction in the Worst Itch Numerical Rating Scale, or WI-NRS, from baseline compared to 14% of placebo subjects (p=0.0157);

 

   

Haduvio subjects experienced significantly greater improvements in ItchyQoL vs. placebo (p=0.0002) at week 14, which was statistically significant across each of the three domains (symptoms, functional limitations, and emotions). ItchyQoL is used to measure how pruritus impacts a subject’s quality of life;

 

   

55% of Haduvio subjects had at least a 1-category improvement in the 5-point scale in their Prurigo Activity Scale (PAS) (pruriginous lesions with excoriations), vs. 38% on placebo (p=0.006) as evaluated at week 14; and

 

   

Haduvio subjects experienced significantly greater improvements in PROMIS sleep disturbance short form 8a vs. placebo (p=0.0002) at week 14, which was statistically significant as early as week 6.

The safety results of the trial were generally consistent with the known safety profile of Haduvio from previous trials. During the double-blind titration period (weeks 1-2), treatment-emergent adverse events, or TEAEs, were more common in the Haduvio-treated subjects (66.1%) vs. placebo-treated subjects (31.3%).

 

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During the 12-week fixed-dose period, the occurrence of TEAEs were generally similar between Haduvio and placebo groups (48% Haduvio, 45% placebo). Discontinuations during the 14 weeks of the trial were 36.9% in Haduvio-treated subjects vs. 19.3% in placebo-treated subjects. During the 14-week double-blind portion of the Phase 2b/3 PRISM trial, eight subjects on Haduvio and six subjects on placebo experienced at least one treatment emergent serious adverse event, or SAE. None of the SAEs were considered by the investigator to be treatment-related. Adverse events most commonly observed with Haduvio were nausea, dizziness, headache, and constipation.

We are continuing to conduct the open-label extension portion of the Phase 2b/3 PRISM trial, which we expect to complete in the first quarter of 2023. We expect that we will need to conduct an additional Phase 3 clinical trial to support the submission of a new drug application, or NDA, to the FDA, a marketing authorization application, or MAA, to the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, and an MAA to the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency in the United Kingdom, or MHRA, for Haduvio for the treatment of prurigo nodularis, and plan to request an end of Phase 2 meeting with the FDA in the first quarter of 2023. Following discussions with the FDA and other regulatory authorities, we plan to determine next steps with respect to our prurigo nodularis program, including with respect to a Phase 3 clinical trial, which, subject to additional funding, we had previously planned to initiate in the first half of 2023.

Risks Associated with Our Business

Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware before making an investment decision. These risks are discussed more fully in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus supplement and the “Risk Factors” section of the 2022 Second Quarter 10-Q, which is incorporated by reference herein. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

   

We have incurred significant losses since inception and expect to continue to incur significant and increasing losses for the foreseeable future. We may never achieve or maintain profitability.

 

   

We will need substantial additional funding. If we are unable to raise sufficient capital when needed on acceptable terms or at all, we could be forced to delay, reduce or abandon our product development programs or commercialization efforts.

 

   

We are dependent on the successful development and commercialization of Haduvio, our sole product candidate. If we are unable to complete the clinical development of, obtain marketing approval for or successfully commercialize Haduvio or if we experience significant delays in doing so, our business would be substantially harmed.

 

   

We are in the process of designing future clinical trials of Haduvio for the treatment of chronic cough in adults with IPF and refractory chronic cough, as well as for the treatment of prurigo nodularis. Before commencing the trials, we plan to discuss the design of the trials with regulatory authorities and will need to submit an IND for Haduvio before proceeding with our planned trial for chronic cough in adults with IPF. Changes in the design of planned trials or regulatory delays may affect the timing and costs of the trials and changes in the timing or costs of the trials for these or other reasons may affect our ability to complete the planned trials with our existing cash resources and the proceeds of this offering.

 

   

The outcome of clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials. For instance, Haduvio may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy in clinical development despite demonstrating positive results in earlier clinical trials. The results of our Phase 2 CANAL trial may not be predictive of the results of future trials of Haduvio for the treatment of chronic cough in adults with IPF or other chronic cough indications, and the results of our Phase 2b/3 PRISM trial of Haduvio for the treatment of prurigo nodularis may not be predictive of the results of any future trial in prurigo nodularis.

 

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We have experienced delays and difficulties in the enrollment of subjects in our clinical trials in the past, including in our Phase 2b/3 PRISM trial and our Phase 2 CANAL trial. If we experience delays or difficulties in the enrollment of subjects in future clinical trials, our receipt of necessary regulatory approvals could be delayed or prevented. Other companies are conducting clinical trials or have announced plans for future clinical trials that are seeking or are likely to seek to enroll subjects with prurigo nodularis, chronic cough in adults with IPF and refractory chronic cough, and subjects are generally only able to enroll in a single trial at a time. In addition, many patients use various treatments off-label to treat prurigo nodularis, chronic cough in adults with IPF and refractory chronic cough, and these patients and their physicians may be reluctant to forgo, discontinue or otherwise alter their use of such off-label therapeutic approaches to participate in our clinical trials.

 

   

Clinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome. Even if we complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials, the regulatory approval process is expensive, time consuming and uncertain, which may prevent us from obtaining approvals for the commercialization of Haduvio or any future product candidate.

 

   

Adverse events or undesirable side effects caused by, or other unexpected properties of, Haduvio or any future project candidate may be identified during development and could delay or prevent the marketing approval or limit the use of Haduvio or any future product. Haduvio, as a mixed k-opioid receptor agonist and m-opioid receptor antagonist, may be susceptible to side effects associated with drugs having either of those mechanisms of action, including psychiatric side effects, withdrawal effects, respiratory depression and potential cardiac risk, as well as endocrine side effects associated with opioids generally. The drug label for nalbuphine, the active ingredient in Haduvio, carries a warning for serious, life-threatening or fatal respiratory depression and Haduvio, if approved for marketing in any indication, will likely carry a similar label.

 

   

Many currently approved m-opioid products are subject to restrictive marketing and distribution regulations which, if applied to Haduvio, could potentially restrict its use and harm our ability to generate profits. We plan to conduct a human abuse liability, or HAL, study to further characterize the abuse potential of oral nalbuphine. If the results of the HAL study suggest that Haduvio may carry risks of misuse, abuse or addiction or even if the trial indicates that Haduvio does not carry such risks, the FDA may require us to implement a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy in connection with any commercialization of Haduvio and the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency could determine that Haduvio should be classified as a controlled substance.

 

   

If we are unable to establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities or enter into sales, marketing and distribution arrangements with third parties, we may not be successful in commercializing Haduvio or any future product candidates if and when they are approved.

 

   

We face substantial competition, which may result in others developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than we do.

 

   

We contract with third parties to conduct our clinical trials and for the manufacture, storage, packaging and distribution of Haduvio for clinical trials, including a single supplier for the active ingredient in Haduvio. We expect to continue to rely on third parties for these services in connection with our future development and commercialization efforts for Haduvio. If they do not perform satisfactorily, our business could be harmed.

 

   

If we fail to comply with our obligations under our existing and any future intellectual property licenses with third parties, including our license with Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc., we could lose license rights that are critical to our business or owe damages to the licensor of such intellectual property.

 

   

If we are unable to obtain and maintain sufficient patent protection for Haduvio or any future product candidate and the disease indications for which we are developing or may in the future develop

 

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Haduvio or any other product candidate, or if the scope of the patent protection is not sufficiently broad, competitors could develop and commercialize products similar or identical to such product candidate and our ability to successfully commercialize such product candidate may be adversely affected.

 

   

The number of shares of common stock underlying our outstanding warrants is significant in relation to our currently outstanding common stock, which could have a negative effect on the market price of our common stock and make it more difficult for us to raise funds through future equity financings.

 

   

We face risks related to health epidemics and other widespread outbreaks of contagious disease, including the COVID-19 pandemic, which has delayed our ongoing clinical trials, disrupted our business operations and may delay future clinical trials, interrupt our supply chain, disrupt regulatory activities or have other adverse effects on our business and operations. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial disruption in the financial markets and economies worldwide, which could result in adverse effects on our business and operations.

Our Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on March 17, 2011 under the name Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 195 Church Street, 14th Floor, New Haven, Connecticut, 06510, and our telephone number is (203) 304-2499. Our website address is www.trevitherapeutics.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement. We have included our website address in this prospectus supplement solely as an inactive textual reference.

We own or have rights to trademarks, service marks and trade names that we use in connection with the operation of our business, including our corporate name, logos and website names. We own the trademarks Trevi® and Haduvio. Other trademarks, service marks and trade names appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, some of the trademarks, service marks and trade names referred to in this prospectus supplement are listed without the ® and symbols, but we will assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights to our trademarks, service marks and trade names. We intend to propose Haduvio as the trade name for our nalbuphine ER investigational product and therefore plan to use that name when we refer to nalbuphine ER going forward.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company

As a company with less than $1.07 billion (which threshold is scheduled to increase to $1.235 billion) of revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. We may remain an emerging growth company until December 31, 2024 or until such earlier time as we have $1.07 billion (or $1.235 billion upon effectiveness of the increased threshold) or more in annual gross revenue, the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is $700 million or more as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter or we issue more than $1 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted and intend to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure and other requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

We are also a “smaller reporting company,” meaning that the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates was less than $700 million measured on the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, and our annual revenue was less than $100 million during our most recently completed fiscal year. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company if either (i) the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter or (ii) our

 

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annual revenue was less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter. If we are a smaller reporting company at the time we cease to be an emerging growth company, we may continue to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are available to smaller reporting companies. For so long as we remain a smaller reporting company, we are permitted and intend to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure and other requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not smaller reporting companies.

 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

14,252,670 shares.

 

Pre-funded warrants offered by us

We are also offering, in lieu of common stock to certain investors that so choose, pre-funded warrants to purchase 14,247,330 shares of our common stock. The purchase price of each pre-funded warrant equals the price per share at which shares of common stock are being sold to the public in this offering, minus $0.001, and the exercise price of each pre-funded warrant equals $0.001 per share. Each pre-funded warrant will be exercisable from the date of issuance until such pre-funded warrant is exercised in full, subject to an ownership limitation. See “Description of Pre-Funded Warrants.” This prospectus supplement also relates to the offering of the shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of such pre-funded warrants.

 

Common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering

58,322,517 shares (or 62,597,517 shares if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares).

 

Option to purchase additional shares

We have granted the underwriters an option for a period of 30 days from the date of this prospectus to purchase up to an additional 4,275,000 shares of our common stock at the public offering price less underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

Use of proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund the clinical development of Haduvio for the treatment of chronic cough in adults with IPF and other chronic cough indications, including refractory chronic cough, for working capital and for other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-13 of this prospectus supplement for more information.

 

Risk factors

See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-9 and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our securities.

 

Nasdaq Global Market symbol

“TRVI”

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 44,069,847 shares of our common stock outstanding as of August 31, 2022. The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding as used throughout this prospectus supplement, unless otherwise indicated, excludes:

 

   

the 14,247,330 shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants that we are offering in this offering;

 

   

4,138,785 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of August 31, 2022 at a weighted-average exercise price of $3.35 per share;

 

   

1,016,651 and 721,717 shares of common stock reserved as of August 31, 2022 for future issuance under our 2019 Stock Incentive Plan and our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, respectively; and

 

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34,083,377 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of common stock warrants and pre-funded warrants outstanding as of August 31, 2022 at a weighted average exercise price of $0.53 per share.

Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus supplement:

 

   

assumes no exercise of the outstanding stock options or warrants described above;

 

   

assumes no exercise of the pre-funded warrants that we are offering in this offering in lieu of common stock;

 

   

assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock; and

 

   

does not reflect the potential issuance of shares of our common stock that remain available for sale as of the date of this prospectus supplement under our “at-the-market” sales agreement with SVB Securities LLC, as amended, or the ATM Sales Agreement, pursuant to which we may sell common stock for remaining gross proceeds of up to $52.0 million from time to time.

 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should carefully consider the risks described below and those discussed under the captions entitled “Risk Factor Summary” and “Risk Factors” in the 2022 Second Quarter 10-Q, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, together with other information in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the information and documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment in our securities.

Risks Related to Our Securities and This Offering

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may invest or spend the net proceeds in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may not yield a return on your investment.

Although we currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, in the manner described in “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus supplement, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. You will not have the opportunity to influence our decisions on how to use the net proceeds from this offering. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could harm our business, cause the trading price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, stockholders must rely on appreciation in the price of our common stock, if any, for any return on their investment.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock and we do not intend to do so in the foreseeable future. We currently plan to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the operation, development and growth of our product pipeline and business. In addition, the terms of our term loan provided by Silicon Valley Bank, or the SVB Term Loan, preclude us from paying dividends and any future debt or credit agreements may also preclude us from paying dividends. As a result, future appreciation, if any, in the market value of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future. There is no guarantee that our common stock will appreciate or even maintain the price at which our holders have purchased it.

The trading price of our common stock is highly volatile, which could result in substantial losses for purchasers of our common stock or pre-funded warrants in this offering.

The trading price of our common stock has been, and is likely to continue to be, highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. During the period from September 22, 2021 to September 22, 2022, the closing price of our common stock ranged from a high of $4.28 per share to a low of $0.46 per share. The stock market in general and the market for smaller pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that in some instances may have been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above the public offering price and you may lose some or all of your investment.

 

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If you purchase securities in this offering, you will suffer immediate dilution of your investment.

The public offering price of our common stock and pre-funded warrants is substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our common stock or pre-funded warrants in this offering, you will pay a price per share or pre-funded warrant that substantially exceeds our net tangible book value per share after this offering. Based on a public offering price of $1.93 per share, you will experience immediate dilution of $0.29 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2022 after giving effect to this offering and the public offering price. Furthermore, if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in this offering, or if holders of our previously issued options to acquire common stock at prices below the public offering price exercise any such options, you will experience further dilution. For additional information on the dilution that you will experience immediately after this offering, see “Dilution.”

There is no public market for the pre-funded warrants being offered in this offering.

There is no public trading market for the pre-funded warrants being offered in this offering, and we do not expect a market to develop. In addition, we do not intend to list the pre-funded warrants on The Nasdaq Global Market or any other national securities exchange or nationally recognized trading system. Without an active trading market, the liquidity of the pre-funded warrants will be limited.

Except for the right to participate in certain dividends, distributions and rights offerings, holders of the pre-funded warrants will have no rights as common stockholders until such holders exercise their pre-funded warrants and acquire our common stock.

Except by virtue of such holder’s ownership of shares of our common stock, and except for the right to participate in certain dividends, distributions and rights offerings, the holder of a pre-funded warrant will not have the rights or privileges of a holder of our common stock, including any voting rights, until such holder exercises the pre-funded warrant. Upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants, the holders will be entitled to exercise the rights of a common stockholder only as to matters for which the record date occurs after the exercise date.

If you purchase securities in this offering, you may also experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

We expect our expenses to increase substantially in connection with our planned operations, particularly as we complete the open-label extension portion of our ongoing Phase 2b/3 PRISM trial and conduct our planned clinical trials of Haduvio for the treatment of chronic cough in adults with IPF and for the treatment of refractory chronic cough. To the extent that we raise additional capital in the future through the sales of common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities, your ownership interest may be diluted.

We are currently party to the ATM Sales Agreement with SVB Securities LLC, pursuant to which we may sell shares of common stock for remaining gross proceeds of up to $52.0 million from time to time through an “at-the-market” equity offering program. We are also currently party to a common stock purchase agreement, or the LPC Purchase Agreement, with Lincoln Park Capital Fund, LLC, or Lincoln Park, pursuant to which we have the right, but not the obligation, to sell, at our discretion, to Lincoln Park up to $15.0 million of shares of our common stock from time to time. To the extent that we sell shares of our common stock under the ATM Sales Agreement, the LPC Purchase Agreement or otherwise at prices that are below the price you pay for shares of common stock or pre-funded warrants in this offering, you will experience further dilution.

Furthermore, we have a significant number of outstanding options, warrants and pre-funded warrants to purchase shares of our common stock, many of which are exercisable at prices lower than the closing sale price on the Nasdaq Global Market of $1.935 on September 22, 2022. If these securities are exercised at prices that are below the price you pay for shares of common stock or pre-funded warrants in this offering, you will incur further dilution. Moreover, to the extent that we issue additional options to purchase, or securities convertible into or exchangeable for, shares of our common stock in the future and those options or other securities are exercised, converted or exchanged, you would experience further dilution.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND INDUSTRY DATA

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, which involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues and profitability, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

These forward-looking statements may include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

our clinical trials, including our Phase 2b/3 PRISM trial of Haduvio for the treatment of prurigo nodularis and our Phase 2 CANAL trial for the treatment of chronic cough in adults with IPF and our planned trials for chronic cough in adults with IPF and for refractory chronic cough;

 

   

our plans to develop and, if approved, subsequently commercialize Haduvio for the treatment of chronic cough in adults with IPF and for other chronic cough indications and for the treatment of prurigo nodularis;

 

   

our expectations regarding the timing for the initiation of clinical trials and the reporting of data from such trials;

 

   

the timing of and our ability to submit applications for and to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for Haduvio;

 

   

our expectations regarding our ability to fund our operating expenses, including our planned clinical trials, and our capital expenditure requirements with our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, timing of any future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations;

 

   

our competitive position;

 

   

our ability to establish and maintain collaborations;

 

   

the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our clinical trials, business and operations, and our response to the COVID-19 pandemic; and

 

   

our intended use of proceeds from this offering.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein and therein, particularly in the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and in the 2022 Second Quarter 10-Q, that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, collaborations, joint ventures or investments we may make.

 

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This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus incorporate by reference statistical and other industry and market data that we obtained from industry publications and research, surveys, and studies conducted by third parties as well as our own estimates. All of the market data incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus involves a number of assumptions and limitations. Industry publications and third-party research, surveys and studies generally indicate that their information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. Our estimates of the potential market opportunities for Haduvio include several key assumptions based on our industry knowledge, industry publications, third-party research and other surveys, which may be based on a small sample size and may fail to accurately reflect market opportunities. While we believe that our internal assumptions are reasonable, no independent source has verified such assumptions.

You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein or therein and have filed or incorporated by reference herein or therein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may differ materially from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements except as required by applicable law.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds from the sale in this offering of shares of our common stock and pre-funded warrants to purchase shares of our common stock will be approximately $51.4 million, or approximately $59.1 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated expenses payable by us.

We currently expect to use our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, plus the net proceeds from this offering, to fund the clinical development of Haduvio for the treatment of chronic cough in adults with IPF and other chronic cough indications, including refractory chronic cough, for working capital and for other general corporate purposes.

Based on our current plans, we believe that the anticipated net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, will be sufficient to enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into 2026. We aim to have top-line data from our planned clinical trials of Haduvio for the treatment of chronic cough in adults with IPF and refractory chronic cough by such time. However, the expected net proceeds from this offering will not be sufficient for us to fund Haduvio for any indication or any future product candidates through regulatory approval, and we will need to raise substantial additional capital to complete the development and commercialization of Haduvio and any future product candidates. We have based our estimates as to how long we expect we will be able to fund our operations and the timing and costs of our planned trials on assumptions that may prove to be wrong and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect, in which case we would be required to obtain additional financing, and our trials may be delayed or take longer that we currently expect. Our failure to raise capital as and when needed would have a negative impact on our financial condition and our ability to pursue our business strategy.

This expected use of the net proceeds from this offering and our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities represents our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures may vary significantly depending on numerous factors, including the progress of our development efforts, the status of and results from clinical trials, the timing of regulatory submissions and the outcome of regulatory review, any future commercialization efforts, as well as any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties for our product candidates and any unforeseen cash needs. As a result, our management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds from this offering. We have no current agreements, commitments or understandings for any material acquisitions or licenses of any products, businesses or technologies.

Pending our use of the net proceeds from this offering, we intend to invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation investments, including short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments and U.S. government securities.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock or pre-funded warrants in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of our common stock or pre-funded warrant and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

Our historical net tangible book value as of June 30, 2022 was $60.5 million, or $1.52 per share of our common stock. Our historical net tangible book value is the amount of our total tangible assets less our total liabilities. Historical net tangible book value per share represents our historical net tangible book value divided by the 39,719,572 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2022.

After giving effect to our issuance and sale of 14,252,670 shares of our common stock and pre-funded warrants to purchase up to 14,247,330 shares of our common stock in this offering at a public offering price of $1.93 per share of common stock and $1.929 per pre-funded warrant (which equals the price per share at which shares of common stock are being sold to the public in this offering, minus the $0.001 per share exercise price of each such pre-funded warrant) (excluding shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants, any proceeds received upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants or any resulting accounting associated with the exercise of the pre-funded warrants), and after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2022 would have been $111.9 million, or $1.64 per share. This represents an immediate increase in as adjusted net tangible book value per share of $0.12 to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of $0.29 in as adjusted net tangible book value per share to investors purchasing common stock or pre-funded warrants in this offering. Dilution per share to investors purchasing securities in this offering is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the assumed public offering price per share paid by investors. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Public offering price per share

      $ 1.93  

Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2022

   $ 1.52     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to investors purchasing shares or pre-funded warrants in this offering

   $ 0.12     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2022, after giving effect to this offering

      $ 1.64  
     

 

 

 

Dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors

      $ 0.29  
     

 

 

 

If the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase 4,275,000 additional shares of common stock, less the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value at June 30, 2022, after giving effect to this offering, would be approximately $119.7 million, or approximately $1.65 per share, representing an increase in net tangible book value of $0.13 per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $0.28 per share to investors in this offering at the assumed public offering price.

The calculations in the foregoing table do not include the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants being offered by us in this offering, or the following as of June 30, 2022:

 

   

4,144,367 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2022 at a weighted-average exercise price of $3.35 per share;

 

   

1,062,074 and 721,717 shares of common stock reserved as of June 30, 2022 for future issuance under our 2019 Stock Incentive Plan and our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, respectively; or

 

   

38,382,647 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of common stock warrants and pre-funded warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2022 at a weighted average exercise price of $0.50 per share, of

 

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which warrants to purchase 4,299,270 shares of common stock were exercised subsequent to June 30, 2022, resulting in approximately $5.9 million in cash proceeds to us.

To the extent that any of our outstanding options or warrants are exercised, we grant additional options or other awards under our equity incentive plans or issue additional warrants, or we issue additional shares of common stock in the future, there may be further dilution to new public investors.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF PRE-FUNDED WARRANTS

The following is a brief summary of certain terms and conditions of the pre-funded warrants being offered in this offering. The following description is subject in all respects to the provisions contained in the pre-funded warrants.

Form

The pre-funded warrants will be issued as individual warrant agreements to the investors that choose to purchase pre-funded warrants in lieu of common stock. The form of pre-funded warrant will be filed as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K that we expect to file with the SEC.

Term

The pre-funded warrants will not expire.

Exercisability

Each pre-funded warrant will be exercisable immediately upon issuance and will be exercisable until such pre-funded warrant is exercised in full. The pre-funded warrants will be exercisable, at the option of each holder, in whole or in part by delivering to us a duly executed exercise notice accompanied by a payment of the nominal exercise price in cash or by means of a cashless exercise, in which the holder would receive upon such exercise the net number of shares of our common stock determined according to the formula set forth in the pre-funded warrant. No fractional shares of our common stock will be issued in connection with the exercise of a pre-funded warrant. In lieu of fractional shares, we will, at our option, pay the holder an amount in cash equal to the fractional amount multiplied by the last trade price of our common stock on the exercise date, or round up to the next whole share. A holder will not be entitled to the return or refund of all, or any portion, of such pre-paid aggregate exercise price under any circumstance.

Exercise Limitations

We may not effect the exercise of any pre-funded warrant, and a holder will not be entitled to exercise any portion of any such warrant, if, upon giving effect to such exercise, the aggregate number of shares of common stock beneficially owned by the holder (together with its affiliates, any other persons acting as a group together with the holder or any of the holder’s affiliates, and any other persons whose beneficial ownership of common stock would or could be aggregated with the holder’s for purposes of Section 13(d) or Section 16 of the Exchange Act) would exceed 9.99% of the number of shares of common stock outstanding immediately after giving effect to the exercise, as such percentage ownership is determined in accordance with the terms of such pre-funded warrant, which percentage may be increased or decreased at the holder’s election upon 61 days’ notice to us subject to the terms of such pre-funded warrants, provided that such percentage may in no event exceed 19.99%.

Exercise Price

The exercise price of the pre-funded warrants is $0.001 per share of common stock. The exercise price of the pre-funded warrants and the number of shares of our common stock issuable upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants is subject to appropriate adjustment in the event of certain stock dividends and distributions, stock splits, stock combinations, reclassifications or similar events affecting our common stock, as well as upon any distribution of assets, including cash, stock or other property, to our stockholders. The exercise price of the pre-funded warrants will not be adjusted below the par value of our common stock.

 

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Transferability

Subject to applicable laws, the pre-funded warrants may be offered for sale, sold, transferred or assigned without our consent.

Exchange Listing

There is no established public trading market for the pre-funded warrants, and we do not expect a market to develop. We do not intend to list the pre-funded warrants on the Nasdaq Global Market, any other national securities exchange or any other nationally recognized trading system.

Fundamental Transactions

Upon the consummation of a fundamental transaction (as described in the pre-funded warrants, and generally including any reorganization, recapitalization or reclassification of our common stock, the sale, transfer or other disposition of all or substantially all of our assets, our consolidation or merger with or into another person in which we are not the surviving entity, the acquisition of more than 50% of our outstanding common stock, or any person or group becoming the beneficial owner of 50% of the voting power of our outstanding common stock), the holders of the pre-funded warrants will be entitled to receive, upon exercise of the pre-funded warrants, the same kind and amount of securities, cash or other property that such holders would have received had they exercised the pre-funded warrants immediately prior to such fundamental transaction, without regard to any limitations on exercise contained in the pre-funded warrants.

No Rights as a Stockholder

Except by virtue of such holder’s ownership of shares of our common stock, and except for the right to participate in certain dividends, distributions, and rights offerings, the holder of a pre-funded warrant does not have the rights or privileges of a holder of our common stock, including any voting rights, until such holder exercises the pre-funded warrant.

 

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MATERIAL U.S. TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS OF COMMON STOCK AND PRE-FUNDED WARRANTS

The following is a discussion of material U.S. federal income and estate tax considerations relating to the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock and pre-funded warrants by a non-U.S. holder. For purposes of this discussion, the term “non-U.S. holder” means a beneficial owner (other than a partnership or other entity or arrangement treated as a pass-through entity for U.S. federal income tax purposes) of our common stock or pre-funded warrants that is not, for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

   

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation, or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust, if a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more U.S. persons has authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or if the trust has a valid election to be treated as a U.S. person under applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations.

This discussion is based on current provisions of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, which we refer to as the Code, existing and proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, current administrative rulings and judicial decisions, all as in effect as of the date of this prospectus supplement and all of which are subject to change or to differing interpretation, possibly with retroactive effect. Any change or differing interpretation could alter the tax consequences to non-U.S. holders described in this prospectus supplement. In addition, we have not requested a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, with respect to the statements made and the conclusions reached in the following summary, and there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge one or more of the tax consequences described in this prospectus supplement.

This discussion addresses only non-U.S. holders that hold shares of our common stock or pre-funded warrants as a capital asset within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income and estate taxation that may be relevant to a particular non-U.S. holder in light of that non-U.S. holder’s individual circumstances nor does it address the alternative minimum tax, the Medicare tax on net investment income, or any aspects of U.S. state, local or non-U.S. taxes. This discussion also does not consider any specific facts or circumstances that may apply to a non-U.S. holder and does not address the special tax rules applicable to particular non-U.S. holders, such as:

 

   

insurance companies;

 

   

tax-exempt organizations and governmental organizations;

 

   

pension plans;

 

   

financial institutions;

 

   

brokers or dealers in securities;

 

   

traders that have elected to mark securities to market;

 

   

“qualified foreign pension funds” as defined in Section 897(l)(2) of the Code and entities all of the interests of which are held by qualified foreign pension funds;

 

   

controlled foreign corporations;

 

   

passive foreign investment companies;

 

   

corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

   

accrual-method taxpayers subject to special tax accounting rules under Section 451(b) of the Code;

 

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owners that hold our common stock or pre-funded warrants as part of a straddle, hedge, conversion transaction, synthetic security or other integrated investment; and

 

   

certain U.S. expatriates.

In addition, this discussion does not address the tax treatment of partnerships or other entities or arrangements treated as pass-through entities or persons who hold their common stock or pre-funded warrants through partnerships or other entities or arrangements that are pass-through entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A partner in a partnership or other pass-through entity that will hold our common stock or pre-funded warrants should consult his, her or its own tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of our common stock or pre-funded warrants through a partnership or other pass-through entity, as applicable.

Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. income and other tax considerations of acquiring, holding and disposing of our common stock or pre-funded warrants.

Treatment of Pre-Funded Warrants

Although it is not entirely free from doubt, a pre-funded warrant should be treated as a share of our common stock for U.S. federal income tax purposes and a holder of pre-funded warrants should generally be taxed in the same manner as a holder of common stock as described below. Accordingly, upon exercise, the holding period of a pre-funded warrant should carry over to the share of common stock received. Similarly, the tax basis of the pre-funded warrant should carry over to the share of common stock received upon exercise increased by the exercise price of $0.001. Each holder should consult his, her or its own tax advisor regarding the risks associated with the acquisition of a pre-funded warrant pursuant to this offering (including potential alternative characterizations). The balance of this discussion generally assumes that the characterization described above is respected for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Distributions

We do not expect to make cash dividends to holders of our common stock or pre-funded warrants in the foreseeable future. If we pay distributions on our common stock, those distributions generally will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. If a distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess will be treated as a tax-free return of the non-U.S. holder’s investment, up to such holder’s tax basis in the common stock or pre-funded warrants. Any remaining excess will be treated as capital gain, subject to the tax treatment described below under the heading “Gain on Disposition of Common Stock or Pre-Funded Warrants.”

Dividends paid to a non-U.S. holder generally will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence. A non-U.S. holder of our common stock or pre-funded warrants who claims the benefit of an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence generally will be required to provide us and/or our paying agent with a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or successor form) and satisfy applicable certification and other requirements. A non-U.S. holder that is eligible for a reduced rate of U.S. withholding tax under an income tax treaty may obtain a refund or credit of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim with the IRS. Non-U.S. holders are urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under a relevant income tax treaty.

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establishment or a fixed base maintained by the non-U.S. holder within the United States, are generally exempt from the 30% withholding tax if the non-U.S. holder satisfies applicable certification and disclosure requirements. However, such U.S. effectively connected income is taxed on a net income basis at the same U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code). Any U.S. effectively connected income received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also, under certain circumstances, be subject to an additional “branch profits tax” at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence.

Gain on Disposition of Common Stock or Pre-Funded Warrants

A non-U.S. holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on gain recognized on a disposition of our common stock or pre-funded warrants unless:

 

   

the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States, and if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, the gain is attributable to a permanent establishment or fixed base maintained by the non-U.S. holder in the United States; in these cases, the non-U.S. holder will be taxed on a net income basis at the same U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code), and if the non-U.S. holder is a foreign corporation, the branch profits tax at a 30% rate, or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, may also apply;

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a non-resident alien present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on the net gain derived from the disposition, which may be offset by U.S.-source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder, if any, provided that the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses; or

 

   

we are or have been, at any time during the five-year period preceding such disposition (or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period, if shorter) a “U.S. real property holding corporation” unless our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market and the non-U.S. holder held no more than 5% of our outstanding common stock, directly or indirectly, during the shorter of the 5-year period ending on the date of the disposition or the period that the non-U.S. holder held our common stock. Special rules may apply to a holder of a pre-funded warrant. Non-U.S. holders are urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the application of these rules to pre-funded warrants. If we are determined to be a U.S. real property holding corporation and the foregoing exception does not apply, then the non-U.S. holder generally will be taxed on its net gain derived from the disposition at the U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code). Generally, a corporation is a “U.S. real property holding corporation” if the fair market value of its “U.S. real property interests” equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market value of its worldwide real property interests plus its other assets used or held for use in a trade or business. Although there can be no assurance, we believe that we are not currently, and we do not anticipate becoming, a “U.S. real property holding corporation” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. No assurance can be provided that our common stock will be regularly traded on an established securities market for purposes of the rule described above.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

We must report annually to the IRS and to each non-U.S. holder the gross amount of the distributions on our common stock or pre-funded warrants paid to such holder and the tax withheld, if any, with respect to such distributions. Non-U.S. holders may have to comply with specific certification procedures to establish that the holder is not a U.S. person (as defined in the Code) in order to avoid backup withholding at the applicable rate with respect to dividends on our common stock or pre-funded warrants. Generally, a non-U.S. holder will comply

 

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with such procedures if it provides a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable Form W-8) or otherwise meets documentary evidence requirements for establishing that it is a non-U.S. holder, or otherwise establishes an exemption. Dividends paid to non-U.S. holders subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax, as described above under the heading “Distributions,” will generally be exempt from U.S. backup withholding.

Information reporting and backup withholding generally will apply to the proceeds of a disposition of our common stock or pre-funded warrants by a non-U.S. holder effected by or through the U.S. office of any broker, U.S. or foreign, unless the holder certifies its status as a non-U.S. holder and satisfies certain other requirements, or otherwise establishes an exemption. Generally, information reporting and backup withholding will not apply to a payment of disposition proceeds to a non-U.S. holder where the transaction is effected outside the United States through a non-U.S. office of a broker. However, for information reporting purposes, dispositions effected through a non-U.S. office of a broker with substantial U.S. ownership or operations generally will be treated in a manner similar to dispositions effected through a U.S. office of a broker. Non-U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the application of the information reporting and backup withholding rules to them.

Copies of information returns may be made available to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is incorporated under the provisions of a specific treaty or agreement.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Rather, any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a non-U.S. holder can be refunded or credited against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided that an appropriate claim is timely filed with the IRS.

FATCA

Provisions of the Code commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, generally impose a 30% withholding tax on dividends on, or gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, our common stock or pre-funded warrants if paid to a foreign entity unless: (i) if the foreign entity is a “foreign financial institution,” the foreign entity undertakes certain due diligence, reporting, withholding, and certification obligations, (ii) if the foreign entity is not a “foreign financial institution,” the foreign entity identifies certain of its U.S. investors, or (iii) the foreign entity is otherwise excepted under FATCA.

Withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our common stock or pre-funded warrants. While withholding under FATCA may apply to payments of gross proceeds from a sale or other disposition of our common stock or pre-funded warrants, under proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations, withholding on payments of gross proceeds is not required. Although such regulations are not final, applicable withholding agents may rely on the proposed regulations until final regulations are issued.

If withholding under FATCA is required on any payment related to our common stock or pre-funded warrants, investors not otherwise subject to withholding (or that otherwise would be entitled to a reduced rate of withholding) on such payment may be required to seek a refund or credit from the IRS. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country may modify the requirements described in this section. Non-U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the possible implications of FATCA on their investment in our common stock and the entities through which they hold our common stock.

U.S. Federal Estate Tax

Common stock or pre-funded warrants owned or treated as owned by an individual who is a non-U.S. holder (as specially defined for U.S. federal estate tax purposes) at the time of death will be included in the individual’s gross estate for U.S. federal estate tax purposes and, therefore, may be subject to U.S. federal estate tax, unless an applicable estate tax or other treaty provides otherwise.

 

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The preceding discussion of material U.S. federal tax considerations is for prospective investors’ information only. It is not tax advice. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the particular U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax consequences of purchasing, holding and disposing of our common stock or pre-funded warrants, including the consequences of any proposed changes in applicable laws.

 

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UNDERWRITING

SVB Securities LLC, Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated, and Oppenheimer & Co. Inc. are acting as representatives of each of the underwriters named below and as joint bookrunning managers for this offering. Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement among us and the underwriters, we have agreed to sell to the underwriters, and each of the underwriters has agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase from us, the number of shares of common stock and pre-funded warrants set forth opposite its name below.

 

Underwriter

   Number of
Shares
     Number of
Pre-Funded
Warrants
 

SVB Securities LLC

     5,843,595        5,841,405  

Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated

     4,204,537        4,202,963  

Oppenheimer & Co. Inc.

     2,708,007        2,706,993  

Needham & Company, LLC

     1,140,214        1,139,786  

Aegis Capital Corp.

     356,317        356,183  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     14,252,670        14,247,330  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the underwriting agreement, the underwriters have agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase all of the shares and pre-funded warrants sold under the underwriting agreement if any of the securities are purchased. If an underwriter defaults, the underwriting agreement provides that the purchase commitments of the non-defaulting underwriters may be increased or the underwriting agreement may be terminated.

We have agreed to indemnify the underwriters against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments the underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.

The underwriters are offering the shares and pre-funded warrants, subject to prior sale, when, as and if issued to and accepted by them, subject to approval of legal matters by their counsel, including the validity of the shares, and subject to other conditions contained in the underwriting agreement, such as the receipt by the underwriters of officers’ certificates and legal opinions. The underwriters reserve the right to withdraw, cancel or modify offers to the public and to reject orders in whole or in part.

Discounts and Commissions

The representatives have advised us that the underwriters propose initially to offer the shares and pre-funded warrants to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement and to dealers at that price less a concession not in excess of $0.069 per share and $0.069 per pre-funded warrant. After the initial offering, the public offering price, concession or any other term of this offering may be changed by the representatives.

The following table shows the public offering price, underwriting discounts and commissions and proceeds, before expenses, to us. The information assumes either no exercise or full exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock.

 

                   Total  
     Per
Share
     Per
Pre-Funded
Warrant
     Without
Option
     With Option  

Public offering price

   $ 1.930      $ 1.929      $ 54,990,753      $ 63,241,503  

Underwriting discounts and commissions

   $ 0.116      $ 0.116      $ 3,306,000      $ 3,801,900  

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

   $ 1.814      $ 1.813      $ 51,684,753      $ 59,439,603  

 

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We are offering to those purchasers whose purchase of shares of common stock in this offering would result in the purchaser, together with its affiliates and certain related parties, beneficially owning more than 9.99% of our outstanding common stock following the consummation of this offering, the opportunity to purchase, in lieu of the shares of our common stock that would result in ownership in excess of 9.99%, pre-funded warrants to purchase such excess shares of our common stock. Each pre-funded warrant has an exercise price of $0.001. The purchase price for each such pre-funded warrant equals the per share public offering price for the common stock in this offering less the $0.001 per share exercise price of each such pre-funded warrant.

We estimate expenses payable by us in connection with this offering, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions referred to above, will be approximately $300,000. We also have agreed to reimburse the underwriters for up to $15,000 for their FINRA counsel fee. In accordance with FINRA Rule 5110, this reimbursed fee is deemed underwriting compensation for this offering.

Option to Purchase Additional Shares

We have granted an option to the underwriters, exercisable for 30 days after the date of this prospectus supplement, to purchase up to 4,275,000 additional shares of common stock at the public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions. If the underwriters exercise this option, each underwriter will be obligated, subject to the conditions contained in the underwriting agreement, to purchase a number of additional shares proportionate to that underwriter’s initial amount reflected in the above table.

No Sales of Similar Securities

We and our executive officers and directors have agreed not to sell or transfer any common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for common stock, for 60 days after the date of this prospectus supplement without first obtaining the written consent of SVB Securities LLC and Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated on behalf of the underwriters. Specifically, we and these other persons have agreed, with certain limited exceptions, not to directly or indirectly:

 

   

offer, pledge, sell or contract to sell any common stock;

 

   

sell any option or contract to purchase any common stock;

 

   

purchase any option or contract to sell any common stock;

 

   

grant any option, right or warrant for the sale of any common stock;

 

   

otherwise dispose of or transfer any common stock;

 

   

request or demand that we file a registration statement related to the common stock; or

 

   

enter into any swap or other agreement or any transaction that transfers, in whole or in part, the economic consequence of ownership of any common stock, whether any such swap, agreement or transaction is to be settled by delivery of shares or other securities, in cash or otherwise.

The lock-up provisions apply to common stock and to securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for common stock. They also apply to common stock owned now or acquired later by the person executing the lock-up agreement or for which the person executing the lock-up agreement later acquires the power of disposition.

Nasdaq Global Market Listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TRVI.” There is no established public trading market for the pre-funded warrants, and we do not expect a market to develop. We do not intend to list the pre-funded warrants on the Nasdaq Global Market, any other national securities exchange or any other nationally recognized trading system.

 

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Price Stabilization, Short Positions and Penalty Bids

Until the distribution of the securities is completed, SEC rules may limit underwriters and selling group members from bidding for and purchasing our common stock. However, the representatives may engage in transactions that stabilize the price of the common stock, such as bids or purchases to peg, fix or maintain that price.

In connection with this offering, the underwriters may purchase and sell our common stock in the open market. These transactions may include short sales, purchases on the open market to cover positions created by short sales and stabilizing transactions. Short sales involve the sale by the underwriters of a greater number of shares than they are required to purchase in this offering. “Covered” short sales are sales made in an amount not greater than the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares described above. The underwriters may close out any covered short position by either exercising their option to purchase additional shares or purchasing shares in the open market. In determining the source of shares to close out the covered short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which they may purchase shares through the option to purchase additional shares granted to them under the underwriting agreement described above. “Naked” short sales are sales in excess of such option. The underwriters must close out any naked short position by purchasing shares in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of our common stock in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in this offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of various bids for or purchases of shares of common stock made by the underwriters in the open market prior to the closing of this offering.

The underwriters may also impose a penalty bid. This occurs when a particular underwriter repays to the underwriters a portion of the underwriting discount received by it because the representatives have repurchased shares sold by or for the account of such underwriter in stabilizing or short covering transactions.

Similar to other purchase transactions, the underwriters’ purchases to cover the syndicate short sales may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of our common stock. As a result, the price of our common stock may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. The underwriters may conduct these transactions on the Nasdaq Global Market, in the over-the-counter market or otherwise.

Neither we nor any of the underwriters make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of our common stock. In addition, neither we nor any of the underwriters make any representation that the representatives will engage in these transactions or that these transactions, once commenced, will not be discontinued without notice.

The underwriters may also engage in passive market making transactions in our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M during a period before the commencement of offers or sales of shares of our securities in this offering and extending through the completion of distribution. A passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid of that security. However, if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, that bid must then be lowered when specified purchase limits are exceeded.

Electronic Distribution

In connection with this offering, certain of the underwriters or securities dealers may distribute prospectuses by electronic means, such as e-mail.

Other Relationships

The underwriters and certain of their affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory,

 

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investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. Some of the underwriters and certain of their affiliates may in the future engage in investment banking and other commercial dealings in the ordinary course of business with us and our affiliates, for which they may in the future receive customary fees, commissions and expenses. For example, we entered into the ATM Sales Agreement with SVB Securities LLC on June 26, 2020, as amended on May 13, 2022, under which we may offer and sell, from time to time at our discretion, shares of our common stock for remaining gross proceeds of up to $52.0 million through SVB Securities LLC, acting as our sales agent, for which SVB Securities LLC has and will receive customary fees and expense reimbursement. Additionally, Silicon Valley Bank, an affiliate of SVB Securities LLC, is a lender under our loan facility.

In addition, in the ordinary course of their business activities, the underwriters and their affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers. Such investments and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of ours or our affiliates. The underwriters and their affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or financial instruments and may hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

Selling Restrictions

Notice to Prospective Investors in the European Economic Area

In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area (each, a “Relevant State”), no securities have been offered or will be offered pursuant to the offering to the public in that Relevant State prior to the publication of a prospectus in relation to the securities which has been approved by the competent authority in that Relevant State or, where appropriate, approved in another Relevant State and notified to the competent authority in that Relevant State, all in accordance with the Prospectus Regulation, except that securities may be offered to the public in that Relevant State at any time:

 

  A.

to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined under Article 2 of the Prospectus Regulation;

 

  B.

to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined under Article 2 of the Prospectus Regulation), subject to obtaining the prior consent of the representatives for any such offer; or

 

  C.

in any other circumstances falling within Article 1(4) of the Prospectus Regulation,

provided that no such offer of securities shall require us or any of the representatives to publish a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Regulation or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the Prospectus Regulation.

For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any securities in any Relevant State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any securities to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for any securities, and the expression “Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129, as amended.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Kingdom

No securities have been offered or will be offered pursuant to the offering to the public in the United Kingdom prior to the publication of a prospectus in relation to the securities which has been approved by the Financial Conduct Authority, except that the securities may be offered to the public in the United Kingdom at any time:

 

  A.

to any legal entity which is a qualified investor as defined under Article 2 of the UK Prospectus Regulation;

 

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  B.

to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined under Article 2 of the UK Prospectus Regulation), subject to obtaining the prior consent of the representatives for any such offer; or

 

  C.

in any other circumstances falling within Section 86 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (the “FMSA”),

provided that no such offer of the securities shall require us or any representative to publish a prospectus pursuant to Section 85 of the FSMA or supplement a prospectus pursuant to Article 23 of the UK Prospectus Regulation. For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to the securities in the United Kingdom means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any securities to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe for any securities and the expression “UK Prospectus Regulation” means Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 as it forms part of domestic law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Canada

The securities may be sold only to purchasers purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the securities must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus supplement (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

Pursuant to section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts (NI 33-105), the underwriters are not required to comply with the disclosure requirements of NI 33-105 regarding underwriter conflicts of interest in connection with this offering.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities offered hereby will be passed upon for us by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. Covington  & Burling LLP, New York, New York, is counsel for the underwriters in connection with this offering.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, as set forth in their report thereon (which contains an explanatory paragraph describing conditions that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements) which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and elsewhere in this registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.trevitherapeutics.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement. Our website address is included in this document as an inactive textual reference only.

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus omit some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our subsidiary and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC’s website.

 

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INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is continually updated, and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus incorporate by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-38886) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed), until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

   

Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed on March 17, 2022, including the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders;

 

   

Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March  31, 2022, filed on May 12, 2022, and for the fiscal quarter ended June  30, 2022, filed on August 11, 2022;

 

   

Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January  5, 2022, January  14, 2022, February  1, 2022, February  24, 2022, March  16, 2022, April  7, 2022, May  16, 2022, June  23, 2022, June  29, 2022 and September 19, 2022; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on April  29, 2019, as the description therein has been updated and superseded by the description of our capital stock contained in Exhibit 4.2 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, as filed with the SEC on March 16, 2020, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

195 Church Street, 14th Floor

New Haven, Connecticut 06510

(203) 304-2499

 

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PROSPECTUS

$150,000,000

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

Debt Securities

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Units

Warrants

 

 

We may offer and sell securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $150,000,000 in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TRVI.”

As of June 25, 2020, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $36,516,841, which we calculated based on 17,843,639 shares of outstanding common stock as of June 25, 2020, of which 6,296,007 shares were held by non-affiliates, and a price per share of $5.80 as of June 25, 2020, which is a date within 60 days prior to the date of this prospectus. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell, pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, securities in a public primary offering with a value exceeding one-third of the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates in any 12-month period, so long as the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates remains below $75 million. During the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus, we have not offered or sold any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3.

 

 

Investing in these securities involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” on page 2 of this prospectus and the risk factors set forth in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is July 2, 2020


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     2  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     3  

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

     4  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     5  

TREVI THERAPEUTICS, INC.

     6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     17  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     24  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     25  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     26  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     28  

LEGAL MATTERS

     31  

EXPERTS

     31  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC,” utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate offering price of up to $150,000,000.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus and, accordingly, to the extent inconsistent, information in this prospectus is superseded by the information in the prospectus supplement. You should read both this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 3 of this prospectus and “Information Incorporated by Reference” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus and such accompanying prospectus supplement, or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Trevi Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiary.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the risk factors set forth in our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference herein, before making an investment decision pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement relating to a specific offering.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any or all of these risks or by additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial that may adversely affect us in the future.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.trevitherapeutics.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Our website address is included in this document as an inactive textual reference only.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our subsidiary and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.     

 

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INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-38886) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed), between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

   

Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed on March 16, 2020, including the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders;

 

   

Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2020, filed on May 7, 2020;

 

   

Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 6, 2020, February 18, 2020, and June 17, 2020; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on April 29, 2019, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.

195 Church Street, 14th Floor

New Haven, Connecticut 06510

(203) 304-2499

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, which involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical fact, in this prospectus or the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues and profitability, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would,” “could,” “continue” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

The forward-looking statements in this prospectus include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

our ongoing clinical trials;

 

   

our plans to develop and, if approved, subsequently commercialize nalbuphine ER for the treatment of pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis or for other serious neurologically mediated conditions;

 

   

our expectations regarding the timing for the initiation of clinical trials, completion of enrollment of such trials and the reporting of data from such trials;

 

   

the timing of and our ability to submit applications for, and to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for, nalbuphine ER;

 

   

our expectations regarding our ability to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements with our cash and cash equivalents;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, timing of any future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations;

 

   

our competitive position; and

 

   

our ability to establish and maintain collaborations or obtain additional funding.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included and incorporated by reference in this prospectus, particularly in the section titled “Risk Factors” that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference herein and have filed or incorporated by reference herein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may differ materially from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements except as required by applicable law.

 

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TREVI THERAPEUTICS, INC.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of nalbuphine ER to treat serious neurologically mediated conditions. We are developing nalbuphine ER for the treatment of chronic pruritus, chronic cough in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson’s disease. These conditions share a common pathophysiology that is mediated through opioid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Due to nalbuphine’s mechanism of action as a modulator of opioid receptors, we believe nalbuphine ER has the potential to be effective in treating each of these conditions. Our ongoing clinical trials of nalbuphine ER include a Phase 2b/3 clinical trial, which we refer to as the PRISM trial, in patients with severe pruritus associated with prurigo nodularis.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on March 17, 2011 under the name Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 195 Church Street, 14th Floor, New Haven, Connecticut, 06510, and our telephone number is (203) 304-2499. Our website address is www.trevitherapeutics.com. Information found on, or accessible through, our website is not a part, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus, and you should not consider it part of this prospectus. Our website address is included in this document as an inactive textual reference only.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include working capital and capital expenditures, research and development expenses, including clinical trial costs, the acquisition of, or investment in, companies, technologies, products or assets that complement our business, and repayment and refinancing of debt. However, as of the date of this prospectus, we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any material acquisitions or investments. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds from sales of securities hereunder in investment-grade, interest-bearing securities until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may offer debt securities which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered. When we refer to “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in this section, we mean Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. excluding, unless the context otherwise requires or as otherwise expressly stated, our subsidiaries.

We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. The senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to individually as an indenture and together as the indentures and the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to individually as a trustee and together as the trustees. This section summarizes some of the provisions of the indentures and is qualified in its entirety by the specific text of the indentures, including definitions of terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections of, or defined terms in, the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

Neither indenture will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The applicable indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

General

The senior debt securities will constitute our unsecured and unsubordinated general obligations and will rank equally in right of payment with our other unsecured and unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our unsecured and subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities), as described under the heading “—Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities—Subordination.” The debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries unless such subsidiaries expressly guarantee such debt securities.

The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations. Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not be guaranteed by any of our subsidiaries.

The applicable prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities of any series being offered, including the following terms:

 

   

the title and type of the debt securities;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated debt securities, and, with respect to any subordinated debt securities the terms on which they are subordinated;

 

   

the initial aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

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the price or prices at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

   

the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

   

the rate or rates, if any, at which the debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates;

 

   

the date or dates from which such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest will be payable or the method of determination of such dates;

 

   

the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

   

the manner of paying principal and interest and the place or places where principal and interest will be payable;

 

   

provisions for a sinking fund, purchase fund or other analogous fund, if any;

 

   

any redemption dates, prices, obligations and restrictions on the debt securities;

 

   

the currency, currencies or currency units in which the debt securities will be denominated and the currency, currencies or currency units in which principal and interest, if any, on the debt securities may be payable;

 

   

any conversion or exchange features of the debt securities;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be subject to the defeasance provisions in the indenture;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in definitive or global form or in definitive form only upon satisfaction of certain conditions;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;

 

   

any special tax implications of the debt securities;

 

   

any events of defaults or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in the indenture; and

 

   

any other material terms of the debt securities.

When we refer to “principal” in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to “premium, if any.”

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement. We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the indenture.

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities) may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to any such discounted debt securities or to certain debt securities issued at par which are treated as having been issued at a discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain related tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

Covenants. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on any of our or our subsidiaries’ property or capital stock, or restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

 

   

the successor entity, if any, is a U.S. corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust;

 

   

the successor entity assumes our obligations on the senior debt securities and under the senior indenture;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

   

we have delivered to the senior trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that the consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture, comply with the senior indenture and all conditions precedent provided for in the senior indenture relating to such transaction have been complied with.

The restrictions described in the bullets above do not apply (1) to our consolidation with or merging into one of our affiliates, if our board of directors determines in good faith that the purpose of the consolidation or merger is principally to change our state of incorporation or our form of organization to another form or (2) if we merge with or into a single direct or indirect wholly owned subsidiary of ours.

The surviving business entity will succeed to, and be substituted for, us under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities and, except in the case of a lease, we shall be released from all obligations under the senior indenture and the senior debt securities.

No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

 

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Events of Default. Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture with respect to senior debt securities of each series:

 

   

failure to pay interest on any senior debt securities of such series when due and payable, if that default continues for a period of 30 days (or such other period as may be specified for such series);

 

   

failure to pay principal on the senior debt securities of such series when due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if specified for such series, the continuance of such failure for a specified period);

 

   

default in the performance of or breach of any of our covenants or agreements in the senior indenture applicable to senior debt securities of such series, other than a covenant breach which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in the senior indenture, and that default or breach continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or from the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, whether or not voluntary; and

 

   

any other event of default provided for in such series of senior debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall automatically become immediately due and payable.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive a continuing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities (other than any such default in payment resulting solely from an acceleration of the senior debt securities) or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto.

 

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The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

 

   

the holder gives the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such event of default;

 

   

the requesting holder or holders offer the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any costs, liability or expense;

 

   

the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

   

during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities do not give the trustee a direction that is inconsistent with the request.

These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security of any affected series to receive payment of the principal of and interest on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

Satisfaction and Discharge. We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities if:

 

   

we have paid or caused to be paid the principal of and interest on all senior debt securities of such series (with certain limited exceptions) when due and payable; or

 

   

we deliver to the senior trustee for cancellation all senior debt securities of such series theretofore authenticated under the senior indenture (with certain limited exceptions); or

 

   

all senior debt securities of such series have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the senior trustee) and we deposit in trust an amount of cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government securities or foreign government agency securities) sufficient to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates;

and if, in any such case, we also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable under the senior indenture, as and when the same shall be due and payable and we deliver to the senior trustee an officer’s certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that these conditions have been satisfied.

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or

 

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bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us. Purchasers of the debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

Defeasance. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and covenant defeasance will apply to any series of debt securities issued under the indentures.

Legal Defeasance. We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if certain conditions are met, including the following:

 

   

We deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or, in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government or foreign government agency obligations) that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

   

There is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that lets us make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due. Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us.

 

   

We deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above.

If we accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

Covenant Defeasance. Without any change in current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the debt securities (called “covenant defeasance”). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

 

   

We must deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series cash or a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations (or, in the case of senior debt securities denominated in a foreign currency, foreign government or foreign government agency obligations) that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

   

We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due.

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you could still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

 

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Modification and Waiver. We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder:

 

   

to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge any assets as security for the senior debt securities of one or more series;

 

   

to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to us, and the assumption by such successor of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the senior indenture or to otherwise comply with the covenant relating to mergers, consolidations and sales of assets;

 

   

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the senior indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”);

 

   

to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the senior indenture or in any supplemental indenture or to conform the senior indenture or the senior debt securities to the description of senior debt securities of such series set forth in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement;

 

   

to provide for or add guarantors with respect to the senior debt securities of any series;

 

   

to establish the form or forms or terms of the senior debt securities as permitted by the senior indenture;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the senior indenture by a successor trustee, or to make such changes as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts in the senior indenture by more than one trustee;

 

   

to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of the senior indenture in respect of one or more series of senior debt securities, provided that any such addition, change or elimination shall (a) neither (1) apply to any senior debt security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (2) modify the rights of the holder of any such senior debt security with respect to such provision or (b) become effective only when there is no senior debt security described in clause (a)(1) outstanding;

 

   

to make any change to the senior debt securities of any series so long as no senior debt securities of such series are outstanding; or

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect.

Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of each series affected by the amendment or modification (voting as separate series); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

 

   

extends the final maturity of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the principal amount of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the rate, or extends the time for payment of, interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the amount payable upon the redemption of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

changes the currency of payment of principal of or interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

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reduces the principal amount of original issue discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity or the amount provable in bankruptcy;

 

   

waives a continuing default in the payment of principal of or interest on the senior debt securities (other than any such default in payment resulting solely from an acceleration of the senior debt securities);

 

   

changes the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or impairs the right of holders to receive payment or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment or conversion of any senior debt securities of such series on or after the due date therefor;

 

   

modifies any of the provisions of these restrictions on amendments and modifications, except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each senior debt security of such series affected by the modification;

 

   

adversely affects the right to convert or exchange senior debt securities into common stock or other property in accordance with the terms of the senior debt securities; or

 

   

reduces the above-stated percentage of outstanding senior debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to a supplemental indenture or modifies or amends or waives certain provisions of or defaults under the senior indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders’ consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers, Directors. The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

Concerning the Trustee. The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or any of our subsidiaries, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

Unclaimed Funds. All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two

 

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years after the date upon which such amounts became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

Governing Law. The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

Subordination. The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

The term “senior indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person for money borrowed;

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that person for money;

 

   

all of the lease obligations that are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

   

all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above that the person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

   

all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated indenture.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not a complete description of our capital stock. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our restated certificate of incorporation, or the certificate of incorporation, our amended and restated by-laws, or the by-laws, and applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our certificate of incorporation and by-laws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share.

Common Stock

Annual Meeting. Annual meetings of our stockholders are held on the date designated in accordance with our by-laws. Written notice must be mailed to each stockholder entitled to vote not less than ten nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting. The presence in person or by proxy of the holders of record of a majority in voting power of our issued and outstanding shares entitled to vote at such meeting constitutes a quorum for the transaction of business at meetings of the stockholders. Special meetings of the stockholders may be called for any purpose by the board of directors and shall be called by the chairman of the board or the secretary upon the written request, stating the purpose of such meeting, of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of all classes of capital stock entitled to vote at the meeting. Except as may be otherwise provided by applicable law, our certificate of incorporation or our by-laws, all elections shall be decided by a plurality, and all other questions shall be decided by a majority of the votes cast by stockholders entitled to vote thereon at a duly held meeting of stockholders at which a quorum is present.

Voting Rights. Each holder of common stock is entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters to be voted upon by stockholders. The common stock does not have cumulative voting rights.

Dividends. Subject to the rights, powers and preferences of any outstanding preferred stock, and except as provided by law or in our certificate of incorporation, dividends may be declared and paid or set aside for payment on the common stock out of legally available assets or funds when and as declared by the board of directors.

Liquidation, Dissolution and Winding Up. In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of our common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of our preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Other Rights. Holders of the common stock have no right to:

 

   

convert the stock into any other security;

 

   

have the stock redeemed;

 

   

purchase additional stock; or

 

   

maintain their proportionate ownership interest.

Holders of shares of the common stock are not required to make additional capital contributions.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. Computershare Trust Company, N.A. is transfer agent and registrar for the common stock.

 

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Preferred Stock

We are authorized to issue “blank check” preferred stock, which may be issued in one or more series upon authorization of our board of directors. Our board of directors is authorized to fix the designations, powers, preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights and any qualifications, limitations and restrictions of the shares of each series of preferred stock. The authorized shares of our preferred stock are available for issuance without further action by our stockholders, unless such action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange on which our securities may be listed. If the approval of our stockholders is not required for the issuance of shares of our preferred stock, our board may determine not to seek stockholder approval. The specific terms of any series of preferred stock offered pursuant to this prospectus will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to that series of preferred stock.

A series of our preferred stock could, depending on the terms of such series, impede the completion of a merger, tender offer or other takeover attempt. Our board of directors will make any determination to issue preferred shares based upon its judgment as to the best interests of our stockholders. Our directors, in so acting, could issue preferred stock having terms that could discourage an acquisition attempt through which an acquirer may be able to change the composition of our board of directors, including a tender offer or other transaction that some, or a majority, of our stockholders might believe to be in their best interests or in which stockholders might receive a premium for their stock over the then-current market price of the stock.

The preferred stock has the terms described below unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of preferred stock. You should read the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of preferred stock being offered for specific terms, including:

 

   

the designation and stated value per share of the preferred stock and the number of shares offered;

 

   

the amount of liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the price at which the preferred stock will be issued;

 

   

the dividend rate, or method of calculation of dividends, the dates on which dividends will be payable, whether dividends will be cumulative or noncumulative and, if cumulative, the dates from which dividends will commence to accumulate;

 

   

any redemption or sinking fund provisions;

 

   

if other than the currency of the United States, the currency or currencies including composite currencies in which the preferred stock is denominated and/or in which payments will or may be payable;

 

   

any conversion provisions; and

 

   

any other rights, preferences, privileges, limitations and restrictions on the preferred stock.

The preferred stock will, when issued, be fully paid and non-assessable. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, each series of preferred stock will rank equally as to dividends and liquidation rights in all respects with each other series of preferred stock. The rights of holders of shares of each series of preferred stock will be subordinate to those of our general creditors.

Rank. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, rank:

 

   

senior to our common stock and to all equity securities ranking junior to such preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank on a parity with the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and

 

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junior to all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank senior to the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.

Dividends. Holders of the preferred stock of each series will be entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by our board of directors, cash dividends at such rates and on such dates described in the prospectus supplement. Different series of preferred stock may be entitled to dividends at different rates or based on different methods of calculation. The dividend rate may be fixed or variable or both. Dividends will be payable to the holders of record as they appear on our stock books on record dates fixed by our board of directors, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Dividends on any series of preferred stock may be cumulative or noncumulative, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If our board of directors does not declare a dividend payable on a dividend payment date on any series of noncumulative preferred stock, then the holders of that noncumulative preferred stock will have no right to receive a dividend for that dividend payment date, and we will have no obligation to pay the dividend accrued for that period, whether or not dividends on that series are declared payable on any future dividend payment dates. Dividends on any series of cumulative preferred stock will accrue from the date we initially issue shares of such series or such other date specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of any dividends on any parity securities unless full dividends have been paid or set apart for payment on the preferred stock. If full dividends are not paid, the preferred stock will share dividends pro rata with the parity securities.

No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of dividends on any junior securities unless full dividends for all dividend periods terminating on or prior to the date of the declaration or payment will have been paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment set apart for payment on the preferred stock.

Liquidation Preference. Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, then, before we make any distribution or payment to the holders of any common stock or any other class or series of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock in the distribution of assets upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, the holders of each series of preferred stock shall be entitled to receive out of assets legally available for distribution to stockholders, liquidating distributions in the amount of the liquidation preference per share set forth in the prospectus supplement, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon. Such dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid noncumulative dividends for prior dividend periods. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, after payment of the full amount of their liquidating distributions, the holders of preferred stock will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets. Upon any such voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, if our available assets are insufficient to pay the amount of the liquidating distributions on all outstanding preferred stock and the corresponding amounts payable on all other classes or series of our capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of shares of capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock in the distribution of assets, then the holders of the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of capital stock will share ratably in any such distribution of assets in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be entitled.

Upon any such liquidation, dissolution or winding up and if we have made liquidating distributions in full to all holders of preferred stock, we will distribute our remaining assets among the holders of any other classes or series of capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock according to their respective rights and preferences and, in each case, according to their respective number of shares. For such purposes, our consolidation or merger with or into any other corporation, trust or entity, or the sale, lease or conveyance of all or substantially all of our property or assets will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

 

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Redemption. If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will be subject to mandatory redemption or redemption at our option, as a whole or in part, in each case upon the terms, at the times and at the redemption prices set forth in such prospectus supplement.

The prospectus supplement relating to a series of preferred stock that is subject to mandatory redemption will specify the number of shares of preferred stock that shall be redeemed by us in each year commencing after a date to be specified, at a redemption price per share to be specified, together with an amount equal to all accrued and unpaid dividends thereon to the date of redemption. Unless the shares have a cumulative dividend, such accrued dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid dividends for prior dividend periods. We may pay the redemption price in cash or other property, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. If the redemption price for preferred stock of any series is payable only from the net proceeds of the issuance of shares of our capital stock, the terms of such preferred stock may provide that, if no such shares of our capital stock shall have been issued or to the extent the net proceeds from any issuance are insufficient to pay in full the aggregate redemption price then due, such preferred stock shall automatically and mandatorily be converted into the applicable shares of our capital stock pursuant to conversion provisions specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we will not redeem any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on the preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

   

if such series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends for the then current dividend period.

In addition, we will not acquire any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on all outstanding shares of such series of preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

   

if that series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends on the preferred stock of such series for the then current dividend period.

However, at any time we may purchase or acquire preferred stock of that series (1) pursuant to a purchase or exchange offer made on the same terms to holders of all outstanding preferred stock of such series or (2) by conversion into or exchange for shares of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock of such series as to dividends and upon liquidation.

If fewer than all of the outstanding shares of preferred stock of any series are to be redeemed, we will determine the number of shares that may be redeemed pro rata from the holders of record of such shares in proportion to the number of such shares held or for which redemption is requested by such holder or by any other equitable manner that we determine. Such determination will reflect adjustments to avoid redemption of fractional shares.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, we will mail notice of redemption at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before the redemption date to each holder of record of preferred stock to be redeemed at the address shown on our stock transfer books. Each notice shall state:

 

   

the redemption date;

 

   

the number of shares and series of preferred stock to be redeemed;

 

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the redemption price;

 

   

the place or places where certificates for such preferred stock are to be surrendered for payment of the redemption price;

 

   

that dividends on the shares to be redeemed will cease to accrue on such redemption date;

 

   

the date on which the holder’s conversion rights, if any, as to such shares shall terminate; and

 

   

the specific number of shares to be redeemed from each such holder if fewer than all the shares of any series are to be redeemed.

If notice of redemption has been given and we have set aside the funds necessary for such redemption in trust for the benefit of the holders of any shares called for redemption, then from and after the redemption date, dividends will cease to accrue on such shares, and all rights of the holders of such shares will terminate, except the right to receive the redemption price.

Voting Rights. Holders of preferred stock will not have any voting rights, except as required by law or as indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless otherwise provided for under the terms of any series of preferred stock, no consent or vote of the holders of shares of preferred stock or any series thereof shall be required for any amendment to our certificate of incorporation that would increase the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof or decrease the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof (but not below the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or such series, as the case may be, then outstanding).

Conversion Rights. The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any series of preferred stock is convertible into our common stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Such terms will include the number of shares of common stock into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price, rate or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at our option or at the option of the holders of the preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. The transfer agent and registrar for the preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Exchange Listing. Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “TRVI.”

Provisions of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law That May Have Anti-Takeover Effects

Board of Directors. Our certificate of incorporation and by-laws provide for a board of directors divided as nearly equally as possible into three classes. Each class is elected to a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following the year of such election. The number of directors comprising our board of directors is fixed from time to time by the board of directors.

Removal of Directors by Stockholders. Delaware law provides that members of our board of directors may only be removed for cause by a vote of the holders of 75% of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the election of the directors.

Stockholder Nomination of Directors. Our by-laws provide that a stockholder must notify us in writing of any stockholder nomination of a director not more than 120 days and not less than 90 days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, that if the date of the annual meeting is advanced

 

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or delayed by more than 30 days from such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not earlier than the 120th day prior to the date of such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of (x) the 90th day prior to the date of such meeting and (y) the 10th day following the day on which notice of the date of such annual meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was made, whichever occurs first.

No Action By Written Consent. Our certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not act by written consent and may only act at duly called meetings of stockholders.

Delaware Law. We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless either the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors, the business combination is approved by our board of directors and stockholders in a prescribed manner or the interested stockholder acquired at least 85% of our outstanding voting stock in the transaction in which it became an interested stockholder. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Exclusive Forum Selection. Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware)shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of our company, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, other employees or stockholders to our company or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or (4) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of our certificate of incorporation or by-laws (in each case, as they may be amended from time to time) or governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our certificate of incorporation further provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Neither of these choice of forum provisions would affect suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, jurisdiction over which is exclusively vested by statute in the United States federal courts, or any other claim for which United States federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Although our certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provisions described above, it is possible that a court could rule that such provisions are inapplicable for a particular claim or action.

Registration Rights

We are party to a second amended and restated investors’ rights agreement, which we refer to as the investors’ rights agreement, under which holders of a total of 10,325,257 shares of our common stock have the right to require us to register these shares under the Securities Act under specified circumstances. We refer to the shares with these registration rights as registrable securities. After registration pursuant to these rights, the registrable securities will become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act. In addition, in connection with a private placement to New Enterprise Associates, or NEA, in May 2019, we granted NEA the right to require us to register under the Securities Act under specified circumstances the shares to NEA in such private placement, and upon such registration, such shares would become freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act.

 

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Demand and Form S-3 Registration Rights. Subject to specified limitations and conditions set forth in the investors’ rights agreement, at any time, the holders of at least a majority of the then outstanding registrable securities may demand that we register registrable securities then outstanding under the Securities Act for purposes of a public offering having an aggregate offering price to the public of not less than $10.0 million, net of certain expenses, underwriting discounts and selling commissions. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this provision on more than two occasions. In addition, subject to specified limitations and conditions set forth in the investors’ rights agreement, at any time when we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, holders of the registrable securities then outstanding may request that we register their registrable securities on Form S-3 for purposes of a public offering for which the reasonably anticipated aggregate offering price to the public, net of certain expenses, underwriting discounts and selling commissions, would exceed $1.0 million. We are not obligated to file a registration statement pursuant to this provision on more than two occasions in any 12-month period.

Incidental Registration Rights. If we propose to register for our own account or for the account of our other stockholders any of our common stock under the Securities Act, the holders of registrable securities will be entitled to notice of the registration and, subject to specified exceptions, have the right to require us to register all or a portion of the registrable securities then held by them in that registration. In the event that any registration in which the holders of registrable securities participate pursuant to our investors’ rights agreement is an underwritten public offering, we have agreed to enter into an underwriting agreement in usual and customary form and use our commercially reasonable efforts to facilitate such offering.

Expenses and Indemnification. Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, we are required to pay all registration expenses, including all registration and filing fees, exchange listing fees, printing expenses, fees and expenses of one counsel selected by the selling stockholders to represent the selling stockholders, state Blue Sky fees and expenses, and the expense of any special audits incident to or required by any such registration, but excluding underwriting discounts, selling commissions, stock transfer taxes and the fees and expenses of the selling stockholders’ own counsel (other than the counsel selected to represent all selling stockholders). The investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, pursuant to which we are obligated to indemnify the selling stockholders in the event of material misstatements or alleged material misstatements or material omissions or alleged material omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, or any violation or alleged violation, whether by action or inaction, by us under the Securities Act; the Exchange Act; any state securities or Blue Sky law or any rule or regulation promulgated under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any state securities or Blue Sky law in connection with such registration statement or the qualification or compliance of the offering, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to them.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this prospectus, in any combination. The following, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any units we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time, or at any time before a specified date.

Any applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

 

   

the material terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

the name and address of any unit agent for any units we offer;

 

   

any material provisions relating to the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

   

any material provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described above.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the accompanying prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the expiration date of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:

 

   

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

   

whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units;

 

   

whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

   

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

   

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

   

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

   

the designation and terms of any equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of any debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the preferred stock with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which any warrants issued as part of a unit and the related debt securities, preferred stock or common stock will be separately transferable;

 

   

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the anti-dilution provisions of, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price of, the warrants, if any;

 

   

any redemption or call provisions; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

 

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

Each debt security, unit and warrant will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, units or warrants represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Global Securities

We may issue the debt securities, units and warrants in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, unit agreement or warrant agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, unit agreement or warrant agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take

 

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under the applicable indenture, unit agreement or warrant agreement, the depositary for the global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants or units, represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, or any trustee, unit agent, warrant agent or other agent of ours, or any agent of any trustee, warrant agent or unit agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, unit agent, warrant agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell securities:

 

   

through underwriters;

 

   

through dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act, and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

We may also sell equity securities covered by this prospectus in “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. Such offerings may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price on or through the facilities of Nasdaq or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale.

Such at the market offerings, if any, may be conducted by underwriters or placement agents acting as principal or agent.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

   

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price and the proceeds we will receive from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

   

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

 

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If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

   

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

 

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Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise or the securities are sold by us to an underwriter in a firm commitment underwritten offering. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

In compliance with the guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the aggregate maximum discount, commission or agency fees or other items constituting underwriting compensation to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker-dealer will not exceed 8% of the proceeds from any offering pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed upon by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Trevi Therapeutics, Inc. appearing in Trevi Therapeutics, Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018 have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

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LOGO

14,252,670 Shares of Common Stock

Pre-Funded Warrants to Purchase 14,247,330 Shares of Common Stock

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

Joint Bookrunning Managers

 

SVB Securities   Stifel   Oppenheimer & Co.
   

Lead Manager

Needham & Company

Co-Manager

Aegis Capital Corp.

September 22, 2022

 

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