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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 19, 2021

Registration No. 333-                

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Organovo Holdings, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   27-1488943
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

440 Stevens Ave, Suite 200

Solana Beach, CA 92075

(858) 224-1000

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Keith Murphy

Executive Chairman

Organovo Holdings, Inc.

440 Stevens Ave, Suite 200

Solana Beach, CA 92075

(858) 224-1000

(Name, address including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

With copies to:

 

Thomas Jurgensen, Esq.

General Counsel

Organovo Holdings, Inc.

440 Stevens Ave, Suite 200

Solana Beach, CA 92075

(858) 224-1000

 

Jeffrey T. Hartlin, Esq.

Paul Hastings LLP

1117 S. California Avenue

Palo Alto, CA 94304

(650) 320-1804

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

    

Emerging growth company

 


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If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount

to be

Registered (1)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

Per Unit

 

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price (2)

  Amount of
Registration Fee (3)

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

  —     —     —     —  

Preferred Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

  —     —     —     —  

Debt Securities

               

Warrants

  —     —     —     —  

Units(4)

  —     —     —     —  

Total

  —     —     $150,000,000   $16,365(5)

 

 

(1)

There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock; such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities; such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities and such indeterminate number of units consisting of any combination of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and/or warrants as may be sold by the Registrant as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $150,000,000. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or in combination with other securities registered hereunder. The proposed maximum offering price of the securities will be determined, from time to time, by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price of such debt securities shall be in such greater principal amount as shall result in an aggregate offering price not to exceed $150,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder. The securities registered hereunder also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, or upon exercise of warrants or units or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the shares of common stock and preferred stock being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to such shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions, as applicable.

(2)

The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

(3)

Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act based on the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of all securities listed.

(4)

Each unit will represent an interest in two or more other securities, which may or may not be separable from one another.

(5)

Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) and Rule 457(p) under the Securities Act, the Registrant hereby offsets the total registration fee due under this Registration Statement by the amount of the filing fee associated with the unsold securities from the Registrant’s Form S-3 Registration Statement, filed with the Commission on February 8, 2018 (SEC File No. 333-222929), as amended (the “Prior Registration Statement”), which included $100,000,000 of shares of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and units to be sold by the Registrant. As of the date hereof, the Registrant has sold $21,968,042.53 of securities under the Prior Registration Statement and may sell up to an additional $28,031,957.47 of additional shares of common stock pursuant to that certain sales agreement, dated as of March 16, 2018, by and among the Registrant, H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC and JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC under the Prior Registration Statement, leaving a balance of $78,031,957.47 of unsold or unallocated securities (the “Unsold Securities”). As a result, the Registrant is applying the balance of the registration fee ($9,714.98) previously paid for the Unsold Securities to the registration fee for this Registration Statement, with the remaining $6,650.02 paid herewith. The Unsold Securities are being carried forward to and registered on this Registration Statement. To the extent that, after the filing date hereof and prior to the effectiveness of this Registration Statement, the Registrant sells any Unsold Securities pursuant to the Prior Registration Statement, the Registrant will identify in a pre-effective amendment to this Registration Statement the updated amount of Unsold Securities from the Prior Registration Statement to be included in this Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) and the updated amount of registration fee for this Registration Statement. Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act, the offering of the Unsold Securities under the Prior Registration Statement will be deemed terminated as of the date of effectiveness of this Registration Statement.

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

   

a base prospectus that covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to $150,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time using the shelf registration process, or the Base Prospectus; and

 

   

a sales agreement prospectus that covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $50,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold under a Sales Agreement with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC and JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC, or the Sales Agreement Prospectus.

The Base Prospectus immediately follows this Explanatory Note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the Base Prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the Base Prospectus. The Sales Agreement Prospectus immediately follows the Base Prospectus. The $50,000,000 of our common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the Sales Agreement Prospectus are included in the $150,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the Base Prospectus. Upon termination of the sales agreement with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC and JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC, any portion of the $50,000,000 of common stock included in the Sales Agreement Prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the sales agreement with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC and JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the Base Prospectus, and if no shares are sold under the Sales Agreement Prospectus, the full $150,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the Base Prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JANUARY 19, 2021

 

PROSPECTUS   

 

 

LOGO

$150,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

 

 

We may offer and sell, from time to time in one or more offerings, up to $150,000,000 in the aggregate of any combination of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings, either individually or in combination with other securities. We may also offer common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of debt securities, common stock upon conversion of preferred stock, or common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants.

Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectuses may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before you invest in any of our securities.

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

 

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 7 of this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and in any applicable free writing prospectuses, and under similar headings in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Our common stock is currently listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ONVO.” On January 15, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $13.97 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities, or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is                     , 2021.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

     2  

SUMMARY

     3  

RISK FACTORS

     7  

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     27  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     28  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     29  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     33  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     40  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     43  

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

     44  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     47  

LEGAL MATTERS

     49  

EXPERTS

     49  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     49  

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     50  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities, warrants to purchase any of such securities and/or units consisting of any combination of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities, in one or more offerings, up to a total dollar amount of $150,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.

Each time we offer securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We urge you to read carefully this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the section entitled “Incorporation of Documents by Reference”, before buying any of the securities being offered.

THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectuses, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different or additional information. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so.

The information appearing in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information”.

We own or have rights to use the trademarks and trade names that we use in conjunction with the operation of our business. Solely for convenience, our trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ® or symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names.

 

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INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

Unless otherwise indicated, we have based the information concerning our industry contained in this prospectus and incorporated by reference herein on our general knowledge of and expectations concerning the industry, which involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus and in the other information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. These and other factors could cause the information concerning our industry to differ materially from those expressed in this prospectus and incorporated by reference herein.

 

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SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information that is presented in greater detail elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants or units, and it is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, the more detailed information included elsewhere in this prospectus. Before you decide whether to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock, or our debt securities, warrants or units, you should read this entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus carefully, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Organovo,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” in this prospectus refer to Organovo Holdings, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries, including Organovo, Inc. and Opal Merger Sub, Inc.

Business Overview

Organovo Holdings, Inc. (Nasdaq: ONVO), together with its wholly owned subsidiaries (collectively, “Organovo”, “we”, “us” and “our”), is an early-stage biotechnology company that is developing and utilizing highly customized 3D human tissues as dynamic models of healthy and diseased human biology for drug development. Our proprietary technology is being used to build functional 3D human tissues that mimic key aspects of native human tissue composition, architecture, function and disease. Our advances include cell type-specific compartments, prevalent intercellular tight junctions, and the formation of microvascular structures. We believe these attributes can enable critical complex, multicellular disease models that we will use to develop clinically effective drugs for selected therapeutic areas. Market opportunities may include externally-partnered or internally-directed drug discovery and the clinical development of new molecular entities or repurposed drugs in-licensed from other pharmaceutical companies. Our goal is to establish a pipeline of drug candidates in high-value disease areas, aiming to commence human clinical testing for at least one drug candidate within a three to five year timeframe.

Historical Operations and Strategic Alternatives Process

Prior to August 2019, we focused our efforts on developing our in vivo liver tissues to treat end-stage liver disease and a select group of life-threatening, orphan diseases, for which there are limited treatment options other than organ transplantation. We also explored the development of other potential pipeline in vivo tissue constructs in-house and through collaborations with academic and government researchers. In the past, we also explored the development of in vitro tissues, including proof of concept models of diseased tissues, for use in drug discovery and development.

In August 2019, after a rigorous assessment of our in vitro liver therapeutic tissue program, we concluded that the variability of biological performance and related duration of potential benefits no longer supported an attractive opportunity due to redevelopment challenges and lengthening timelines to compile sufficient data to support an Investigational New Drug (“IND”) filing. As a result, we suspended development of our lead program and all other related in-house pipeline development activities.

Our Board of Directors (our “Board”) also engaged a financial advisory firm to explore our available strategic alternatives, including evaluating a range of ways to generate value from our technology platform and intellectual property, our commercial and development capabilities, our listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market,



 

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and our remaining financial assets. These strategic alternatives included possible mergers and business combinations, sales of part or all of our assets, and licensing and partnering arrangements. We implemented various restructuring steps to manage our resources and extend our cash runway, including reducing commercial activities related to our liver tissues, except for sales of primary human cells out of inventory, negotiating an exit from our long-term facility lease, selling various assets, and reducing our workforce. Additionally, in November 2019, we sold certain inventory and equipment and related proprietary information held by our wholly-owned subsidiary, Samsara Sciences, Inc. (“Samsara”), and as a result of such sale, Samsara ceased its operations and has since been dissolved.

After conducting a diligent and extensive process of evaluating strategic alternatives and identifying and reviewing potential candidates for a strategic acquisition or other transaction, which included the receipt of more than 27 non-binding indications of interest from interested parties and careful evaluation and consideration of those proposals, and following extensive negotiation with Tarveda Therapeutics, Inc. (“Tarveda”), on December 13, 2019, we entered into a merger agreement with Tarveda (the “Merger Agreement”). Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, and subject to the satisfaction or waiver of the conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement, our wholly-owned merger subsidiary would merge with and into Tarveda (the “Merger”), with Tarveda becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of Organovo and the surviving corporation of the Merger. The Merger Agreement included various conditions to the consummation of the Merger, including approval by our stockholders at a Special Meeting of Stockholders scheduled for April 7, 2020 (the “Special Meeting”).

At the Special Meeting, the Merger was not approved by our stockholders. As a result, we terminated the Merger Agreement with Tarveda. Pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement, we were obligated to reimburse certain of Tarveda’s merger-related expenses not to exceed $300,000, which was offset by Tarveda’s portion of shared expenses incurred by Organovo in fiscal 2020.

The Cooperation Agreement and Advisory Nominees Proposal

Following the Special Meeting and the termination of the Merger Agreement, our Board continued to solicit stockholder feedback regarding our strategic alternatives and how to maximize stockholder value. In response to feedback from our largest stockholder regarding its desire for our Board to consider opportunities in the 3D bioprinting field and suggestion that our Board should speak with Keith Murphy, our founder, stockholder and former Chief Executive Officer and Chairman, for potential business ideas, our Board initiated discussions with Mr. Murphy. Based on these discussions, we entered into a Cooperation Agreement with Mr. Murphy on July 14, 2020 (the “Cooperation Agreement”). Under the terms of the Cooperation Agreement, our Board appointed Mr. Murphy and Adam K. Stern to our Board as Class III directors, and two of our existing directors, Richard Maroun and David Shapiro, resigned from our Board and the committees thereof. The Board also agreed to nominate, recommend, support and solicit proxies for the re-election of Messrs. Murphy and Stern at our 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “2020 Annual Meeting”). Our Board also agreed to nominate, recommend, support and solicit proxies for an advisory stockholder vote (the “Advisory Nominees Proposal”) at the 2020 Annual Meeting to appoint three individuals, Douglas Jay Cohen, David Gobel and Alison Tjosvold Milhous (collectively, the “Advisory Nominees”), to our Board. Mr. Murphy identified each of the Advisory Nominees. Our Board approved the appointment of the Advisory Nominees, to be automatically effective immediately following the final adjournment of the 2020 Annual Meeting if the final vote tabulation for the Advisory Nominees Proposal received more votes cast “FOR” than “AGAINST” its approval. In addition, each of our then-current directors (other than Messrs. Murphy and Stern) agreed to resign from our Board immediately following the appointment of the Advisory Nominees. At the 2020 Annual Meeting held on September 15, 2020, our stockholders approved the re-election of Messrs. Murphy and Stern to our Board as Class III directors to hold office until the 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and the final vote tabulation for the Advisory Nominees Proposal received more votes cast “FOR” than “AGAINST” its approval and, accordingly, effective upon the final adjournment of the 2020 Annual Meeting, Ms. Milhous was appointed as a Class I director to hold office



 

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until the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and Messrs. Cohen and Gobel were appointed as Class II directors to hold office until the 2022 Annual Meeting (collectively, the “New Director Slate”) and Carolyn Beaver, Taylor Crouch, Mark Kessel and Kirk Malloy, Ph.D. each resigned as directors.

Current Drug Discovery Business

Following the election of the New Director Slate, we have recommenced operations and are now focusing our future efforts on developing highly customized 3D human tissues as living, dynamic models of healthy and diseased human biology for drug development. Our proprietary technology is being used to build functional 3D human tissues that mimic key aspects of native human tissue composition, architecture, function and disease. Our advances include cell type-specific compartments, prevalent intercellular tight junctions, and the formation of microvascular structures. We believe these attributes can enable critical complex, multicellular disease models that we will use to develop clinically effective drugs for selected therapeutic areas. Market opportunities may include externally-partnered or internally-directed drug discovery and the clinical development of new molecular entities or repurposed drugs in-licensed from other pharmaceutical companies. Our goal is to establish a pipeline of drug candidates in high-value disease areas, aiming to commence human clinical testing for at least one drug candidate within a three to five year timeframe.

We have a significant opportunity to change the classic model of drug discovery using 3D bioprinted human tissues and other 3D models (sometimes known as “organoids” or “organs on a chip”). Our new paradigm will involve augmenting or replacing available animal disease models in the discovery process with more relevant human disease models utilizing 3D human tissues developed by us. Our 3D human tissues may enable us to study the treatment of human disease by replicating key aspects of human biology in areas where this is currently a challenge with existing models. Rather than offering contract research services (as we have done in the past), we will focus on identifying and developing our own drug candidates, including from unique compounds or repurposed drugs in-licensed from other pharmaceutical companies. After identifying a drug candidate, we may out-license the drug candidate or may elect to develop the drug candidate internally. In addition to drug discovery, we will continue to evaluate opportunities to monetize our intellectual property and technologies along the way as a means to generate funds to support our primary business. We will continue to identify and work with partners and collaborators, including leading academic research sites, to develop new enabling applications which can support our discovery and development mission.

To restart our research operations, we have commenced hiring a team of research and development professionals with drug discovery and 3D tissue development experience. This team will leverage 3D models of disease to discover and develop new drugs with improved clinical efficacy.

We expect our research and development staff to grow to ten to fifteen employees. We also expect to maintain or grow a general and administrative staff of five or more employees, along with consultants, to support our operations and reporting requirements as a public company.

We expect to lease sufficient office and laboratory space to support our requirements. On November 23, 2020, we entered into two lease agreements, pursuant to which we will temporarily lease approximately 3,212 square feet of office space (the “Temporary Lease”) in San Diego and permanently lease approximately 8,051 square feet of office space (the “Permanent Lease”) in San Diego once certain tenant improvements for our permanent premises have been completed and it is ready for occupancy. The Temporary Lease commenced on November 27, 2020 and is intended to serve as temporary premises for approximately seven months. The Permanent Lease is projected to commence on July 1, 2021 and is intended to serve as our permanent premises for approximately sixty-two months.

For a complete description of our business, financial condition, results of operations and other important information, we refer you to our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus,



 

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including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended March 31, 2020, our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2020. For instructions on how to find copies of these documents, see the section of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information”.

See the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus for a discussion of some of the risks relating to the execution of our business strategy.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware under the name Organovo Holdings, Inc. in January 2012. We are operating the business of our subsidiaries, including Organovo, Inc., our wholly-owned subsidiary, which we acquired in February 2012. Organovo, Inc. was incorporated in Delaware in April 2007. Our common stock has traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ONVO” since December 27, 2019. Prior to that time, it had traded on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ONVO” since August 8, 2016 and prior to that it traded on the NYSE MKT under the symbol “ONVO”.

Our principal executive offices are located at 440 Stevens Ave, Suite 200, Solana Beach, CA 92075, and our telephone number is (858) 224-1000. Our website address is www.organovo.com. Any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into, nor is it in any way part of this prospectus and should not be relied upon in connection with making any decision with respect to an investment in our securities. We are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may obtain any of the documents filed by us with the SEC at no cost from the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

We are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and have elected to take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosure available for smaller reporting companies in this prospectus as well as our filings under the Exchange Act.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Risk Factor Summary

Below is a summary of the principal factors that make an investment in our securities speculative or risky. This summary does not address all of the risks that we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized in this risk factor summary, and other risks that we face, can be found below and should be carefully considered, together with all of the other information appearing in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus before making investment decisions regarding the offered securities.

 

   

We face risks related to health epidemics, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 

   

We have recommenced our operations as an early-stage company focusing on 3D bioprinting technology to develop human tissues and disease models for drug discovery and development, which is an unproven business strategy that may never achieve profitability.

 

   

We will incur substantial additional operating losses over the next several years as our research and development activities increase.

 

   

Using our platform technology to develop human tissues and disease models for drug discovery and development is new and unproven.

 

   

We will face intense competition in our drug discovery efforts.

 

   

As we pursue drug development through 3D tissues and disease models, we will require access to a constant, steady, reliable supply of human cells to support our development activities.

 

   

We may require substantial additional funding. Raising additional capital would cause dilution to our existing stockholders and may restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or to a drug candidate.

 

   

Clinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process with uncertain timelines and uncertain outcomes, and results of earlier studies and trials may not be predictive of future results.

 

   

We will rely upon third-party contractors and service providers for the execution of critical aspects of any future development programs. Failure of these collaborators to provide services of a suitable quality and within acceptable timeframes may cause the delay or failure of any future development programs.

 

   

The near and long-term viability of our drug discovery and development efforts will depend on our ability to successfully establish strategic relationships.

 

   

Violation of government regulations or quality programs could harm demand for our products or services, and the evolving nature of government regulations could have an adverse impact on our business.

 

   

We may be unable to continue as a going concern in the future.

 

   

Additional funds may not be available when we need them on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available to us on a timely basis, we may be required to curtail or cease our operations.

 

   

We have a history of operating losses and expect to incur significant additional operating losses.

 

   

We may experience conflicts of interest with Viscient Biosciences, Inc. with respect to business opportunities and other matters.

 

   

We could fail to maintain the listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market, which could seriously harm the liquidity of our stock and our ability to raise capital or complete a strategic transaction.

 

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Our two largest shareholders have significant influence over key decision making as a result of their concentrated ownership of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock.

 

   

The price of our common stock may continue to be volatile, which could lead to losses by investors and costly securities litigation.

 

   

Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law may discourage or prevent a change of control, even if an acquisition would be beneficial to our stockholders, which could affect our stock price adversely and prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.

 

   

If we are not able to adequately protect our proprietary rights, our business could be harmed.

 

   

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

Risk Factors

Investing in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks described below, under “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, or in any updates in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, together with all of the other information appearing in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being offered. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

Risks Related to COVID-19

We face risks related to health epidemics, including the recent COVID-19 pandemic, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

In December 2019 a respiratory illness caused by a novel strain of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, causing the Coronavirus Disease 2019, also known as COVID-19, emerged. While initially the outbreak was largely concentrated in China, it has since spread globally and been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Global health concerns relating to the COVID-19 pandemic have been weighing on the macroeconomic environment, and the pandemic has significantly increased economic volatility and uncertainty. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in government authorities implementing numerous measures to try to contain the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place or stay-at-home orders, and business shutdowns. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, including the duration of the outbreak and travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place or stay-at-home orders, and business shutdowns. The continued COVID-19 pandemic could adversely impact our operations, including among others, the impact it may have on the manufacturing and supply chain, sales and marketing and clinical trial operations of potential strategic partners, and the ability, if we elect to do so, to advance our research and development activities and pursue development of any of our pipeline products, each of which could have an adverse impact on our business and our financial results. In particular, we require access to a constant, steady, reliable supply of human cells to support our development activities. The COVID-19 pandemic could negatively impact our ability to obtain a reliable supply of sufficient human cells or a supply at cost effective prices, which would harm our business and our results of operations and could cause us to be unable to support our drug development efforts.

In addition, the stock market has been unusually volatile during the COVID-19 pandemic and such volatility may continue. Our stock price has also experienced volatility during this time, including occasional significant increases and decreases, and such increases and decreases may repeat or continue for the foreseeable future.

 

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There are no comparable recent events which may provide guidance as to the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, and, as a result, the ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, or any similar health epidemic that may occur in the future, is highly uncertain and subject to change. We do not yet know the full extent of COVID-19’s impact on our business, our operations, or the global economy as a whole. However, the effects may have a material adverse impact on our future results of operations.

Risks Related to our Business

We have recommenced our operations as an early-stage company focusing on 3D bioprinting technology to develop human tissues and disease models for drug discovery and development, which is an unproven business strategy that may never achieve profitability.

Following the election of the new board of directors at our 2020 Annual Meeting of stockholders, we have recommenced operations and are focusing our efforts on utilizing our 3D bioprinting technology to develop human tissues and disease models for drug discovery and development. We have recommenced our operations as an early-stage company with an unproven business strategy, and may never achieve profitability. Our success will depend upon the viability of our platform technology and any disease models we develop, as well as on our ability to determine which drug candidates we should pursue. Our success will also depend on our ability to select an appropriate development strategy for any drug candidates we identify, including internal development or partnering or licensing arrangements with pharmaceutical companies. We may not be able to partner or license our drug candidates. We may never achieve profitability, or even if we achieve profitability, we may not be able to maintain or increase our profitability.

We will incur substantial additional operating losses over the next several years as our research and development activities increase.

We will incur substantial additional operating losses over the next several years as our research and development activities increase. The amount of future losses and when, if ever, we will achieve profitability are uncertain. Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability will depend on, among other things:

 

   

successfully developing human tissues and disease models for drug discovery and development that enable us to identify drug candidates;

 

   

successfully outsourcing certain portions of our development efforts;

 

   

entering into partnering or licensing arrangements with pharmaceutical companies to further develop and conduct clinical trials for any drug candidates we identify;

 

   

obtaining any necessary regulatory approval for any drug candidates we identify; and

 

   

raising sufficient funds to finance our activities and long-term business plan.

We might not succeed at any of these undertakings. If we are unsuccessful at one or more of these undertakings, our business, prospects, and results of operations will be materially adversely affected.

Using our platform technology to develop human tissues and disease models for drug discovery and development is new and unproven.

Utilizing our 3D bioprinting platform technology to develop human tissues and disease models for drug discovery and development will involve new and unproven technologies, disease models and approaches, each of which is subject to the risk associated with new and evolving technologies. To date, we have not identified or developed any drug candidates utilizing our new business model. Our future success will depend on our ability to utilize our 3D bioprinting platform to develop human tissues and disease models that will enable us to identify and develop viable drug candidates. We may experience unforeseen technical complications, unrecognized defects and limitations in our technology or our ability to develop disease models or identify viable drug

 

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candidates. These complications could materially delay or substantially increase the anticipated costs and time to identify and develop viable drug candidates, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition and our ability to continue operations.

We will face intense competition in our drug discovery efforts.

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry is subject to intense competition and rapid and significant technological change. There are many potential competitors for the disease indications we may pursue, including major drug companies, specialized biotechnology firms, academic institutions, government agencies and private and public research institutions. Many of these competitors have significantly greater financial and technical resources, experience and expertise in the following areas than we have, including:

 

   

research and technology development;

 

   

development of or access to disease models;

 

   

identification and development of drug candidates;

 

   

regulatory processes and approvals; and

 

   

identifying and entering into agreements with potential collaborators;

Principal competitive factors in our industry include: the quality, scientific and technical support, management and the execution of drug development and regulatory approval strategies; skill and experience of employees, including the ability to recruit and retain skilled, experienced employees; intellectual property portfolio; range of capabilities, including drug identification, development and regulatory approval; and the availability of substantial capital resources to fund these activities.

In order to effectively compete, we may need to make substantial investments in our research and technology development, drug candidate identification and development, testing and regulatory approval and licensing and business development activities. There is no assurance that we will be successful in discovering effective drug candidates using our 3D bioprinted tissues or disease models. Our technologies and drug development plans also may be rendered obsolete or noncompetitive as a result of drugs, intellectual property, technologies, products and services introduced by competitors. Any of these risks may prevent us from building a successful drug discovery business or entering into a strategic partnership or collaboration related to, any drug candidates we identify on favorable terms, or at all.

As we pursue drug development through 3D tissues and disease models, we will require access to a constant, steady, reliable supply of human cells to support our development activities.

As we pursue drug development through 3D tissues and disease models, we will require access to a constant, steady, reliable supply of human cells to support our development activities. We previously purchased certain qualified human cells from selected third-party suppliers based on quality assurance, cost effectiveness, and regulatory requirements. We also formed our now dissolved, wholly-owned subsidiary, Samsara, to serve as a key source of the primary human cells we utilized in our business. As we recommence our development operations, we will need to identify one or more sources of qualified human cells and there can be no guarantee that we will be able to access the quantity and quality of raw materials needed at a cost-effective price. Any failure to obtain a reliable supply of sufficient human cells or a supply at cost effective prices, including any impact to suppliers due to the COVID-19 pandemic, would harm our business and our results of operations and could cause us to be unable to support our drug development efforts.

Our business will be adversely impacted if we are unable to successfully attract, hire and integrate key additional employees or contractors.

Our future success depends in part on our ability to successfully attract and then retain key additional executive officers and other key employees and contractors to support our drug discovery plans. Recruiting and retaining

 

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qualified scientific and clinical personnel is critical to our success. Competition to hire qualified personnel in our industry is intense, and we may be unable to hire, train, retain or motivate these key personnel on acceptable terms given the competition among numerous pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies for similar personnel. If we are unable to attract and retain high quality personnel, our ability to pursue our drug discovery business will be limited, and our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

We may require substantial additional funding. Raising additional capital would cause dilution to our existing stockholders and may restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or to a product candidate.

We currently do not have any committed external source of funds and do not expect to generate any meaningful revenue in the foreseeable future. Our existing cash, cash equivalents and interest thereon is expected to be sufficient to fund our projected operating requirements for at least the next 12 months. We have based these estimates on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we may use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect if our operating plans change. If our Board of Directors decides that we should pursue further research and development activities than already proposed, we will require substantial additional funding to operate our proposed business, including expanding our facilities and hiring additional qualified personnel, and we would expect to finance these cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, government or other third-party funding and licensing or collaboration arrangements.

To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt, the ownership interests of our stockholders will be diluted. In addition, the terms of any equity or convertible debt we agree to issue may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of our stockholders. Convertible debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures, and declaring dividends, and may impose limitations on our ability to acquire, sell or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business.

Further, additional funds may not be available when we need them on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available to us on a timely basis, we may be required to curtail or cease our operations. Raising additional funding through debt or equity financing is likely to be difficult or unavailable altogether given the early stage of our technology and any drug candidates we identify. Furthermore, the issuance of additional securities, whether equity or debt, by us, or the possibility of such issuance, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline further and existing stockholders may not agree with our financing plans or the terms of such financings.

Clinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process with uncertain timelines and uncertain outcomes, and results of earlier studies and trials may not be predictive of future results.

Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of any drug candidates we identify, any such drug candidates must undergo extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the drug candidates in humans. Human clinical testing is expensive and can take many years to complete, and we cannot be certain that any clinical trials will be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. We may elect to complete this testing, or some portion thereof, internally or enter into a partnering or development agreement with a pharmaceutical company to complete these trials. Our inability, or the inability of any third party with whom we enter into a partnering or development agreement, to successfully complete preclinical and clinical development could result in additional costs to us and negatively impact our ability to generate revenues or receive development or milestone payments. Our future success is dependent on our ability, or the ability of any pharmaceutical company with whom we enter into a partnering or development agreement, to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for, and then successfully commercialize any drug candidates we identify.

 

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Any drug candidates we identify will require additional clinical development, management of clinical, preclinical and manufacturing activities, regulatory approval in applicable jurisdictions, achieving and maintaining commercial-scale supply, building of a commercial organization, substantial investment and significant marketing efforts. We are not permitted to market or promote any of our drug candidates before we receive regulatory approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) or comparable foreign regulatory authorities, and we may never receive such regulatory approval for any of our drug candidates.

We, or any third party with whom we enter into a partnering or development agreement, may experience numerous unforeseen events during, or as a result of, clinical trials that could delay or prevent our ability to earn development or milestone payments or for any drug candidates to obtain regulatory approval, including:

 

   

delays in or failure to reach agreement on acceptable terms with prospective contract research organizations (“CROs”) and clinical sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;

 

   

failure to obtain sufficient enrollment in clinical trials or participants may fail to complete clinical trials;

 

   

clinical trials of our drug candidates that may produce negative or inconclusive results, and as a result we, or any pharmaceutical company with who we enter into a partnering or development agreement, may decide, or regulators may require, additional clinical trials;

 

   

suspension or termination of clinical research, either by us, any third party with whom we enter into a partnering or development agreement, regulators or institutional review boards, for various reasons, including noncompliance with regulatory requirements or a finding that the participants are being exposed to unacceptable health risks;

 

   

additional or unanticipated clinical trials required by regulators or institutional review boards to obtain approval or any drug candidates may be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements to maintain regulatory approval;

 

   

regulators may revise the requirements for approving any drug candidates, or such requirements may not be as anticipated;

 

   

the cost of clinical trials for any drug candidates may be greater than anticipated;

 

   

the supply or quality of any drug candidates or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials of our drug candidates may be insufficient or inadequate or may be delayed;

 

   

regulatory authorities may suspend or withdraw their approval of a product or impose restrictions on its distribution; and

 

   

delays due to the recent COVID-19 pandemic, including with respect to the receipt of drug candidates or other materials, submission of New Drug Applications (“NDAs”), filing of Investigational New Drug (“INDs”), and starting any clinical trials for other indications or programs.

If we, or any third party with whom we enter into a partnering or development agreement, experience delays in the completion of, or termination of, any clinical trial of any drug candidates that we develop, or are unable to achieve clinical endpoints due to unforeseen events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, the commercial prospects of our drug candidates will be harmed, and our ability to develop milestones, development fees or product revenues from any of these drug candidates will be delayed.

We will rely upon third-party contractors and service providers for the execution of critical aspects of any future development programs. Failure of these collaborators to provide services of a suitable quality and within acceptable timeframes may cause the delay or failure of any future development programs.

We plan to outsource certain functions, tests and services to CROs, medical institutions and collaborators as well as outsource manufacturing to collaborators and/or contract manufacturers, and we will rely on third parties for

 

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quality assurance, clinical monitoring, clinical data management and regulatory expertise. We may elect, in the future, to engage a CRO to run all aspects of a clinical trial on our behalf. There is no assurance that such individuals or organizations will be able to provide the functions, tests, biologic supply or services as agreed upon or in a quality fashion and we could suffer significant delays in the development of our drug candidates or development programs.

In some cases, there may be only one or few providers of such services, including clinical data management or manufacturing services. In addition, the cost of such services could be significantly increased over time. We may rely on third parties and collaborators to enroll qualified patients and conduct, supervise and monitor our clinical trials. Our reliance on these third parties and collaborators for clinical development activities reduces our control over these activities. Our reliance on these parties, however, does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities, including ensuring that our clinical trials are conducted in accordance with Good Clinical Practice (“GCP”) regulations and the investigational plan and protocols contained in the regulatory agency applications. In addition, these third parties may not complete activities on schedule or may not manufacture under Current Good Manufacturing Practice (“cGMP”) conditions. Preclinical or clinical studies may not be performed or completed in accordance with Good Laboratory Practices (“GLP”) regulatory requirements or our trial design. If these third parties or collaborators do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines, obtaining regulatory approval for manufacturing and commercialization of our drug candidates may be delayed or prevented. We may rely substantially on third-party data managers for our clinical trial data. There is no assurance that these third parties will not make errors in the design, management or retention of our data or data systems. There is no assurance these third parties will pass FDA or regulatory audits, which could delay or prohibit regulatory approval.

In addition, we will exercise limited control over our third-party partners and vendors, which makes us vulnerable to any errors, interruptions or delays in their operations. If these third parties experience any service disruptions, financial distress or other business disruption, or difficulties meeting our requirements or standards, it could make it difficult for us to operate some aspects of our business.

The near and long-term viability of our drug discovery and development efforts will depend on our ability to successfully establish strategic relationships.

The near and long-term viability of our drug discovery and development efforts depend in part on our ability to successfully establish new strategic partnering, collaboration and licensing arrangements with biotechnology companies, pharmaceutical companies, universities, hospitals, insurance companies and or government agencies. Establishing strategic relationships is difficult and time-consuming. Potential partners and collaborators may not enter into relationships with us based upon their assessment of our technology or drug candidates or our financial, regulatory or intellectual property position. If we fail to establish a sufficient number of strategic relationships on acceptable terms, we may not be able to develop and obtain regulatory approval for our drug candidates or generate sufficient revenue to fund further research and development efforts. Even if we establish new strategic relationships, these relationships may never result in the successful development or regulatory approval for any drug candidates we identify for a number of reasons both within and outside of our control.

Risks Related to Government Regulation

Violation of government regulations or quality programs could harm demand for our products or services, and the evolving nature of government regulations could have an adverse impact on our business.

To the extent that our products are used in the manufacturing or testing processes for customers drug and medical device products, such end-products or services may be regulated by the FDA under Quality System Regulations (“QSR”) or the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services under Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (“CLIA’88”) regulations. The customer is ultimately responsible for QSR, CLIA’88 and other compliance requirements for their products. Failure to comply with these requirements could result in lost sales of our products and regulatory delays or objections and potential product liability claims. In addition, customers

 

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may require that services be conducted pursuant to the requirements of GLP) in order to provide suitable data for their INDs and other regulatory filings. No regulatory review of data from our platform technology has yet been conducted and there is no guarantee that our technology will be acceptable under GLP, or that compliance with GLP requirements could be achieved on the timetable required by customers. As a result, the violation of government regulations or failure to comply with quality requirements could harm demand for these products or services, and the evolving nature of government regulations could have an adverse impact on our ability to commercialize our products or services or sell the assets or intellectual property associated with these products and services on favorable terms, or at all. If we fail to do so, any strategic transaction we consummate may offer limited value for our existing business and proprietary technology and may not enhance stockholder value.

In the past, we have used hazardous chemicals, biological materials and infectious agents in our business. Any claims relating to improper handling, storage or disposal of these materials could be time consuming and costly.

Our product manufacturing, research and development, and testing activities have involved the controlled use of hazardous materials, including chemicals, biological materials and infectious disease agents. We cannot eliminate the risks of accidental contamination or the accidental spread or discharge of these materials, or any resulting injury from such an event. We may be sued for any injury or contamination that results from our use or the use by third parties of these materials, and our liability may exceed our insurance coverage and our total assets. Federal, state and local laws and regulations govern the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of these hazardous materials and specified waste products, as well as the discharge of pollutants into the environment and human health and safety matters. We were also subject to various laws and regulations relating to safe working conditions, laboratory and manufacturing practices, and the experimental use of animals. Our operations may have required that environmental permits and approvals be issued by applicable government agencies. If we failed to comply with these requirements, we could incur substantial costs, including civil or criminal fines and penalties, clean-up costs or capital expenditures for control equipment or operational changes necessary to achieve and maintain compliance.

If we fail to obtain and sustain an adequate level of reimbursement for our potential products by third-party payors, potential future sales would be materially adversely affected.

There will be no viable commercial market for our drug candidates, if approved, without reimbursement from third-party payors. Reimbursement policies may be affected by future healthcare reform measures. We cannot be certain that reimbursement will be available for our current drug candidates or any other drug candidate we may develop. Additionally, even if there is a viable commercial market, if the level of reimbursement is below our expectations, our anticipated revenue and gross margins will be adversely affected.

Third-party payors, such as government or private healthcare insurers, carefully review and increasingly question and challenge the coverage of and the prices charged for drugs. Reimbursement rates from private health insurance companies vary depending on the company, the insurance plan and other factors. Reimbursement rates may be based on reimbursement levels already set for lower cost drugs and may be incorporated into existing payments for other services. There is a current trend in the U.S. healthcare industry toward cost containment.

Large public and private payors, managed care organizations, group purchasing organizations and similar organizations are exerting increasing influence on decisions regarding the use of, and reimbursement levels for, particular treatments. Such third-party payors, including Medicare, may question the coverage of, and challenge the prices charged for, medical products and services, and many third-party payors limit coverage of or reimbursement for newly approved healthcare products. In particular, third-party payors may limit the covered indications. Cost-control initiatives could decrease the price we might establish for products, which could result in product revenues being lower than anticipated. We believe our drugs will be priced significantly higher than existing generic drugs and consistent with current branded drugs. If we are unable to show a significant benefit relative to existing generic drugs, Medicare, Medicaid and private payors may not be willing to provide

 

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reimbursement for our drugs, which would significantly reduce the likelihood of our products gaining market acceptance.

We expect that private insurers will consider the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, safety and tolerability of our potential products in determining whether to approve reimbursement for such products and at what level. Obtaining these approvals can be a time consuming and expensive process. Our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected if we do not receive approval for reimbursement of our potential products from private insurers on a timely or satisfactory basis. Limitations on coverage could also be imposed at the local Medicare carrier level or by fiscal intermediaries. Medicare Part D, which provides a pharmacy benefit to Medicare patients as discussed below, does not require participating prescription drug plans to cover all drugs within a class of products. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected if Part D prescription drug plans were to limit access to, or deny or limit reimbursement of, our drug candidates or other potential products.

Reimbursement systems in international markets vary significantly by country and by region, and reimbursement approvals must be obtained on a country-by-country basis. In many countries, the product cannot be commercially launched until reimbursement is approved. In some foreign markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. The negotiation process in some countries can exceed 12 months. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our products to other available therapies.

If the prices for our potential products are reduced or if governmental and other third-party payors do not provide adequate coverage and reimbursement of our drugs, our future revenue, cash flows and prospects for profitability will suffer.

Current and future legislation may increase the difficulty and cost of commercializing our drug candidates and may affect the prices we may obtain if our drug candidates are approved for commercialization.

In the U.S. and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of adopted and proposed legislative and regulatory changes regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay regulatory approval of our drug candidates, restrict or regulate post-marketing activities and affect our ability to profitably sell any of our drug candidates for which we obtain regulatory approval.

In the U.S., the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (“MMA”) changed the way Medicare covers and pays for pharmaceutical products. Cost reduction initiatives and other provisions of this legislation could limit the coverage and reimbursement rate that we receive for any of our approved products. While the MMA only applies to drug benefits for Medicare beneficiaries, private payors often follow Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement rates. Therefore, any reduction in reimbursement that results from the MMA may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors.

In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively the “PPACA”), was enacted. The PPACA was intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of healthcare spending, enhance remedies against healthcare fraud and abuse, add new transparency requirements for healthcare and health insurance industries, impose new taxes and fees on the health industry and impose additional health policy reforms. The PPACA increased manufacturers’ rebate liability under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program by increasing the minimum rebate amount for both branded and generic drugs and revised the definition of “average manufacturer price”, which may also increase the amount of Medicaid drug rebates manufacturers are required to pay to states. The legislation also expanded Medicaid drug rebates and created an alternative rebate formula for certain new formulations of certain existing products that is intended to increase the rebates due on those drugs. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, which administers the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program, also has proposed to expand Medicaid rebates to the utilization that occurs in the territories of the U.S., such as Puerto Rico and the

 

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Virgin Islands. Further, beginning in 2011, the PPACA imposed a significant annual fee on companies that manufacture or import branded prescription drug products and required manufacturers to provide a 50% discount off the negotiated price of prescriptions filled by beneficiaries in the Medicare Part D coverage gap, referred to as the “donut hole.” Legislative and regulatory proposals have been introduced at both the state and federal level to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for pharmaceutical products.

There have been recent public announcements by members of the U.S. Congress, regarding their plans to repeal and replace the PPACA and Medicare. For example, on December 22, 2017, President Trump signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which, among other things, eliminated the individual mandate requiring most Americans (other than those who qualify for a hardship exemption) to carry a minimum level of health coverage, effective January 1, 2019. On December 14, 2018, a U.S. District Court Judge in the Northern District of Texas, or the Texas District Court Judge, ruled that the individual mandate is a critical and inseverable feature of the PPACA, and therefore, because it was repealed as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, the remaining provisions of the PPACA are invalid as well. On December 18, 2019, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit upheld the District Court’s ruling with respect to the individual mandate but remanded the case to the District Court to consider whether other parts of the law can remain in effect. While the Texas District Court Judge has stated that the ruling will have no immediate effect, it is unclear how this decision, subsequent appeals, and other efforts to repeal and replace the PPACA will impact the law and our business. We are not sure whether additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether the FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes on the marketing approvals of our drug candidates, if any, may be. In addition, increased scrutiny by the U.S. Congress of the FDA’s approval process may significantly delay or prevent marketing approval, as well as subject us to more stringent product labeling and post-marketing approval testing and other requirements.

Moreover, payment methodologies may be subject to changes in healthcare legislation and regulatory initiatives. For example, CMS may develop new payment and delivery models, such as bundled payment models. In addition, recently there has been heightened governmental scrutiny over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several U.S. Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, reduce the cost of prescription drugs under government payor programs, and review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs. The Trump administration’s budget proposal for fiscal year 2020 contains drug price control measures, including, for example, measures to permit Medicare Part D plans to negotiate the price of certain drugs under Medicare Part B, to allow some states to negotiate drug prices under Medicaid, and to eliminate cost sharing for generic drugs for low-income patients. For example, the Trump Administration released a “Blueprint” to lower drug prices and reduce out of pocket costs of drugs that contains additional proposals to increase manufacturer competition, increase the negotiating power of certain federal healthcare programs, incentivize manufacturers to lower the list price of their products and reduce the out of pocket costs of drug products paid by consumers. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has started soliciting feedback on some of these measures and, at the same time, is implementing others under its existing authority. For example, in May 2019, CMS issued a final rule to allow Medicare Advantage Plans the option of using step therapy for Part B drugs beginning January 1, 2020. This final rule codified CMS’s policy change that was effective January 1, 2019. While any proposed measures will require authorization through additional legislation to become effective, Congress has indicated that it will continue to seek new legislative and/or administrative measures to control drug costs. We expect that additional U.S. federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that the U.S. federal government will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in reduced demand for our drug candidates, if approved for commercialization.

In Europe, the United Kingdom withdrew from the European Union on January 31, 2020, and entered into a transition period that ended on December 31, 2020. A significant portion of the regulatory framework in the United Kingdom is derived from the regulations of the European Union. We cannot predict what consequences

 

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the recent withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union will have on the regulatory frameworks of the United Kingdom or the European Union, or on our future operations, if any, in these jurisdictions.

Risks Related to Our Capital Requirements, Finances and Operations

We may be unable to continue as a going concern in the future.

We have had recurring losses from operations since inception and will likely not generate meaningful revenue for the foreseeable future. We believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and interest thereon will be sufficient to fund our projected operating requirements under our current operating plan for more than a year. However, if our operating plans change and our projected operating requirements increase, we may be unable to continue as a going concern. In this event, the perception that we may not be able to continue as a going concern may have an adverse impact on our business due to concerns about our ability to meet our future contractual obligations or pursue additional strategic transactions. Further, if we are unable to continue as a going concern, we may have to liquidate our assets, and the values we receive for our assets in liquidation and dissolution could be significantly lower than the values reflected in our financial statements and an investor could lose all or part of its investment in our equity.

Additional funds may not be available when we need them on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available to us on a timely basis, we may be required to curtail or cease our operations.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to raise sufficient additional capital on acceptable terms or at all. Raising additional funding through debt or equity financing is likely to be difficult or unavailable altogether given the early stage of our therapeutic candidates. If such additional financing is not available on satisfactory terms, or is not available in sufficient amounts, we may be required to delay, limit or eliminate the development of business opportunities and our ability to achieve our business objectives, our competitiveness, and our business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially adversely affected. Furthermore, the issuance of additional securities, whether equity or debt, by us, or the possibility of such issuance, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline further and existing stockholders may not agree with our financing plans or the terms of such financings.

We have a history of operating losses and expect to incur significant additional operating losses.

We have generated operating losses each year since we began operations, including $9.0 million and $6.8 million for the three months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As of September 30, 2020, we had incurred cumulative operating losses of $241.7 million and cumulative net losses totaling $291.2 million. We expect to incur substantial additional operating losses over the next several years as our research and development activities increase.

The amount of future losses and when, if ever, we will achieve profitability are uncertain. Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability will depend on, among other things:

 

   

successfully developing human tissues and disease models for drug discovery and development that enable us to identify drug candidates;

 

   

successfully outsourcing certain portions of our development efforts;

 

   

entering into partnering or licensing arrangements with pharmaceutical companies to further develop and conduct clinical trials for any drug candidates we identify;

 

   

obtaining any necessary regulatory approval for any drug candidates we identify; and

 

   

raising sufficient funds to finance our activities and long-term business plan.

We might not succeed at any of these undertakings. If we are unsuccessful at one or more of these undertakings, our business, prospects, and results of operations will be materially adversely affected. We may never generate significant revenue, and even if we do generate significant revenue, we may never achieve profitability.

 

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Our quarterly operating results may vary, which could negatively affect the market price of our common stock.

Our results of operations in any quarter may vary from quarter to quarter and are influenced by such factors as expenses related to:

 

   

evaluating and implementing strategic alternatives, technology licensing opportunities, potential collaborations, and other strategic transactions;

 

   

responding to the SEC inquiries regarding certain of our prior disclosures and related operations;

 

   

litigation;

 

   

research and development expenditures, including commencement of preclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

   

the timing of the hiring of new employees, which may require payments of signing, retention or similar bonuses; and

 

   

changes in costs related to the COVID-19 pandemic or the general global economy.

We believe that operating results for any particular quarter are not necessarily a meaningful indication of future results. Nonetheless, fluctuations in our quarterly operating results could negatively affect the market price of our common stock.

Our business could be adversely impacted if we are unable to retain our executive officers and other key personnel.

Our future success will depend to a significant degree upon the continued contributions of our key personnel, especially our executive officers. We do not currently have long-term employment agreements with our executive officers or our other key personnel, and there is no guarantee that our executive officers or key personnel will remain employed with us. Moreover, we have not obtained key man life insurance that would provide us with proceeds in the event of the death, disability or incapacity of any of our executive officers or other key personnel. Further, the process of attracting and retaining suitable replacements for any executive officers and other key personnel we lose in the future would result in transition costs and would divert the attention of other members of our senior management from our existing operations. Additionally, such a loss could be negatively perceived in the capital markets. Finally, certain of our executives also provide services to Viscient Biosciences, Inc. (“Viscient”). Executives that provide services to us and Viscient may not dedicate all of their time to us and we may therefore compete with Viscient for the time commitments of our executive officers from time to time

We may be subject to security breaches or other cybersecurity incidents that could compromise our information and expose us to liability.

We routinely collect and store sensitive data (such as intellectual property, proprietary business information and personally identifiable information) for ourselves, our employees and our suppliers and customers. We make significant efforts to maintain the security and integrity of our computer systems and networks and to protect this information. However, like other companies in our industry, our networks and infrastructure may be vulnerable to cyber-attacks or intrusions, including by computer hackers, foreign governments, foreign companies or competitors, or may be breached by employee error, malfeasance or other disruption. Any such breach could result in unauthorized access to (or disclosure of) sensitive, proprietary or confidential information of ours, our employees or our suppliers or customers, and/or loss or damage to our data. Any such unauthorized access, disclosure, or loss of information could cause competitive harm, result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, and/or cause reputational harm.

 

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We may experience conflicts of interest with Viscient Biosciences, Inc. with respect to business opportunities and other matters.

Keith Murphy, our Executive Chairman and Principal Executive Officer, is the Chief Executive Officer, Chairman and principal stockholder of Viscient, a private company that he founded in 2017 that is focused on drug discovery and development utilizing 3D tissue technology and multi-omics (genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics). Jeffrey N. Miner, our Chief Scientific Officer, is a co-founder, Chief Scientific Officer and a significant stockholder of Viscient, and Thomas Einar Jurgensen, our General Counsel, also serves as outside counsel to Viscient. In addition, Adam Stern, Douglas Jay Cohen and David Gobel (through the Methuselah Foundation and the Methuselah Fund), members of our Board, have invested funds through a convertible promissory note in Viscient, but do not serve as an employee, officer or director of Viscient. Additional members of our Research and Development organization also work at Viscient, and we expect that additional employees or consultants of ours will also be employees of or consultants to Viscient. We also expect to share certain facilities and equipment with Viscient. During fiscal 2020, we provided services to Viscient, and Viscient has previously purchased primary human cell-based products from our former subsidiary, Samsara Sciences, Inc. We expect to continue to provide services to Viscient and enter into additional agreements with Viscient in the future.

In addition, we license, as well as cross-license, certain intellectual property to and from Viscient and expect to continue to do so in the future. In particular, pursuant to an Asset Purchase and Non-Exclusive Patent License Agreement with Viscient, dated November 6, 2019, as amended, we have provided a paid up, worldwide, irrevocable, perpetual, non-exclusive license to Viscient under certain of our patents and know-how to (a) make, have made, use, sell offer to sell, import and otherwise exploit the inventions and subject matter covered by certain patents regarding certain bioprinter devices and bioprinting methods, engineered liver tissues, engineered renal tissues, engineered intestinal tissue and engineered tissue for in vitro research use, (b) to use and internally repair the bioprinters, and (c) to make additional bioprinters for internal use only in connection with drug discovery and development research, target identification and validation, compound screening, preclinical safety, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology (ADMET) studies, and in vitro research to complement clinical development of a therapeutic compound. Although we have entered, and expect to enter, into agreements and arrangements that we believe appropriately govern the ownership of intellectual property created by joint employees or consultants of Viscient and/or using our or Viscient’s facilities or equipment, it is possible that we may disagree with Viscient as to the ownership of intellectual property created by shared employees or consultants, or using shared equipment or facilities.

On December 28, 2020, we entered into an intercompany agreement with Viscient and Organovo, Inc., our wholly-owned subsidiary (the “Intercompany Agreement”). Pursuant to the Intercompany Agreement, we agreed to provide Viscient certain services related to 3D bioprinting technology, which includes, but is not limited to, histology services, cell isolation, and proliferation of cells, and Viscient agreed to provide us certain services related to 3D bioprinting technology, including bioprinter training, bioprinting services, and qPCR assays, in each case on payment terms specified in the Intercompany Agreement and as may be further determined by the parties. In addition, Viscient and we each agreed to share certain facilities and equipment and, subject to further agreement, to each make certain employees available for specified projects to the other party at prices to be determined in good faith by the parties. Under the Intercompany Agreement, each party will retain its own prior intellectual property.

Due to the interrelated nature of Viscient with us, conflicts of interest may arise with respect to transactions involving business dealings between us and Viscient, potential acquisitions of businesses or products, the development and ownership of technologies and products, the sale of products, markets and other matters in which our best interests and the best interests of our stockholders may conflict with the best interests of the stockholders of Viscient. In addition, we and Viscient may disagree regarding the interpretation of certain terms of the arrangements we previously entered into with Viscient or may enter into in the future. We cannot guarantee that any conflict of interest will be resolved in our favor, or that, with respect to our transactions with Viscient, we will negotiate terms that are as favorable to us as if such transactions were with another third-party.

 

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In addition, executives that provide services to us and Viscient may not dedicate all of their time to us and we may therefore compete with Viscient for the time commitments of our executive officers from time to time.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock and Liquidity Risks

We could fail to maintain the listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market, which could seriously harm the liquidity of our stock and our ability to raise capital or complete a strategic transaction.

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) has established continued listing requirements, including a requirement to maintain a minimum closing bid price of at least $1 per share. If a company trades for 30 consecutive business days below such minimum closing bid price, it will receive a deficiency notice from Nasdaq. Assuming it is in compliance with the other continued listing requirements, Nasdaq would provide such company a period of 180 calendar days in which to regain compliance by maintaining a closing bid price at least $1 per share for a minimum of ten consecutive business days.

On June 25, 2019, we received a notice letter from the Listing Qualifications Staff of Nasdaq indicating that, based upon the closing bid price of our common stock for the last 30 consecutive business days, we no longer met the requirement to maintain a minimum closing bid price of $1 per share, as set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(a)(1). On December 26, 2019, we obtained an additional compliance period of 180 calendar days by electing to transfer to the Nasdaq Capital Market to take advantage of the additional compliance period offered on that market. To qualify, we would be required to meet the continued listing requirement for market value of publicly held shares and all other initial listing standards for the Nasdaq Capital Market. On March 26, 2020, we obtained shareholder approval to effect a reverse stock split in a range from 20:1 to 40:1. On April 17, 2020, we received an additional notice letter from Nasdaq indicating that based on extraordinary market conditions, Nasdaq has determined to toll the compliance periods for bid price and market value of publicly held shares requirements through June 30, 2020. Accordingly, since we had 66 calendar days remaining in, the compliance period as of April 16, 2020, we had until September 4, 2020 to regain compliance. On August 18, 2020, we effected a 1-for-20 reverse stock split of our common stock, and on September 2, 2020, we received notification from Nasdaq that the closing bid price of our common stock had been at $1.00 per share or greater for ten consecutive business days. However, there can be no assurance that we will maintain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement or other listing requirements necessary for us to maintain the listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market.

A delisting from the Nasdaq Capital Market and commencement of trading on the OTCBB would likely result in a reduction in some or all of the following, each of which could have a material adverse effect on stockholders:

 

   

the liquidity of our common stock;

 

   

the market price of our common stock (and the accompanying valuation of our Company);

 

   

our ability to obtain financing or complete a strategic transaction;

 

   

the number of institutional and other investors that will consider investing in shares of our common stock;

 

   

the number of market markers or broker-dealers for our common stock; and

 

   

the availability of information concerning the trading prices and volume of shares of our common stock.

Our two largest shareholders have significant influence over key decision making as a result of their concentrated ownership of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock.

Our two largest shareholders, ARK Investment Management LLC (“ARK”) and Nikko Asset Management Americas, Inc. (“Nikko”), collectively own approximately 30% of our outstanding stock and are able to exercise

 

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sufficient voting rights to significantly influence the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets, or liquidation or dissolution. This concentrated position could delay, defer, or prevent a change of control, merger, consolidation, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets, or liquidation or dissolution that a substantial portion of our other stockholders support, or conversely this significant influence could potentially result in the consummation of such a transaction or liquidation that a substantial portion of our other stockholders do not support. This significant influence could also discourage a potential investor from acquiring our common stock or a potential counterparty from entering into negotiations about a potential strategic transaction and might harm the trading price of our common stock. As stockholders, even with significant influence, ARK and Nikko are entitled to vote their shares in their own interests, which may not always be in the interests of our stockholders generally.

There is no assurance that an active market in our common stock will continue at present levels or increase in the future.

Our common stock is currently traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market, but there is no assurance that an active market in our common stock will continue at present levels or increase in the future. As a result, an investor may find it difficult to dispose of our common stock on the timeline and at the volumes they desire. This factor limits the liquidity of our common stock and may have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock and on our ability to raise additional capital.

The price of our common stock may continue to be volatile, which could lead to losses by investors and costly securities litigation.

The trading price of our common stock is likely to be highly volatile and could fluctuate in response to factors such as:

 

   

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

   

continued macroeconomic conditions related to the COVID-19 pandemic;

 

   

our ability to execute on our new strategic plan;

 

   

reduced government funding for research and development activities;

 

   

actual or anticipated variations in our operating results;

 

   

adoption of new accounting standards affecting our industry;

 

   

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

   

sales of our common stock or other securities in the open market;

 

   

degree of coverage of securities analysts and reports and recommendations issued by securities analysts regarding our business;

 

   

volume fluctuations in the trading of our common stock; and

 

   

other events or factors, many of which are beyond our control.

The stock market is subject to significant price and volume fluctuations. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been initiated against such a company. Litigation initiated against us, whether or not successful, could result in substantial costs and diversion of our management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business and financial condition.

 

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Investors may experience dilution of their ownership interests because of the future issuance of additional shares of our capital stock.

We are authorized to issue 200,000,000 shares of common stock and 25,000,000 shares of preferred stock. As of September 30, 2020, there were an aggregate of 7,898,774 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding and available for issuance on a fully diluted basis and no shares of preferred stock outstanding. That total for our common stock includes 1,107,249 shares of our common stock that may be issued upon restricted stock units, the exercise of outstanding stock options, or is available for issuance under our equity incentive plans, and 59,435 shares of common stock that may be issued through our Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”).

In the future, we may issue additional authorized but previously unissued equity securities to raise funds to support our continued operations and to implement our business plan. We may also issue additional shares of our capital stock or other securities that are convertible into or exercisable for our capital stock in connection with hiring or retaining employees, future acquisitions, or for other business purposes. If we raise additional funds from the issuance of equity securities, substantial dilution to our existing stockholders may result. In addition, the future issuance of any such additional shares of capital stock may create downward pressure on the trading price of our common stock. There can be no assurance that we will not be required to issue additional shares, warrants or other convertible securities in the future in conjunction with any capital raising efforts, including at a price (or exercise prices) below the price at which shares of our common stock is currently traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market. Moreover, depending on market conditions, we cannot be sure that additional financing will be available when needed or that, if available, financing will be obtained on terms favorable to us or to our stockholders.

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.

We have paid no dividends on our common stock to date and it is not anticipated that any dividends will be paid to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. While our future dividend policy will be based on the operating results and capital needs of our business, it is currently anticipated that any earnings will be retained to finance our future expansion and for the implementation of our business plan. As an investor, you should take note of the fact that a lack of a dividend can further affect the market value of our stock and could significantly affect the value of any investment.

Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law may discourage or prevent a change of control, even if an acquisition would be beneficial to our stockholders, which could affect our stock price adversely and prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management.

Our Certificate of Incorporation, as amended (“Certificate of Incorporation”), and Bylaws, as amended (“Bylaws”), contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our board of directors that our stockholders might consider favorable. Some of these provisions:

 

   

authorize the issuance of preferred stock which can be created and issued by our board of directors without prior stockholder approval, with rights senior to those of the common stock;

 

   

provide for a classified board of directors, with each director serving a staggered three-year term;

 

   

provide that each director may be removed by the stockholders only for cause;

 

   

prohibit our stockholders from filling board vacancies, calling special stockholder meetings, or taking action by written consent; and

 

   

require advance written notice of stockholder proposals and director nominations.

In addition, we are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which may prohibit certain business combinations with stockholders owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock. These and other provisions in our Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws and Delaware law could make it more difficult for stockholders or potential acquirers to obtain control of our board of directors or initiate actions

 

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that are opposed by our then-current board of directors, including delaying or impeding a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest involving our company. Any delay or prevention of a change of control transaction or changes in our board of directors could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are not able to adequately protect our proprietary rights, our business could be harmed.

Our success will depend to a significant extent on our ability to obtain patents and maintain adequate protection for our technologies, intellectual property and products and service offerings in the United States and other countries. If we do not protect our intellectual property adequately, competitors may be able to use our technologies and gain a competitive advantage.

To protect our products and technologies, we, and our collaborators and licensors, must prosecute and maintain existing patents, obtain new patents and pursue other intellectual property protection. Our existing patents and any future patents we obtain may not be sufficiently broad to prevent others from using our technologies or from developing competing products and technologies. Moreover, the patent positions of many biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies are highly uncertain, involve complex legal and factual questions and have in recent years been the subject of much litigation. As a result, we cannot guarantee that:

 

   

any patent applications filed by us will issue as patents;

 

   

third parties will not challenge our proprietary rights, and if challenged that a court or an administrative board of a patent office will hold that our patents are valid and enforceable;

 

   

third parties will not independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies by inventing around our claims;

 

   

any patents issued to us will cover our technology and products as ultimately developed;

 

   

we will develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable;

 

   

the patents of others will not have an adverse effect on our business; or

 

   

as issued patents expire, we will not lose some competitive advantage.

As previously disclosed, we have recommenced certain historical operations and are now focusing our future efforts on developing highly customized 3D human tissues as living, dynamic models for healthy and diseased human biology for drug development. Previously, we focused our efforts on developing our in vivo liver tissues to treat end-stage liver disease and a select group of life-threatening, orphan diseases, for which there were limited treatment options other than organ transplant. We also explored the development of other potential pipeline in vivo tissue constructs. As we focus our business on developing highly customized 3D human tissues, we may sell, discontinue, adjust or abandon certain patents and patent applications relating to our historical operations. There can be no assurance that we will be successful at such efforts or sell or otherwise monetize such assets on acceptable terms, if at all. There is also no guarantee that our remaining patents will be sufficiently broad to prevent others from using our technologies or from developing competing products and technologies.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

Certain foreign jurisdictions have an absolute requirement of novelty that renders any public disclosure of an invention immediately fatal to patentability in such jurisdictions. Therefore, there is a risk that we may not be able to protect some of our intellectual property in the United States or abroad due to disclosures, which we may not be aware of, by our collaborators or licensors. Some foreign jurisdictions prohibit certain types of patent claims, such as “method-of-treatment/use-type” claims; thus, the scope of protection available to us in such jurisdictions is limited.

 

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Moreover, filing, prosecuting and defending patents on all of our potential products and technologies throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not sought or obtained patent protection to develop their own products and further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection, but where enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our future products in jurisdictions where we do not have any issued patents and our patent claims or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing.

Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biopharmaceuticals, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial cost and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business.

We may be involved in lawsuits or other proceedings to protect or enforce our patents or the patents of our licensors, which could be expensive, time-consuming and unsuccessful.

Competitors may infringe our patents or the patents of our collaborators or licensors or our licensors may breach or otherwise prematurely terminate the provisions of our license agreements with them. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims or lawsuits, which can be expensive and time-consuming. In addition, in an infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours or our collaborators or licensors is not valid or is unenforceable or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation or defense proceedings could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated, held unenforceable, or interpreted narrowly and could put our other patent applications at risk of not issuing. Additionally, our licensors may continue to retain certain rights to use technologies licensed by us for research purposes. Patent disputes can take years to resolve, can be very costly and can result in loss of rights, injunctions or substantial penalties. Moreover, patent disputes and related proceedings can distract management’s attention and interfere with running our business.

Furthermore, because of the potential for substantial discovery in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments which could harm our business.

As more companies file patents relating to bioprinters and bioprinted tissues, it is possible that patent claims relating to bioprinters or bioprinted human tissue may be asserted against us. In addition, the drug candidates we pursue may also be pursued by other companies, and it is possible that patent claims relating to such drug candidates may also be asserted against us. Any patent claims asserted against us could harm our business. Moreover, we may face claims from non-practicing entities, which have no relevant product revenue and against whom our own patent portfolio may have no deterrent effect. Any such claims, with or without merit, could be time-consuming to defend, result in costly litigation and diversion of resources, cause product shipment or delays or require us to enter into royalty or license agreements. These licenses may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Even if we are successful in defending such claims, infringement and other intellectual property litigation can be expensive and time-consuming to litigate and divert management’s attention from our core business. Any of these events could harm our business significantly.

Our current and future research, development and commercialization activities also must satisfy the obligations under our license agreements. Any disputes arising under our license agreements could be costly and distract our management from the conduct of our business. Moreover, premature termination of a license agreement could have an adverse impact on our business.

 

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In addition to infringement claims against us, if third parties have prepared and filed patent applications in the United States that also claim technology to which we have rights, we may have to participate in interference proceedings in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“PTO”) to determine the priority of invention. An unfavorable outcome could require us to cease using the related technology or to attempt to license rights to it from the prevailing party.

Third parties may also attempt to initiate reexamination, post grant review or inter partes review of our patents or those of our collaborators or licensors in the PTO. We may also become involved in similar opposition proceedings in the European Patent Office or similar offices in other jurisdictions regarding our intellectual property rights with respect to our products and technology.

We depend on license agreements with University of Missouri, Clemson University, and UniQuest for rights to use certain patents, pending applications, and know how. Failure to comply with or maintain obligations under these agreements and any related or other termination of these agreements could materially harm our business and prevent us from developing or commercializing new product candidates.

We are party to license agreements with University of Missouri, Clemson University, and UniQuest PC under which we were granted exclusive rights to patents and patent applications that are important to our business and to our ability to develop and commercialize our NovoGen Bioprinters and 3D tissue products fabricated using our NovoGen Bioprinters. Our rights to use these patents and patent applications and employ the inventions claimed in these licensed patents are subject to the continuation of and our compliance with the terms of our license agreements. If we were to breach the terms of these license agreements and the agreements were terminated as a result, our ability to continue to develop and commercialize our NovoGen Bioprinters and 3D tissue products and to operate our business could be adversely impacted.

We may be unable to adequately prevent disclosure of trade secrets and other proprietary information.

In order to protect our proprietary and licensed technology and processes, we rely in part on confidentiality agreements with our corporate partners, employees, consultants, manufacturers, outside scientific collaborators and sponsored researchers and other advisors. These agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of our confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. In addition, others may independently discover our trade secrets and proprietary information. Failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.

We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants or independent contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information of third parties.

We employ or engage individuals who were previously employed at other biopharmaceutical companies. Although we have no knowledge of any such claims against us, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed confidential information of our employees’ former employers or other third parties. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. There is no guarantee of success in defending these claims, and even if we are successful, litigation could result in substantial cost and be a distraction to our management and other employees. To date, none of our employees have been subject to such claims.

General Risk Factors

Compliance with the reporting requirements of federal securities laws can be expensive.

We are a public reporting company in the United States, and accordingly, subject to the information and reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and other federal securities laws, including the compliance

 

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obligations of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Sarbanes-Oxley Act”). The costs of complying with the reporting requirements of the federal securities laws, including preparing and filing annual and quarterly reports and other information with the SEC and furnishing audited reports to stockholders, can be substantial.

If we fail to comply with the rules of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act related to accounting controls and procedures, or, if we discover material weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control and accounting procedures, we may be subject to sanctions by regulatory authorities and our stock price could decline.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“Section 404”) requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. We believe our system and process evaluation and testing comply with the management certification requirements of Section 404. We cannot be certain, however, that we will be able to satisfy the requirements in Section 404 in all future periods. If we are not able to continue to meet the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner or with adequate compliance, we may be subject to sanctions or investigation by regulatory authorities, such as the SEC or Nasdaq. Any such action could adversely affect our financial results or investors’ confidence in us and could cause our stock price to fall. Moreover, if we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, or if we identify deficiencies in our internal controls that are deemed to be material weaknesses, we may be required to incur significant additional financial and management resources to achieve compliance.

 

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DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus may contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, about Organovo. These forward-looking statements are intended to be covered by the safe harbor for forward-looking statements provided by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are not statements of historical fact, and can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes”, “expects”, “may”, “will”, “could”, “should”, “projects”, “plans”, “goal”, “targets”, “potential”, “estimates”, “pro forma”, “seeks”, “intends” or “anticipates” or the negative thereof or comparable terminology. Forward-looking statements include discussions of strategy, financial projections, guidance and estimates (including their underlying assumptions), statements regarding plans, objectives, expectations or consequences of various transactions, and statements about the future performance, operations, products and services of Organovo. We caution our stockholders and other readers not to place undue reliance on such statements.

You should read this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we currently expect. Our business and operations are and will be subject to a variety of risks, uncertainties and other factors. Consequently, actual results and experience may materially differ from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Such risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results and experience to differ from those projected include, but are not limited to, the risk factors set forth in Part I—Item 1A, “Risk Factors”, in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 28, 2020, in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on August  10, 2020, and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on November 5, 2020, and elsewhere in the other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and any document incorporated herein by reference is accurate as of its date only. Because the risk factors referred to above could cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Further, any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which factors will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. All written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf made after the date of this prospectus are expressly qualified in their entirety by the risk factors and cautionary statements contained in and incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Unless legally required, we do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to such forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Except as otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes, which may include capital expenditures, research and development expenditures, regulatory affairs expenditures, clinical trial expenditures, legal expenditures, including intellectual property protection and maintenance expenditures, acquisitions of new technologies and investments, business combinations and the repurchase of capital stock.

The intended application of proceeds from the sale of any particular offering of securities using this prospectus will be described in the accompanying prospectus supplement relating to such offering. The precise amount and timing of the application of these proceeds will depend upon a number of factors, such as the timing and progress of our research and development efforts, the timing of any acquisition or business combination efforts, our funding requirements and the availability and costs of other funds. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we intend to temporarily invest the proceeds in short term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

General Matters

The following description summarizes the most important terms of our capital stock. Because it is only a summary of the provisions of our certificate of incorporation, as amended (the “Certificate of Incorporation”), and bylaws, as amended (the “Bylaws”), it does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. For a complete description of the matters set forth in this “Description of Capital Stock,” you should refer to our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws, each of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and to the applicable provisions of Delaware law.

As of December 31, 2020, our authorized capital stock consisted of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 25,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share. Our Board may establish the rights and preferences of the preferred stock from time to time. As of December 31, 2020, there were 7,117,083 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding and no shares of preferred stock issued and outstanding.

Common Stock

Dividend Rights. Subject to limitations under Delaware law and preferences that may apply to any then-outstanding shares of preferred stock, holders of common stock are entitled to share ratably in dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our Board in its discretion from funds legally available therefor. Dividends, if any, will be contingent upon our revenues and earnings, if any, and capital requirements and financial conditions. The payment of dividends, if any, will be within the discretion of our Board. We presently intend to retain all earnings, if any, and accordingly our Board does not anticipate declaring any dividends prior to a business combination.

Voting Rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. Our Certificate of Incorporation does not provide for cumulative voting for the election of directors. Generally, all matters to be voted on by stockholders must be approved by a majority (or, in the case of election of directors, by a plurality) of the votes cast by all shares of common stock that are present in person or represented by proxy. The Certificate of Incorporation establishes a classified board of directors that is divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only the directors in one class will be subject to election at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the directors in the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms. The Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws also provide that the directors may be removed only for cause. In addition, Organovo has reserved the right to amend, alter, change or repeal any provision in the Certificate of Incorporation, subject to any approval of our stockholders as may be required under the DGCL, and our Board is authorized to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws.

No Preemptive or Similar Rights. Our common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights, and is not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions.

Right to Receive Liquidation Distributions. In the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of common stock are entitled to share pro rata all assets remaining after payment in full of all liabilities and after providing for each class of stock, if any, having preference over the common stock, subject to the liquidation preference of any then outstanding shares of preferred stock.

Fully Paid and Non-Assessable. All of the outstanding shares of our common stock are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

Preferred Stock

As of the date of this prospectus, no shares of preferred stock are issued and outstanding. Our Board is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue up to 25,000,000 shares of preferred stock

 

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in one or more series, to determine and fix from time to time the number of shares to be included in such series, and to fix the designations, powers, preferences and rights, qualifications, limitations and restrictions thereof, including, without limitation, dividend rights, dividend rate, conversion rights, voting rights, rights and terms of redemption (including sinking fund provisions), redemption price or prices and liquidation preferences of such series, in each case without further vote or action by the stockholders. Our Board can also increase or decrease the number of shares of any such series, but not above the total number of authorized shares and not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by the stockholders.

Our Board may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control and may adversely affect the market price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock. We have no current plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Certain Provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws and the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware

Certain provisions of Delaware law, along with the Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws, may have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of us. These provisions are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our Board. However, these provisions could have the effect of delaying, discouraging or preventing attempts to acquire us, which could deprive the stockholders of opportunities to sell their shares of our common stock at prices higher than prevailing market prices.

Delaware Law

We are subject to Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (“DGCL”), which prohibits persons deemed to be “interested stockholders” from engaging in a “business combination” with a publicly held Delaware corporation for three years following the date these persons become interested stockholders unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. Generally, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. The existence of this provision may have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by our Board.

Choice of Forum

The Bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, another state or federal court located in the State of Delaware) will be the sole and exclusive forum for: (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty by any of our directors, officers or stockholders to us or our stockholders; (3) any action arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or the Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws; or (4) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. As a result, the choice of forum provision will not apply to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other

 

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claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. However, the Certificate of Incorporation does not relieve us of our duties to comply with federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder, and our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with these laws, rules and regulations. The Bylaws also provide that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to this choice of forum provision.

This choice of forum provision in the Bylaws may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or agents, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, employees or agents. In addition, stockholders who do bring a claim in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware could face additional litigation costs in pursuing any such claim, particularly if they do not reside in or near Delaware. Furthermore, the enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ governing documents has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable.

Board of Directors Vacancies. Any vacancy or newly created directorship in our Board, however occurring, shall be filled only by the vote of a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, and shall not be filled by the stockholders, unless our Board determines by resolution that any such vacancy or newly created directorship shall be filled by the stockholders. In addition, the number of directors constituting our Board shall be determined from time to time by a resolution adopted by our Board. These provisions may prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of our Board and then gaining control of our Board by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees. This makes it more difficult to change the composition of our Board and promotes continuity of management.

Classified Board. Our Board is divided into three classes. The directors in each class will serve for a three-year term, one class being elected each year by the stockholders. This system of electing and removing directors may tend to discourage a third party from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us, because it generally makes it more difficult for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors.

Stockholder Meetings. The Bylaws provide that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by the chairperson of our Board, chief executive officer or president (in the absence of a chief executive officer) or a majority of the authorized number of directors, thus prohibiting a stockholder (in the capacity as a stockholder) from calling a special meeting. These provisions might delay the ability of the stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or for stockholders controlling a majority of the capital stock to take any action, including the removal of directors.

Elimination of Stockholder Action by Written Consent. The Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws eliminate the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting unless the action to be effected by written consent and the taking of such action by written consent is approved in advance by resolution of our Board. As a result, a holder controlling a majority of the capital stock would not be able to amend the Bylaws or remove directors without holding a meeting of the stockholders called in accordance with the Bylaws.

Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations. The Bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals to be brought before a stockholder meeting and the nomination of candidates for election as directors. The Bylaws also specify certain requirements regarding the form and content of a stockholder’s notice. These provisions might preclude the stockholders from bringing matters before an annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at an annual meeting of stockholders if the proper procedures are not followed. We expect that these provisions may also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us.

No Cumulative Voting. The Certificate of Incorporation does not permit stockholders to cumulate their votes in the election of directors. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of common stock

 

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entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they choose, other than any directors that holders of Preferred Stock may be entitled to elect.

Directors Removed Only for Cause. The Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws provide that no member of our Board may be removed from office by the stockholders except for cause.

Issuance of Undesignated Preferred Stock. The ability of our Board, without action by the stockholders, to issue up to 25,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences as designated by our Board could impede the success of any attempt to change control of our company. This may have the effect of deferring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control or management of our company.

Amendment of Charter Provisions. Organovo has reserved the right to amend, alter, change or repeal any provision in the Certificate of Incorporation, subject to any approval of our stockholders as may be required under the DGCL, and our Board is authorized to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws. The provisions of the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation and the Bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in the composition of our Board. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The Transfer Agent and Registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, 17 Battery Place, New York, NY 10004.

Listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ONVO”.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”). We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.

The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses we authorize for use in connection with a specific offering of debt securities, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.

General Matters

The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations or financial condition or transactions involving us.

We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities”, which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount” (“OID”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

   

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

   

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

 

   

the maturity date or dates;

 

   

the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

   

the applicability of any guarantees;

 

   

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

   

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

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if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which the debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

   

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

   

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

   

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

   

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

   

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

   

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities, and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

   

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or at the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

   

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

   

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

   

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

   

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of the holders of the debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

   

the currency of payment of the debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

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whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any, and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

   

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.

Events of Default under the Indenture

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

   

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

   

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

   

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

   

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

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If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than certain specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, of such series of debt securities immediately due and payable. If certain specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur with respect to us, the principal amount and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

The holders of a majority of the principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority of the principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

   

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

   

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies, only if:

 

   

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made a written request;

 

   

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

 

   

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.

These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal of, or the premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including, but not limited to, the following:

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

 

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to comply with the provisions described above under “—Consolidation, Merger or Sale”;

 

   

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

 

   

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

 

   

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of, and to establish the form and terms and conditions of, the debt securities of any series as provided above under “—General Matters”, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

 

   

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

   

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

 

   

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of debt securities; or

 

   

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.

Discharge

The indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including, but not limited to, the following obligations to:

 

   

provide for payment;

 

   

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

   

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

   

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

 

   

maintain paying agencies;

 

   

hold monies for payment in trust;

 

   

recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

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compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

   

appoint any successor trustee.

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, and any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, known as DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

   

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the date of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the date of the mailing; or

 

   

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except for the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

Information Concerning the Trustee

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or

 

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use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given to it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

Payment and Paying Agents

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that, unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of, or any premium or interest on, any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the indenture or the debt securities, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in the applicable prospectus supplements and free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series.

Warrants may be issued independently or together with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement, and may be attached to or separate from those securities. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus we authorize for use in connection with the specific offering. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.

We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant agreement, if any, including a form of warrant certificate, that describes the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering. The following summaries of material provisions of the warrants and the warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

General Matters

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms relating to a series of warrants being offered, including:

 

   

the title of such securities;

 

   

the offering price or prices and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

   

the currency or currencies for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

   

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and the currency in which, these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

   

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

 

   

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

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the terms of any rights to force the exercise of the warrants;

 

   

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

   

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

 

   

a discussion of any material or special United States federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

   

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or

 

   

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent in connection with the exercise of the warrant.

Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.

Governing Law

Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the warrants or warrant agreements, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.

Enforceability of Rights By Holders of Warrants

Each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company

 

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may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

Warrant Agreement Will Not Be Qualified Under Trust Indenture Act

No warrant agreement will be qualified as an indenture, and no warrant agent will be required to qualify as a trustee, under the Trust Indenture Act. Therefore, holders of warrants issued under a warrant agreement will not have the protection of the Trust Indenture Act with respect to their warrants.

Calculation Agent

Calculations relating to warrants may be made by a calculation agent, an institution that we appoint as our agent for this purpose. The prospectus supplement for a particular warrant will name the institution that we have appointed to act as the calculation agent for that warrant as of the original issue date for that warrant. We may appoint a different institution to serve as calculation agent from time to time after the original issue date without the consent or notification of the holders.

The calculation agent’s determination of any amount of money payable or securities deliverable with respect to a warrant will be final and binding in the absence of manifest error.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.

The following description, together with the additional information included in the applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus we authorize for use in connection with a specific offering of units, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

 

   

the title of the series of units;

 

   

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

   

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

   

a discussion of certain U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and

 

   

any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

We may terminate a global security in certain situations, as described under “—Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated”, or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name”. Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

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For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the legal holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that legal holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass the payment or notice along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of an indenture, or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the legal holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

   

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

   

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

   

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

   

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

   

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

   

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, known as DTC, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “—Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated”. As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

 

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Special Considerations for Global Securities

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

   

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations described below;

 

   

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as described above;

 

   

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

   

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

   

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security;

 

   

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security, nor will we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

 

   

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do the same; and

 

   

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.

There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. The rights of holders and street name investors are described above.

A global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

   

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

   

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

   

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, direct sales to the public, “at the market” offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

 

   

the name or names of the underwriters, if any;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities or other consideration therefor, and the proceeds, if any, we will receive from the sale;

 

   

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

   

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

   

any public offering price;

 

   

any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement will be underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement, other than securities covered by any over-allotment option. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.

We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

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We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

All securities we may offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.

Any underwriter may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing transactions, short-covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Over-allotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Syndicate-covering or other short-covering transactions involve purchases of the securities, either through exercise of the over-allotment option or in the open market after the distribution is completed, to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.

Any underwriters that are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Capital Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the common stock. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.

In compliance with guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”), the maximum consideration or discount to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker dealer may not exceed 8% of the aggregate amount of the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon for us by Paul Hastings LLP, Palo Alto, California.

EXPERTS

Mayer Hoffman McCann P.C., independent registered public accounting firm, has audited Organovo’s consolidated financial statements included in its Annual Report on Form 10-K as of March 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the two years in the period ended March 31, 2020, as set forth in their report, which includes an explanatory paragraph related to the change in the method of accounting for leases and is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance upon the report of Mayer Hoffman McCann P.C., upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing, in giving said report.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are a reporting company and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities being offered under this prospectus. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities being offered under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Organovo Holdings, Inc. The SEC’s Internet site can be found at http://www.sec.gov.

 

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INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain important information that you should read about us.

The following documents are incorporated by reference into this prospectus:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 28, 2020;

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on July 29, 2020;

 

   

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on August 10, 2020;

 

   

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on November 5, 2020;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on August 6, 2020;

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April 1, 2020, April 8, 2020, May 20, 2020, July 15, 2020, August  17, 2020, September 3, 2020, September  17, 2020, November  25, 2020 and December 31, 2020;

 

   

Our Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed with the SEC on September  21, 2020; and

 

   

The description of our common stock set forth in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001-35996), filed with the SEC on July 26, 2016, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items unless such Form 8-K expressly provides to the contrary) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including those made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of such registration statement, until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the securities made by this prospectus and such future filings and will become a part of this prospectus from the respective dates that such documents are filed with the SEC. Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes hereof or of the related prospectus supplement to the extent that a statement contained herein or in any other subsequently filed document which is also incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

Documents incorporated by reference are available from us, without charge. You may obtain documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by requesting them in writing or by telephone at the following address:

Organovo Holdings, Inc.

440 Stevens Ave, Suite 200

Solana Beach, CA 92075

Attn: Corporate Secretary

Phone: (858) 224-1000

 

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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JANUARY 19, 2021

PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

Up to $50,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into a Sales Agreement (the “Sales Agreement”) with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC and JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC (each an “Agent” and together, the “Agents”), relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the Sales Agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time through the Agents, having an aggregate offering price of up to $50 million, pursuant to this prospectus. Of the shares of our common stock covered by the Sales Agreement and the related prospectus supplement, dated March 16, 2018, covering the issuance of up to $50 million of shares of our common stock, as of January 18, 2021, we have issued and sold an aggregate of 1,265,614 shares of our common stock for gross proceeds of approximately $22.0 million.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ONVO.” On January 15, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $13.97 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The Agents are not required to sell any specific number or dollar amounts of securities but will act as sales agents using their commercially reasonable efforts consistent with their respective normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between the Agents and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Each Agent will be entitled to compensation under the terms of the Sales Agreement at a commission rate of up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold by such Agent. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, the Agents will each be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the Agents will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Agents against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” on page S-6 of this prospectus and in any applicable free writing prospectuses, and under similar headings in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities, or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

 

H.C. Wainwright & Co.   JonesTrading

The date of this prospectus is                     , 2021.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     S-i  

DISCLOSURES REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-ii  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     S-1  

RISK FACTORS

     S-6  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-10  

DIVIDEND POLICY

     S-11  

DILUTION

     S-12  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     S-14  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-15  

EXPERTS

     S-15  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-15  

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     S-16  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus relates to the offering of our common stock. Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus together with the information incorporated by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” in this prospectus. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and the Agents have not, authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with additional, different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and the Agents are not, making an offer to sell or soliciting an offer to buy our common stock in any jurisdiction in which an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus supplement entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Documents by Reference.”

The distribution of this prospectus and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

We own or have rights to use the trademarks and trade names that we use in conjunction with the operation of our business. Solely for convenience, our trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ® or symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names.

 

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DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus may contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), about Organovo. These forward-looking statements are intended to be covered by the safe harbor for forward-looking statements provided by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are not statements of historical fact, and can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “believes”, “expects”, “may”, “will”, “could”, “should”, “projects”, “plans”, “goal”, “targets”, “potential”, “estimates”, “pro forma”, “seeks”, “intends” or “anticipates” or the negative thereof or comparable terminology. Forward-looking statements include discussions of strategy, financial projections, guidance and estimates (including their underlying assumptions), statements regarding plans, objectives, expectations or consequences of various transactions, and statements about the future performance, operations, products and services of Organovo. We caution our stockholders and other readers not to place undue reliance on such statements.

You should read this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we currently expect. Our business and operations are and will be subject to a variety of risks, uncertainties and other factors. Consequently, actual results and experience may materially differ from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Such risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results and experience to differ from those projected include, but are not limited to, the risk factors set forth in Part I-Item 1A, “Risk Factors”, in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 28, 2020, in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on August 10, 2020, and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on November 5, 2020, and elsewhere in the other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any related free writing prospectus and any document incorporated herein by reference is accurate as of its date only. Because the risk factors referred to above could cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Further, any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which factors will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. All written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf made after the date of this prospectus are expressly qualified in their entirety by the risk factors and cautionary statements contained in and incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Unless legally required, we do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to such forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the information contained in and incorporated by reference under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Overview

Organovo Holdings, Inc. (Nasdaq: ONVO), together with its wholly owned subsidiaries (collectively, “Organovo”, “we”, “us” and “our”), is an early-stage biotechnology company that is developing and utilizing highly customized 3D human tissues as dynamic models of healthy and diseased human biology for drug development. Our proprietary technology is being used to build functional 3D human tissues that mimic key aspects of native human tissue composition, architecture, function and disease. Our advances include cell type-specific compartments, prevalent intercellular tight junctions, and the formation of microvascular structures. We believe these attributes can enable critical complex, multicellular disease models that we will use to develop clinically effective drugs for selected therapeutic areas. Market opportunities may include externally-partnered or internally-directed drug discovery and the clinical development of new molecular entities or repurposed drugs in-licensed from other pharmaceutical companies. Our goal is to establish a pipeline of drug candidates in high-value disease areas, aiming to commence human clinical testing for at least one drug candidate within a three to five year timeframe.

Historical Operations and Strategic Alternatives Process

Prior to August 2019, we focused our efforts on developing our in vivo liver tissues to treat end-stage liver disease and a select group of life-threatening, orphan diseases, for which there are limited treatment options other than organ transplantation. We also explored the development of other potential pipeline in vivo tissue constructs in-house and through collaborations with academic and government researchers. In the past, we also explored the development of in vitro tissues, including proof of concept models of diseased tissues, for use in drug discovery and development.

In August 2019, after a rigorous assessment of our in vitro liver therapeutic tissue program, we concluded that the variability of biological performance and related duration of potential benefits no longer supported an attractive opportunity due to redevelopment challenges and lengthening timelines to compile sufficient data to support an Investigational New Drug (“IND”) filing. As a result, we suspended development of our lead program and all other related in-house pipeline development activities.

Our Board of Directors (our “Board”) also engaged a financial advisory firm to explore our available strategic alternatives, including evaluating a range of ways to generate value from our technology platform and intellectual property, our commercial and development capabilities, our listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market, and our remaining financial assets. These strategic alternatives included possible mergers and business combinations, sales of part or all of our assets, and licensing and partnering arrangements. We implemented various restructuring steps to manage our resources and extend our cash runway, including reducing commercial activities related to our liver tissues, except for sales of primary human cells out of inventory, negotiating an exit from our long-term facility lease, selling various assets, and reducing our workforce. Additionally, in November



 

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2019, we sold certain inventory and equipment and related proprietary information held by our wholly-owned subsidiary, Samsara Sciences, Inc. (“Samsara”), and as a result of such sale, Samsara ceased its operations and has since been dissolved.

After conducting a diligent and extensive process of evaluating strategic alternatives and identifying and reviewing potential candidates for a strategic acquisition or other transaction, which included the receipt of more than 27 non-binding indications of interest from interested parties and careful evaluation and consideration of those proposals, and following extensive negotiation with Tarveda Therapeutics, Inc. (“Tarveda”), on December 13, 2019, we entered into a merger agreement with Tarveda (the “Merger Agreement”). Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, and subject to the satisfaction or waiver of the conditions set forth in the Merger Agreement, our wholly-owned merger subsidiary would merge with and into Tarveda (the “Merger”), with Tarveda becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of Organovo and the surviving corporation of the Merger. The Merger Agreement included various conditions to the consummation of the Merger, including approval by our stockholders at a Special Meeting of Stockholders scheduled for April 7, 2020 (the “Special Meeting”).

At the Special Meeting, the Merger was not approved by our stockholders. As a result, we terminated the Merger Agreement with Tarveda. Pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement, we were obligated to reimburse certain of Tarveda’s merger-related expenses not to exceed $300,000, which was offset by Tarveda’s portion of shared expenses incurred by Organovo in fiscal 2020.

The Cooperation Agreement and Advisory Nominees Proposal

Following the Special Meeting and the termination of the Merger Agreement, our Board continued to solicit stockholder feedback regarding our strategic alternatives and how to maximize stockholder value. In response to feedback from our largest stockholder regarding its desire for our Board to consider opportunities in the 3D bioprinting field and suggestion that our Board should speak with Keith Murphy, our founder, stockholder and former Chief Executive Officer and Chairman, for potential business ideas, our Board initiated discussions with Mr. Murphy. Based on these discussions, we entered into a Cooperation Agreement with Mr. Murphy on July 14, 2020 (the “Cooperation Agreement”). Under the terms of the Cooperation Agreement, our Board appointed Mr. Murphy and Adam K. Stern to our Board as Class III directors, and two of our existing directors, Richard Maroun and David Shapiro, resigned from our Board and the committees thereof. Our Board also agreed to nominate, recommend, support and solicit proxies for the re-election of Messrs. Murphy and Stern at our 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “2020 Annual Meeting”). Our Board also agreed to nominate, recommend, support and solicit proxies for an advisory stockholder vote (the “Advisory Nominees Proposal”) at the 2020 Annual Meeting to appoint three individuals, Douglas Jay Cohen, David Gobel and Alison Tjosvold Milhous (collectively, the “Advisory Nominees”), to our Board. Mr. Murphy identified each of the Advisory Nominees. Our Board approved the appointment of the Advisory Nominees, to be automatically effective immediately following the final adjournment of the 2020 Annual Meeting if the final vote tabulation for the Advisory Nominees Proposal received more votes cast “FOR” than “AGAINST” its approval. In addition, each of our then-current directors (other than Messrs. Murphy and Stern) agreed to resign from our Board immediately following the appointment of the Advisory Nominees. At the 2020 Annual Meeting held on September 15, 2020, our stockholders approved the re-election of Messrs. Murphy and Stern to our Board as Class III directors to hold office until the 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and the final vote tabulation for the Advisory Nominees Proposal received more votes cast “FOR” than “AGAINST” its approval and, accordingly, effective upon the final adjournment of the 2020 Annual Meeting, Ms. Milhous was appointed as a Class I director to hold office until the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and Messrs. Cohen and Gobel were appointed as Class II directors to hold office until the 2022 Annual Meeting (collectively, the “New Director Slate”) and Carolyn Beaver, Taylor Crouch, Mark Kessel and Kirk Malloy, Ph.D. each resigned as directors.



 

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Current Drug Discovery Business

Following the election of the New Director Slate, we have recommenced operations and are now focusing our future efforts on developing highly customized 3D human tissues as living, dynamic models of healthy and diseased human biology for drug development. Our proprietary technology is being used to build functional 3D human tissues that mimic key aspects of native human tissue composition, architecture, function and disease. Our advances include cell type-specific compartments, prevalent intercellular tight junctions, and the formation of microvascular structures. We believe these attributes can enable critical complex, multicellular disease models that we will use to develop clinically effective drugs for selected therapeutic areas. Market opportunities may include externally-partnered or internally-directed drug discovery and the clinical development of new molecular entities or repurposed drugs in-licensed from other pharmaceutical companies. Our goal is to establish a pipeline of drug candidates in high-value disease areas, aiming to commence human clinical testing for at least one drug candidate within a three to five year timeframe.

We have a significant opportunity to change the classic model of drug discovery using 3D bioprinted human tissues and other 3D models (sometimes known as “organoids” or “organs on a chip”). Our new paradigm will involve augmenting or replacing available animal disease models in the discovery process with more relevant human disease models utilizing 3D human tissues developed by us. Our 3D human tissues may enable us to study the treatment of human disease by replicating key aspects of human biology in areas where this is currently a challenge with existing models. Rather than offering contract research services (as we have done in the past), we will focus on identifying and developing our own drug candidates, including from unique compounds or repurposed drugs in-licensed from other pharmaceutical companies. After identifying a drug candidate, we may out-license the drug candidate or may elect to develop the drug candidate internally. In addition to drug discovery, we will continue to evaluate opportunities to monetize our intellectual property and technologies along the way as a means to generate funds to support our primary business. We will continue to identify and work with partners and collaborators, including leading academic research sites, to develop new enabling applications which can support our discovery and development mission.

To restart our research operations, we have commenced hiring a team of research and development professionals with drug discovery and 3D tissue development experience. This team will leverage 3D models of disease to discover and develop new drugs with improved clinical efficacy.

We expect our research and development staff to grow to ten to fifteen employees. We also expect to maintain or grow a general and administrative staff of five or more employees, along with consultants, to support our operations and reporting requirements as a public company.

We expect to lease sufficient office and laboratory space to support our requirements. On November 23, 2020, we entered into two lease agreements, pursuant to which we will temporarily lease approximately 3,212 square feet of office space (the “Temporary Lease”) in San Diego and permanently lease approximately 8,051 square feet of office space (the “Permanent Lease”) in San Diego once certain tenant improvements for our permanent premises have been completed and it is ready for occupancy. The Temporary Lease commenced on November 27, 2020 and is intended to serve as temporary premises for approximately seven months. The Permanent Lease is projected to commence on July 1, 2021 and is intended to serve as our permanent premises for approximately sixty-two months.

For a complete description of our business, financial condition, results of operations and other important information, we refer you to our filings with the SEC that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended March  31, 2020, our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June  30, 2020 and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2020. For instructions on how to find copies of these documents, see the section of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information”.



 

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See the section entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus for a discussion of some of the risks relating to the execution of our business strategy.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware under the name Organovo Holdings, Inc. in January 2012. We are operating the business of our subsidiaries, including Organovo, Inc., our wholly-owned subsidiary, which we acquired in February 2012. Organovo, Inc. was incorporated in Delaware in April 2007. Our common stock has traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ONVO” since December 27, 2019. Prior to that time, it had traded on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ONVO” since August 8, 2016 and prior to that it traded on the NYSE MKT under the symbol “ONVO”.

Our principal executive offices are located at 440 Stevens Ave, Suite 200, Solana Beach, CA 92075, and our telephone number is (858) 224-1000. Our website address is www.organovo.com. Any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into, nor is it in any way part of this prospectus and should not be relied upon in connection with making any decision with respect to an investment in our securities. We are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. You may obtain any of the documents filed by us with the SEC at no cost from the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

We are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act and have elected to take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosure available for smaller reporting companies in this prospectus as well as our filings under the Exchange Act.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50 million.

 

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

Up to $50 million of shares, assuming, for illustrative purposes, the sale of 3,579,098 shares at a price of $13.97 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 15, 2021. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales prices under this offering.

 

Plan of Distribution

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through the Agents. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-14.

 

Use of Proceeds

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby for operating costs, research and development and for general corporate purposes, including working capital. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to invest in or acquire businesses or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions as of the date of this prospectus. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-10 of this prospectus.

 

Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Please read the information contained in and incorporated by reference under the heading “Risk Factors” on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement, and under similar headings in the other documents that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

 

The Nasdaq Capital Market symbol

ONVO

The number of shares of common stock that will be outstanding after this offering as shown above is based on 6,732,090 shares of common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020 and excludes the following, all as of September 30, 2020:

 

   

842,255 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and exercise of stock options outstanding at a weighted average exercise price of approximately $22.96 per share;

 

   

1,739 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of outstanding restricted stock units;

 

   

12,229 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of outstanding performance-based restricted stock units;

 

   

251,026 shares of common stock available for issuance pursuant to the Organovo Holdings, Inc. Amended and Restated 2012 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2012 Equity Incentive Plan”); and

 

   

59,435 shares of common stock available for issuance pursuant to the Organovo Holdings, Inc. 2016 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “2016 Employee Stock Purchase Plan”).

Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes no exercise of outstanding stock options or the issuance of shares of common stock pursuant to vesting and settlement of restricted stock units after September 30, 2020.



 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described under “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and all of the other information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes, before investing in our common stock. If any of the possible events described below or in those sections actually occur, our business, business prospects, cash flow, results of operations or financial condition could be harmed, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you might lose all or part of your investment in our common stock. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our operations and results.

Risks Related to this Offering of our Common Stock

Resales of our common stock in the public market during this offering by our stockholders may cause the market price of our common stock to fall.

We may issue common stock from time to time in connection with this offering. This issuance from time to time of these new shares of our common stock, or our ability to issue these shares of common stock in this offering, could result in resales of our common stock by our current stockholders concerned about the potential dilution of their holdings. In turn, these resales could have the effect of depressing the market price for our common stock.

Our common stock prices may be volatile which could cause the value of our common stock to decline.

The trading price of our common stock is likely to be highly volatile and could fluctuate in response to factors such as:

 

   

actual or anticipated variations in our operating results;

 

   

announcements of developments by us or our competitors, including new product and service offerings;

 

   

regulatory actions regarding our products or services;

 

   

reduced government funding for research and development activities;

 

   

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

 

   

adoption of new accounting standards affecting our industry;

 

   

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

   

introduction of new products by us or our competitors;

 

   

sales of our common stock or other securities in the open market;

 

   

degree of coverage of securities analysts and reports and recommendations issued by securities analysts regarding our business;

 

   

volume fluctuations in the trading of our common stock; and

 

   

other events or factors, many of which are beyond our control.

The stock market is subject to significant price and volume fluctuations. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been initiated against such a company. Litigation initiated against us, whether or not successful, could result in substantial costs and diversion of our management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business and financial condition.

 

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Our common stock is subject to trading risks created by the influence of third party investor websites.

Our common stock is widely traded and held by retail investors, and these investors are subject to the influence of information provided by third party investor websites and independent authors distributing information on the internet. This information has become influential because it is widely distributed and links to it appear as top company headlines on commonly used stock quote and finance websites, or through services such as Google alerts. These emerging information distribution models are a consequence of the emergence of the internet. Some information and content distribution is by individuals through platforms that mainly serve as hosts seeking advertising revenue. As such, we believe an incentive exists for these sites to increase advertising revenue by increasing page views, and for them to post or allow to be posted inflammatory information to achieve this end. It has been our experience that a significant portion of the information on these websites or distributed by independent authors about our Company is false or misleading, and occasionally, we believe, purposefully misleading. These sites and internet distribution strategies also create opportunity for individuals to pursue both “pump and dump” and “short and distort” strategies. We believe that many of these websites have little or no requirements for authors to have professional qualifications. While these sites sometimes require disclosure of stock positions by authors, as far as we are aware these sites do not audit the accuracy of such conflict of interest disclosures. We believe that many of these websites have few or lax editorial standards, and thin or non-existent editorial staffs. Despite our best efforts, we have not and may not be able in the future to obtain corrections to information provided on these websites about our Company, including both positive and negative information, and any corrections that are obtained may not be achieved prior to the majority of audience impressions being formed for a given article. These conditions create volatility and risk for holders of our common stock and should be considered by investors. We can make no guarantees that regulatory authorities will take action on these types of activities, and we cannot guarantee that legislators will act responsively, or ever act at all, to appropriately restrict the activities of these websites and authors.

You will experience immediate and substantial dilution.

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. For illustrative purposes only, assuming that an aggregate of $50 million of shares of our common stock are sold at the assumed offering price of $13.97 per share (the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 15, 2021), and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you will experience immediate dilution of $7.62 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. In addition, we are not restricted from issuing additional securities in the future, including shares of common stock, securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for, or that represent the right to receive, common stock or substantially similar securities. The issuance of these securities may cause further dilution to our stockholders. The exercise of outstanding stock options and the vesting of outstanding restricted stock units may also result in further dilution of your investment. See the section entitled “Dilution” on page S-12 below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you may incur if you participate in this offering.

Our management will have broad discretion over the actual amounts and timing of the expenditures of the proceeds we receive in this offering and might not apply the proceeds in ways that enhance our operating results or increase the value of your investment.

Our management will have broad discretion as to the actual amounts and timing of the expenditures of the net proceeds from this offering, and you will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of these proceeds. Our management might not apply the net proceeds of this offering in ways that enhance our operating results or increase the value of your investment. Additionally, until the net proceeds we receive are used, they may be placed in investments that do not produce income or that lose value.

 

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The actual number of shares we will issue under the Sales Agreement with the Agents, and the prices at which the shares are sold, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement with the Agents and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver placement notices to the Agents at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreements. The number of shares that are sold by the Agents after delivering a placement notice, and the prices at which shares are sold, will fluctuate based on the market price of the common stock during the sales period and limits we set with the Agents.

Certain anti-takeover defenses and applicable law may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of us.

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change of control of our company or changes in our Board of Directors that our stockholders might consider favorable. Some of these provisions:

 

   

authorize the issuance of preferred stock which can be created and issued by the Board of Directors without prior stockholder approval, with rights senior to those of the common stock;

 

   

provide for a classified Board of Directors, with each director serving a staggered three-year term;

 

   

provide that each director may be removed by the stockholders only for cause;

 

   

prohibit our stockholders from filling board vacancies, calling special stockholder meetings, or taking action by written consent; and

 

   

require advance written notice of stockholder proposals and director nominations.

In addition, we have elected to be subject to Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”) by provision of our charter. In general, Section 203 of the DGCL prevents an “interested stockholder” (as defined in the DGCL) from engaging in a “business combination” (as defined in the DGCL) with us for three years following the date that person becomes an interested stockholder unless one or more of the following occurs:

 

   

Before that person became an interested stockholder, our Board of Directors approved the transaction in which the interested stockholder became an interested stockholder or approved the business combination;

 

   

Upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the interested stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of our voting stock outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) stock held by directors who are also officers of our Company and by employee stock plans that do not provide employees with the right to determine confidentially whether shares held under the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

Following the transaction in which that person became an interested stockholder, the business combination is approved by our Board of Directors and authorized at a meeting of stockholders by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of our outstanding voting stock not owned by the interested stockholder.

The DGCL generally defines “interested stockholder” as any person who, together with affiliates and associates, is the owner of 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock or is our affiliate or associate and was the owner of 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock at any time within the three-year period immediately before the date of determination. As a result, our election to be subject to Section 203 of the DGCL could limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of us.

 

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We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future.

We have paid no dividends on our common stock to date and it is not anticipated that any dividends will be paid to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future. While our future dividend policy will be based on the operating results and capital needs of our business, it is currently anticipated that any earnings will be retained to finance our future expansion and for the implementation of our business plan. As an investor, you should take note of the fact that a lack of a dividend can further affect the market value of our stock, and could significantly affect the value of any investment.

Future sales of our common stock, or preferred stock, or of other securities convertible into our common stock or preferred stock, could cause the market value of our common stock to decline and could result in dilution of your shares.

We are authorized to issue 200,000,000 shares of common stock and 25,000,000 shares of preferred stock. As of September 30, 2020, there were an aggregate of 7,898,774 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding on a fully diluted basis and no shares of preferred stock outstanding. That total for our common stock includes 1,107,249 shares of our common stock that may be issued upon the exercise of outstanding stock options or upon the settlement of outstanding restricted stock units or is available for issuance under our equity incentive plans and 59,435 shares of common stock that may be issued through our Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”).

In the future, we may issue additional authorized but previously unissued equity securities to raise funds to support our continued operations and to implement our business plan. We may also issue additional shares of our capital stock or other securities that are convertible into or exercisable for our capital stock in connection with hiring or retaining employees, future acquisitions, or for other business purposes. If we raise additional funds from the issuance of equity securities, substantial dilution to our existing stockholders may result. In addition, the future issuance of any such additional shares of capital stock may create downward pressure on the trading price of our common stock. There can be no assurance that we will not be required to issue additional shares, warrants or other convertible securities in the future in conjunction with any capital raising efforts, including at a price (or exercise prices) below the price at which shares of our common stock is currently traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market. Moreover, depending on market conditions, we cannot be sure that additional financing will be available when needed or that, if available, financing will be obtained on terms favorable to us or to our stockholders.

Additional funds may not be available when we need them on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available to us on a timely basis, we may be required to curtail or cease our operations.

Given our failure to obtain stockholder approval for the proposed merger with Tarveda Therapeutics, Inc., raising additional funding through debt or equity financing will be difficult or not successful at all, would be dilutive and may cause the market price of our common stock to decline further. Raising additional funding through debt or equity financing is likely to be difficult or unavailable altogether given the early stage of our therapeutic candidates. Furthermore, the issuance of additional securities, whether equity or debt, by us, or the possibility of such issuance, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline further and existing stockholders may not agree with our financing plans or the terms of such financings.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of our securities offered hereby. Except as described in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby for operating costs, research and development and for general corporate purposes, including working capital. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to invest in or acquire businesses or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions as of the date of this prospectus supplement.

The timing and amount of our actual expenditures will be based on many factors, including cash flows from operations and the anticipated growth of our business. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds of the offerings. Pending their ultimate use, we intend to invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid any dividends on our common stock and do not anticipate paying any in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the operation and expansion of our business. Any future determination relating to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on a number of factors, including future earnings, capital requirements, financial conditions, future prospects, contractual restrictions and covenants and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering. We calculate net tangible book value per share by dividing the net tangible book value, which is tangible assets less total liabilities, by the number of outstanding shares of our common stock. Dilution represents the difference between the portion of the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after giving effect to this offering. Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2020 was approximately $17.039 million, or $2.53 per share.

For illustrative purposes, after giving effect to the sale of our common stock during the term of the Sales Agreement with the Agents in the aggregate amount of $50 million at an assumed offering price of $13.97 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 15, 2021, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2020 would have been approximately $65.4 million, or approximately $6.35 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in the net tangible book value of approximately $3.82 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of approximately $7.62 per share to new investors.

 

Assumed public offering price per share

      $ 13.97  

Net tangible book value per share as September 30, 2020

   $ 2.53     

Increase per share attributable to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering

   $ 3.82     

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2020, after giving effect to this offering

      $ 6.35  

Dilution in net tangible book value per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering

      $ 7.62  

 

*

Per share numbers may not add due to rounding

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 3,579,098 shares of our common stock are sold during the term of the Sales Agreement with the Agents at a price of $13.97 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on January 15, 2021, for aggregate gross proceeds of $50 million. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $13.97 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50 million is sold at that price, would increase our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering from $6.35 per share to $6.50 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $8.47 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $13.97 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the gross aggregate amount of $50 million is sold at that price, would decrease our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering from $6.35 per share to $6.18 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $6.79 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

The information and table above are based on based on 6,732,090 shares of common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020 and excludes the following, all as of September 30, 2020.

 

   

842,255 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and exercise of stock options outstanding at a weighted average exercise price of approximately $22.96 per share;

 

   

1,739 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of outstanding restricted stock units;

 

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12,229 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of outstanding performance-based restricted stock units;

 

   

251,026 shares of common stock available for issuance pursuant to the Organovo Holdings, Inc. Amended and Restated 2012 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2012 Equity Incentive Plan”); and

 

   

59,435 shares of common stock available for issuance pursuant to the Organovo Holdings, Inc. 2016 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “2016 Employee Stock Purchase Plan”).

In addition, subsequent to September 30, 2020, we effected certain issuances and actions that are not reflected in the information above, including the issuance and sale of 379,655 shares of our common stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement with the Agents, at a weighted average price of $8.4988 per share.

To the extent options, restricted units or warrants outstanding as of September 30, 2020 are additionally exercised or settled or other shares are issued, there may be further dilution to investors. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into a Sales Agreement (the “Sales Agreement”) with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC and JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC (each an “Agent” and together, the “Agents”) under which we may offer and sell shares of our common stock from time to time through the Agents. The Sales Agreement has been filed as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Upon delivery of a placement notice and subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, the Agents may sell shares of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus, may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act. We or the Agents may suspend the offering of our common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.

We will pay the Agents commissions, in cash, for their services in acting as agents in the sale of our common stock. The Agents will be entitled to compensation under the terms of the Sales Agreements at a commission rate of up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We also previously reimbursed each of the Agents for certain specified expenses, including $50,000 in fees and disbursements of their legal counsel. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation and reimbursements payable to the Agents under the terms of the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $100,000.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and the applicable Agent in connection with a particular transaction or as otherwise required by law, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and the Agents may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

The Agents will use their respective commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with their respective sales and trading practices, to solicit offers to purchase the common stock shares under the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Sales Agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, each Agent will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the Agents will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Agents against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

The offering of our common stock pursuant to the Sales Agreement will terminate upon the termination of the Sales Agreement as permitted therein. We and the Agents may each terminate the Sales Agreement at any time upon five days’ prior notice.

The Agents and their respective affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, the Agents will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.

This prospectus in electronic format may be made available on websites maintained by the respective Agents, and the Agents may distribute this prospectus electronically.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the shares of common stock being offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Paul Hastings LLP, Palo Alto, California. H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC and JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC are being represented in connection with this offering by Duane Morris LLP, New York, New York.

EXPERTS

Mayer Hoffman McCann P.C., independent registered public accounting firm, has audited Organovo’s consolidated financial statements included in its Annual Report on Form 10-K as of March 31, 2020 and 2019 and for the two years in the period ended March 31, 2020, as set forth in their report, which includes an explanatory paragraph related to the change in the method of accounting for leases and is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance upon the report of Mayer Hoffman McCann P.C., upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing, in giving said report.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We are a reporting company and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with respect to the securities being offered under this prospectus. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities being offered under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including Organovo Holdings, Inc. The SEC’s Internet site can be found at http://www.sec.gov.

 

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INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain important information that you should read about us.

The following documents are incorporated by reference into this prospectus:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on May 28, 2020;

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on July 29, 2020;

 

   

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on August 10, 2020;

 

   

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended September 30, 2020, filed with the SEC on November 5, 2020;

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020 from our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on August 6, 2020;

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April  1, 2020, April  8, 2020, May 20, 2020, July  15, 2020, August 17, 2020, September  3, 2020, September 17, 2020, November  25, 2020, and December 31, 2020;

 

   

Our Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed with the SEC on September  21, 2020; and

 

   

The description of our common stock set forth in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A (File No. 001-35996), filed with the SEC on July 26, 2016, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items unless such Form 8-K expressly provides to the contrary) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including those made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of such registration statement, until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the securities made by this prospectus and such future filings and will become a part of this prospectus from the respective dates that such documents are filed with the SEC. Any statement contained herein or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein shall be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes hereof or of the related prospectus supplement to the extent that a statement contained herein or in any other subsequently filed document which is also incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference herein modifies or supersedes such statement. Any such statement so modified or superseded shall not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

Documents incorporated by reference are available from us, without charge. You may obtain documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by requesting them in writing or by telephone at the following address:

Organovo Holdings, Inc.

440 Stevens Ave, Suite 200

Solana Beach, CA 92075

Attn: Corporate Secretary

Phone: (858) 224-1000

 

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LOGO

Up to $50,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

H.C. Wainwright & Co.   JonesTrading

 

 

                    , 2021

 

 

 


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PART II INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

The following table sets forth an estimate of the fees and expenses relating to the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered hereby, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, all of which shall be borne by Organovo Holdings, Inc. (the “Registrant”). All of such fees and expenses, except for the SEC registration fee and the FINRA filing fee, are estimated:

 

SEC registration fee

   $ 16,365  

FINRA filing fee

     11,295.21  

Legal fees and expenses

          (1) 

Printing fees and expenses

          (1) 

Accounting fees and expenses

          (1) 

Transfer agent fees and expenses

          (1) 

Warrant agent fees and expenses

          (1) 

Trustee fees and expenses

          (1) 

Miscellaneous fees and expenses

          (1) 

Total

   $       (1) 
  

 

 

 

 

(1)

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

Item 15. Indemnification of Officers and Directors.

Section 102 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”) permits a corporation to eliminate or limit the personal liability of directors of a corporation to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached his duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase or redemption in violation of the DGCL or derived an improper personal benefit. The Registrant’s certificate of incorporation, as amended, provides that no director of the Registrant shall be personally liable to it or its stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duty as a director, notwithstanding any provision of law imposing such liability, except to the extent that the DGCL prohibits the elimination or limitation of liability of directors for breaches of fiduciary duty.

Section 145 of the DGCL provides that a corporation has the power to indemnify a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or a person serving at the request of the corporation for another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise in related capacities against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with an action, suit or proceeding to which he or she was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding by reason of such position, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, in any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful, except that, in the case of actions brought by or in the right of the corporation, no indemnification shall be made with respect to judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement in connection with such action, suit or proceeding or with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or other adjudicating court determines that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

 

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The Registrant’s bylaws, as amended, provide that the Registrant will indemnify each person who was or is a party or threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding (other than an action by or in the right of the Registrant) by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director or officer of the Registrant, or is or was serving, at the Registrant’s request as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (all such persons being referred to as an “Indemnitee”), against expenses (including, attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines, and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with such action, suit or proceeding, if such Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the Registrant’s best interests, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. The Registrant’s bylaws, as amended, also provide that the Registrant will indemnify any Indemnitee who was or is a party to an action or suit by or in the right of the Registrant to procure a judgment in the Registrant’s favor by reason of the fact that the Indemnitee is or was, a director or officer, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at the Registrant’s request as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including, attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such Indemnitee in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit, if the Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the Registrant’s best interests, except that no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Registrant, unless, and only to the extent, that the Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought determines, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances, he or she is entitled to indemnification of such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper. Notwithstanding the foregoing, to the extent that any Indemnitee has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, he or she will be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred in connection therewith. Expenses must be advanced to an Indemnitee under certain circumstances.

The Registrant has entered into indemnification agreements with each of its directors and executive officers that may be broader than the specific indemnification provisions contained in the DGCL. These indemnification agreements require the Registrant, among other things, to indemnify its directors and executive officers against liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service. These indemnification agreements also require the Registrant to advance all expenses incurred by the directors and executive officers in investigating or defending any such action, suit or proceeding, subject to certain exceptions.

The Registrant’s bylaws, as amended, provide that the Registrant may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Registrant or is or was serving at the request of the Registrant as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against him or her in any such capacity, or arising out of his or her status as such, whether or not the Registrant would have the power to indemnify such person against such liability under the DGCL. The Registrant has obtained insurance under which, subject to the limitations of the insurance policies, coverage is provided to the Registrant’s directors and executive officers against loss arising from claims made by reason of breach of fiduciary duty or other wrongful acts as a director or executive officer, including claims relating to public securities matters, and to the Registrant with respect to payments that may be made by the Registrant to these directors and executive officers pursuant to the Registrant’s indemnification obligations or otherwise as a matter of law.

See also the undertakings set out in response to Item 17 herein.

 

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Item 16. Exhibits.

 

  (a)

Exhibits.

 

          Incorporated by Reference  

Exhibit

Number

  

Description

  

Form

    

File Number

  

Filing Date

  

Exhibit

 
  1.1†    Form of Underwriting Agreement.            
  1.2    Sales Agreement, dated March 16, 2018, by and among Organovo Holdings, Inc., H.C. Wainwright  & Co., LLC and JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC.      8-K      001-35996    3/16/2018      10.1  
  3.1    Certificate of Incorporation of Organovo Holdings, Inc.      8-K      333-169928    2/3/2012      3.1  
  3.2    Certificate of Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation of Organovo Holdings, Inc.      8-K      001-35996    7/27/2018      3.1  
  3.3    Certificate of Second Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation of Organovo Holdings, Inc.      8-K      001-35996    8/17/2020      3.1  
  3.4    Bylaws of Organovo Holdings, Inc. (Delaware)      8-K      333-169928    2/3/2012      3.2  
  3.5    Amendment to Organovo Holdings Bylaws, dated October 10, 2019      8-K      001-35996    10/11/2019      99.1  
  4.1*    Form of Indenture, between the Registrant and one or more trustees to be named.            
  4.2†    Form of Preferred Stock Certificate and Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred.            
  4.3†    Form of Common Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.            
  4.4†    Form of Preferred Stock Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.            
  4.5†    Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.            
  4.6†    Form of Debt Securities.            
  4.7†    Form of Unit Agreement.            
  5.1*    Opinion of Paul Hastings LLP.            
23.1*    Consent of Mayer Hoffman McCann P.C., Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.            
23.2*    Consent of Paul Hastings LLP is contained in Exhibit 5.1 to this Registration Statement.            
24.1*    Power of Attorney is contained on the signature page.            
25.1#    Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture.            

 

To the extent applicable, to be filed by an amendment or as an exhibit to a document filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated by reference herein.

*

Filed herewith.

#

To be filed separately under the electronic form type 305B2, if applicable.

 

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Item 17. Undertakings.

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement.

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

Provided, however, that:

Paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the Registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(i) Each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a

 

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document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(7) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933:

(i) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be a part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and

(ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(8) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the

 

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successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Solana Beach, State of California, on January 19, 2021.

 

ORGANOVO HOLDINGS, INC.

By:    

 

/s/ Keith Murphy

 

  Keith Murphy

  Executive Chairman

POWER OF ATTORNEY

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Keith Murphy, Chris Heberlig and Thomas Jurgensen, and each or any one of them, as his or her true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments and any related registration statements filed pursuant to Rule 462 and otherwise) to this Registration Statement, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or any of them, or their or his or her substitutes or substitute, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Keith Murphy

Keith Murphy

  

Executive Chairman

(Principal Executive Officer)

  January 19, 2021

/s/ Chris Heberlig

Chris Heberlig

  

President and Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

  January 19, 2021

/s/ Adam K. Stern

Adam K. Stern

   Director   January 19, 2021

/s/ Alison Tjosvold Milhous

Alison Tjosvold Milhous

   Director   January 19, 2021

/s/ David Gobel

David Gobel

   Director   January 19, 2021

/s/ Douglas Jay Cohen

Douglas Jay Cohen

   Director   January 19, 2021
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