As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 13, 2020

 

Registration No. 333-

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM S-3

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

______________________________________________

 

IMMUNIC, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   56-2358443
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)   (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

1200 Avenue of the Americas

Suite 200

New York, NY 10036

(332) 255-9818

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number,

including area code of registrant’s principal executive offices)

________________________________________________

 

Daniel Vitt, Ph.D.

Immunic, Inc.

1200 Avenue of the Americas

Suite 200

New York, NY 10036

(332) 255-9818

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number,

including area code of agent for service)

 

With a copy to:

Ilan Katz, Esq.

Dentons US LLP

1221 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10020-1089

Telephone: (212) 768-6700

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement, as the registrant shall determine.

 

If the only securities being registered on this form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer   Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer   Smaller reporting company
      Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

 

_______________________________________

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount to be

registered/proposed

maximum offering price

per unit/proposed

maximum aggregate

offering price

 

Amount of

Registration Fee

Common Stock   (1)(2)    
Preferred Stock   (1)(2)    
Debt Securities   (1)    
Warrants   (1)    
Units   (1)    
Total:   $250,000,000 (3)   $27,275 (4)
 
(1) An unspecified number of securities or aggregate principal amount, as applicable, is being registered as may from time to time be offered at unspecified prices and, in addition, an unspecified number of additional shares of Common Stock is being registered as may be issued from time to time upon conversion of any Debt Securities that are convertible into Common Stock or pursuant to any anti-dilution adjustments with respect to any such convertible Debt Securities.
(2) Includes rights to acquire common stock or preferred stock of the Company under any stockholder rights plan then in effect, if applicable under the terms of any such plan.
(3) Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee. No separate consideration will be received for shares of common stock that are issued upon conversion of debt securities or preferred stock registered hereunder. The aggregate maximum offering price of all securities issued pursuant to this registration statement will not exceed $250,000,000.
(4) The registration fee has been calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
           

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED NOVEMBER 13, 2020.

 

PROSPECTUS

 

IMMUNIC THERAPEUTICS

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock
Debt Securities

Warrants
Units

 

$250,000,000
____________________________

 

We may offer and sell up to $250,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.

 

Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.

 

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” SECTION ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AND THE OTHER DOCUMENTS THAT ARE INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE INTO THIS PROSPECTUS CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “IMUX.” On November 12, 2020 the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market was $19.30 per share.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

_______________________________________

 

The date of this prospectus is , 2020.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS 1
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION 2
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE 2
THE COMPANY 4
RISK FACTORS 5
USE OF PROCEEDS 5
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK WE MAY OFFER 6
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER 9
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS WE MAY OFFER 15
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS WE MAY OFFER 18
GLOBAL SECURITIES 19
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION 22
LEGAL MATTERS 23
EXPERTS 23

 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $250,000,000 of securities as described in this prospectus. Each time that we offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as applicable. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement (and any applicable free writing prospectuses), together with the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and Incorporation by Reference.”

 

We have not authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover, that the information appearing in any applicable free writing prospectuses is accurate only as of the date of that free writing prospectus, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. In addition, the market and industry data and forecasts that may be included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectuses may involve estimates, assumptions and other risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.

 

When we refer to “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean Immunic, Inc., unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the potential holders of the applicable series of securities.

 

This prospectus contains references to our trademarks and to trademarks belonging to other entities, which are protected under applicable intellectual property laws. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate that we or their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any such companies.

 

1

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.

 

Our website address is www.imux.com. The information on our website, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus.

 

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Forms of the indenture and other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may obtain a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.

 

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.

 

This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC (but excluding any information in such documents that has been furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC):

 

· Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, as filed with the SEC on March 16, 2020;

 

· our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on May 8, 2020; our amended Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q/A for the quarter ended June 30, 2020, as filed with the SEC on August 3, 2020; and September 30, 2020, as filed with the SEC on November 6, 2020;

 

· our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 8, 2020, April 20, 2020, April 22, 2020, April 27, 2020, May 13, 2020, May 19, 2020, June 12, 2020, June 19, 2020, July 7, 2020, August 3, 2020, August 7, 2020, October 20, 2020 and November 13, 2020; and

 

· the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A12B, filed with the SEC on November 15, 2013 (File No. 001-36201), and all amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

 

All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

 

2

 

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

 

Immunic, Inc.
Attn: Corporate Secretary
1200 Avenue of the Americas, Suite 200
New York, New York 10036
(332) 255-9818

 

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

 

3

 

THE COMPANY

 

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing a pipeline of selective oral immunology therapies aimed at treating chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Our main operations are in Gräfelfing near Munich, Germany. We currently have approximately 25 employees.

 

We are currently pursuing three development programs. These include the IMU-838 program, which is focused on the development of oral formulations of small molecule inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (“DHODH”); the IMU-935 program, which is focused on an inverse agonist of RORγt, an immune cell-specific isoform of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma (“RORγ”), and the IMU-856 program, which involves the development of a drug targeting the restoration of intestinal barrier function. These product candidates are being developed to address diseases such as relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (“RRMS”), ulcerative colitis (“UC”), Crohn’s disease (“CD”), and psoriasis. In addition to these large markets, our products are also being developed to address certain rare diseases with high unmet medical needs, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis (“PSC”), and Guillain-Barré syndrome (“GBS”). We are also investigating IMU-838 as a potential treatment option for coronavirus disease 2019 (“COVID-19”).

 

Prior to April 12, 2019, we were a clinical-stage biotherapeutic company known as Vital Therapies, Inc. that had historically been focused on the development of a cell-based therapy targeting the treatment of acute forms of liver failure. Vital Therapies, Inc. was originally incorporated in the State of California in May of 2003 as Vitagen Acquisition Corp., subsequently changed its name to Vital Therapies, Inc. in June 2003, and reincorporated in Delaware in January 2004. In April 2019, we completed an exchange transaction with Immunic AG pursuant to which holders of ordinary shares of Immunic AG exchanged all of their shares for shares of our common stock, resulting in Immunic AG becoming our wholly owned subsidiary. Following the exchange, we changed our name to Immunic, Inc. and we became a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of selective oral therapies in immunology with the goal of becoming a leader in treatments for chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

 

Our corporate headquarters are located at 1200 Avenue of the Americas, Suite 200, New York, New York 10036. We also have an office at Lochhamer Schlag 21, 82166 Gräfelfing, Germany. Our telephone number is (332) 255-9818. We maintain a website at www.imux.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Investors should not rely on any such information in deciding whether to purchase our common stock. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only.

 

4

 

RISK FACTORS

 

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and any subsequent Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K we file after the date of this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectuses before acquiring any of such securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

5

 

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK WE MAY OFFER

 

General

 

Our authorized capital stock consists of 130,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 20,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share.

 

The following description of our common stock and preferred stock, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplements or related free writing prospectuses, summarizes the material terms and provisions of these types of securities, but it is not complete. For the complete terms of our common stock and preferred stock, please refer to our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws that are incorporated by reference into the registration statement which includes this prospectus and, with respect to preferred stock, any certificate of designation that we may file with the SEC for a series of preferred stock we may designate, if any.

 

We will describe, in a prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectuses, the specific terms of any common stock or preferred stock we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. If indicated in a prospectus supplement, the terms of such common stock or preferred stock may differ from the terms described below.

 

Common Stock

 

As of November 13, 2020, there were 20,718,340 shares of common stock outstanding. The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held of record on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. The holders of common stock are not entitled to cumulative voting rights with respect to the election of directors, and as a consequence, minority stockholders will not be able to elect directors on the basis of their votes alone.

 

Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding shares of preferred stock, holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably such dividends as may be declared by the board of directors out of funds legally available therefor. In the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us, holders of the common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities and the liquidation preferences of any then outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive rights and no right to convert their common stock into any other securities. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to our common stock. All outstanding shares of common stock are, and all shares of common stock to be issued under this prospectus will be, fully paid and non-assessable. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any of our outstanding preferred stock.

 

Listing

 

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “IMUX.”

 

Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC (“AST”). The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219.

 

Dividends

 

We have not declared any cash dividends on our common stock since inception and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.

 

Preferred Stock

 

We are authorized to issue a total of 20,000,000 shares of preferred stock. As of November 13, 2020, there were no shares of preferred stock issued and outstanding.

 

Preferred stock may be issued from time to time, in one or more series, as authorized by the board of directors, without stockholder approval. The prospectus supplement relating to the preferred shares offered thereby will include specific terms of any preferred shares offered, including, if applicable:

 

· the title of the shares of preferred stock;

 

· the number of shares of preferred stock offered, the liquidation preference per share and the offering price of the shares of preferred stock;

 

· the dividend rate(s), period(s) and/or payment date(s) or method(s) of calculation thereof applicable to the shares of preferred stock;

 

6

 

· whether the dividends on shares of preferred stock are cumulative or not and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends on the shares of preferred stock shall accumulate;

 

· the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any, for the shares of preferred stock;

 

· the provision for a sinking fund, if any, for the shares of preferred stock;

 

· the provision for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights of the shares of preferred stock;

 

· any listing of the shares of preferred stock on any securities exchange;

 

· the terms and conditions, if applicable, upon which the shares of preferred stock will be convertible into common shares, including the conversion price (or manner of calculation thereof);

 

· discussion of federal income tax considerations applicable to the shares of preferred stock;

 

· the relative ranking and preferences of the shares of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

· any limitations on issuance of any series or class of shares of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with such series or class of shares of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

· any other specific terms, preferences, rights, limitations or restrictions of the shares of preferred stock; and

 

· any voting rights of such preferred stock.

 

The transfer agent and registrar for any series or class of preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Possible Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and our Charter Documents

 

Some provisions of Delaware law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could make the following transactions more difficult: an acquisition of us by means of a tender offer, an acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise, or the removal of our incumbent officers and directors. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish or could deter transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interest or in our best interest, including transactions which provide for payment of a premium over the market price for our shares.

 

These provisions, summarized below, are intended to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of the increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging these proposals because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

 

Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute

 

We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”), an anti-takeover statute. In general, Section 203 of the DGCL prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years following the time the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination or the acquisition of shares that resulted in a stockholder becoming an interested stockholder is approved in a prescribed manner. Generally, a “business combination” includes a merger, asset or stock sale, or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder. Generally, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with affiliates and associates, owns (or within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status did own) 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock. The existence of this provision would be expected to have an anti-takeover effect with respect to transactions not approved in advance by our board of directors, including discouraging attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares of common stock held by our stockholders.

 

7

 

Undesignated Preferred Stock.

 

The ability of our board of directors, without action by the stockholders, to issue up to 20,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences as designated by our board of directors could impede the success of any attempt to effect a change in control of us. These and other provisions may have the effect of deferring hostile takeovers or delaying changes in control or management of our company.

 

Requirements for Advance Notification of Stockholder Nominations and Proposals.

 

Our amended and restated bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals to be brought before a stockholder meeting and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors.

 

Elimination of Stockholder Action by Written Consent.

 

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation eliminates the right of stockholders to act by written consent without a meeting.

 

Staggered Board.

 

Our board of directors is divided into three classes. The directors in each class will serve for a three-year term, one class being elected each year by our stockholders. This system of electing and removing directors may tend to discourage a third party from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us, because it generally makes it more difficult for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors.

 

Removal of Directors.

 

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that no member of our board of directors may be removed from office by our stockholders except for cause and, in addition to any other vote required by law, upon the approval of the holders of at least two-thirds in voting power of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote in the election of directors.

 

Stockholders Not Entitled to Cumulative Voting.

 

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation does not permit stockholders to cumulate their votes in the election of directors. Accordingly, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they choose, other than any directors that holders of our preferred stock may be entitled to elect.

 

Authorized but Unissued Shares

 

Our authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock will be available for future issuance without stockholder approval. We may use additional shares for a variety of purposes, including future public offerings to raise additional capital, to fund acquisitions and as employee compensation. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of undesignated preferred stock may enable our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of us or our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer, stockholder or stockholder group. The rights of holders of our common stock described above will be subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of any preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future. The issuance of shares of undesignated preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.

 

Director Liability

 

Our bylaws limit the extent to which our directors are personally liable to us and our stockholders, to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL. The inclusion of this provision in our bylaws may reduce the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and may discourage or deter stockholders or management from bringing a lawsuit against directors for breach of their duty of care.

 

The provisions of Delaware law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in the composition of our board and management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interest.

 

8

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

 

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements or free writing prospectuses, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. We may issue debt securities, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. The terms of any debt securities we offer under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the “indentures,” we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.

 

We will issue any senior debt securities under the senior indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the senior indenture. We will issue any subordinated debt securities under the subordinated indenture and any supplemental indentures that we will enter into with the trustee named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference to reports that we file with the SEC.

 

The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “Trust Indenture Act”). We use the term “trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.

 

The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture and any supplemental indentures applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities. Except as we may otherwise indicate, the terms of the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are identical.

 

General

 

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in an officers’ certificate or by a supplemental indenture. Debt securities may be issued in separate series without limitation as to aggregate principal amount. We may specify a maximum aggregate principal amount for the debt securities of any series. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

· the title;

 

· the principal amount being offered, and if a series, the total amount authorized and the total amount outstanding;

 

· any limit on the amount that may be issued;

 

· whether or not we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, and, if so, the terms and who the depositary will be;

 

· the maturity date;

 

· whether and under what circumstances, if any, we will pay additional amounts on any debt securities held by a person who is not a U.S. person for tax purposes, and whether we can redeem the debt securities if we have to pay such additional amounts;

 

9

 

· the annual interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

· whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

· the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

 

· the place where payments will be payable;

 

· restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

 

· our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

· the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

· provisions for a sinking fund purchase or other analogous fund, if any, including the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant thereto or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option, to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

· provisions relating to modification of the terms of the security or the rights of the security holder;

 

· whether the indenture will restrict our ability or the ability of our subsidiaries to:

 

· incur additional indebtedness;

 

· issue additional securities;

 

· create liens;

 

· pay dividends or make distributions in respect of our capital stock or the capital stock of our subsidiaries;

 

· redeem capital stock;

 

· place restrictions on our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends, make distributions or transfer assets;

 

· make investments or other restricted payments;

 

· sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of assets;

 

· enter into sale-leaseback transactions;

 

· engage in transactions with stockholders or affiliates;

 

· issue or sell stock of our subsidiaries; or

 

· effect a consolidation or merger;

 

· whether the indenture will require us to maintain any interest coverage, fixed charge, cash flow-based, asset-based or other financial ratios;

 

· information describing any book-entry features;

 

· the applicability of the provisions in the indenture on discharge;

 

· whether the debt securities are to be offered at a price such that they will be deemed to be offered at an “original issue discount” as defined in paragraph (a) of Section 1273 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended;

 

· the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

· the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars; and

 

10

 

· any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, including any additional events of default or covenants provided with respect to the debt securities, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

U.S. federal income tax consequences applicable to debt securities sold at an original issue discount will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, U.S. federal income tax or other consequences applicable to any debt securities which are denominated in a currency or currency unit other than U.S. dollars may be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms under which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock, our preferred stock or other securities (including securities of a third party). We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock, our preferred stock or other securities (including securities of a third party) that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

 

Consolidation, Merger or Sale

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indentures will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate. If the debt securities are convertible into or exchangeable for our other securities or securities of other entities, the person with whom we consolidate or merge or to whom we sell all of our assets must make provisions for the conversion of the debt securities into securities that the holders of the debt securities would have received if they had converted the debt securities before the consolidation, merger or sale.

 

Events of Default under the Indenture

 

Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

 

· if we fail to pay interest when due and payable and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended;

 

· if we fail to pay the principal, premium or sinking fund payment, if any, when due and payable and the time for payment has not been extended;

 

· if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant contained in the debt securities or the indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive notice from the trustee or we and the trustee receive notice from the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

· if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.

 

We will describe in each applicable prospectus supplement any additional events of default relating to the relevant series of debt securities. If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default arises due to the occurrence of certain specified bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization events, the unpaid principal, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.

 

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any such waiver shall cure the default or event of default.

 

11

 

Subject to the terms of the applicable indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity or security satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

 

· the direction so given by the holders is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

 

· subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might subject it to personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.

 

The indentures provide that if an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will be required in the exercise of its powers to use the degree of care that a prudent person would use in the conduct of its own affairs. The trustee, however, may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the indenture, or that the trustee determines is unduly prejudicial to the rights of any other holder of the relevant series of debt securities, or that would subject the trustee to personal liability. Prior to taking any action under the indentures, the trustee will be entitled to indemnification against all costs, expenses and liabilities that would be incurred by taking or not taking such action.

 

A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

 

· the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

 

· the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made a written request and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the trustee or security satisfactory to it against any loss, liability or expense to be incurred in compliance with instituting the proceeding as trustee; and

 

· the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.

 

These limitations do not apply to a proceeding instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

 

We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indentures.

 

The indentures provide that if a default occurs and is continuing and is actually known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee must mail to each holder notice of the default within 45 days after it occurs, unless such default has been cured. Except in the case of a default in the payment of principal or premium of, or interest on, any debt security or certain other defaults specified in an indenture, the trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee or a trust committee of directors, or responsible officers of the trustee, in good faith determine that withholding notice is in the best interests of holders of the relevant series of debt securities.

 

12

 

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

 

Subject to the terms of the indenture for any series of debt securities that we may issue, we and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to the following specific matters:

 

· to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture;

 

· to comply with the provisions described above under “-Consolidation, Merger or Sale”;

 

· to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

 

· to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in such indenture;

 

· to provide for the issuance of, and establish the form and terms and conditions of, the debt securities of any series as provided above under “-General,” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

 

· to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor trustee;

 

· to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities and to make all appropriate changes for such purpose;

 

· to add such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred to us in the indenture; or

 

· to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect; provided that any amendment made solely to conform the provisions of the indenture to the corresponding description of the debt securities contained in the applicable prospectus or prospectus supplement shall be deemed not to adversely affect the interests of the holders of such debt securities; provided further, that in connection with any such amendment we will provide the trustee with an officers’ certificate certifying that such amendment will not adversely affect the rights or interests of the holders of such debt securities.

 

In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may only make the following changes with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

 

· extending the fixed maturity of the series of debt securities;

 

· reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any debt securities;

 

· reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver;

 

· changing any of our obligations to pay additional amounts;

 

· reducing the amount of principal of an original issue discount security or any other note payable upon acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

· changing the currency in which any note or any premium or interest is payable;

 

· impairing the right to enforce any payment on or with respect to any note;

 

· adversely changing the right to convert or exchange, including decreasing the conversion rate or increasing the conversion price of, such note, if applicable;

 

13

 

· in the case of the subordinated indenture, modifying the subordination provisions in a manner adverse to the holders of the subordinated debt securities;

 

· if the debt securities are secured, changing the terms and conditions pursuant to which the debt securities are secured in a manner adverse to the holders of the secured debt securities;

 

· reducing the requirements contained in the applicable indenture for quorum or voting;

 

· changing any of our obligations to maintain an office or agency in the places and for the purposes required by the indentures; or

 

· modifying any of the above provisions set forth in this paragraph.

 

Discharge

 

Each indenture provides that, subject to the terms of the indenture and any limitation otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we may elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

 

· register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

 

· replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

 

· maintain paying agencies;

 

· hold monies for payment in trust;

 

· recover excess money held by the trustee;

 

· compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

 

· appoint any successor trustee.

 

In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, and any premium and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

 

Form, Exchange and Transfer

 

We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series.

 

At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

 

Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

 

We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

 

14

 

If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

 

· issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

 

· register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.

 

Information Concerning the Trustee

 

The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture and is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur. However, upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

 

Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest payment.

 

We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

 

All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

 

Governing Law

 

The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

 

Ranking Debt Securities

 

The subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of subordinated debt securities that we may issue. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

 

The senior debt securities will be unsecured and will rank equally in right of payment to all of our other senior unsecured debt. The senior indenture does not limit the amount of senior debt securities that we may issue. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

 

15

 

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS WE MAY OFFER

 

We may issue warrants to purchase debt securities, preferred stock, common stock or any combination of the foregoing. We may issue warrants independently or together with any other securities we offer under a prospectus supplement. The warrants may be attached to or separate from the securities. We will issue each series of warrants under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between a warrant agent and us. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants and will not have any obligations or relationship of agency or trust for or with holders or beneficial owners of warrants. The following outlines some of the general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may issue from time to time. When we issue warrants, we will provide the specific terms of the warrants and the applicable warrant agreement in a prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectuses and such terms may differ from those described below. To the extent the information contained in the prospectus supplement differs or free writing prospectuses from this summary description, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectuses.

 

The following description, and any description of the warrants included in a prospectus supplement, may not be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the terms and provisions of the applicable warrant agreement.

 

Equity Warrants

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectuses the terms of the preferred stock warrants or common stock warrants being offered, the warrant agreement relating to the preferred stock warrants or common stock warrants and the warrant certificates representing the preferred stock warrants or common stock warrants, including, as applicable:

 

· the title of the warrants;

 

· the securities for which the warrants are exercisable;

 

· the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;

 

· if applicable, the number of warrants issued with each share of preferred stock or share of common stock;

 

· if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related preferred stock or common stock will be separately transferable;

 

· the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence, and the date on which the right will expire;

 

· the maximum or minimum number of warrants which may be exercised at any time;

 

· information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

· a discussion of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to exercise of the warrants; and

 

· any other terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.

 

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable warrant agreement and corresponding prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectuses, holders of equity warrants will not be entitled, by virtue of being such holders, to vote, consent, receive dividends, receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter, or to exercise any rights whatsoever as stockholders.

 

Except as provided in the applicable warrant agreement and corresponding prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectuses, the exercise price payable and the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon the exercise of each warrant will be subject to adjustment in certain events, including the issuance of a stock dividend to holders of common stock or preferred stock or a stock split, reverse stock split, combination, subdivision or reclassification of common stock or preferred stock. In lieu of adjusting the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of each warrant, we may elect to adjust the number of warrants. Unless otherwise provided in the applicable warrant agreement and corresponding prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectuses, no adjustments in the number of shares purchasable upon exercise of the warrants will be required until all cumulative adjustments require an adjustment of at least 1% thereof. No fractional shares will be issued upon exercise of warrants, but we will pay the cash value of any fractional shares otherwise issuable. Notwithstanding the foregoing, except as otherwise provided in the applicable warrant agreement and corresponding prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectuses, in the event of any consolidation, merger, or sale or conveyance of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety, the holder of each outstanding warrant will have the right to the kind and amount of shares of stock and other securities and property, including cash, receivable by a holder of the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock into which each warrant was exercisable immediately prior to the particular triggering event.

 

16

 

Debt Warrants

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectuses the terms of the debt warrants being offered, the warrant agreement relating to the debt warrants and the debt warrant certificates representing the debt warrants, including, as applicable:

 

· the title of the debt warrants;

 

· the aggregate number of the debt warrants;

 

· the price or prices at which the debt warrants will be issued;

 

· the designation, aggregate principal amount and terms of the debt securities purchasable upon exercise of the debt warrants, and the procedures and conditions relating to the exercise of the debt warrants;

 

· the designation and terms of any related debt securities with which the debt warrants are issued, and the number of the debt warrants issued with each security;

 

· the date, if any, on and after which the debt warrants and the related debt securities will be separately transferable;

 

· the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of each debt warrant, and the price at which the principal amount of the debt securities may be purchased upon exercise;

 

· the date on which the right to exercise the debt warrants will commence, and the date on which the right will expire;

 

· the maximum or minimum number of the debt warrants that may be exercised at any time;

 

· information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

· changes to or adjustments in the exercise price of the debt warrants;

 

· a discussion of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the exercise of the debt warrants; and

 

· any other terms of the debt warrants and terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exercise of the debt warrants.

 

As may be permitted under the warrant agreement, holders may exchange debt warrant certificates for new debt warrant certificates of different denominations, and may exercise debt warrants at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectuses. Prior to the exercise of their debt warrants, holders of debt warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon the exercise and will not be entitled to payments of principal, premium or interest on the securities purchasable upon the exercise of debt warrants.

 

Exercise of Warrants

 

Each warrant will entitle the holder of the warrant to purchase for cash at the exercise price provided in the applicable warrant agreement and corresponding prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectuses the principal amount of debt securities or shares of preferred stock or shares of common stock being offered. Holders may exercise warrants at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date provided in the applicable warrant agreement and corresponding prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectuses. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will be void.

 

Holders may exercise warrants as described in the applicable warrant agreement and corresponding prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses relating to the warrants being offered. Upon receipt of payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable warrant agreement and corresponding prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectuses, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the debt securities, shares of preferred stock or shares of common stock purchasable upon the exercise of the warrant. If less than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining warrants.

 

17

 

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS WE MAY OFFER

 

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements and free writing prospectuses, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any units that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any units offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

 

We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from a current report on Form 8-K that we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement that describes the terms of the series of units we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of the related series of units. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the units are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the unit agreement and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of units. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of units that we sell under this prospectus, as well as the complete unit agreement and any supplemental agreements that contain the terms of the units.

 

General

 

We may issue units comprised of one or more shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, debt securities and warrants in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units, including:

 

· the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

· any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below; and

 

· any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units.

 

The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Capital Stock We May Offer,” “Description of Debt Securities We May Offer” and “Description of Warrants We May Offer” will apply to each unit and to any common stock, preferred stock, debt security or warrant included in each unit, respectively.

 

Issuance in Series

 

We may issue units in such amounts and in numerous distinct series as we determine.

 

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units

 

Each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in the event of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.

 

We, the unit agents and any of their agents may treat the registered holder of any unit certificate as an absolute owner of the units evidenced by that certificate for any purpose and as the person entitled to exercise the rights attaching to the units so registered, despite any notice to the contrary.

 

18

 

GLOBAL SECURITIES

 

Book-Entry, Delivery and Form

 

Unless we indicate differently in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary (“DTC”), and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the partnership nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.

 

DTC has advised us that it is:

 

· a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;

 

· a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;

 

· a member of the Federal Reserve System;

 

· a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and

 

· a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.

 

DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (“DTCC”). DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.

 

Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.

 

To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.

 

So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.

 

19

 

Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.

 

Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.

 

Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.

 

So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below and unless otherwise provided in the description of the applicable securities herein or in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.

 

Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.

 

Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.

 

The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.

 

DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.

 

As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:

 

· DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;

 

· we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or

 

· an event of default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities,

 

we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.

 

20

 

Euroclear and Clearstream

 

If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, you may hold interests in a global security through Clearstream Banking S.A. (“Clearstream”), or Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of the Euroclear System (“Euroclear”), either directly if you are a participant in Clearstream or Euroclear or indirectly through organizations which are participants in Clearstream or Euroclear. Clearstream and Euroclear will hold interests on behalf of their respective participants through customers’ securities accounts in the names of Clearstream and Euroclear, respectively, on the books of their respective U.S. depositaries, which in turn will hold such interests in customers’ securities accounts in such depositaries’ names on DTC’s books.

 

Clearstream and Euroclear are securities clearance systems in Europe. Clearstream and Euroclear hold securities for their respective participating organizations and facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between those participants through electronic book-entry changes in their accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of certificates.

 

Payments, deliveries, transfers, exchanges, notices and other matters relating to beneficial interests in global securities owned through Euroclear or Clearstream must comply with the rules and procedures of those systems. Transactions between participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on one hand, and other participants in DTC, on the other hand, are also subject to DTC’s rules and procedures.

 

Investors will be able to make and receive through Euroclear and Clearstream payments, deliveries, transfers and other transactions involving any beneficial interests in global securities held through those systems only on days when those systems are open for business. Those systems may not be open for business on days when banks, brokers and other institutions are open for business in the United States.

 

Cross-market transfers between participants in DTC, on the one hand, and participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on the other hand, will be effected through DTC in accordance with DTC’s rules on behalf of Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by their respective U.S. depositaries; however, such cross-market transactions will require delivery of instructions to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by the counterparty in such system in accordance with the rules and procedures and within the established deadlines (European time) of such system. Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, deliver instructions to its U.S. depositary to take action to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving interests in the global securities through DTC, and making or receiving payment in accordance with normal procedures for same-day fund settlement. Participants in Euroclear or Clearstream may not deliver instructions directly to their respective U.S. depositaries.

 

Due to time zone differences, the securities accounts of a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream purchasing an interest in a global security from a direct participant in DTC will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant participant in Euroclear or Clearstream, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear or Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. Cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of interests in a global security by or through a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream to a direct participant in DTC will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following DTC’s settlement date.

 

Other

 

The information in this section of this prospectus concerning DTC, Clearstream, Euroclear and their respective book-entry systems has been obtained from sources that we believe to be reliable, but we do not take responsibility for this information. This information has been provided solely as a matter of convenience. The rules and procedures of DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear are solely within the control of those organizations and could change at any time. Neither we nor the trustee nor any agent of ours or of the trustee has any control over those entities and none of us takes any responsibility for their activities. You are urged to contact DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants directly to discuss those matters. In addition, although we expect that DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear will perform the foregoing procedures, none of them is under any obligation to perform or continue to perform such procedures and such procedures may be discontinued at any time. Neither we nor any agent of ours will have any responsibility for the performance or nonperformance by DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants of these or any other rules or procedures governing their respective operations.

 

21

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods or through underwriters or dealers, through agents and/or directly to one or more purchasers. The securities may be distributed from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

· at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

· at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

· at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

· at negotiated prices.

 

Each time that we sell securities covered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms and conditions of the offering of such securities, including the offering price of the securities and the proceeds to us, if applicable.

 

Offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus may be solicited directly. Agents may also be designated to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities will be identified in a prospectus supplement.

 

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, the securities will be sold to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

 

If an underwriter is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter at the time of sale and the name of any underwriter will be provided in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for which they may act as agent. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal, and may then resell the securities at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.

 

Any compensation paid to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers will be provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof and to reimburse those persons for certain expenses.

 

Any common stock will be listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, but any other securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than were sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option, if any. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

 

22

 

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

 

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the securities being offered hereby will be passed on by Dentons US LLP. Any underwriters, dealers or agents will also be advised about the validity of the securities and other legal matters by their own counsel, which will be named in the prospectus supplement.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of Immunic, Inc. as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 and for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2019 incorporated in this prospectus by reference to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of Baker Tilly US, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting (which report contains an explanatory paragraph describing conditions that raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern as of the date of such report as described in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements).

 

23

 

PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

 

The following table sets forth all costs and expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by us in connection with the sale of the securities being registered hereunder. All of the amounts shown shall be paid by us and are estimates except for the SEC registration fee, which was previously paid.

 

SEC Registration Fee $ 27,275  
FINRA filing fee   **  
The Nasdaq Global Select Market supplemental listing fee   **  
Printing expenses   **  
Legal fees and expenses   **  
Accounting fees and expenses   **  
Blue Sky, qualification fees and expenses   **  
Transfer agent fees and expenses   **  
Trustee fees and expenses   **  
Warrant agent fees and expenses   **  
Miscellaneous   **  
       
Total   **  

 

** The amount of securities and number of offerings are indeterminable and the expenses cannot be estimated at this time.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

 

We are incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware. Section 145(a) of the DGCL provides that a Delaware corporation may indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

 

Section 145(b) of the DGCL provides that a Delaware corporation may indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation, unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the court shall deem proper.

 

Further subsections of DGCL Section 145 provide that:

 

(1) to the extent a present or former director or officer of a corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in the defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in subsections (a) and (b) of Section 145 or in the defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses, including attorneys’ fees, actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith;

 

II-1

 

(2) the indemnification and advancement of expenses provided for pursuant to Section 145 shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under any bylaw, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise; and

 

(3) the corporation shall have the power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liability under Section 145 of the DGCL.

 

Section 145 of the DGCL makes provision for the indemnification of officers and directors in terms sufficiently broad to indemnify our officers and directors under certain circumstances from liabilities (including reimbursement for expenses incurred) arising under the Securities Act. Our bylaws provide, in effect, that, to the fullest extent and under the circumstances permitted by Section 145 of the DGCL, we will indemnify any person (and the estate of any person) who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director or officer of our company or is or was serving at our request as a director or officer of another corporation or enterprise. We may, in our discretion, similarly indemnify its employees and agents.

 

We have entered into indemnification agreements with our officers and directors.

 

Our certificate of incorporation relieves our directors from monetary damages to us or our stockholders for breach of such director’s fiduciary duty as a director to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL. Under Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL, a corporation may relieve its directors from personal liability to such corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for any breach of their fiduciary duty as directors except (i) for a breach of the duty of loyalty, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith, or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) for willful or negligent violations of certain provisions in the DGCL imposing certain requirements with respect to stock repurchases, redemptions and dividends, or (iv) for any transactions from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

 

We currently maintain an insurance policy which, within the limits and subject to the terms and conditions thereof, covers certain expenses and liabilities that may be incurred by directors and officers in connection with proceedings that may be brought against them as a result of an act or omission committed or suffered while acting as a director or officer of our company.

 

Item 16. Exhibits.

 

See the Exhibit Index attached to this registration statement and incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 17. Undertakings.

 

(a) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or any decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

II-2

 

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

Provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is a part of the registration statement.

 

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

II-3

 

(b) The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(c) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrants pursuant to the foregoing provisions described in Item 15, or otherwise, the registrants have been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrants of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of any registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, each appropriate registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

(d) The undersigned registrants hereby undertake to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

II-4

 

EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit Number Exhibit
1.1* Form of Underwriting Agreement
3.1 Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (incorporated by reference to the Exhibit 3.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on July 17, 2019)
3.2 Third Amended and Restated Bylaws (incorporated by reference to the Exhibit 3.2 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on July 17, 2019)
4.1+ Form of Indenture
4.2* Form of Warrant
4.3* Form of Warrant Agreement
4.4* Form of Unit Agreement
5.1+ Opinion of Dentons US LLP
23.1+ Consent of Baker Tilly US, LLP
23.3+ Consent of Dentons US LLP (contained in Exhibit 5.1)
24.1+ Power of Attorney (included on signature page)
25.l† Form T-l Statement of Eligibility and Qualification of the Trustee under the Indenture with respect to the debt securities
+ Filed herewith.
* To be filed by amendment hereto or pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K to be incorporated herein by reference.
† To be filed by amendment or pursuant to Trust Indenture Act Section 305(b)(2), if applicable

 

II-5

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of New York, State of New York, on November 13, 2020.

 

  IMMUNIC, INC.
     
  By: /s/ Daniel Vitt
  Name:   Daniel Vitt
  Title: President and Chief Executive Officer

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints Daniel Vitt and Duane Nash, and each of them acting individually, as his or her true and lawful attorneys- in-fact and agent, with full power of each to act alone, with full powers of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this registration statement (including post-effective amendments and any registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective under Rule 462(b) of the Securities Act), and to file the same with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming that all said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or any of them or their substitute or resubstitute, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the date indicated.

 

Signature   Title   Date
         
/s/ Daniel Vitt   President, Chief Executive Officer and Director   November 13, 2020
Daniel Vitt   (principal executive officer)  
     
         
/s/ Duane Nash   Executive Chairman of the Board   November 13, 2020
Duane Nash    
         
/s/ Glenn Whaley   VP Finance   November 13, 2020
Glenn Whaley   (principal financial and accounting officer)    
     
         
/s/ Tamar Howson   Director   November 13, 2020
Tamar Howson    
         
/s/ Joerg Neermann   Director   November 13, 2020
Joerg Neermann    
         
/s/ Vincent Ossipow   Director   November 13, 2020
Vincent Ossipow    
         
/s/ Barclay Phillips   Director   November 13, 2020
Barclay Phillips    
         
/s/ Jan Van den Bossche   Director   November 13, 2020
Jan Van den Bossche    

 

II-6