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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
FORM 10-K
      ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
          TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from            to            .
Commission file number 1-31443
HAWAIIAN HOLDINGS INC
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware   71-0879698
(State or Other Jurisdiction of   (I.R.S. Employer
Incorporation or Organization)   Identification No.)
3375 Koapaka Street, Suite G-350    
Honolulu, HI   96819
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)   (Zip Code)
(808) 835-3700
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:  
Title of each class Trading symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock ($0.01 par value) HA NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC
(NASDAQ Global Select Market)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
    Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes  No  
    Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No 
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes   No 
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer   Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer    Smaller reporting company 
  Emerging growth company 
    If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes ☒ No ☐
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Exchange Rule Act 12b-2). Yes     No 
    The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $645.8 million, computed by reference to the closing sale price of the Common Stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, on June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter.

    As of February 5, 2021, 48,451,089 shares of Common Stock of the registrant were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Such Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the registrant's fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.


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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 that reflect our current views with respect to certain current and future events and financial performance. Such forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements related to our financial statements and results of operations; any expectations of operating expenses, deferred revenue, interest rates, tax rates, income taxes, deferred tax assets, valuation allowances or other financial items; the severity, magnitude, duration and effects of the COVID-19 pandemic; the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic and related impacts will materially and adversely affect our business operations, financial performance, results of operations, financial position or achievement of strategic objectives; the duration and scope of government mandates or other limitations of or restrictions on travel; implementation of programs and enhancements in light of COVID-19; the demand for air travel in the markets in which we operate; anticipated levels of demand and bookings; additional route service; the compounding effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on competitive pressures in the markets in which we operate; our dependence on tourism; the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our suppliers; the effect of the economic downturn and the COVID-19 pandemic on our aircraft contracts and commitments; the effect of government, business and individual actions intended to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic; the terms and effectiveness of cost reduction and liquidity preservation measures taken by us; our ability to continue to generate sufficient cash to operate; changes in our future capital needs; estimations related to our liquidity requirements; our participation under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the CARES Act), the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (CAA 2021) and the terms of relief thereunder; future borrowings and obligations under CARES Act and CAA 2021 programs; the availability of aircraft fuel, aircraft parts and personnel; expectations regarding industry capacity, our operating performance, available seat miles, operating revenue per available seat mile and operating cost per available seat mile for the first quarter and full year of 2021; expected salary and related costs; estimates for daily cash burn; our expected fleet as of December 31, 2021; estimates of annual fuel expenses and measure of the effects of fuel prices on our business; the availability of, and efforts seeking, future financing; changes in our fleet plan and related cash outlays; committed capital expenditures; expected cash payments related to our post-retirement plan obligations; estimated financial charges; expected delivery or deferment of new aircraft and engines; statements related to funding our aircraft orders; the impact of accounting standards on our financial statements; the effects of any litigation on our operations or business; the effects of our fuel and currency risk hedging policies; the fair value and expected maturity of our debt obligations; our estimated contractual obligations; statements regarding the effect of fleet changes on our business, operations and cost structure; estimates of fair value measurements; estimates of required funding of and contributions to our defined benefit pension and disability plans; statements regarding the status and effects of federal and state legislation and regulations promulgated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and other regulatory agencies; statements related to airport rent rates and landing fees; statements related to our frequent flyer program; statements regarding our credit card holdback; statements regarding our debt or lease obligations and financing arrangements; statements related to risk management, credit risks, and Air traffic liability; statements related to future U.S. and global economic conditions or performance; and other matters that do not relate strictly to historical facts or statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. Words such as "expects," "anticipates," "projects," "intends," "plans," "believes," "estimates," "could," "would," "will," "might," "may," variations of such words, and similar expressions are also intended to identify such forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are and will be, as the case may be, subject to many risks, uncertainties, and assumptions relating to our operations and business environment, all of which may cause our actual results to be materially different from any future results, expressed or implied, in these forward-looking statements.

Factors that could affect such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to: the continuing and developing effects of the spread of COVID-19 on our business operations and financial condition; whether our cost-cutting efforts related to the COVID-19 pandemic will be effective or sufficient; employee up-take of voluntary early-out offers; the duration of government-mandated and other restrictions on travel; the full effect that the quarantine, restrictions on travel and other measures to limit the spread of COVID-19 will have on demand for air travel in the markets in which we operate; fluctuations and the extent of declining demand for air transportation in the markets in which we operate; our dependence on the tourist industry; our ability to generate sufficient cash and manage the cash available to us; our ability to accurately forecast quarterly and annual results; global economic volatility; macroeconomic political and regulatory developments; our dependence on the tourism industry; the price and availability of fuel, aircraft parts and personnel; foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations; competitive pressures, including the impact of increasing industry capacity between North America and Hawai'i; maintenance of privacy and security of customer-related information and compliance with applicable federal and foreign privacy or data security regulations or standards; our dependence on technology and automated systems; our reliance on third-party contractors; satisfactory labor relations; our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel and key executives; successful implementation of our growth strategy and cost reduction goals; adverse publicity; risks related to the airline industry; our ability to obtain and maintain adequate facilities and infrastructure; seasonal and cyclical volatility; the effect of applicable state, federal and foreign laws and regulations; increases in insurance costs or reductions in coverage; the limited number of suppliers for aircraft, aircraft engines and parts; our existing aircraft purchase agreements; delays in aircraft or engine deliveries or other loss of fleet
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capacity; changes in our future capital needs; fluctuations in our share price; and our financial liquidity. The risks, uncertainties, and assumptions referred to above that could cause our results to differ materially from the results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements also include the risks, uncertainties, and assumptions discussed under the heading "Risk Factors" in Item 1A in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed from time to time in our public filings and public announcements. All forward-looking statements included in this report are based on information available to us as of the date hereof. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that may arise after the date of this annual report.

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PART I
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS.
Overview
Hawaiian Holdings, Inc. (the Company, Holdings, we, us, and our) is a holding company incorporated in the State of Delaware. The Company's primary asset is sole ownership of all issued and outstanding shares of common stock of Hawaiian Airlines, Inc. (Hawaiian). Hawaiian was originally incorporated in January 1929 under the laws of the Territory of Hawai'i and became our indirect wholly-owned subsidiary pursuant to a corporate restructuring that was consummated in August 2002. Hawaiian became a Delaware corporation and the Company's direct wholly-owned subsidiary concurrent with its reorganization and reacquisition by the Company in June 2005.
Our Business
We are engaged in the scheduled air transportation of passengers and cargo amongst the Hawaiian Islands (the Neighbor Island routes), between the Hawaiian Islands and certain cities in the United States (the North America routes, and together with the Neighbor Island routes, the Domestic routes), and between the Hawaiian Islands and the South Pacific, Australia, New Zealand and Asia (the International routes), collectively referred to as our Scheduled Operations. We offer non-stop service to Hawai'i from more U.S. gateway cities (13) than any other airline, and also provide approximately 76 daily flights between the Hawaiian Islands. In addition, we operate various charter flights.
We are the longest serving airline, as well as the largest airline headquartered, in the State of Hawai'i, and the 11th largest domestic airline in the United States based on revenue passenger miles (RPMs) reported by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration Bureau of Transportation Services as of October 2020, the latest data available.
At December 31, 2020, our fleet consisted of 19 Boeing 717-200 aircraft for the Neighbor Island routes and 24 Airbus A330-200 aircraft and 18 Airbus A321-200 for the North America and International routes (inclusive of charter flights). We also own four ATR42 aircraft for the "Ohana by Hawaiian" Neighbor Island service and four ATR72 aircraft for our Neighbor Island cargo operations. During the first quarter of 2019, we retired the last of our Boeing 767-300 fleet, completing the transition to our A321 aircraft, and allowing for optimization of our products and better management of capacity.
Our goal is to be the number one destination carrier serving Hawai'i. We are devoted to the travel needs of the residents of and visitors to Hawai'i and we offer a unique travel experience. We are strongly rooted in the culture and people of Hawai'i and we seek to provide high quality service to our customers that exemplifies the spirit of Aloha.
Purpose and Values
Our purpose is to connect people with Aloha. It captures how we bring people closer together, and how we share the aloha spirit with the people and places we serve. It is core to who we are, how we see the world and how we engage with the people and places around us. Aloha is a way of life, but also a choice each of our employees makes every day, constantly striving to be the very best we can be. With aloha in everything we do, we share moments and our spirit with guests and each other.
Our values, reflected below, guide how we act, lead, and make decisions:

Mālama (Care): We care about the people and places we serve, and personally commit to their well-being
Ho‘okipa (Hospitality): We are genuine hosts, welcoming people into our home with warmth, gratitude and full hearts
Lōkahi (Collaboration): We come together in harmony, always seeking better ways to succeed as a team
Po‘okela (Excellence): We strive for excellence, competing to thrive
Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic

Due to the rapid and unprecedented spread of COVID-19, what began with suspension of our service to South Korea and Japan in late February 2020 accelerated in March 2020 when governments instituted requirements of self-isolation or quarantine for incoming travel. This was followed by the announcement in late March 2020 and early April 2020 of a 14-day mandatory quarantine for all travelers to, from and within the State of Hawai'i, respectively. On December 17, 2020, the mandatory self-quarantine period was reduced from 14 to 10 days. These restrictions, combined with the ongoing spread and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic globally, have continued to significantly suppress customer demand, which remains at historically low levels.

Restrictions for travel to and within the State of Hawai'i as well as travel to and from various international locations, including those in the Hawaiian network, remain in effect. Since October 15, 2020, the State of Hawai'i has allowed travelers coming to Hawai'i from the mainland U.S. to bypass the quarantine requirement with proof of a negative COVID-19 test from a state-
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approved testing partner (the pre-travel testing program), and the pre-travel testing program has since been expanded to include international travelers from Japan, South Korea, and Canada. The State of Hawai'i and counties within the state continue to evaluate and update testing requirements for travel to and within the state, including the required timing of testing results and the expansion of the pre-travel testing program to travelers from other international locations. In addition to restrictions mandated by the State of Hawai'i, on January 21, 2021, President Biden issued an executive order that requires international travelers to produce proof of a recent negative COVID-19 test prior to entry into the United States and comply with applicable Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines concerning international travel, including recommended periods of self-quarantine after entry into the United States.

Following the announcement and implementation of the pre-travel testing program, we saw an increase in bookings and have begun rebuilding our North America, Neighbor Island and International flight schedules commensurate with anticipated increases in demand. During the fourth quarter, we reinstated non-stop service from Honolulu to Las Vegas, Phoenix, San Jose, Oakland, New York and Boston, thereby restoring service to all of our pre-pandemic origin points on the U.S. mainland, as well as non-stop service from Honolulu to Tokyo (Haneda and Narita), Japan, Osaka, Japan, and Seoul, South Korea. While we doubled our capacity during the fourth quarter of 2020, as compared to the third quarter of 2020, our capacity was down approximately 72% compared to the same period in 2019. In December 2020, we announced the addition of three new U.S. mainland cities: Austin, Texas, Orlando, Florida, and Ontario, California with service to and from Honolulu, Hawai'i, beginning on April 21, March 11, and March 16, 2021, respectively. We also expanded service with daily non-stop flights between Kahului, Hawai'i and Long Beach, California commencing in March 2021.

While certain markets have reopened, others, particularly international markets, remain closed or continue to enforce extended quarantines, including as new strains of COVID-19 are identified. There can be no assurance whether, at some point, other counties or the entire State of Hawai'i may limit or suspend the pre-travel testing program should the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic worsen. For example, the County of Kaua'i suspended its participation in the statewide pre-travel testing program in late November and, effective January 5, 2021, resumed its participation in the pre-travel testing program for interisland travelers and instituted an Enhanced Movement Quarantine pre- and post-travel testing program for transpacific travelers. The United States and international governments could also impose, extend or otherwise modify existing travel restrictions on international travel into the United States. As a result of all the factors above, and our results to date, we expect bookings and revenue and results of operations to continue to be volatile with revenue trends experienced in the fourth quarter of 2020 to continue in the first quarter of 2021. These trends may result in decreases to existing or anticipated levels, which decreases could be material. We will continue to assess our routes and schedule in response to changes in demand, including related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have implemented enhanced safety protocols focusing on our staff and guests, while at the same time working to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on our financial position and operations.

Guest and Employee Experience. We have implemented enhanced cleaning procedures and guest-facing protocols in an effort to minimize the risk of transmission of COVID-19.
Capacity Impacts. In response to reduced passenger demand as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we significantly reduced system capacity beginning late in the first quarter of 2020 to a level that maintained essential services, made adjustments to better align capacity with expected passenger demand throughout 2020 and expect to continue to make capacity adjustments throughout 2021.
Expense Management. In response to the reduction in revenue we experienced in 2020, we have implemented, and will continue to implement as necessary, cost savings and liquidity measures.
Cash Flow and Liquidity Management. Our cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments as of December 31, 2020 was approximately $864.4 million as a result of various actions taken to increase liquidity and strengthen our financial position during 2020.
Flight Operations
Our flight operations are based in Honolulu, Hawai'i. Due to effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, we significantly reduced system capacity to a level that maintained essential services to align capacity with expected demand. At December 31, 2020, we operated 118 scheduled flights with:
Daily service on our North America routes between the State of Hawai'i and Long Beach, Los Angeles, Oakland, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Jose, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington; and scheduled service between the State of Hawai'i and Boston, Massachusetts; Phoenix, Arizona; and New York City, New York.
Daily service on our Neighbor Island routes among the six major islands of the State of Hawai'i.
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Scheduled service on our International routes between the State of Hawai'i and Tokyo (Haneda and Narita), Japan, Osaka, Japan; and Seoul, South Korea.
In addition, we operate various ad hoc charters.
As of December 31, 2020, we have suspended flights to the following destinations through at least the end of the second quarter of 2021.
Service between the State of Hawai'i and Pago Pago, American Samoa; Papeete, Tahiti; Sydney, Australia, Brisbane, Australia; Auckland, New Zealand; Sapporo, Japan; and Fukuoka, Japan.
Fuel
Our results of operations are significantly impacted by changes in the price and availability of aircraft fuel. The following table shows our aircraft fuel consumption and costs:
Year Gallons
consumed
Total cost,
including taxes
Average cost
per gallon
Percent of
operating expenses
  (in thousands)    
2020 106,225  $ 161,363  $ 1.52  10.8  %
2019 270,001  $ 542,573  $ 2.01  21.7  %
2018 273,783  $ 599,544  $ 2.19  23.8  %
As illustrated by the table above, fuel costs constitute a significant portion of our operating expenses. We purchase aircraft fuel at prevailing market prices, and seek to manage economic risks associated with fluctuations in aircraft fuel prices by entering into various derivative financial instruments.
Aircraft Maintenance
Our aircraft maintenance programs consist of a series of phased or continuous checks for each aircraft type. These checks are performed at specified intervals measured by calendar months, time flown, and by the number of takeoffs and landings, or cycles operated. In addition, we perform inspections, repairs, and modifications of our aircraft in response to FAA directives. We perform checks ranging from "walk around" inspections by our pilots before each flight's departure to major overhauls of the airframes which can take several weeks to complete. Aircraft engines are subject to phased maintenance programs designed to detect and remedy potential problems before they occur. Certain airframe and engine parts and components, whose service lives are time or cycle controlled, are replaced or refurbished prior to the expiration of their time or cycle limits. We have contracts with third parties to provide certain maintenance on our aircraft and aircraft engines.
Marketing and Ticket Distribution
We utilize various distribution channels for marketing and ticket distribution including our website www.hawaiianairlines.com, (primarily for our North America and Neighbor Island routes) and travel agencies and wholesale distributors (primarily for our International routes).
Our website is available in English, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese and offers our customers information on our flight schedules and status, information on our HawaiianMiles frequent flyer program, the ability to book reservations on our flights or connecting flights with any of our code-share partners, and the ability to purchase hotel, car and vacation packages. We also distribute our fares through online travel agencies.
Frequent Flyer Program
The HawaiianMiles frequent flyer program was initiated in 1983 predominantly serving the intra-Hawai'i markets. At December 2020, the HawaiianMiles program has continued to grow, with approximately 10 million total members and approximately 2.5 million active members across Hawai'i, North America and the Pacific Rim. Approximately 58% of frequent flyer program members reside in the U.S. mainland, 26% live in Hawai'i, and the remainder live in our international markets.
HawaiianMiles allows passengers to earn mileage credits by flying with us and our partner carriers. In addition, members earn mileage credits for patronage with our other program partners, including credit card issuers, hotels, car rental firms, and general merchants pursuant to our exchange partnership agreements. We also sell mileage credits to other companies participating in the program. Our Pualani Gold and Platinum status levels recognize our top fliers with enhanced benefits such as priority airport experiences, Premier Club access, seat upgrades and additional baggage allowances. With a large Hawai'i-based route network, our program has developed an extensive network of partnerships with leading local (Hawai'i) companies that allow members to earn miles beyond their flight activity. Partnerships in key spend categories such as grocery, retail, dining, banking and home improvement provide opportunities for member engagement and third-party revenues.
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HawaiianMiles members have a choice of various awards based on accumulated mileage credits, with most of the awards being redeemed for free air travel on Hawaiian.
HawaiianMiles accounts with no activity (frequent flyer miles earned or redeemed) for 18 months automatically expire. The number of free travel awards used for travel on Hawaiian was approximately 174,000 in 2020. The number of free travel awards as a percentage of total revenue passengers was approximately 5% and 6% in 2020 and 2019, respectively. We believe displacement of revenue passengers by passengers using free travel awards is minimal due to our ability to manage frequent flyer seat inventory, and the relatively low ratio of free award usage to total revenue passengers.
Code-Share and Other Alliances
We have marketing alliances with other airlines that provide reciprocal frequent flyer mileage accrual and redemption privileges and code-shares on certain flights. These programs enhance our revenue opportunities by:
increasing value to our customers by providing easier access to more travel destinations and better mileage accrual/redemption opportunities;
giving customers access to more connecting traffic from other airlines; and
providing members of our alliance partners' frequent flyer programs an opportunity to travel on our system while earning mileage credit in the alliance partners' programs.
Our marketing alliances with other airlines as of December 31, 2020 were as follows:
  Hawaiian Miles
Frequent Flyer
Agreement
  Other Airline
Frequent Flyer
Agreement
  Code-share—Hawaiian
Flight # on Flights
Operated by Other
Airline
  Code-share—Other
Airline Flight # on
Flights Operated by
Hawaiian
Air China No No No Yes
American Airlines No   Yes   No   Yes
China Airlines Yes   Yes   Yes   Yes
Delta Air Lines No   Yes   No   Yes
Japan Airlines Yes Yes Yes Yes
JetBlue Yes   Yes   Yes   Yes
Korean Air Yes   Yes   Yes   Yes
Philippine Airlines No No No Yes
Turkish Airlines No No No Yes
United Airlines No   Yes   No   Yes
Virgin Atlantic Airways Yes   Yes   Yes   No
Virgin Australia Yes   Yes   Yes   No
Competition
The airline industry is highly competitive. We believe that the principal competitive factors in the airline industry are:
Fares;
Flight frequency and schedule;
Customer service;
On-time performance and reliability;
Name recognition;
Marketing affiliations;
Frequent flyer benefits;
Aircraft type;
Change fee waivers;
Safety record; and
In-flight services.
Domestic—We face multiple competitors on our North America routes including major network carriers such as Alaska (AS), American Airlines (AA), United Airlines (UA), Delta Airlines (DL), and Southwest Airlines (WN). Various charter companies also provide non-scheduled service to Hawai'i, mostly under public charter arrangements. Our Neighbor Island competitors consist of interisland carriers, which include Mokulele Airlines, Southwest Airlines, and a number of other "air taxi" companies.
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International—Although certain of these routes were temporarily suspended as of December 31, 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we are the only provider of direct service between Honolulu and each of Sapporo, Japan; Fukuoka, Japan; Pago Pago, American Samoa; and Papeete, Tahiti. However, we face multiple competitors from both domestic and foreign carriers on our other international routes.
Employees
As of December 31, 2020, we had 5,278 active employees, of whom approximately 79.0% were covered by labor agreements with the following organized labor groups:
Employee Group Represented by Number of Employees Agreement amendable on (*)
Flight deck crew members Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) 773  July 1, 2022
Cabin crew members Association of Flight Attendants (AFA) 1,378  April 2, 2025
Maintenance and engineering personnel International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM-M) 860  January 1, 2021
Clerical International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers - Clerical division (IAM-C) 1,124  January 1, 2021
Flight dispatch personnel Transport Workers Union (TWU) 32  July 22, 2021
* Our relations with labor unions representing our airline employees are governed by the Railway Labor Act of 1926. Under the Railway Labor Act, a collective bargaining agreement between us and the labor unions does not expire, but instead becomes amendable as of a stated date if either party wishes to modify the terms of the agreement.

We are in discussions with representatives of our IAM-M and IAM-C employees regarding terms of their collective bargaining agreement.

Human Capital Management

Human capital management, including our commitment to diversity and inclusion, is a key driver of our success. We retain our employees through competitive compensation and benefits packages, and by investing in training, mentoring, and career development opportunities. All of this enables us to hire and retain talented, high-performing employees. Our diversity efforts include participation in career events and conferences for veterans, people with disabilities, women, and underrepresented groups. In 2020, we were proud to lead the U.S. industry with the highest percentage of women pilots at more than 9 percent; the domestic industry average is 5.4 percent. We also embrace our diversity through our ASCEND (A Support Community for Employees Nurturing Diverse Abilities), LBGTQA, Network for Black Employees and Allies, Sustainability, Wahine (Women) in Aviation and Veterans employee resource groups. We take pride in and value the traditional culture of Hawai‘i. In 2019, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, we expanded our ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i (Hawaiian language) certification program for crewmembers and made it available for all employees. The certification, which is offered at no cost to our employees, broadens our commitment to honor and perpetuate Hawai‘i’s rich culture by incentivizing our team members to share Hawai‘i’s native language with our guests and each other. The program adds to our Ke Kumu project consisting of employee-led hula and Hawaiian language classes.
Seasonality
Hawai'i is a popular vacation destination for travelers. For that reason, our operations and financial results are subject, under pre-COVID-19 operating conditions, to substantial seasonal and cyclical volatility, primarily due to leisure and holiday travel patterns. Demand levels are typically weaker in the first quarter of the year with stronger demand periods occurring during June, July, August, and December. We may adjust our pricing or the availability of particular fares to obtain an optimal passenger load factor depending on seasonal demand differences.
Customers
Our business is not dependent upon any single customer or a few customers and the loss of any one customer would not have a material adverse effect on our business.
We have entered into agreements with our co-brand, payment, and loyalty partners that may contain exclusivity aspects which restrict us and our subsidiaries from entering into certain arrangements with other payment and loyalty partners. These arrangements generally extend for the terms of the agreements. We believe the financial benefits generated by the exclusivity aspects of these arrangements outweigh the limitations imposed under such agreements.
Regulation
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Our business is subject to extensive and evolving international, federal, state and local laws and regulations. Many governmental agencies regularly examine our operations to monitor compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Governmental authorities can enforce compliance with applicable laws and regulations and obtain injunctions or impose civil or criminal penalties or modify, suspend, or revoke our operating certificates in case of violations.
Industry Regulations
We are subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the DOT and the FAA. The DOT has jurisdiction over international routes and fares for some countries (based upon treaty relations with those countries), consumer protection policies including baggage liability, denied boarding compensation, and unfair competitive practices as set forth in the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978. The FAA has regulatory jurisdiction over flight operations, including equipment, ground facilities, security systems, maintenance, and other safety matters. Pursuant to these regulations, we have established, and the FAA has approved, a maintenance program for each type of aircraft we operate that provides for the ongoing maintenance of our aircraft, ranging from frequent routine inspections to major overhauls.
Maintenance Directives
The FAA approves all airline maintenance programs and modifications to such programs. In addition, the FAA certifies and licenses the air carrier, mechanics, inspectors, and repair stations that perform inspections, repairs and overhauls.
The FAA frequently issues airworthiness directives in response to specific incidents or reports by operators or manufacturers, mandating operators of specified equipment types to perform prescribed inspections, repairs or modifications within stated time periods and/or aircraft hours and cycles.
Airport Security
The Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA) mandates that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) provide screening of all passengers and property, including mail, cargo, carry-on and checked baggage, and other articles that will be carried aboard a passenger aircraft. Under the ATSA, substantially all security screeners at airports are federal employees and airline and airport security is overseen and performed by federal employees, including security managers, law enforcement officers, and Federal Air Marshals. The ATSA also provides for increased security on flight decks of aircraft (and requires Federal Air Marshals to be present on certain flights), improved airport perimeter access security, airline crew security training, enhanced security screening of passengers, baggage, cargo, mail, employees and vendors, enhanced training and qualifications of security screening personnel, provision of passenger data to U.S. Customs and Border Protection and enhanced background checks.
The TSA also has the authority to impose additional fees on air carriers, if necessary, to cover additional federal aviation security costs.
Environmental and Employee Safety and Health
We are subject to various laws and regulations concerning environmental matters and employee safety and health in the U.S. and other countries in which we do business. Many aspects of airlines' operations are subject to increasingly stringent federal, state, local, and foreign laws protecting the environment. U.S. federal laws that have a particular impact on us include the Airport Noise and Capacity Act of 1990, the Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Certain of our operations are also subject to the oversight of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) concerning employee safety and health matters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), OSHA, and other federal agencies have been authorized to promulgate regulations that affect our operations. In addition to these federal activities, states have been delegated certain authority under the aforementioned federal statutes. Many state and local governments have adopted environmental and employee safety and health laws and regulations, some of which are similar to or stricter than federal requirements, such as California.
The EPA is authorized to regulate aircraft emissions and has historically implemented emissions control standards previously adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Our aircraft comply with the existing EPA standards, as applicable, by engine design date.
We seek to minimize the impact of carbon emissions from our operations through reductions in our fuel consumption and other efforts. We have reduced the fuel needs of our aircraft fleet through the retirement and replacement of certain aircraft in our fleet with newer, more fuel efficient aircraft. In addition, we have implemented fuel saving procedures in our flight and ground support operations that further reduce carbon emissions. We are also supporting initiatives to develop alternative fuels and efforts to modernize the air traffic control system in the U.S. as part of our efforts to reduce our emissions and minimize our impact on the environment.
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Noise Abatement
Under the Airport Noise and Capacity Act, the DOT allows local airport authorities to implement procedures designed to abate special noise problems, provided such procedures do not unreasonably interfere with interstate and foreign commerce, or the national transportation system. Certain airports, including the major airports at Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Jose, California; Sydney, Australia; and Tokyo, Japan, have established airport restrictions to limit noise, including restrictions on aircraft types to be used and limits on the number of hourly or daily operations or the time of such operations. Local authorities at other airports could consider adopting similar noise restrictions. In some instances, these restrictions have caused curtailments in services or increases in operating costs, and such restrictions could limit our ability to expand our operations.
Civil Reserve Air Fleet Program
The U.S. Department of Defense regulates the Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) and government charters. We have elected to participate in the CRAF program by agreeing to make aircraft available to the federal government for use by the U.S. military under certain stages of readiness related to national emergencies. The program is a standby arrangement that allows the U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Transportation Command to call on as many as 12 contractually committed Hawaiian aircraft and crews to supplement military airlift capabilities. None of our aircraft are presently mobilized under this program.
Other Regulations
The State of Hawai'i is uniquely dependent upon air transportation. The Hawai'i state legislature has enacted legislation that addresses this concern.
Other aspects of airline operations are subject to regulation or oversight by federal agencies other than the FAA and the DOT. Federal antitrust laws are enforced by the U.S. Department of Justice. The U.S. Postal Service has jurisdiction over certain aspects of the transportation of mail and related services provided by our cargo services. Labor relations in the air transportation industry are generally regulated under the Railway Labor Act. We and other airlines certificated prior to October 24, 1978 are also subject to preferential hiring rights granted by the Airline Deregulation Act to certain airline employees who have been furloughed or terminated (other than for cause). The Federal Communications Commission issues licenses and regulates the use of all communications frequencies assigned to us and other airlines. There is increased focus on consumer protection both on the federal and state level. We cannot always accurately predict the cost of such requirements on our operations.
Additional laws and regulations are proposed from time to time, which could significantly increase the cost of airline operations by imposing additional requirements or restrictions. U.S. law restricts the ownership of U.S. airlines to corporations where no more than 25% of the voting stock may be held by non-U.S. citizens and the airline must be under the actual control of U.S. citizens. The President and two thirds of the Board of Directors and other managing officers must also be U.S. citizens. Regulations also have been considered from time to time that would prohibit or restrict the ownership and/or transfer of airline routes or takeoff and landing slots and authorizations. Also, the award of international routes to U.S. carriers (and their retention) is regulated by treaties and related agreements between the U.S. and foreign governments, which are amended from time to time. We cannot predict what laws and regulations will be adopted or what changes to international air transportation treaties will be adopted, if any, or how we will be affected by those changes.
Available Information
General information about us, including the charters for the committees of our Board of Directors, can be found at https://www.hawaiianairlines.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, and current reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments and exhibits to those reports that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are available for download, free of charge, on our website. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, which can be found at http://www.sec.gov.
We also use the investor relations section of our website https://newsroom.hawaiianairlines.com/investor-relations and our website (https://www.hawaiianairlines.com) as a means of disclosing material information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD.
Information on our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or our other securities filings and is not a part of such filings.
ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS.
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the section titled
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“Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before making a decision to invest in our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe are material. If any of the risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected. In that event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.

RISK FACTOR SUMMARY

Our business operations are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those outside of our control, that could cause our actual results to be harmed, including risks regarding the following:

Business Risks
the material adverse impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic on our operations and financial performance;
ongoing and future offerings, as well as the securities issued in such offerings, including where collateralized;

Economic Risks
global economic volatility;
our dependence on tourism to, from, and amongst the Hawaiian Islands;
our dependence on the price and availability of fuel;
our exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;

Liquidity Risks
credit market conditions;
our debt, including covenants that restrict our financial and business operations;
our loan agreements with the U.S. Department of the Treasury (the Treasury) pursuant to the CARES Act and the CAA 2021, including certain operating and other restrictions;
requirements for us to maintain reserves under our credit card processing agreements;

Competitive Environment Risks
the extremely competitive environment in which we operate;
the concentration of our business;
the competitive advantages held by network carriers in the North America market;
the effect of increased capacity provided by our competitors on our Neighbor Island routes;
the effect of competition from domestic and foreign carriers on our International routes;

Information Technology and Third-Party Risks
compliance with U.S. and foreign laws and regulations relating to privacy, data protection, or data security and security standards imposed by our commercial partners;
actual or perceived failure to protect customer or other personal or confidential information;
our increasing dependence on technology and automated systems to operate our business;
our reliance on third-party contractors to provide certain facilities and services;

Labor Relations and Related Costs Risks
our dependence on satisfactory labor relations;
our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel and key executives;

Strategy and Brand Risks
any failure to successfully implement our route and network strategy;
damage to our reputation or brand image;
adverse publicity;

Airline Industry, Regulation and Related Costs Risks
the substantial operating leverage of the airline industry and other conditions beyond its control;
the effect of the State of Hawai'i's airport modernization plan;
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any inability to maintain adequate facilities and infrastructure at airports within the State of Hawai'i;
substantial seasonal and cyclical volatility of our business;
terrorist attacks or international hostilities, or the fear of terrorist attacks or hostilities;
extensive government regulation, new regulations and taxes impacting the airline industry;
climate change, including increased regulation and the impact of severe weather events;
federal budget constraints or federally imposed furloughs due to budget negotiation deadlocks;
compliance with various environmental laws and regulations required in the airline industry;
our expansion into non-U.S. jurisdictions and the related laws and regulations to which we are subject;
litigation or regulatory action in the normal course of business or otherwise;
changes in tax laws or regulations and our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards;
any increases in our insurance costs or reductions in coverage;
extended interruptions or disruptions in service;

Fleet and Fleet-Related Risks
our dependence on our limited number of suppliers for aircraft, aircraft engines and parts;
significant future financial commitments and operating costs related to our agreements to purchase Boeing 787-9 aircraft;
delays in scheduled aircraft deliveries or other loss of fleet capacity;
any impairment and other related charges related to the value of our long-lived assets;

Common Stock Risks
fluctuations in our share price;
provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws that may delay or prevent a change of control;
limitations on voting and ownership by non-U.S. citizens in our certificate of incorporation and exclusive forum provisions in our bylaws; and
our inability to repurchase our common stock or pay dividends on our common stock under the terms of our relief under the CARES Act and the CAA 2021.

Risks Related to Securities Offerings
effect of future sales or issuances of our common stock on the public markets; and
the publication of research about us by analysts.

BUSINESS RISKS

The global COVID-19 pandemic has had and is expected to continue to have a material adverse impact on our operations and financial performance. We are unable to predict the extent to which the pandemic and related impacts will continue to adversely affect our business operations, liquidity, financial performance, results of operations, financial position or the achievement of our strategic objectives.

Our operations and financial performance have been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic that has caused, and is expected to continue to cause, the global slowdown of economic activity (including the decrease in demand for goods and services), and significant volatility in and disruption to financial markets. Because the severity, magnitude and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic consequences are uncertain, rapidly changing and difficult to predict, the pandemic’s impact on our operations and financial performance, as well as its impact on our ability to successfully execute our business strategy and initiatives, remains uncertain. Further, the ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations and financial performance depends on many factors that are not within our control, including, but not limited, to: governmental, business and individuals’ actions that have been and continue to be taken in response to the pandemic (including restrictions on travel, transport and our workforce); the impact of the pandemic and actions taken in response to it on global and regional economies and travel; the availability of federal, state, or local funding programs; general economic uncertainty in global markets and financial market volatility; global economic conditions and levels of economic growth; and the pace of recovery when the COVID-19 pandemic subsides.

The COVID-19 pandemic has subjected our operations, financial performance and financial condition to a number of risks, including, but not limited to those discussed below:

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Financial risks: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have experienced a significant decrease in demand for air travel and reduced load capacity on flights currently operated. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, our revenue was $844.8 million, down approximately $2.0 billion from the same period in 2019.

Operations- and customer-related risks: Across our business, we are facing increased operational challenges, including low demand for air travel, significant reductions in our flight schedule, decreased passenger traffic on our current routes, high-volume customer service requests for refunds and cancellations, the need to protect employee and customer health and safety, site shutdowns, workplace disruptions, need for contract modifications and cancellations, and other restrictions on business operations and the movement of people. Such restrictions include a 14-day quarantine requirement for all travelers to the state of Hawai'i, which was only lifted effective October 15, 2020 so long as travelers are able to present evidence of a negative COVID-19 test administered within 72 hours prior to commencing travel from a State-approved testing partner, a 14-day quarantine requirement for travelers between certain islands within the State of Hawai'i, testing requirements in order to bypass quarantine, airport health screening measures, certain measures being taken on flights to minimize transmission of COVID-19. On December 17, 2020, the State's mandatory self-quarantine period was reduced from 14 to 10 days. Certain counties within the State of Hawai'i have or may impose additional testing and quarantine requirements related to travel. Additionally, on January 21, 2021, President Biden issued an executive order that requires international travelers to produce proof of a recent negative COVID-19 test prior to entry into the United States and comply with applicable CDC guidelines concerning international travel, including recommended periods of self-quarantine after entry into the United States. We expect decreased levels of passenger traffic and revenue, as compared to pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels, and to incur additional costs as we continue to increase the number of flights offered as passenger traffic to the Hawaiian Islands increases in response to the implementation of testing in order to bypass 10-day quarantine requirements. We have implemented enhanced measures to protect the health and safety of our passengers and employees, and may be required or determine to take additional safety measures to minimize the transmission of COVID-19 that may further impact our operations and results of operations. Additionally, our current planning scenario for recovery from the pandemic assumes a 15-25% reduction in our anticipated flight schedule for the summer of 2021 as compared to similar levels in 2019, and related reductions in headcount. During the third quarter of 2020, we announced and completed certain voluntary separation programs. Additionally, involuntary separation and voluntary leave programs, beginning effective October 1, 2020, resulted in a reduction in total headcount by approximately 32% of our total workforce. All employees who were subject to an involuntary furlough between October 1, 2020 and January 15, 2021 were recalled and offered an opportunity to return to employment pursuant to the Payroll Support Program Extension as part of the CAA 2021 (PSP Extension). Due to uncertainty regarding our employment needs beyond March 31, 2021, on January 28, 2021, we issued Worker Adjustment and Restraining Notification and California Worker Adjustment Restraining Notice Act notices (WARN notices) to approximately 900 U.S.-based employees who could be affected by future potential workforce reductions. These and similar factors related directly and indirectly to the COVID-19 pandemic adversely impact our business. We expect that the longer the period of economic disruption continues, the more material the adverse impact will be on our business operations, financial performance and results of operations.

Liquidity- and funding-related risks: While we have received support under the CARES Act and the CAA 2021 and have fully drawn our committed credit line, and have financed certain of our assets, a prolonged period of lower cash from operations could adversely affect our financial condition and the achievement of our strategic objectives. Additionally, our credit rating was downgraded by ratings agencies and there can be no assurance that we will not face additional credit rating downgrades as a result of weaker than anticipated performance of our business or other factors. Future downgrades could further adversely affect our cost of funds and related margins, liquidity, competitive position and access to capital markets. Conditions in the financial and credit markets may also limit the availability of funding or increase the cost of funding, which could adversely affect our business, financial position and results of operations. In light of current market conditions, any such financings are likely to reflect loan-to-value ratios and interest rates and other terms and conditions less favorable than our recent aircraft financings.

Legal and regulatory risks: While we are endeavoring to take all reasonable precautions and instituting numerous health and safety measures to protect our guests and our employees, there can be no assurance that guests will not be exposed to COVID-19 while traveling, or that our employees will not be exposed to COVID-19 while working. Should such exposure be determined to have been caused while traveling or working, notwithstanding the steps we take to protect our guests and employees, we may be subject to civil lawsuits or employee grievances that give rise to legal liability. Furthermore, while the airline industry is committed to the safety of our guests and employees and has taken and will continue to take all necessary precautions, there can be no assurance that federal legislation or federal regulation will not be enacted that increase our costs or increase our exposure to claims of non-compliance.

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At this time, we are also not able to predict whether the COVID-19 pandemic will result in permanent changes to our customers’ behavior, including but not limited to such changes as a lasting or permanent reduction in leisure travel and more broadly a general reluctance to travel by consumers, each of which could have a material impact on our business. Currently, the COVID-19 pandemic has produced the following trends, each possibly having an effect on future operations:

Travelers have indicated they are wary of airports and commercial aircraft, where they may view the risk of contagion as increased; and

Travelers may be dissuaded from flying due to restrictions on movement and possible enhanced COVID-19-related screening measures which have been or may be implemented across multiple markets we serve.

The COVID-19 pandemic may also affect our operating and financial results in a manner that is not presently known to us or that we currently do not expect. The COVID-19 pandemic may also exacerbate other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, including, but not limited to, our dependence on leisure travel to Hawai'i, our competitiveness, demand for air travel generally and our services specifically, shifting consumer preferences and our substantial outstanding indebtedness.

ECONOMIC RISKS

Our business is affected by global economic volatility, including the current economic downturn precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Our business and results of operations are significantly impacted by general world-wide economic conditions, including the current economic downturn related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our business depends on the demand for travel to, from and within the Hawaiian Islands and such demand for discretionary air travel has declined and remains unpredictable, which has negatively impacted our results of operations and financial condition. Further deterioration or instability in demand resulting from travel restrictions, ongoing economic uncertainty or further recession may result in sustained reduction in our passenger traffic and/or increased competitive pressure on fares in the markets we serve, which could continue to negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition. There can be no assurance that we will be able to offset such revenue reductions by reducing our costs or seeking additional relief through the CARES Act, the CAA 2021 or other potential financing arrangements or other programs or opportunities.

Our business is highly dependent on tourism to, from, and amongst the Hawaiian Islands and our financial results have been impacted and may continue to be impacted by the current and any future downturn in tourism levels.

Our principal base of operations is in Hawai'i and our revenue is linked primarily to the number of travelers (mainly tourists) to, from and amongst the Hawaiian Islands. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and government mandates related to travel and business operations, we have experienced a significant decline in the demand for travel to, from and amongst the Hawaiian Islands. In March 2020, the State of Hawai'i implemented a 14-day quarantine applicable to passengers traveling to Hawai'i or between the Hawaiian Islands. While restrictions to travel between the Hawaiian Islands were removed in June 2020, a modified reinstatement of the 14-day quarantine requirement for Neighbor Island travel became effective August 11, 2020, and restrictions on travel to Hawai'i remain in place. Effective October 15, 2020, passengers travelling to Hawai'i from the U.S. mainland who can demonstrate that they have obtained a negative test for COVID-19 from a state-approved testing partner, within 72 hours from the final leg of departure are exempt from the State's 14-day quarantine requirement (the pre-travel testing program). A county may, however, require passengers to obtain a subsequent test after arrival into the State (with any such tests paid for by the county and administered at a country-designated site). On December 17, 2020, the State’s mandatory self-quarantine period was reduced from 14 to 10 days. There can be no assurance whether, at some point, the entire State of Hawai‘i or counties within the state may limit or suspend the pre-travel testing program should the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic worsen. For example, the County of Kaua'i suspended its participation in the statewide pre-travel testing program in late November and, effective January 5, 2021, resumed its participation in the pre-travel testing program for interisland travelers and instituted an Enhanced Movement Quarantine pre- and post-travel testing program for transpacific travelers. The U.S. government and international governments could also impose, extend or otherwise modify existing travel restrictions on international travel into the United States. For example, on January 21, 2021, President Biden issued an executive order that requires international travelers to produce proof of a recent negative COVID-19 test prior to entry into the United States and comply with applicable CDC guidelines concerning international travel, including recommended periods of self-quarantine after entry into the United States. While travel restrictions have eased somewhat with the use of COVID-19 testing, certain restrictions, including with respect to the use of COVID-19 testing, may be reinstated, or altered, as the infection rates of COVID-19 change, which may have a significant impact on our business operations. Additionally, even with the lifting of certain restrictions associated with travel to and between the Hawaiian Islands, we expect to continue to experience decreased levels of passenger traffic and revenue, as compared to pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels. We will likely incur
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additional costs as we continue to increase our number of flights as passenger traffic to and within the Hawaiian Islands increases in response to the implementation of pre-travel testing in order to bypass quarantine requirements.

Hawai'i tourism levels are generally affected by the economic and political climate impacting air travel and tourism markets generally, including the availability of hotel accommodations, the popularity of tourist destinations relative to other vacation destinations, and other global factors including health crises, natural disasters, safety, and security. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a significant decline in air travel due to government mandates and general public health concerns. Additionally, tourism has declined as various public events, attractions and venues have been closed or cancelled. While we have seen some increased tourism activity in the State of Hawai'i after implementation of the State of Hawai'i's pre-travel COVID-19 testing program, we cannot predict if and when tourism levels will recover to levels prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, from time to time, various events and industry-specific problems such as labor strikes have had a negative impact on tourism generally or in Hawai'i specifically. The occurrence of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis, in Hawai'i or other parts of the world, could also have an adverse effect or compound the existing adverse effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism. In addition, the potential or actual occurrence of terrorist attacks, wars, and/or the threat of other negative world events have had, and may in the future have, a material adverse effect on or compound the current effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism.

Our business is highly dependent on the price and availability of fuel.

Our results and operations are heavily impacted by the price and availability of jet fuel. The cost and availability of jet fuel remains volatile and is subject to political, economic, and market factors that are generally outside of our control. Prices may be affected by many factors including, without limitation, the impact of political instability, crude oil production and refining capacity, unexpected changes in the availability of petroleum products due to disruptions to distribution systems or refineries, unpredicted increases in demand due to weather or the pace of global economic growth, inventory reserve levels of crude oil and other petroleum products, the relative fluctuation between the U.S. dollar and other major currencies, and the actions of speculators in commodity markets. The cost of jet fuel has been especially volatile recently due to the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the demand for oil. Because of the effects of these factors on the price and availability of jet fuel, the cost and future availability of fuel cannot be predicted with any degree of certainty. Also, due to the competitive nature of the airline industry, there can be no assurance that we will be able to increase our fares or other fees to sufficiently offset any increase in fuel prices.

While we may enter into derivative agreements to protect against the volatility of fuel costs, uncertainty related to the demand for air travel makes it difficult to accurately forecast our future fuel consumption, and as a result, we are unable to predict the effectiveness of hedging as a means of managing increases in the cost of fuel in the future.

See Item 7A, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, for further information regarding our exposure to the price of fuel.

Our business is exposed to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, our business had been expanding internationally with an increasing percentage of our passenger revenue generated from our international routes. The fluctuation of the U.S. dollar relative to foreign currencies can significantly affect our results of operations and financial condition. To manage the effects of fluctuating exchange rates, we periodically enter into foreign currency forward contracts and execute payment of expenditures in those locations in local currency. As of December 31, 2020, we have Japanese Yen denominated debt totaling $278.6 million. If our business is able to expand internationally, there is no assurance that these agreements will protect us against foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations during unfavorable market conditions or that our counterparties will be able to perform under these hedge arrangements.

See Item 7A, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk, for further information regarding our exposure to foreign currency exchange rates.

LIQUIDITY RISKS

See Item 7, Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, for further information regarding our liquidity.

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Our financial liquidity could be adversely affected by credit market conditions.

Our business requires access to capital markets to finance equipment purchases, including aircraft, and to provide liquidity in seasonal or cyclical periods of weaker revenue generation. In particular, we will face specific funding requirements with respect to our obligation under purchase agreements with Boeing to acquire new aircraft. We may finance these upcoming aircraft deliveries; however, the unpredictability of global credit market conditions, including related to the current COVID-19 pandemic, may adversely affect the availability of financing or may result in unfavorable terms and conditions.

Our current unencumbered aircraft can be financed to increase our liquidity, but such financings may be subject to unfavorable terms. In light of current market conditions, any such financings are likely to reflect loan-to-value ratios and interest rates and other terms and conditions less favorable than our recent aircraft financings.

Additionally, our credit rating was recently downgraded by ratings agencies and there can be no assurance that we will not face additional credit rating downgrades as a result of weaker than anticipated performance of our business or other factors. Future downgrades could further adversely affect our cost of funds and related margins, liquidity, competitive position and access to capital markets.

We can offer no assurance that financing we may need in the future will be available when required or that the economic terms on which it is available will not adversely affect our financial condition. If we cannot obtain financing or we cannot obtain financing on commercially reasonable terms, our business and financial condition may be adversely affected.

Our debt could adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition, and include covenants that impose restrictions on our financial and business operations.

As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $1.0 billion in outstanding commercial debt, excluding funds borrowed under the CARES Act and the CAA 2021. Our debt and related covenants could:

require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our debt, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow for other operational purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
limit, along with the financial and other restrictive covenants in the agreements governing our debt, our ability to borrow additional funds;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to other less leveraged competitors and competitors with debt agreements on more favorable terms than us; and
adversely affect our ability to secure additional financing in the future on acceptable terms or at all, which would impact our ability to fund our working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate purpose needs.

These agreements require us to meet certain covenants. If we breach any of these covenants we could be in a default under these facilities, which could cause our outstanding obligations under these facilities to accelerate and become due and payable immediately, and could also cause us to default under our other debt or lease obligations and lead to an acceleration of the obligations related to such other debt or lease obligations. The existence of such a default could also preclude us from borrowing funds under other credit facilities.

Our ability to comply with the provisions of financing agreements can be affected by events beyond our control and a default under any such financing agreements if not cured or waived, could have a material adverse effect on us. In the event our debt is accelerated, we may not have sufficient liquidity to repay these obligations or to refinance our debt obligations, resulting in a material adverse effect on our financial condition.

We have entered into loan agreements with the Treasury pursuant to the CARES Act and the CAA 2021 that have certain operating and other restrictions.

As a condition of receiving grants and loans under the PSP under the CARES Act and under the PSP Extension under the CAA 2021, we agreed to, among other things: refrain from conducting involuntary furloughs or reducing employee rates of pay or benefits through March 31, 2021; limit executive compensation through October 1, 2022; suspend payment of dividends and stock repurchases through March 31, 2022; and comply with certain reporting requirements. We are also required to continue to provide air service to markets served prior to March 1, 2020 until March 1, 2022, to the extent determined reasonable and practicable by the DOT and subject to exemptions granted to us by the DOT given the absence of demand for such services.

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The restrictions placed on us as part of our participation in the PSP under the CARES Act as well as the PSP Extension under the CAA 2021, including restrictions on use of funds, staffing, pay reduction, stock buy-backs, dividends, certain transactions, and service requirements may negatively affect our financial and business operations.

We are required to maintain reserves under our credit card processing agreements which could adversely affect our financial and business operations.

Under our bank-issued credit card processing agreements, certain proceeds from advance ticket sales may be held back to serve as collateral to cover any possible chargebacks or other disputed charges that may occur. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, there were no holdbacks held by our credit card processors.

In the event of a material adverse change in our business, the holdback could incrementally increase to an amount up to 100% of the applicable credit card activity for all unflown flights, which would also cause an increase in the level of restricted cash. If we are unable to obtain a waiver, or otherwise mitigate the increase in restricted cash, it could adversely affect our liquidity and also cause a covenant violation under other debt or lease obligations and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.

COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT RISKS

We operate in an extremely competitive environment.

The airline industry is characterized by low profit margins, high fixed costs, and significant price competition. We compete with other airlines on all of our Domestic and International routes. The commencement of, or increase in, service on our routes by existing or new carriers at aggressive prices could negatively impact our operating results. Most of our competitors are much larger and have greater financial resources and brand recognition than we do. Aggressive marketing tactics or a prolonged fare competition initiated by one or more of these competitors could adversely affect our financial resources and our ability to compete in these markets. Additionally, our competitors have been and may continue to be more successful in navigating the challenges related to COVID-19, including having easier access to additional capital and more favorable lending terms, which could impact our ability to compete successfully in the future. Since airline markets have few natural barriers to entry, we also face the constant threat of new entrants in all of our markets.

Additional capacity to or within Hawai'i, whether from network carriers or low-cost carriers, could decrease our share of the markets in which we operate, could cause a decline in our yields, or both, including in light of industry-wide reductions in air travel due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

The concentration of our business within Hawai'i, and between Hawai'i and the U.S. mainland, provides little diversification of our revenue and could be exacerbated by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
During 2020, approximately 78% of our passenger revenue was generated from our Domestic routes. Most of our competitors, particularly major network carriers with whom we compete on North American routes, enjoy greater geographical diversification of their passenger revenue. As Domestic routes account for a significantly higher proportion of our revenue than they do for most of our competitors, a proportionately higher decline in demand for our domestic routes generally due to the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have a relatively greater adverse effect on our financial results than on those of our competitors. Additionally, reductions in the level of demand for travel to, from, and within Hawai'i, such as those caused by government restrictions on travel to and business operations within Hawai'i, including the only recently modified 10-day quarantine in place for travelers within and to Hawai'i, has reduced the revenue we are able to generate from our routes and adversely affected our financial results. Sustained reduction in our Domestic routes and continued industry capacity of major network carriers on routes to, from and within Hawai'i is likely to continue to adversely affect our financial results.
Our business is affected by the competitive advantages held by network carriers in the North America market.
During 2020, approximately 56% of our passenger revenue was generated from our North America routes. The majority of competition on our North America routes is from network carriers such as Alaska Airlines, American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Southwest Airlines, and United Airlines, all of whom have a number of competitive advantages. Primarily, network carriers generate passenger traffic from and throughout the U.S. mainland, which enables them to attract higher customer traffic levels as compared to us.
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In contrast, we lack a comparable direct network to feed passengers to our North America flights and are therefore more reliant on passenger demand in the specific cities we serve. We also rely on our code-share partner agreements (e.g. with JetBlue) to provide customers access to and from North American destinations currently unserved by us. Most network carriers operate from hubs, which can provide a built-in market of passengers depending on the economic strength of the hub city and the size of the customer group that frequents the airline. Our Honolulu and Maui hubs do not originate a large proportion of North American travel, nor do they have the population or potential customer franchise of a larger city to provide us with a significant built-in market. Passengers in the North American market, for the most part, do not originate in Honolulu, but on the U.S. mainland, making Honolulu primarily a destination rather than an origin of passenger traffic.
Our Neighbor Island routes are affected by increased capacity provided by our competitors.
During 2020, approximately 22% of our passenger revenue was generated from our Neighbor Island routes. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, certain of our competitors increased capacity to and within Hawai'i by introducing new routes and increasing the frequency of existing routes from North America to Hawai'i and by the introduction of additional flights within the neighbor islands. We are unable to predict competitor capacity related to air travel to Hawai'i or between the neighbor islands, including any impact that the COVID-19 pandemic may have on such capacity. Any increased competitor capacity that decreases our share of traffic to Hawai'i or between the neighbor islands could ultimately have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our International routes are affected by competition from domestic and foreign carriers.
During 2020, approximately 22% of our passenger revenue was generated from our International routes. When our operations are not constrained by restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic, our competitors on these routes include both domestic and foreign carriers. Both domestic and foreign competitors have a number of competitive advantages that may enable them to attract higher customer traffic levels as compared to us.
Many of our domestic competitors are members of airline alliances, which provide customers access to each participating airline’s international network, allowing for convenience and connectivity to their destinations. These alliances formed by our domestic competitors have increased in recent years. In some instances, our domestic competitors have been granted antitrust exemptions to form joint venture arrangements in certain geographies, further deepening their cooperation on certain routes. To mitigate this risk, we rely on code-share agreements with partner airlines to provide customers access to international destinations currently unserved by us.
Many of our foreign competitors are network carriers that benefit from network feed to support international routes on which we compete. In contrast, we lack a comparable direct network to feed passengers to our international flights, and are therefore more reliant on passenger demand in the specific destinations that we serve. Most network carriers operate from hubs, which can provide a built-in home base market of passengers. Passengers on our International routes, for the most part, do not originate in Hawai'i, but rather internationally, in these foreign carriers’ home bases. We also rely on our code-share agreements and our relationships with travel agencies and wholesale distributors to provide customers access to and from International destinations currently unserved by us.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND THIRD-PARTY RISKS
If we do not maintain the privacy and security of personal information or other information relating to our customers or others, or fail to comply with applicable U.S. and foreign privacy, data protection, or data security laws or security standards imposed by our commercial partners, our reputation could be damaged, we could incur substantial additional costs, and we could become subject to litigation or regulatory penalties.
We receive, retain, transmit and otherwise process personal information and other information about our customers and other individuals, including our employees and contractors, and we are subject to increasing legislative, regulatory and customer focus on privacy, data protection, and data security both domestically and internationally. Numerous laws and regulations in the U.S. and in various other jurisdictions in which we operate relate to privacy, data protection, and security, including laws and regulations regarding the collection, processing, storage, sharing, disclosure, use and security of personal information and other data from and about our customers and other individuals. The scope of these laws and regulations is changing, subject to differing interpretations, may be costly to comply with, and may be inconsistent among countries and jurisdictions or conflict with other obligations of ours.
A number of our commercial partners, including payment card companies, have imposed data security standards or other obligations relating to privacy, data protection, or data security upon us. We strive to comply with applicable laws, regulations,
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policies, and contractual and other legal obligations relating to privacy, data protection, and data security. However, these legal, contractual, and other obligations may be interpreted and applied in new ways and/or in manners that are inconsistent, and may conflict with other rules or practices. Data privacy, data protection, and data security are active areas, with laws and regulations in these areas being frequently proposed, enacted, and amended, and existing laws and regulations subject to differing and evolving interpretations. New laws and regulations in these areas likely will continue to be enacted.
Any failure or perceived failure by us to comply with laws or regulations, our privacy or data protection policies, or other privacy-, data protection-, or information security-related obligations to customers, or other third parties, or any compromise of security that results in the unauthorized disclosure, transfer or use of personal or other information, may result in governmental investigations and enforcement actions, governmental or private litigation, other liability, our loss of the ability to process payment card transactions, or us becoming subject to higher costs for such transactions, or public statements critical of us by consumer advocacy groups, competitors, the media or others that could cause our current or prospective customers to lose trust in us, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business. Additionally, if third-party business partners that we work with, such as vendors, violate applicable laws, applicable policies or other privacy-, data protection-, or security-related obligations, such violations may also put our customers’ or others’ information at risk and could in turn have an adverse effect on our business. Governmental agencies may also request or take customer data for national security or informational purposes, and also can make data requests in connection with criminal or civil investigations or other matters, which could harm our reputation and our business.
We will continue our efforts to comply with new and increasing privacy, data protection, and information security obligations; however, it is possible that such obligations may require us to expend additional resources, and may be difficult or impossible for us to meet. Any failure to comply with applicable U.S. or foreign privacy, data protection, or data security laws or regulations, any privacy or security standards imposed by our commercial partners, or any other obligations we are or may become subject to relating to privacy, data protection, or information security, or any allegation or assertion relating to any of the foregoing may result in claims, regulatory investigations and proceedings, private litigation and proceedings, and other liability, all of which may adversely affect our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our actual or perceived failure to protect customer information or other personal information or confidential information could result in harm to our business.

Our business and operations involve the storage, transmission and processing of information about our customers, our employees and contractors, our business partners, and others, as well as our own confidential information. We may become the target of cyber-attacks by third parties seeking unauthorized access to any of these types of information or to disrupt our business or operations. Computer malware, viruses, fraudulent sales of frequent flier miles, and general hacking have become more prevalent in our industry. While we have taken steps to protect customer information and other confidential information to which we have access to, there can be no assurance that any security measures that we or our third-party service providers have implemented will be effective against current or future security threats. We and our third-party service providers may be unable to anticipate attempted security breaches and to implement adequate preventative measures, and our security measures or those of our third-party service providers could be breached, we could suffer data loss, unauthorized access to or use of the systems or networks used in our business and operations, and unauthorized, accidental, or unlawful access to, or disclosure, modification, misuse, loss or destruction of, our or our customers’ information. We may also experience security breaches or other incidents that may remain undetected for an extended period. Further, third parties may also conduct attacks designed to disrupt or deny access to the systems and networks used in our business and operations.

Actual or perceived security breaches or other security incidents could result in unauthorized use of or access to systems and networks, unauthorized, accidental, or unlawful access to, or disclosure, modification, misuse, loss or destruction of, our or our customers’ information, and may lead to litigation, claims, indemnity obligations, regulatory investigations and other proceedings, severe reputational damage adversely affecting customer or investor confidence and causing damage to our brand, indemnity obligations, disruption to our operations, damages for contract breach, and other liability, and may adversely affect our revenues and operating results. Additionally, our service providers may suffer security breaches or other incidents that may result in unauthorized access or otherwise compromise data stored or processed for us that may give rise to any of the foregoing.

Any such actual or perceived security breach or other incident may lead to the expenditure of significant financial and other resources in efforts to investigate or correct a breach, address and eliminate vulnerabilities, and to prevent future security breaches or incidents, as well as significant costs for remediation that may include liability for stolen assets or information and repair of system damage that may have been caused, incentives offered to customers or other business partners in an effort to maintain business relationships after a breach, costs in connection with payment card replacement, and other liabilities. Certain breaches affecting payment card information or the environment in which such information is processed may also result in a
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loss of our ability to process credit cards or increased costs associated with doing so. We have incurred and expect to incur ongoing expenditures in an effort to prevent information security breaches and other security incidents.

We cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will be adequate for information security liabilities actually incurred or to cover any indemnification claims against us relating to any incident, that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that any insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, including our financial condition, operating results, and reputation.
We are increasingly dependent on technology and automated systems to operate our business.
We depend heavily on technology and automated systems to effectively operate our business. These systems include flight operations systems, communications systems, airport systems, reservations systems, management and accounting systems, commercial websites, including www.hawaiianairlines.com, and other IT systems, many of which must be able to accommodate high traffic volumes, maintain secure information and provide accurate flight information, as well as process critical financial transactions. Any substantial, extended, or repeated failures of these systems could negatively affect our customer service, compromise the security of customer information or other information stored on, transmitted by, or otherwise processed by these systems, result in the loss of or damage to important data, loss of revenue and increased costs, and generally harm our business. Additionally, loss of key talent required to maintain and advance these systems could have a material impact on our operations. Like other companies, our systems may be vulnerable to disruptions due to events beyond our control, including natural disasters, power disruptions, software or equipment failures, terrorist attacks, cybersecurity incursions, computer viruses and hackers. There can be no assurance that the measures we have taken to reduce the adverse effects of certain potential failures or disruptions are adequate to prevent or remedy disruptions of our systems or prevent or mitigate all attacks. In addition, we will need to continuously make significant investments in technology to periodically upgrade and replace existing systems. If we are unable to make these investments or fail to successfully implement, upgrade or replace our systems, our business could be adversely impacted. We do not carry business interruption insurance sufficient to compensate us for the potentially significant losses, including the potential harm to our business, results of operations and financial condition that may result from system interruptions or system failures.
We are highly reliant on third-party contractors to provide certain facilities and services for our operations, and termination of our third-party agreements could have a potentially adverse effect on our financial results.
There are a limited number of qualified employees and personnel in the airline and information technology industry, especially within the Hawai'i market. Due to these limitations, we have historically relied on outside vendors for a variety of services and functions critical to our business, including aircraft maintenance and parts, code-sharing, reservations, computer services including hosting and software maintenance, accounting, frequent flyer programs, passenger processing, ground facilities, baggage and cargo handling, personnel training, and the distribution and sale of airline seats. Our reliance on outside vendors may continue to increase in the future.
The failure of any of our third-party service providers to adequately perform their service obligations, or other interruptions of services, including those related to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on their businesses, are likely to reduce our revenues, increase expenses, and/or prevent us from operating our flights and providing other services to our customers. Additionally, our business and financial performance would be materially harmed if our customers believe that our services are unreliable or unsatisfactory.
LABOR RELATIONS AND RELATED COSTS RISKS
We are dependent on satisfactory labor relations.
Labor costs are a significant component of airline expenses and can substantially impact an airline’s results of operations. A significant portion of our workforce is represented by labor unions. We may make strategic and operational decisions that may require the consent of one or more of these labor unions, and these labor unions could demand additional wages, benefits or other consideration in return for their consent.
In addition, we have entered into collective bargaining agreements with our pilots, mechanical group employees, clerical group employees, flight attendants, and dispatchers. We cannot ensure that future agreements with our employees’ labor unions will be on terms in line with our expectations or comparable to agreements entered into by our competitors, and any future agreements may increase our labor costs or otherwise adversely affect our business. For example, in April 2020, the flight
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attendants of Hawaiian, represented by the Association of Flight Attendants, ratified an amended collective bargaining agreement, which among other things, includes a ratification payment, pay scale increases, and a one-time medical savings account contribution to eligible flights attendants upon retirement.

Our operations may be adversely affected if we are unable to attract and retain qualified personnel and key executives.

We believe that our future success is dependent on the knowledge and expertise of our key executives and highly qualified management, technical, and other personnel. Attracting and retaining such personnel in the airline industry is highly competitive. We cannot be certain that we will be able to retain our key executives or attract other qualified personnel in the future, including in light of the restrictions on executive compensation imposed on us under the CARES Act and the CAA 2021. Any inability to retain our key executives, or other senior technical personnel, or attract and retain additional qualified executives, could have a negative impact on our operations.

In addition, as we rebuild our operations as passenger demand recovers, and expand our operations through the acquisition of new aircraft and introduction of service to new markets, it may be challenging to attract a sufficient number of qualified personnel including pilots, mechanics and other skilled labor. As we compete with other carriers for qualified personnel, we also face the challenge of attracting individuals who embrace our team-oriented, friendly and customer-driven corporate culture. Our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel who embrace our corporate culture could have a negative impact on our reputation and overall operations.

STRATEGY AND BRAND RISKS
Our failure to successfully implement our route and network strategy could harm our business.
Our route and network strategy (how we determine to deploy our fleet) includes initiatives to increase revenue, decrease costs, mature our network, and improve distribution of our sales channels. It is critical that we execute upon our planned strategy in order for our business to attain economies of scale and to sustain or improve our results of operations. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and related decline in air travel and safety protocols we have taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we are not likely to be able to utilize and fill current capacity or any additional capacity provided by any additional aircraft entering our fleet, hire and retain skilled personnel, or secure the required equipment and facilities in a cost-effective manner at the levels previously anticipated. As a result, we are unlikely to be able to meaningfully develop and grow our new and existing markets in the near term, which may adversely affect our business and operations for an indeterminant time period. In addition, if we are unable to adequately contain our non-fuel unit costs, our financial results may suffer.
Any damage to our reputation or brand image could adversely affect our business or financial results.

Maintaining a good reputation globally is critical to our business. Our reputation or brand image could be adversely impacted by, among other things, any failure to maintain high ethical, social and environmental sustainability practices for all of our operations and activities, our impact on the environment, public pressure from investors or policy groups to change our policies, such as movements to institute a “living wage,” customer perceptions of our advertising campaigns, sponsorship arrangements or marketing programs, customer perceptions of our use of social media, or customer perceptions of statements made by us, our employees and executives, agents or other third parties. Damage to our reputation or brand image or loss of customer confidence in our services could adversely affect our business and financial results, as well as require additional resources to rebuild our reputation.

Moreover, the outbreak and spread of COVID-19 have adversely impacted consumer perceptions of the health and safety of travel, and in particular airline travel, and these negative perceptions could continue even after the COVID-19 pandemic subsides. Actual or perceived risk of infection while traveling could have a material adverse effect on the public’s perception of us, which could harm our reputation and business. We have taken various measures to reassure our team members and the traveling public of the safety of air travel, including those related to requirements by the state of Hawai'i that travelers are able to present evidence of a negative COVID-19 test administered within 72 hours prior to commencing travel from a State-approved testing partner, a 10-day quarantine requirement for travelers between certain islands within the State of Hawai'i, and other testing requirements in order to bypass quarantine, and other measures, such as airport health screening measures, requiring that passengers wear face coverings, the provision of protective equipment for team members and enhanced cleaning procedures onboard aircraft and in airports. We expect that we will continue to incur costs related to the COVID-19 pandemic as we sanitize aircraft, implement additional hygiene-related protocols and take other actions to limit the threat of infection among our employees and passengers. However, we cannot assure that these or any other actions we might take in response to the COVID-19 pandemic will be sufficient to restore the confidence of consumers in the safety of air travel.
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Our reputation and financial results could be harmed in the event of adverse publicity, including the event of an aircraft accident or incident.
Our customer base is broad and our business activities have significant prominence, particularly in Hawai'i and other destinations we serve. Consequently, negative publicity resulting from real or perceived shortcomings in our customer service, employee relations, business conduct, third-party aircraft components or other events or circumstances affecting our operations could negatively affect the public image of our company and the willingness of customers to purchase services from us, which could affect our financial results.
Additionally, we are exposed to potential losses that may be incurred in the event of an aircraft accident or incident. Any such accident or incident involving our aircraft or an aircraft operated by one of our code-share partners could involve not only the repair or replacement of a damaged aircraft or aircraft parts, and its consequential temporary or permanent loss of revenue, but also significant claims of injured passengers and others. We are required by the DOT to carry liability insurance, and although we currently maintain liability insurance in amounts consistent with the industry, we cannot be assured that our insurance coverage will adequately cover us from all claims and we may be forced to bear substantial losses incurred with an accident. In addition, any aircraft accident or incident could cause a public perception that we are less safe or reliable than other airlines, which would harm our business.
AIRLINE INDUSTRY, REGULATION AND RELATED COSTS RISKS
The airline industry has substantial operating leverage and is affected by many conditions that are beyond its control, which could harm our financial condition and results of operations.
Due to the substantial fixed costs associated with operating an airline, there is a disproportionate relationship between the cost of operating each flight and the number of passengers carried. However, the revenue generated from a particular flight is directly related to the number of passengers carried and the respective average fares applied. Accordingly, a decrease in the number of passengers carried, and when applicable, the aggregate effect of decreasing flights scheduled, causes a corresponding decrease in revenue that is likely to result in a disproportionately greater decrease in profits. Therefore, the reduction in airline passenger traffic as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and any future reductions as a result of the following or other factors, which are largely outside of our control, will likely harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations:
decline in general economic conditions;
the threat of terrorist attacks and conflicts overseas;
actual or threatened war and political instability;
increased security measures or breaches in security;
adverse weather and natural disasters;
changes in consumer preferences, perceptions, or spending patterns;
increased costs related to security and safety measures,
increased fares as a result of increases in fuel costs;
outbreaks of contagious diseases or fear of contagion; and
congestion or major construction at airports and actual or potential disruptions in the air traffic control system.
Our results of operations are and may continue to be volatile due to the conditions identified above. We cannot ensure that our financial resources will be sufficient to absorb the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic or any unexpected events, including those identified above.
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Our financial results and operations may be negatively affected by the State of Hawai'i’s airport modernization plan.
The State of Hawai'i has begun to implement a modernization plan encompassing the airports we serve within the State. Our landing fees and airport rent rates have increased to fund the modernization program. Additionally, we expect the costs for our Neighbor Island operations to increase more than the costs related to our North America and International operations due to phased adjustments of the airports’ funding mechanism. Consequently, costs related to the modernization program will have a greater impact on our operations as compared to our competitors, most of whom do not have significant Neighbor Island operations. We can offer no assurance that we will be successful in offsetting these cost increases through other cost reductions or increases in our revenue and, therefore, can offer no assurance that our future financial results will not be negatively affected by them.
Our operations may be disrupted if we are unable to obtain and maintain adequate facilities and infrastructure at airports within the State of Hawai'i.
We must be able to maintain and/or obtain adequate gates, maintenance capacity, office space, operations areas, and ticketing facilities at the airports within the State of Hawai'i to be able to operate our existing and proposed flight schedules. Failure to maintain such facilities and infrastructure may adversely impact our operations and financial performance.
Our business is subject to substantial seasonal and cyclical volatility.
Our results of operations reflect the impact of seasonal volatility primarily due to passenger leisure and holiday travel patterns. Moreover, due to the widespread impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the demand for air travel generally and travel to and within Hawai'i specifically, we have seen a significant decline in demand for air travel in 2020 as compared to prior years. As Hawai'i is a popular vacation destination, demand from North America, our largest source of visitors, is typically stronger during June, July, August and December and considerably weaker at other times of the year. Because of fluctuations in our results from seasonality, operating results for a historical period are not necessarily indicative of operating results for a future period and operating results for an interim period are not necessarily indicative of operating results for an entire year.
Terrorist attacks or international hostilities, or the fear of terrorist attacks or hostilities, even if not made directly on the airline industry, could negatively affect us and the airline industry.
Terrorist attacks, even if not made directly on the airline industry, or the fear of such attacks, hostilities or act of war, could adversely affect the airline industry, including us, and could result in a significant decrease in demand for air travel, increased security costs, increased insurance costs covering war-related risks, and increased flight operational loss due to cancellations and delays. Any future terrorist attacks or the implementation of additional security-related fees could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and on the airline industry in general.
The airline industry is subject to extensive government regulation, new regulations, and taxes which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Airlines are subject to extensive regulatory requirements that result in significant costs. New, and modifications to existing, laws, regulations, taxes and airport rates, and charges imposed by domestic and foreign governments have been proposed from time to time that could significantly increase the cost of airline operations, restrict operations or reduce revenue. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) from time to time issues directives and other regulations relating to the maintenance and operation of aircraft that require significant expenditures. Some FAA requirements cover, among other things, retirement of older aircraft, security measures, collision avoidance systems, airborne windshear avoidance systems, noise abatement and other environmental concerns, commuter aircraft safety and increased inspections, and maintenance procedures to be conducted on older aircraft. A failure to be in compliance, or a modification, suspension or revocation of any of our DOT/FAA authorizations or certificates, would have a material adverse impact on our operations.
We cannot predict the impact that laws or regulations may have on our operations, nor can we ensure that laws or regulations enacted in the future will not adversely affect our business. Further, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain or maintain necessary governmental approvals. Once obtained, operating permits are subject to modification and revocation by the issuing agencies. Compliance with these and any future regulatory requirements could require us to incur significant capital and operating expenditures.
In addition to extensive government regulations, the airline industry is dependent on certain services provided by government agencies (DOT, FAA, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA)).
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Furthermore, because of significantly higher security and other costs incurred by airports since September 11, 2001, many airports have significantly increased their rates and charges to airlines, including us, and may continue to do so in the future.
We are subject to risks associated with climate change, including increased regulation of our CO2 emissions and the potential increased impacts of severe weather events on our operations and infrastructure.

There is increasing global regulatory focus on climate change and emissions of greenhouse gases, including CO2. In particular, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is in the process of adopting rules, including the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA), of which the U.S. federal government has opted to participate in the voluntary phases from 2021-2026. As part of the CORSIA program, we are currently monitoring our international emissions for reporting purposes, and such data will be used in calculations to determine subsequent carbon offsetting requirements under the CORSIA program. Regardless of the method of regulation or application of CORSIA, further policy changes with regard to climate change are possible, which could increase operating costs in the airline industry and, as a result, adversely affect our operations.

In the event that CORSIA does not come into force as expected, we and other airlines could become subject to an unpredictable and inconsistent array of national or regional emissions restrictions, creating a patchwork of complex regulatory requirements that may affect global competitors differently. Concerns over climate change may result in the adoption of municipal, state, regional, and federal requirements or in changing business environments that may result in increased costs to the airline industry and us. In addition, several countries and U.S. states have adopted or are considering adopting programs to regulate greenhouse gas emissions. On January 20, 2021, the United States rejoined the Paris Climate Accord. Further, the recent change in administration may give rise to additional regulatory changes that could impact the airline industry and our business. Certain airports have adopted, and others could in the future adopt, greenhouse gas emission or climate-neutral goals that could impact our operations or require us to make changes or additional investments in our infrastructure.

All such climate change-related regulatory activity and developments may adversely affect our business and financial results by requiring us to reduce our emissions, make capital investments to modernize aspects of our operations, purchase carbon offset credits, or otherwise pay for our emissions. Such activity may also impact us indirectly by increasing our operating costs, including fuel costs.

We could incur significant costs to improve the climate resiliency of our infrastructure and otherwise prepare for, respond to, and mitigate such physical effects of climate change. We are not able to accurately predict the materiality of any potential losses or costs associated with the physical effects of climate change.

Federal budget constraints or federally imposed furloughs due to budget negotiation deadlocks may adversely affect our industry, business, results of operations and financial position.
Many of our airline operations are regulated by governmental agencies, including the FAA, the DOT, the CBP, the TSA, and others. If the federal government operations were to experience issues in reaching budgetary consensus in the future resulting in mandatory furloughs and/or other budget constraints, or if a government shutdown were to continue for an extended period of time, our business and results of operations could be materially negatively impacted, including as a result of actual or potential disruption in the air traffic control system, actual or perceived delays at various airports, and delays in deliveries of new aircraft. The travel behaviors of the flying public could also be affected by government shutdowns and sequestrations, which may materially adversely impact our industry, our business, results of operations and financial positions.
The airline industry is required to comply with various environmental laws and regulations, which could inhibit our ability to operate and could also have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Many aspects of airlines’ operations are subject to increasingly stringent federal, state, local, and foreign laws protecting the environment. U.S. federal laws that have a particular impact on us include the Airport Noise and Capacity Act of 1990, the Clean Air Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response Act and the Compensation and Liability Act. Compliance with these and other environmental laws and regulations can require significant expenditures, and violations can lead to significant fines and penalties. Governments globally are increasingly focusing on the environmental impact caused by the consumption of fossil fuels and as a result have proposed or enacted legislation which may increase the cost of providing airline service or restrict its provision. We expect the focus on environmental matters to increase.
Concern about climate change and greenhouse gases may result in additional regulation of aircraft emissions in the U.S. and abroad. In addition, other legislative or regulatory action to regulate greenhouse gas emissions is possible. At this time, we
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cannot predict whether any such legislation or regulation would apportion costs between one or more jurisdictions in which we operate flights. We are monitoring and evaluating the potential impact of such legislative and regulatory developments.
In addition to direct costs, such regulation may have a greater effect on the airline industry through increases in fuel costs. The impact to us and our industry from such actions is likely to be adverse and could be significant, particularly if regulators were to conclude that emissions from commercial aircraft cause significant harm to the atmosphere or have a greater impact on climate change than other industries.
Our operations may be adversely affected by our expansion into non-U.S. jurisdictions and the related laws and regulations to which we are subject.
The expansion of our operations into non-U.S. jurisdictions has expanded the scope of the laws and regulations to which we are subject, both domestically and internationally. Compliance with the laws and regulations of foreign jurisdictions and the restrictions on operations that these laws, regulations or other government actions may impose could significantly increase the cost of airline operations or reduce revenue. For example, various jurisdictions have imposed or are currently imposing restrictions that impede or restrict travel in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and a number of our destinations in Asia have been revising their privacy and consumer laws and regulations. Limitations placed on our business as a result of these or other laws and regulations or failure to comply with evolving laws or regulations could result in significant penalties, criminal charges, costs to defend ourselves in a foreign jurisdiction, restrictions on operations and reputational damage. In addition, we operate flights on international routes regulated by treaties and related agreements between the U.S. and foreign governments, which are subject to change as they may be amended from time to time. Modifications of these arrangements could result in an inability to obtain or retain take-off or landing slots for our routes, route authorization and necessary facilities. Any limitations, additions or modifications to government treaties, agreements, regulations, laws or policies related to our international routes could have a material adverse impact on our financial position and results of operations.
We may be party to litigation or regulatory action in the normal course of business or otherwise, which could have an adverse effect on our operations and financial results.
From time to time, we are a party to or otherwise involved in legal or regulatory proceedings, claims, government inspections, investigations or other legal matters, both domestically and in foreign jurisdictions, including proceedings related to the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, due to cancelled or rescheduled flights in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, several U.S. airlines, including us, have been subject to class action complaints citing violation of state consumer statutes for allegedly failing or refusing to refund passenger tickets on cancelled flights. We believe we have meritorious defenses and intend to vigorously contest the claims. Resolving or defending legal matters, however, can take months or years. The duration of such matters can be unpredictable with many variables that we do not control including adverse party or government responses. Litigation and regulatory proceedings are subject to significant uncertainty and may be expensive, time-consuming and disruptive to our operations. In addition, an adverse resolution of a lawsuit, regulatory matter, investigation or other proceeding could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. We may be required to change or restrict our operations or be subject to injunctive relief, significant compensatory damages, punitive damages, penalties, fines or disgorgement of profits, none of which may be covered by insurance. We may have to pay out settlements that also may not be covered by insurance. There can be no assurance that any of these payments or actions will not be material. In addition, publicity of ongoing legal and regulatory matters may adversely affect our reputation.
Changes in tax laws or regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial conditions.

The rules dealing with U.S. federal, state and local income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the Internal Revenue Service, the Treasury and state and local tax authorities. Changes in U.S. tax laws or their interpretations (which may have retroactive application) could materially increase the amount of taxes we owe, thereby negatively impacting our results of operations as well as our cash flows from operations. Furthermore, our implementation of new practices and processes designed to comply with changing tax laws and regulations could require us to make substantial changes to our business practices, allocate additional resources, and increase our costs, potentially adversely impacting our business, financial position and results of operations.

As we continue to grow internationally, we may also be subject to taxation in jurisdictions around the world with increasingly complex tax laws, the application of which may be uncertain. The amount of taxes we pay in these jurisdictions could increase substantially as a result of changes in the applicable tax principles, including increased tax rates, new tax laws or revised interpretations of existing tax laws and precedents, potentially adversely affecting our liquidity and results of operations. In addition, the authorities in these jurisdictions could review our tax returns and impose additional tax, interest and penalties, and
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the relevant authorities could claim that various withholding requirements apply to us or assert that benefits of tax treaties are not available to us or our subsidiaries, any of which could adversely impact us and our results of operations.

Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

As of December 31, 2020, we had net operating loss carryforwards (NOLs) available to reduce future taxable income of approximately $40.4 million for regular federal income tax purposes that have indefinite carryover and approximately $424.9 million for state income tax purposes that will expire, if unused, beginning in 2024. The majority of our state NOLs relate to the State of Hawai'i, most of which have indefinite carryover, but are limited to 80% utilization.
Our ability to use our NOLs will depend on the amount of taxable income generated in future periods. If our financial results continue to be adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, there can be no assurance that an increase in the valuation allowance on our net deferred tax assets will not be required in the future. Such valuation allowance could be material. Additionally, due to the COVID-19 pandemic and other economic factors, the NOLs may expire before we can generate sufficient taxable income to use them.

Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change NOLs to offset its post-change income may be limited. In general, an “ownership change” will occur if there is a cumulative change in our ownership by “5-percent shareholders” that exceeds 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. Our ability to use NOLs to reduce future taxable income and liabilities may be subject to annual limitations as a result of prior ownership changes and ownership changes that may occur in the future.
Our insurance costs are susceptible to significant increases, and further increases in insurance costs or reductions in coverage could have an adverse effect on our financial results.
We carry types and amounts of insurance customary in the airline industry, including coverage for general liability, passenger liability, property damage, aircraft loss or damage, baggage and cargo liability, and workers’ compensation. We are required by the DOT to carry liability insurance on each of our aircraft. We currently maintain commercial airline insurance with a major group of independent insurers that regularly participate in world aviation insurance markets, including public liability insurance and coverage for losses resulting from the physical destruction or damage to our aircraft. However, there can be no assurance that the amount of such coverage will not change or that we will not bear substantial losses from accidents or damage to, or loss of, aircraft or other property due to other factors such as natural disasters. We could incur substantial claims resulting from an accident or damage to, or loss of, aircraft or other property due to other factors such as natural disasters in excess of related insurance coverage that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have experienced, and may continue to experience, increases in our policy premiums as our policies become eligible for renewal.
Extended interruptions or disruptions in service have and could continue to have a material adverse impact on our operations.
Our financial results have been and may continue to be adversely affected by factors outside our control, including, but not limited to, flight cancellations, significant delays in operations, and facility disruptions, such as those caused by the current COVID-19 pandemic. Our principal base of operations is in Hawai'i and a significant interruption or disruption in service has had and may continue to have a serious impact on our business and results of operations. In addition to international health crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes and tsunamis, may impact the demand for transportation in the markets in which we operate.
FLEET AND FLEET-RELATED RISKS
We are dependent on our limited number of suppliers for aircraft, aircraft engines and parts.
We are dependent on a limited number of suppliers (e.g. Airbus, Boeing, Rolls Royce, Pratt & Whitney) for aircraft, aircraft engines, and aircraft-related items. We are vulnerable to malfunction, failure or other problems associated with the supply and performance of these aircraft and parts and/or related operational disruptions, such as those caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. We do not yet know the full impact of operational disruptions of our suppliers and believe that such disruptions could result in reputational harm, increased parts and maintenance costs, and adverse effects on our financial position and results of operations.
Our agreements to purchase Boeing 787-9 aircraft represent significant future financial commitments and operating costs.
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As of December 31, 2020, we had the following firm order commitments and purchase rights for additional aircraft:
Aircraft Type Firm
Orders
Purchase
Rights
Expected Delivery Dates
A321neo aircraft —  N/A
B787-9 aircraft 10  10  Between 2022 and 2026
We have made substantial pre-delivery payments for aircraft under existing purchase agreements and are required to continue these pre-delivery payments as well as make payments for the balance of the purchase price through delivery of each aircraft. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we entered into an amendment to the Boeing 787-9 purchase agreement on October 26, 2020, which provides for, amongst other things, a change in the aircraft delivery schedule from 2021 through 2025 to 2022 through 2026, with the first delivery scheduled in September 2022. These commitments substantially increase our future capital spending requirements and may require us to increase our level of debt in future years. We are continuing to evaluate our options to finance these orders. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain such financing on favorable terms, or at all.
Delays in scheduled aircraft deliveries or other loss of fleet capacity may adversely impact our operations and financial results.
The success of our business depends on, among other things, the ability to effectively operate a certain number and type of aircraft. As noted above, we are uncertain about the future of our contractual commitments to purchase additional aircraft for our fleet. Our inability to purchase and introduce new aircraft into our fleet could negatively impact our business, operations and financial performance. Even if we proceed with some or all of our contractual commitments to purchase additional aircraft, delays in scheduled aircraft, due to the COVID-19 pandemic or other circumstances, or our failure to integrate newly purchased aircraft into our fleet as planned may require us to utilize our existing fleet longer than expected. Such extensions may require us to operate existing aircraft beyond the point at which it is economically optimal to retire them, resulting in increased maintenance costs.
We may never realize the full value of our long-lived assets such as aircraft and non-aircraft equipment, resulting in impairment and other related charges that may negatively impact our financial position and results of operations.
Economic and intrinsic triggers, which include the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, extreme fuel price volatility, an uncertain economic and credit environment, unfavorable trends in historical or forecasted results of operations and cash flows, as well as other uncertainties, may cause us to record material impairments of our long-lived assets. Additionally, we could be subject to impairment charges in the future that could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations in future periods. The risk of future material impairments has grown significantly as result of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business.
During the fiscal quarter ended March 31, 2020, the adverse economic impact and declining passenger demand attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic drove down our stock price to 52-week lows and significantly reduced our cash flows. We determined that the estimated fair value of our business was less than its carrying value. The deficit between the fair value and the carrying value of the assets exceeded the amount of goodwill on our financial statements and, therefore, we recognized a goodwill impairment charge of $106.7 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020.
As part of our response to COVID-19, discussed above, including substantial capacity reductions and the temporary grounding of the majority of our fleet, as well as reduced cash flow projections, we identified indicators of impairment of our long-lived assets. To determine whether impairment exists for aircraft used in operations, assets are grouped at the fleet-type level (the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows) and future cash flows are estimated based on projections of capacity, passenger mile yield, fuel costs, labor costs and other relevant factors. In the second quarter of 2020, we recorded an impairment charge of $34.0 million related to our ATR-42 and ATR-72 fleets, assets held in our commercial real-estate subsidiary and the termination of certain software-related projects.
During the fourth quarter of 2020, we recorded an impairment charge of $5.4 million, comprised of an additional write-down of our ATR-42 and ATR-72 fleet of approximately $4.9 million and permanent suspension of approximately $0.5 million in capitalized software projects.

As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $13.5 million in indefinite-lived intangible assets subject to impairment. The fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible asset continues to exceed its carrying value.

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Given the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we continue to evaluate our current fleet and other long-lived assets for impairment accordingly. As of December 31, 2020, our remaining long-lived assets continued to generate future cash flows from operation of the fleet through the respective retirement dates in excess of their respective carrying values.
COMMON STOCK RISKS
Our share price is subject to fluctuations.
The market price of our stock is influenced by many factors, many of which are outside of our control, and include other factors discussed in the Risk Factors section, as well as the following:
our operating results and financial condition;
how our operating results and financial condition compare to securities analyst expectations, particularly with respect to metrics for which we do not give guidance, including whether those results significantly fail to meet or exceed securities analyst expectations;
changes in the competitive environment in which we operate;
fuel price volatility including the availability of fuel;
announcements concerning our competitors including bankruptcy filings, mergers, restructurings or acquisitions by other airlines;
increases or changes in government regulation;
general and industry specific market conditions;
changes in financial estimates or recommendations by securities analysts; and
sales of our common stock or other actions by investors with significant shareholdings.
In recent years the stock market has experienced volatile price and volume fluctuations that often have been unrelated to the operating performance of individual companies. These market fluctuations, as well as general economic conditions, may affect the price of our common stock.
In the past, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against a company following periods of volatility in its stock price. This type of litigation, if filed against us, could result in substantial costs and divert our management's attention and resources. In addition, the future sale of a substantial number of shares of common stock by us or by our existing stockholders may have an adverse impact on the market price of our common stock. There can be no assurance that the trading price of our common stock will remain at or near its current level.
Certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may delay or prevent a change of control, which could materially adversely affect the price of our common stock.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that may make it difficult to remove our Board of Directors and management, and may discourage or delay a change of control, which could materially and adversely affect the price of our common stock. These provisions include, among others:
the ability of our Board of Directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, series of undesignated preferred stock, or rights to acquire preferred stock, that could dilute the interest of, or impair the voting power of, holders of our common stock or could also be used as a method of discouraging, delaying or preventing a change of control;
advance notice procedures for stockholder proposals to be considered at stockholders’ meetings and for nominations of candidates for election to our Board of Directors;
the ability of our Board of Directors to fill vacancies on the board;
a prohibition against stockholders taking action by written consent;
a prohibition against stockholders calling special meetings of stockholders; and
super-majority voting requirements to modify or amend specified provisions of our certificate of incorporation.
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Our certificate of incorporation includes a provision limiting voting and ownership by non-U.S. citizens and our bylaws include a provision specifying an exclusive forum for stockholder disputes.
To comply with restrictions imposed by federal law on foreign ownership of U.S. airlines, our certificate of incorporation restricts voting of shares of our common stock by non-U.S. citizens. Our certificate of incorporation provides that the failure of non-U.S. citizens to register their shares on a separate stock record, which we refer to as the “foreign stock record,” would result in a suspension of their voting rights in the event that the aggregate foreign ownership of the outstanding common stock exceeds the foreign ownership restrictions imposed by federal law.

Our certificate of incorporation further provides that no shares of our common stock will be registered on the foreign stock record if the amount so registered would exceed the foreign ownership restrictions imposed by federal law. If it is determined that the amount registered in the foreign stock record exceeds the foreign ownership restrictions imposed by federal law, shares will be removed from the foreign stock record in reverse chronological order based on the date of registration therein, until the number of shares registered therein does not exceed the foreign ownership restrictions imposed by federal law. As of December 31, 2020, we believe we were in compliance with the foreign ownership rules.

Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or, if such court lacks jurisdiction, any other state or federal court located in the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of us; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders; (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or our certificate of incorporation or bylaws (as each may be amended or restated from time to time); or (iv) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our amended and restated bylaws further provide that the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act). Accordingly, stockholders may be limited in the forum in which they are able to pursue legal actions against us.
We cannot repurchase our common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program or pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future.
Under the terms of our relief under the CARES Act, we are required to suspend payment of dividends and refrain from engaging in stock repurchases through the later of March 31, 2022 and the date that is 12 months after the date on which all outstanding loans under the ERP Facility have been repaid in full. We announced on March 18, 2020 that we suspended stock repurchases under our previously announced repurchase program, which expired on December 31, 2020. As such, we do not anticipate any future repurchases under our currently approved repurchase program and we cannot provide any assurance that we will initiate any repurchase program again in the future. Additionally, although we have historically issued quarterly dividends, we cannot provide any assurance that we will declare dividends in the future, even after the restrictions related to the CARES Act are no longer applicable, based on our operating results, financial condition, capital requirements, and general business conditions.

RISKS RELATING TO SECURITIES OFFERINGS

Future sales or issuances of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception of such sales, could depress the trading price of our common stock.

The sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock or other equity-related securities in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of common stock or other equity-related securities would have on the market price of our common stock.

If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about us, or if they issue unfavorable commentary about us or our industry or downgrade the outlook of our common stock, the market price of our common stock could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that third-party securities analysts publish about us and our industry. One or more analysts could downgrade the outlook for our common stock or issue other negative commentary about us or our industry. Furthermore, if one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us, we could
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lose visibility in the market. As a result of one or more of these factors, the market price of our common stock could decline and cause you to lose all or a portion of your investment.

In connection with the sale of our common stock through our at-the-market offering, investors may experience dilution as a result of future issuances of securities.

We may offer and sell up to an aggregate of 5,000,000 shares of our common stock from time to time in an at-the-market offering (ATM Program) through Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, BNP Paribas Securities Corp. and Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, acting as sales agents on the terms and subject to the conditions of an Equity Distribution Agreement dated December 1, 2020 (the Equity Distribution Agreement). Investors may experience dilution as a result of issuances of our common stock pursuant to our ATM program.

In connection with the issuance of Hawaiian’s enhanced equipment trust certificates, our indebtedness and liabilities could limit the cash flow available for our operations, and consequently expose us to risks that could materially adversely affect the resources available to us and Hawaiian to satisfy our obligations under such certificates.

In July 2020, we offered enhanced equipment trust certificates (the Certificates) issued by pass-through trusts (the EETC Offering) and, the equipment notes held in each trust and passed through to the certificate holders of such trust are senior secured obligations of ours. As of December 31, 2020, the outstanding principal balance of our EETC issuances was $552.5 million. Offerings of structured finance securities, such as the EETC Offering may present risks similar to those of the other types of debt obligations in which we or Hawaiian may invest and, in fact, such risks may be of greater significance in the case of such structured finance securities. In addition, the performance of the Certificates will be affected by a variety of factors, including its priority in the capital structure of the issuer thereof, and the availability of any credit enhancement, the level and timing of payments and recoveries on and the characteristics of the underlying receivables, loans or other assets that are being securitized, remoteness of those assets from the originator or transferor, the adequacy of and ability to realize upon any related collateral and the capability of the servicer of the securitized assets. If we or Hawaiian fail to comply with these covenants or to make payments under such indebtedness when due, then we or Hawaiian would be in default under that indebtedness, which could, in turn, result in ours or Hawaiian’s other indebtedness becoming immediately payable in full.

In connection with the issuance of the senior secured notes due 2026, our indebtedness and liabilities could limit the cash flow available for Hawaiian’s operations, and consequently expose us to risks that could materially adversely affect the resources available to us to satisfy our obligations under the Notes.

In February 2021, we conducted a private offering of 5.75% senior secured notes due 2026 (the Notes) collateralized by certain loyalty and brand assets (Notes Offering). The indebtedness of Hawaiian and its subsidiaries increased significantly as a result of the Notes Offering. As of December 31, 2020, Hawaiian had $1,149.8 million of total indebtedness (excluding finance lease obligations of approximately $141.9 million and operating lease obligations of $585.8 million). We incurred $1.2 billion principal amount of indebtedness as a result of the Notes Offering. We may also incur additional indebtedness to meet future financing needs. The indebtedness of Hawaiian and its subsidiaries could have significant negative consequences for our security holders and the resources available to satisfy our obligations under the Notes, including the following:

greater difficulty satisfying our obligations with respect to the Notes;

increasing Hawaiian’s vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;

limiting Hawaiian’s ability to obtain additional financing;

requiring the dedication of a substantial portion of Hawaiian’s cash flow from operations to service Hawaiian’s indebtedness, which will reduce the amount of cash available for other purposes;

limiting Hawaiian’s flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in its business;

placing Hawaiian at a possible competitive disadvantage with competitors that are less leveraged than us or have better access to capital; and

potentially causing Hawaiian’s credit ratings to be reduced and causing our and Hawaiian’s debt and equity securities to significantly decrease in value.
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Hawaiian’s business, including the HawaiianMiles Program, may not generate sufficient funds, and we and Hawaiian may otherwise be unable to maintain sufficient cash reserves, to pay amounts due under our and Hawaiian’s indebtedness, including the Notes, and our and Hawaiian’s cash needs may increase in the future. In addition, future indebtedness that we or Hawaiian may incur may contain financial and other restrictive covenants that limit our ability to operate our business, including with respect to the HawaiianMiles Program, raise capital or make payments under our or Hawaiian’s indebtedness. If we or Hawaiian fail to comply with these covenants or to make payments under ours or Hawaiian’s indebtedness when due, then we or Hawaiian would be in default under that indebtedness, which could, in turn, result in ours and Hawaiian’s other indebtedness becoming immediately payable in full.
ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
None.
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES.
Aircraft
The table below summarizes our total fleet as of December 31, 2019 and 2020, and anticipated fleet as of December 31, 2021 (based on existing agreements):
December 31, 2019 December 31, 2020 December 31, 2021 Seating Capacity (Per Aircraft) Simple Average Age (In Years)
Aircraft Type Leased (3) Owned Total Leased (3) Owned Total Leased (3) Owned Total
A330-200 12  12  24  12  12  24  12  12  24  278 7.5
A321-200(1) 15  17  14  18  14  18  189 2
717-200 15  20  14  19  14  19  128 18.7
ATR 42-500(2) —  —  —  48 17.7
ATR 72-200(2) —  —  —  27.3
Total 19  49  68  21  48  69  21  48  69 

(1)In 2020, we took delivery of our final Airbus A321-200 aircraft in the second quarter of 2020. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we entered into sale-leaseback transactions for two A321-200 aircraft, including one delivered in 2020.
(2)The ATR 42-500 and ATR 72-200 turboprop aircraft are owned by Airline Contract Maintenance & Equipment, Inc., our wholly-owned subsidiary. The ATR 42-500 turbo prop aircraft are used for passenger operations under a Capacity Purchase Agreement (CPA) with a third-party provider. The ATR 72-200 turboprop aircraft are used for our cargo operations under a CPA.
(3)Leased aircraft include aircraft under finance and operating leases. See Note 9 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion regarding our aircraft leases.
At December 31, 2020, we had 10 aircraft on order scheduled for delivery through 2026:
Delivery Year B787-9 Aircraft (1)
2021 — 
2022
2023 — 
2024
2025
2026
10 

(1)In July 2018, we entered into a purchase agreement for the purchase of 10 Boeing 787-9 "Dreamliner" aircraft with purchase rights for an additional 10 aircraft with scheduled deliveries between 2021 to 2025. In October 2020, we entered into an amendment to our Boeing 787-9 purchase agreement, which, amongst other things, provides for a change in our aircraft delivery schedule to between 2022 and 2026, with the first delivery scheduled in September 2022, as reflected in
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the table above. These fuel efficient, long-range aircraft will complement our existing fleet of wide-body for long-haul Asia/Pacific and North America routes.
Ground Facilities
Our principal terminal facilities, cargo facilities and hangar and maintenance facilities are located at the Daniel K. Inouye International Airport (HNL). The majority of the facilities at HNL are leased on a month-to-month basis. We are also charged for the use of terminal facilities at other Neighbor Island airports owned by the State of Hawai'i. Some terminal facilities, including gates and holding rooms, are considered by the State of Hawai'i to be common areas and thus are not exclusively controlled by us. We also utilize other State of Hawai'i facilities, including station manager offices, Premier Club lounges, and operations support space.    
The table below sets forth the airport locations to which we have access pursuant to various agreements as of December 31, 2020:
Name of Airport Location
Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport   Phoenix   Arizona
Long Beach Airport Long Beach California
Los Angeles International Airport   Los Angeles   California
Oakland International Airport   Oakland   California
Sacramento International Airport   Sacramento   California
San Diego International Airport   San Diego   California
San Francisco International Airport   San Francisco   California
Norman Y. Mineta San Jose International Airport   San Jose   California
Hilo International Airport   Hilo  
Hawai'i
Daniel K. Inouye International Airport   Honolulu  
Hawai'i
Kahului Airport   Kahului  
Hawai'i
Ellison Onizuka Kona International Airport   Kailua-Kona  
Hawai'i
Lana'i Airport Lana'i
Hawai'i
Lihu'e Airport   Lihu'e  
Hawai'i
Moloka'i Airport Moloka'i
Hawai'i
Boston Logan International Airport Boston Massachusetts
McCarran International Airport   Las Vegas   Nevada
John F. Kennedy International Airport   New York   New York
Portland International Airport   Portland   Oregon
Seattle-Tacoma International Airport   SeaTac   Washington
Pago Pago International Airport   Pago Pago   American Samoa
Brisbane International Airport   Brisbane   Australia
Sydney International Airport   Sydney   Australia
Haneda International Airport   Tokyo   Japan
Fukuoka International Airport Fukuoka Japan
Kansai International Airport   Osaka   Japan
Narita International Airport Tokyo Japan
New Chitose International Airport   Sapporo   Japan
Auckland Airport   Auckland   New Zealand
Incheon International Airport   Seoul   South Korea
Faa'a International Airport   Papeete   Tahiti
Our corporate headquarters are located in leased premises adjacent to the Daniel K. Inouye International Airport.
In December 2020, we announced new routes to the U.S. mainland and will begin service to three new airports (Ontario, California; Austin, Texas; and Orlando, Florida) in 2021.
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ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS.
We are subject to legal proceedings arising in the normal course of our operations. We do not anticipate that the disposition of any currently pending proceeding will have a material effect on our operations, business or financial condition.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES.
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES.
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol "HA."
Holders
There were 713 stockholders of record of our common stock as of February 5, 2021, which does not reflect those shares held beneficially or those shares held in "street" name.
Dividends and Other Restrictions
We paid dividends of $5.5 million to shareholders of record during 2020 and $22.8 million during 2019. Our receipt of financial assistance under the CARES Act and the CAA 2021 precludes us from making any further dividend payments through March 31, 2022.
U.S. law prohibits non-U.S. citizens from owning more than 25% of the voting interest of a U.S. air carrier or controlling a U.S. air carrier. Our certificate of incorporation prohibits the ownership or control of more than 25% (to be increased or decreased from time to time, as permitted under the laws of the U.S.) of our issued and outstanding voting capital stock by persons who are not "citizens of the U.S." As of December 31, 2020, we believe we are in compliance with the law as it relates to voting stock held by non-U.S. citizens.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
On March 18, 2020, as part of our response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we announced the suspension of our stock repurchase program. Pursuant to our receipt of financial assistance under the CARES Act and the CAA 2021, we are prevented from executing stock repurchases through March 31, 2022.
Stockholder Return Performance Graph
The following graph compares cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the AMEX Airline Index from December 31, 2015 to December 31, 2020. The comparison assumes $100 was invested on December 31, 2015 in our common stock and each of the foregoing indices and assumes reinvestment of dividends before consideration of income taxes.
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HA-20201231_G1.JPG
The stock performance depicted in the graph above is not to be relied upon as indicative of future performance. The stock performance graph shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate the same by reference, nor shall it be deemed to be "soliciting material" or to be "filed" with the SEC or subject to Regulations 14A or 14C or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act.
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ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA.
The Selected Financial Data should be read in conjunction with our accompanying audited consolidated financial statements and the notes related thereto and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" below.
Hawaiian Holdings, Inc.
Selected Financial Data
  Year ended December 31,
  2020 2019 2018 2017 2016
  (in thousands, except per share data)
Summary of Operations:          
Operating revenue $ 844,813  $ 2,832,228  $ 2,837,411  $ 2,675,145  $ 2,432,413 
Operating expenses 1,492,424  2,504,751  2,523,043  2,211,107  2,034,926 
Operating income (647,611) 327,477  314,368  464,038  397,487 
Net Income (Loss) (510,935) 223,984  233,200  330,610  224,120 
Net Income (Loss) Per Common Stock Share:          
Basic (a) $ (11.08) $ 4.72  $ 4.63  $ 6.23  $ 4.19 
Diluted (a) (11.08) 4.71  4.62  6.09  4.15 
Cash dividends declared per common share 0.12 0.48 0.48 0.12 0.00
Balance Sheet Items as of December 31:          
Total assets (b) $ 3,978,030  $ 4,126,624  $ 3,196,646  $ 2,873,821  $ 2,720,346 
Long-term debt and noncurrent finance lease obligations 1,155,423  689,115  608,684  511,201  497,908 

(a)We recognized a one-time benefit of $83.0 million, or $1.55 per common stock share, during the year ended December 31, 2017 as a result of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted in December 2017 (the Tax Act). During the year ended December 31, 2018, we completed our accounting for the effects of the Tax Act and recorded an additional tax benefit of $9.3 million.

(b)We adopted ASC 842, Leases (ASC 606), as of January 1, 2019 using the transition method that provides for a cumulative adjustment to retained earnings upon adoption. Results from periods prior to 2019 have not been restated.


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ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
Overview
The following Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is intended to help the reader understand the Company and its operations and is focused on our 2020 and 2019 financial results, including comparisons of year-over-year performance between these years. Discussion and analysis of our 2018 fiscal year, as well as the year-over-year comparison of our 2019 financial performance to 2018, is located in Part II, Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 12, 2020.
This discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections of future events. However, our actual results could differ materially from those discussed herein as a result of the risks that we face, including but not limited to those risks stated in the "Risk Factors" section of this report. In addition, the following discussion should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this report.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic

Due to the rapid and unprecedented spread of COVID-19, what began with our suspension of service to South Korea and Japan in late February 2020 accelerated in March 2020 when governments instituted requirements of self-isolation or quarantine for incoming travel. This was followed by the announcement in late March and early April 2020 of a 14-day mandatory quarantine for all travelers to, from and within the State of Hawai'i, respectively. On December 17, 2020, the mandatory self-quarantine period in the State of Hawai'i was reduced from 14 to 10 days. These restrictions, combined with the ongoing spread and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic globally, have continued to significantly suppress customer demand, which remains at historically low levels.

Restrictions on travel to and within the State of Hawai'i as well as travel to and from various international locations (including international locations within our network), remain in effect. Since October 15, 2020, the State of Hawai'i has allowed travelers coming to Hawai'i from the mainland U.S. to bypass the 10-day quarantine requirement with proof of a negative COVID-19 test from a state-approved testing partner (the pre-travel testing program), and the pre-travel testing program has since been expanded to include international travelers from Japan, South Korea and Canada. The State of Hawai`i and counties within the state continue to evaluate and update testing requirements for travel to and within the state, including the required timing of receipt of testing results and the expansion of the pre-travel testing program to travelers from other international locations.

Following the announcement and implementation of the pre-travel testing program, we saw an increase in bookings and have begun rebuilding our North America, Neighbor Island and International flight schedules commensurate with anticipated increases in demand. During the fourth quarter, we reinstated non-stop service from Honolulu to Las Vegas, Phoenix, San Jose, Oakland, New York and Boston, thereby restoring service to all of our pre-pandemic origin points on the U.S. mainland, as well as non-stop service from Honolulu to Tokyo-Haneda and Osaka, Japan, and Seoul, South Korea. While we doubled our capacity during the fourth quarter of 2020, as compared to the third quarter of 2020, our capacity was down approximately 72% compared to the same period in 2019. In December 2020, we announced the addition of three new U.S. mainland destinations: Austin, Texas, Orlando, Florida, and Ontario, California with service to and from Honolulu, Hawai'i beginning on April 21, March 11, and March 16, 2021, respectively. We also announced expanded service with a daily non-stop flight between Kahului, Hawai'i and Long Beach, California commencing in March 2021.

New bookings for travel from our mainland markets for January through March 2021) have moderated somewhat since the period immediately following the implementation of the State of Hawai'i's pre-travel testing program and, as of January 26, 2021, we were currently at about one-third of 2019 levels. We attribute this to recent changes in the State of Hawai'i's pre-travel testing program, the resurgence of COVID-19 infections in the United States and internationally, implementation of restrictions and quarantines in certain key origin points, and other factors affecting public sentiment.

While certain markets have reopened, others, particularly international markets, remain closed or continue to enforce extended quarantines, including as new strains of COVID-19 are identified. There can be no assurance whether, at some point, the State of Hawai'i or counties within the state may limit or suspend the pre-travel testing program should the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic worsen. For example, the County of Kaua'i suspended its participation in the statewide pre-travel testing program in late November and, effective January 5, 2021, resumed its participation in the pre-travel testing program for interisland travelers and instituted an Enhanced Movement Quarantine pre- and post-travel testing program for transpacific travelers. The U.S. government and international governments could also impose, extend or otherwise modify existing, travel
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restrictions on international travel into the United States. For example, on January 21, 2021, President Biden issued an executive order promoting COVID-19 Safety in Domestic and International Travel that requires international travelers to produce proof of a recent negative COVID-19 test prior to entry into the United States and comply with other applicable guidelines issued by the CDC concerning international travel, including recommended periods of self-quarantine after entry into the United States. While the impact of such regulatory changes remains uncertain, pre-travel testing and quarantine requirements may decrease new bookings and increase cancellations of current bookings. As a result of all the above factors and our results to date, we expect bookings, revenue and results of operations to continue to be volatile with revenue trends experienced in the fourth quarter of 2020 to continue in the first quarter of 2021. These trends may result in decreases to existing or anticipated levels, which decreases could be material. We will continue to assess our routes and schedule in response to changes in demand, including those related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have implemented enhanced safety protocols focusing on our employees and guests, while at the same time working to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on our financial position and operations.

Guest and Employee Experience. We have enhanced cleaning procedures and guest-facing protocols in an effort to minimize the risk of transmission of COVID-19. These procedures are in line with current recommendations from leading public health authorities and include:
         
Performing enhanced aircraft cleaning between flights and during overnight parking, including recurring electrostatic spraying of all aircraft.
Frequent cleaning and disinfecting of counters and self-service check-in kiosks in our airports.
Ensuring hand sanitizers are readily available for guests at airports we serve.
Requiring guests and guest facing employees to wear a face mask or covering, with guests required to keep them on from check-in to deplaning (except when eating or drinking on board).
Modifying boarding and deplaning processes.
Modifying in-flight service to minimize close interactions between crew members and guests.
Eliminating change fees on all domestic and international flights in order to provide guests with travel flexibility across our network.
Launching a program to offer guests pre-travel COVID-19 testing through mail-in kits and proprietary drive-through testing labs in an increasing number of our U.S. mainland gateways.
During the first quarter of 2021, we plan, in coordination with the State of Hawai'i, implement the Hawai'i Pre-Clear Program across our mainland network, which is intended to enhance the arrival process for our guests by validating the State's pre-travel testing requirement prior to departure.

Capacity Impacts. In response to reduced passenger demand as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we significantly reduced system capacity beginning late in the first quarter of 2020 to a level that maintained essential services and made adjustments to better align capacity with passenger demand throughout 2020. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we reduced capacity by 63.3% compared to the prior year. As a result of such capacity reductions, approximately 16% of our fleet was temporarily grounded as of December 31, 2020. We expect to continue to adjust capacity throughout 2021 based upon expected passenger demand.

Expense Management. In response to the reduction in revenue we experienced in 2020, we have implemented, and will continue to implement as necessary, cost savings and liquidity measures, including:

In 2020, we commenced various initiatives to reduce labor costs as follows:
During the first quarter, we instituted a temporary hiring freeze, except with respect to operationally critical and essential positions.
During the second quarter, we operationalized various temporary voluntary leave and vacation purchase programs to balance our workforce with our reduced levels of operations.
During the third quarter, we announced and completed voluntary separation and temporary leave programs across each of our labor groups. Additionally, we completed the majority of our involuntary separations, most of which were effective October 1, 2020. Combined, separation and temporary leave programs resulted in an approximately 32% reduction of our total workforce. All employees who were subject to an involuntary termination or involuntary furlough between October 1, 2020 and January 15, 2021 were recalled and offered an opportunity to return to employment pursuant to the PSP Extension Agreement (as defined below).
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Our officers reduced their base salaries between 10% and 50% through September 30, 2020, and members of our Board of Directors also reduced their compensation through September 30, 2020.
We reduced capital expenditures for 2020 and continue to vigorously evaluate non-essential, non-aircraft capital expenditures. During the year ended December 31, 2020, capital expenditures were approximately $105.3 million, a decrease of 73.5% compared to the same period in 2019.
On October 26, 2020, we amended our purchase agreement with Boeing to, among other things, change the delivery schedule of our 787-9 aircraft from 2021 through 2025 to 2022 through 2026, with the first delivery now scheduled in September 2022. Refer to Note 14 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional discussion.

We may implement further discretionary changes and other cost reduction and liquidity preservation measures as needed to address the volatile and rapidly changing dynamics of passenger demand and changes in revenue, regulatory and public health directives and prevailing government policy, and financial market conditions related to the COVID-19 pandemic. These discretionary changes may include additional work force reductions. For example, on January 28, 2021, we issued WARN notices to approximately 900 U.S.-based employees that could be affected by fluctuating employment needs beyond our PSP Extension through March 31, 2021.

Cash Flow and Liquidity Management. Our cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments as of December 31, 2020 was $864.4 million as a result of various actions taken to increase liquidity and strengthen our financial position during 2020, including, but not limited to:

During the first quarter of 2020, we fully drew down our previously undrawn $235.0 million revolving credit facility. Refer to Note 8 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional discussion.On February 11, 2021, we repaid the $235.0 million outstanding amount drawn on our revolving credit facility.
During the first quarter of 2020, we suspended our stock repurchase program and on April 22, 2020, we suspended dividend payments.
During the second and third quarters of 2020, we received $240.6 million in grants and $60.3 million in loans pursuant to the PSP under the CARES Act as discussed further below.
During the third quarter of 2020, we entered into a Loan Agreement with the Treasury pursuant to the ERP under the CARES Act to provide for a secured term loan that permits us to borrow up to $420.0 million. On October 23, 2020, we amended and restated our Loan Agreement (the Amended and Restated Loan Agreement) with the Treasury to increase the maximum amount available to be borrowed by us to $622 million. As of December 31, 2020, we had borrowed $45.0 million under the ERP as discussed in further detail below. As discussed in more detail below, we repaid the outstanding loan under the ERP on February 4, 2021.
During the third quarter of 2020, we completed $376.0 million in aircraft financings, including the issuance of enhanced equipment trust certificates and two sale and lease back transactions. Refer to Note 8 and Note 9 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more discussion of our financing activities.
In December 2020, we entered into the Equity Distribution Agreement in connection with our ATM Program relating to the issuance and sale, from time to time, of up to five million shares of our common stock. As of December 31, 2020, we have raised approximately $41.2 million through the sale of approximately 2.1 million shares at an average price of $19.79 per share. Refer to Note 14 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on the Equity Distribution Agreement. We paused our ATM Program between December 24, 2020 and January 31, 2020 and recommenced sales under our ATM Program on February 1, 2021.

In February 2021, we issued $1.2 billion in senior secured notes as part of our Notes Offering, as discussed in further detail below. We will continue to explore and pursue options to raise additional financing as opportunities arise.

Our cash burn, which is defined as net sales, operating cash outflows, debt service, interest payments, capital expenditures, tax refunds and severance payments, for the fourth quarter of 2020, was $1.7 million per day, an approximate 35% improvement from the third quarter of 2020 of $2.6 million per day, and more favorable than our previously disclosed expectation of $2.2 million per day. We forecast our cash burn for the first quarter of 2021 to be between $2.3 million per day and $2.7 million per day. As we continue to rebuild our operations to meet expected demand, we expect to incur additional operating expenses in the first quarter of 2021 as compared to the fourth quarter of 2020. Our cash burn for the first quarter of 2021 will be highly dependent on bookings during the quarter, which may continue to be volatile and may be negatively impacted by any changes in the pre-travel testing program implemented by the State of Hawai'i, the recent resurgence of COVID-19 infections in the United States and internationally, the identification of new, more infectious strains of the COVID-19 virus, the implementation
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or extension of travel-related restrictions and quarantines in some key origin points, and other factors affecting public sentiment.

Load Factor. Our flown load factor for the fourth quarter of 2020 was 40%.

CARES Act

On March 27, 2020, the CARES Act was enacted, which provided an estimated $2.2 trillion to fight the COVID-19 pandemic and stimulate the U.S. economy. The assistance included tax relief and government loans, grants and investments for entities in affected industries. The CARES Act provided passenger air carriers with, among other things: (a) financial relief for direct payroll support, (b) financial relief in the form of loans and loan guarantees available for operations, (c) temporary suspension of certain aviation taxes, (d) temporary deferral of certain employer payroll taxes, and (e) additional corporate tax benefits that are further discussed in Note 10 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

The CARES Act also provided for deferred payment of the employer portion of social security taxes through the end of 2020, with 50% of the deferred amount due December 31, 2021 and the remaining 50% due December 31, 2022. Lastly, the CARES Act provided for the carryback of additional NOLs to 2016 and 2017, which will result in tax benefits for those years.

Payroll Support Program

On April 22, 2020, we entered into a Payroll Support Program agreement (the PSP Agreement) with the Treasury under the CARES Act. In connection with the PSP Agreement, we entered into a Warrant Agreement (the PSP Warrant Agreement) with the Treasury, and we issued a promissory note to the Treasury (the Note). Pursuant to the PSP Agreement, the Treasury provided us with financial assistance, paid in installments, totaling approximately $300.9 million, to be used exclusively for the purpose of continuing to pay employee salaries, wages and benefits. Under the PSP Agreement, we agreed to (i) refrain from conducting involuntary furloughs or reducing employee rates of pay or benefits through September 30, 2020, (ii) limit executive compensation through March 24, 2022 and (iii) suspend payment of dividends and stock repurchases through September 30, 2021. The PSP Agreement also imposes certain Treasury-mandated reporting obligations on us. Finally, we are required to continue to provide air service to markets served prior to March 1, 2020 until March 1, 2022, to the extent determined reasonable and practicable by the DOT and subject to exemptions granted by the DOT to us given the absence of demand for certain of such services.

The Note was in the total principal amount of approximately $60.3 million. The Note has a 10-year term and bears interest at a rate per annum equal to 1.00% until the fifth anniversary of April 22, 2020 (the PSP Closing Date), and thereafter bears interest at a rate equal to the secured overnight financing rate plus 2.00% until the tenth anniversary of the PSP Closing Date, which interest is payable semi-annually beginning on September 30, 2020. The Note may be prepaid at any time, without penalty, and is subject to customary change of control acceleration provisions and events of default.

As compensation to the U.S. government for providing financial relief under the PSP Agreement, and pursuant to the PSP Warrant Agreement, we issued to the Treasury a total of 509,964 warrants to purchase shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $11.82 per share (the PSP Warrants). The PSP Warrants are non-voting, freely transferable, may be settled as net shares or in cash at our option, expire five years from the date of issuance, and contain registration rights and customary anti-dilution provisions. Refer to Note 8 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional discussion.

Economic Relief Program

On September 25, 2020 (ERP Closing Date), we entered into the Loan Agreement. The Loan Agreement provides for a secured term loan facility which permits us to borrow up to $420.0 million (the Facility). On the ERP Closing Date, we borrowed $45.0 million and may, at our option, borrow additional amounts in up to two subsequent borrowings until May 26, 2021, so long as, after giving effect to any further borrowing, the collateral coverage ratio is no less than 2.0 to 1.0. The proceeds from the Facility will be used for certain general corporate purposes and operating expenses. As a condition to the drawing under the Facility, we are required to comply with all applicable provisions of the CARES Act.

Borrowings under the Facility will initially bear interest at a variable rate per annum equal to (a) the Adjusted LIBO Rate (as defined in the Loan Agreement) plus (b) 2.50% accrued interest on the loans is payable in arrears on the first business day following the 14th day of each March, June, September and December (beginning with September 15, 2021), and on June 30, 2024. The applicable interest rate for the $45.0 million loan drawn on the ERP Closing Date under the Facility is 2.73% per annum for the period from the ERP Closing Date through September 15, 2021 at which time the interest rate will reset in
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accordance with the foregoing formula. All advances under the Facility will be in the form of term loans, all of which will mature and be due and payable in a single installment on June 30, 2024.

The Facility is secured by (i) our frequent flyer loyalty program, HawaiianMiles, including but not limited to loyalty program partner participation agreements (including rights to receive cash flows thereunder), documents, deposit accounts, securities accounts, books and records and intellectual property primarily used in connection with the loyalty program and (ii) 14 Boeing 717-200 airframes and the related 28 Rolls Royce BR715-A1-30 engines, together with their related accessories, aircraft documents and parts (collectively, the Collateral). The Facility is also subject to various financial covenants, including a minimum collateral coverage ratio of 2.0 to 1.0 and a minimum debt service coverage ratio of 1.75 to 1.00.

In connection with our entry into the Loan Agreement, we also entered into a warrant agreement (the ERP Warrant Agreement), with the Treasury under the ERP. Pursuant to the ERP Warrant Agreement, we agreed to issue warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 3,553,299 shares of our common stock (the ERP Warrants) at an exercise price of $11.82 per share (the Exercise Price). Pursuant to the ERP Warrant Agreement, (a) on the ERP Closing Date, we issued to the Treasury an ERP Warrant to purchase up to 380,711 shares of our common stock and (b) on the date of each borrowing under the Loan Agreement, we will issue to the Treasury an additional ERP Warrant for a number of shares of our common stock equal to 10% of such borrowing, divided by the Exercise Price. The ERP Warrants are non-voting, are freely transferable, may be settled as net shares or in cash at our option, expire five years from the date of issuance, and contain registration rights and customary anti-dilution provisions.

On October 23, 2020, we entered into the Amended and Restated Loan Agreement with the Treasury providing for an increase in borrowings available under the Loan Agreement from $420 million to $622 million and correspondingly increased the aggregate number of ERP Warrants available to be issued to the Treasury up to 5,262,267.

On February 4, 2021, immediately prior to the closing of the Offering (as defined below), Hawaiian repaid in full the $45.0 million loan, and in connection with such repayment, terminated the Amended and Restated Loan Agreement. We have ongoing obligations to the Treasury under the ERP Warrants, CARES Act and the CAA 2021 (discussed below).

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021

On December 27, 2020, CAA 2021 was enacted, which included $900 billion for various COVID-19 relief programs, including $15.0 billion for airline workers under an extension of the CARES Act PSP.

On January 15, 2021 (the PSP Extension Closing Date), we entered into an extension to the PSP Agreement (the PSP Extension Agreement), and in connection with the PSP Extension Agreement, entered into a warrant agreement (the Warrant Extension Agreement) with the Treasury, and issued a promissory note to the Treasury (the Extension Note). Pursuant to the PSP Extension Agreement, the Treasury will provide us with financial assistance to be paid in installments expected to total in the aggregate approximately $167.5 million, to be used exclusively for the purpose of continuing to pay employee salaries, wages and benefits, including the payment of lost wages, salaries and benefits to certain returning employees, as defined in the PSP Extension Agreement. The first installment, in the amount of $83.8 million (representing 50% of the expected total payment), was received on January 15, 2021. The remaining installments are anticipated to be paid as follows: (i) 50% of the current expected total payment, which is expected to be paid in the first quarter of 2021 and (ii) a possible final payment based on any upward adjustments by Treasury to the initial expected total payment.

Under the PSP Extension Agreement, we agreed to (i) refrain from conducting involuntary furloughs or reducing employee rates of pay or benefits from December 1, 2020 through March 31, 2021, (ii) recall any employees who were subject to an involuntary termination or furlough between October 1, 2020 and the date of the PSP Extension Agreement and who elected to return to employment pursuant to a recall notice and to compensate these employees for lost salary, wages and benefits, (iii) limit executive compensation through October 1, 2022, and (iv) suspend payment of dividends and stock repurchases through March 31, 2022. Finally, we are required to continue to provide air service to markets served prior to March 1, 2020 until March 1, 2022, to the extent determined reasonable and practicable by the DOT.

The Extension Note will increase to a total principal sum of approximately $20.3 million as Hawaiian receives installments from the Treasury under the PSP Extension Agreement. The Extension Note has a ten year term and bears interest at a rate per annum equal to 1.00% until the fifth anniversary of the PSP Extension Closing Date, and thereafter bears interest at a rate equal to the secured overnight financing rate plus 2.00% until the tenth anniversary of the PSP Extension Closing Date, which interest is payable semi-annually beginning on March 31, 2021. The Extension Note may be prepaid at any time, without penalty and is subject to customary change of control acceleration provisions and events of default.

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As compensation to the U.S. government for providing financial relief under the PSP Extension Agreement, and pursuant to the Warrant Extension Agreement, we agreed to issue to the Treasury up to a total of 113,940 warrants to purchase shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $17.78 per share (the PSP Extension Warrants). The PSP Extension Warrants are non-voting, freely transferable, may be settled as net shares or in cash at our option, expire five years from the date of issuance, and contain registration rights and customary anti-dilution provisions.

Loyalty Program and Intellectual Property Financing

On February 4, 2021, Hawaiian, a direct wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, completed the private offering (the Notes Offering) by Hawaiian Brand Intellectual Property, Ltd., an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Hawaiian (the Brand Issuer), and HawaiianMiles Loyalty, Ltd., an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Hawaiian (the “Loyalty Issuer” and, together with the Brand Issuer, the Issuers) of an aggregate of $1.2 billion principal amount of their 5.750% senior secured notes due 2026 (the Notes).

The Notes are fully and unconditionally guaranteed, jointly and severally, by (i) Hawaiian Finance 1 Ltd., a direct wholly owned subsidiary of Hawaiian (HoldCo 1), (ii) Hawaiian Finance 2 Ltd., a direct subsidiary of HoldCo 1 and indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Hawaiian (HoldCo 2 and, together with HoldCo 1, the “Cayman Guarantors”), (iii) Hawaiian and (iv) Holdings (Holdings, together with Hawaiian, the “Parent Guarantors” and the Parent Guarantors, together with the Cayman Guarantors, the Guarantors). The Notes were issued pursuant to an Indenture, dated as of February 4, 2021 (the Indenture), among the Issuers, the Guarantors and Wilmington Trust, National Association, as trustee, collateral agent and collateral custodian. The Notes will mature on January 20, 2026 and bear interest at a rate of 5.750% per year, payable quarterly in arrears on July 20, October 20, January 20 and April 20 of each year, beginning on July 20, 2021.

In connection with the issuance of the Notes, Hawaiian contributed to the Brand Issuer, which is a newly-formed subsidiary structured to be bankruptcy remote, all worldwide rights, owned or purported to be owned, or later developed or acquired and owned or purported to be owned, by Hawaiian or any of its subsidiaries, in and to all intellectual property, including all trademarks, service marks, brand names, designs, and logos that include the word “Hawaiian” or any successor brand and the “hawaiianairlines.com” domain name and similar domain names or any successor domain names (the Brand IP). The Brand Issuer indirectly granted to Hawaiian an exclusive, worldwide, perpetual and royalty-bearing sublicense to use the Brand IP (the Brand IP Sublicense). Further, Hawaiian contributed to the Loyalty Issuer its rights to certain other collateral owned by Hawaiian, including, to the extent permitted by such agreements or otherwise by operation of law, any of Hawaiian’s rights under the HawaiianMiles Agreements and the IP Agreements (each as defined in the Indenture), together with HawaiianMiles program (HawaiianMiles) customer data and certain other intellectual property owned or purported to be owned, or later developed or acquired and owned or purported to be owned, by Hawaiian or any of its subsidiaries (including the Issuers) and required or necessary to operate HawaiianMiles (the Loyalty Program IP) (all such collateral being, the Loyalty Program Collateral). The Loyalty Issuer indirectly granted Hawaiian an exclusive, worldwide, perpetual and royalty-free sub-license to use the Loyalty Program IP (the Loyalty Program IP Sublicense).

The Notes are secured on a senior basis by first-priority security interests in substantially all of the assets of the Issuers, other than Excluded Property (as defined in the Indenture) and subject to certain permitted liens (collectively, the Issuer Collateral). The note guarantees of Hawaiian are secured by (i) a first-priority security interest in 100% of the equity (other than the special share issued to the Special Shareholder (as defined in the Indenture)) of HoldCo 1 and (ii) the Brand IP and the Loyalty Program Collateral (collectively, the Hawaiian Collateral). The note guarantees of the Cayman Guarantors are secured by first-priority security interests in substantially all of the assets of the Cayman Guarantors, including pledges of the equity of their respective subsidiaries (other than the special share issued to the Special Shareholder (as defined in the Indenture)) (collectively, the Subsidiary Collateral and, together with the Issuer Collateral and the Hawaiian Collateral, the Collateral). The note guarantee of Holdings is unsecured.

The Notes are redeemable at the option of the Issuers, in whole or in part, at any time and from time to time, after January 20, 2024 at the redemption prices set forth in the Indenture. In addition, the Notes are redeemable, at the option of the Issuers, at any time and from time to time, in whole or in part, prior to January 20, 2024 at a price equal to 100% of their principal amount plus the “make-whole” premium described in the Indenture and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, thereon to, but excluding, the redemption date. Additionally, from time to time on or prior to January 20, 2024, the Issuers may also redeem up to 40% of the original outstanding principal amount of the Notes with proceeds from any one or more equity offerings of Hawaiian at a redemption price equal to 105.75% of the principal amount of Notes to be redeemed, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, thereon to, but excluding, the redemption date. Upon the occurrence of certain mandatory prepayment events and mandatory repurchase offer events, the Issuers will be required to make a prepayment on the Notes, or offer to repurchase the Notes, pro rata, to the extent of any net cash proceeds received in connection with such events, at a price equal to 100% of the principal amount to be prepaid, plus, in some cases, an applicable premium. In addition, upon a change of control of Hawaiian, the Issuers may be required to make an offer to prepay the Notes at a price equal to 101% of the respective principal amounts thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but not including, the purchase date.
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The Indenture contains certain covenants that limit the ability of the Issuers, the Cayman Guarantors and, in certain circumstances, Hawaiian to, among other things: (i) make Restricted Payments (as defined in the Indenture), (ii) incur additional indebtedness, (iii) create certain liens on the Collateral, (iv) sell or otherwise dispose of the Collateral and (v) consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of the Issuers’ assets. The Indenture also requires the Issuers and, in certain circumstances, Hawaiian, to comply with certain affirmative covenants, including depositing the Transaction Revenues (as defined in the Indenture) in collection accounts, with amounts to be distributed for the payment of fees, principal and interest on the Notes pursuant to a payment waterfall described in the Indenture, and certain financial reporting requirements. In addition, the Indenture requires Hawaiian to maintain minimum liquidity at the end of any business day of at least $300.0 million.

Selected Consolidated Statistical Data
Below are the operating statistics we use to measure our operating performance.
  Year ended December 31,
  2020   2019   2018
  (in thousands, except as otherwise indicated)
Scheduled Operations (a) :          
Revenue passengers flown 3,353    11,737    11,830 
Revenue passenger miles (RPM) 4,558,045    17,808,913    17,198,985 
Available seat miles (ASM) 7,527,383    20,568,476    20,158,139 
Passenger revenue per RPM (Yield) 14.59  ¢ 14.59  ¢ 15.13  ¢
Passenger load factor (RPM/ASM) 60.6  % 86.6  % 85.3  %
Passenger revenue per ASM (PRASM) 8.83  ¢ 12.63  ¢ 12.91  ¢
Total Operations (a) :        
Revenue passengers flown 3,362  11,751    11,840 
RPM 4,576,623  17,826,887    17,206,703 
ASM 7,560,486  20,596,711    20,171,911 
Operating revenue per ASM (RASM) 11.17  ¢ 13.75  ¢ 14.07  ¢
Operating cost per ASM (CASM) 19.74  ¢ 12.16  ¢ 12.51  ¢
CASM excluding aircraft fuel, gain/loss on sale of aircraft, contract terminations expense, and special items (b) 18.35  ¢ 9.54  ¢ 9.36  ¢
Aircraft fuel expense per ASM (c) 2.13  ¢ 2.62  ¢ 2.97  ¢
Revenue block hours operated 82,711  218,801    208,809 
Gallons of jet fuel consumed 106,225  270,001    273,783 
Average cost per gallon of jet fuel (actual) (c) $ 1.52    $ 2.01    $ 2.19 
(a)Includes the operations of our contract carrier under a CPA. Total Operations includes both scheduled and chartered operations.
(b)Represents adjusted unit costs, a non-GAAP measure. We believe this is a useful measure because it better reflects our controllable costs. See "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" below for our reconciliation of non-GAAP measures.
(c)Includes applicable taxes and fees.
Operating Revenue
Our revenue is derived primarily from transporting passengers on our aircraft. We record passenger revenue when the transportation is provided or when scheduled flight for tickets are expected to expire unused. We measure capacity in terms of available seat miles, which represent the number of seats available for passengers multiplied by the number of miles the seats are flown. Yield, or the average amount one passenger pays to fly one mile, is calculated by dividing passenger revenue by RPMs. Typically, we strive to increase passenger revenue primarily by increasing our yield per flight or by filling a higher proportion of available seats, which produces higher operating revenue per available seat mile; however, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many of our operating measures in 2020 are not meaningful for purposes of comparative analysis against prior years. Other revenue primarily consists of cargo revenue, incidental services revenue, marketing component related to the sale of frequent flyer miles, contract services and charter services revenue.
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Operating revenue was $0.84 billion, $2.83 billion and $2.84 billion for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The decrease in operating revenue in 2020 from 2019 was driven by decreased passengers and other revenue primarily related to the ongoing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and is discussed further below:
2020 vs. 2019
Passenger Revenue
Passenger revenue decreased by $1,933.0 million, or 74.4%, in the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the prior year. Details of this change are described in the table below:
  Increase (Decrease)
vs. Year Ended December 31, 2019
  Year Ended December 31, 2020 Passenger
Revenue
Yield RPMs ASM PRASM
(in millions)
Domestic $ 517.3  $ (1,403.5) (3.0) % (72.2) % (57.6) % (36.5) %
International 147.5  (529.4) 4.5  (79.1) (75.8) (9.9)
Total scheduled $ 664.8  $ (1,932.9) —  % (74.4) % (63.4) % (30.1) %
Domestic revenue decreased $1.4 billion during the year ended December 31, 2020 largely due to a capacity reduction of 57.6%, as measured in ASM as compared to same period in 2019. The decline was driven by the ongoing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
International passenger revenue decreased $529.4 million during the year ended December 31, 2020, largely due to a capacity reduction of 75.8%, as measured in ASM, as compared to the same period in 2019. In late March 2020, we suspended all international flights in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We began recommencing scheduled international passenger flights, on a limited basis, in the fourth quarter.
Despite the evolution of travel restrictions in recent months in the United States, restrictions for travel to and within the State of Hawai'i as well as travel to and from various international locations, including those in the Hawaiian network, remain in effect. On October 15, 2020, the State of Hawai'i began its pre-travel testing program allowing travelers coming to Hawai'i from the mainland United States to bypass the quarantine requirement with proof of a negative COVID-19 test from a state-approved testing partner (the pre-travel testing program). The State of Hawai'i and counties within the state continue to evaluate and update testing requirements for travel to and within the state, including the required timing of testing results and the expansion of the pre-travel testing program to travelers from international locations, specifically travelers from Canada, Japan and Korea. Additionally, on January 21, 2021, President Biden issued an executive order that requires international travelers to produce proof of a recent negative COVID-19 test prior to entry into the United States and comply with applicable CDC guidelines concerning international travel, including recommended periods of self-quarantine after entry into the United States.
We expect this significantly lower demand environment to continue through at least the first half of 2021, with improvement in the international markets expected to lag behind domestic demand recovery, once government travel restrictions begin to lift and customer demand starts to return.
In December 2020, we announced the addition of three new U.S. mainland cities; Austin, Texas, Ontario, California, and Orlando, Florida, with service to and from Honolulu, Hawai`i, beginning in the first and second quarters of 2020. Additionally, we expanded service with daily non-stop flight between Kahului, Hawai`i and Long Beach, California commencing in March 2021.
Other Operating Revenue
Other operating revenue decreased by $54.4 million, or 23.2%, in the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the prior year, primarily due to reductions in cargo and loyalty program revenue as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Cargo revenue decreased $20.9 million during the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year due to reduced volumes as a result of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Loyalty revenue, primarily comprised of brand and marketing performance obligations, decreased $20.1 million during the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the prior year, as a result of reduced credit card spend and new cardholder acquisitions. Other components in Other operating revenue include, but are not limited to, ground handling and other freight services which collectively, declined during the
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twelve months ended December 31, 2020 by approximately $13.3 million as compared to the prior year, as a result of our reduced operations.
Operating Expenses
During the year ended December 31, 2020, total operating expense decreased $1.0 billion or 40.4% to $1.5 billion as compared to the same period in 2019. The largest components of our operating expenses are wages and benefits provided to our employees and aircraft fuel (including taxes and delivery). Increases (decreases) in operating expenses are detailed below.
  Changes for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to year ended December 31, 2019
  $ %
  (in thousands)
Operating expense:    
Aircraft fuel, including taxes and delivery $ (381,210) (70.3) %
Wages and benefits (335,746) (46.4)
Aircraft rent (15,014) (12.6)
Maintenance materials and repairs (128,201) (51.3)
Aircraft and passenger servicing (106,259) (64.7)
Commissions and other selling (83,919) (64.4)
Depreciation and amortization (7,241) (4.6)
Other rentals and landing fees (55,814) (43.1)
Purchased services (32,517) (24.7)
Special items 184,111  100.0 
Other (50,517) (32.5)
Total $ (1,012,327) (40.4) %
Aircraft fuel
The price and availability of aircraft fuel is volatile due to global economic and geopolitical factors that we can neither control nor accurately predict. The decrease in aircraft fuel expense is illustrated in the following table:
  Year Ended December 31,
  2020 2019 % Change
  (in thousands, except per-gallon amounts)  
Aircraft fuel expense, including taxes and delivery $ 161,363  $ 542,573  (70.3) %
Fuel gallons consumed 106,225  270,001  (60.7) %
Average fuel price per gallon, including taxes and delivery $ 1.52  $ 2.01  (24.4) %
We believe economic fuel expense is the best measure of the effect of fuel prices on our business as it most closely approximates the net cash outflow associated with the purchase of fuel for our operations and is consistent with how management manages our business and assesses our operating performance. We define economic fuel expense as GAAP fuel expense plus (gains)/losses realized through actual cash (receipts)/payments received from or paid to hedge counterparties for fuel hedge derivative contracts settled in the period inclusive of costs related to hedging premiums.
Economic fuel expense is calculated as follows:
  Year Ended December 31,
  2020 2019 % Change
  (in thousands, except per-gallon amounts)
Aircraft fuel expense, including taxes and delivery $ 161,363  $ 542,573  (70.3) %
Realized losses on settlement of fuel derivative instruments 9,035  12,403  (27.2) %
Economic fuel expense $ 170,398  $ 554,976  (69.3) %
Fuel gallons consumed 106,225  270,001  (60.7) %
Economic fuel costs per gallon $ 1.60  $ 2.06  (22.3) %
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See Item 7A, Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk, for additional discussion of our jet fuel costs and related derivative program.
Wages and benefits
Wages and benefits expense decreased by $335.7 million, or 46.4%, in the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the same period in 2019. The decrease was primarily attributed to the recognition of $240.6 million in contra-expense related to the grant portion of PSP funding during the year ended December 31, 2020 and was recorded in proportion to estimated wage and benefits expense over the period it covered. Additionally, in March 2020, we instituted a temporary hiring freeze, reduced officer salaries between 10% and 50% through September 2020, and instituted various voluntary and involuntary leave programs.
During the third quarter of 2020, we announced and completed voluntary separation program offerings across all of our labor groups. Additionally, we announced involuntary workforce reductions, the majority of which were effective October 1, 2020. Combined with our voluntary leave programs, our separation programs together represented an approximately 32% reduction of our total workforce.
On January 15, 2021, we entered into the PSP Extension for financial assistance to be released in installments totaling approximately $167.5 million, of which $147.3 million will be in the form of a grant and will be recognized as a reduction to wages and benefits in the first quarter of 2021.
As a result of workforce reductions, continued lower levels of operations, and the recognition of PSP Extension funds, we expect salaries and related costs to decline in the first quarter of 2021 in comparison with the prior comparable period.
Aircraft rent
Aircraft rent decreased $15.0 million or 12.6%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the same period in 2019. The decrease was primarily attributed to lease extensions entered into for certain of our A330-200 and Boeing 717-200 aircraft in the second half of 2019, resulting in more favorable lease rates extended over periods ranging between two to eight years. These decreases were partially offset by increased rent expense as generated from the completion of two sale-leaseback transactions in July 2020. The transactions qualified as a sale, generating an immaterial loss, and the associated assets were removed from our unaudited Consolidated Balance Sheets within property and equipment, net, and recorded as operating lease right-of-use assets. Refer to Note 9 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more information on our finance and operating leases.
Maintenance materials and repairs
Maintenance materials and repairs decreased $128.2 million, or 51.3%, for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the prior year. The decrease is primarily attributed to reductions in variable-related maintenance costs commensurate with capacity reductions during the periods in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We expect maintenance, materials and repairs expense to decline in the first quarter of 2021 versus the comparable prior year period due to the capacity reductions discussed above, with incremental increases as we rebuild operational capacity in 2021.
Aircraft and passenger servicing
Aircraft and passenger servicing expense decreased by $106.3 million, or 64.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year. The decline is primarily due to the capacity reductions discussed above. We expect aircraft and passenger servicing expense to decline in the first quarter of 2021 versus the comparable prior year period due to the capacity reductions discussed above, with incremental increases as we build our operational capacity in 2021.
Commissions and other selling expenses
Commissions and other selling expenses decreased by $83.9 million, or 64.4%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year. The decrease in commissions and other selling expense was primarily related to the significant reduction in demand for travel due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. We expect commissions and other selling expense to decline in the first quarter of 2021 versus the comparable prior year period due to the capacity reductions discussed above, with incremental increases as we build our operational capacity in 2021.
Other rentals and landing fees
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Other rentals and landing fees decreased by $55.8 million, or 43.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year. A portion of our other rentals and landing fees are variable in nature and are dependent on factors such as the number of departures and passengers. The decrease in landing fees and other rents is due to the reduction in capacity and number of flights operated during the year ended December 31, 2020. We expect other rentals and landing fees expense to decline in the first quarter of 2021 versus the comparable prior year period due to the capacity reductions discussed above, with incremental increases as we build our operational capacity in 2021.
Purchased services
Purchased services decreased by $32.5 million, or 24.7%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year. The decrease in purchased services expense is primarily related to the significant reduction in demand for travel due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. We expect purchased services expense to decline in the first quarter of 2021 versus the comparable prior year period due to the capacity reductions discussed above, with incremental increases as we build our operational capacity in 2021.
Special items
During the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized approximately $184.1 million of special items, comprised of the following:
In March 2020, we reached an agreement in principle with our flight attendants, represented by the AFA, on a new five-year contract that runs through April 2025. On April 3, 2020, we received notification from the AFA that a collective bargaining agreement (the CBA) was ratified by its members. The ratified CBA provides for, among other things, a ratification payment to be paid over a one-year term, increased medical cost sharing, improved pay scales, and a one-time medical savings contribution to eligible flight attendants upon retirement. During the first quarter of 2020, we recorded a $23.5 million ratification bonus, of which $20.2 million was related to service prior to January 1, 2020, and recognized this as a special item in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The remaining $3.3 million was recorded as a component of wages and benefits in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
During the first quarter of 2020, the adverse economic impact and declining passenger demand attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic drove our stock price to 52-week lows and significantly reduced future cash flow projections. We qualitatively assessed that an impairment loss may have been incurred as of March 31, 2020 and performed an interim test of the recoverability of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets. We determined that the estimated fair value of our one reporting unit was less than its carrying value and that the deficit between fair value and the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeded the amount of goodwill on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, leading to the recognition of a goodwill impairment charge of $106.7 million in the first quarter of 2020.
During the second quarter of 2020, we recorded special items of $34.0 million comprised of: (a) an impairment charge of $27.5 million to mark down our ATR-42 and ATR-72 fleets to fair value; (b) an impairment charge of $3.4 million to mark down our commercial real estate assets to fair value; and (c) an approximately $3.1 million write-off for discontinued software-related projects as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
During the third quarter of 2020, we announced and completed voluntary separation programs across each of our labor groups providing for one-time severance payments, the establishment of health reimbursement accounts and other benefits. Additionally, we announced involuntary separation and temporary leave programs, the majority of which were effective October 1, 2020. We recorded $17.5 million in severance and benefits as an operating special item and $5.7 million related to special termination benefits and curtailment loss as a nonoperating special item in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
During the fourth quarter of 2020, we recorded long-lived asset impairment of approximately $5.4 million, comprised of an additional write-down of our ATR-42 and ATR-72 fleet of approximately $4.9 million as a result of ongoing market uncertainty attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic. We also wrote off of approximately $0.5 million in capitalized software projects that were permanently suspended in response to the continuing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we recorded $0.3 million in additional costs for the finalization of the voluntary and involuntary separation programs discussed above.
Other expense
The decrease in other expense is primarily driven by lower volume-related costs resulting from the decreased capacity during the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to the same period in 2019. We expect other expense to decline in the first quarter of 2021 versus the comparable prior year period due to the capacity reductions discussed above, with incremental increases as we build our operational capacity in 2021.
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Nonoperating expense, net
Net nonoperating expense increased by $30.0 million in the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to the prior year, primarily due to the movement of realized and unrealized gains and losses associated with our fuel and foreign currency derivative instruments, which are not designated for hedge accounting under ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, and the movement of unrealized gains and losses on our debt instruments denominated in foreign currency.
Income Tax Expense
Our effective tax rate was 27.0% for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared with 26.6% for the prior year. The effective tax rate represents a blend of federal and state taxes and includes the impact of certain nondeductible items. The effective tax rate for the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 includes the impact of a nondeductible goodwill impairment, a tax benefit resulting from the rate differential of NOL carryforwards generated in recent periods which were carried back to prior years, and a $7.1 million valuation allowance reserve recorded against state deferred tax assets. Refer to Note 10 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional discussion.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments totaled $864.4 million as of December 31, 2020, compared to $618.7 million as of December 31, 2019. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have taken, and are continuing to take, actions to increase liquidity and augment our financial position, which include:
On March 16, 2020, we drew down fully from our previously undrawn $235.0 million revolving credit facility. On February 11, 2021, we repaid the $235.0 million outstanding amount drawn on our revolving credit facility. We have the ability to draw down on the revolving credit facility in the future, should the need arise.;
We suspended dividend payments, and our stock repurchase program;
We received $240.6 million in grants and $60.3 million in loans pursuant to the PSP under the CARES Act;
In September 2020, we entered into the Loan Agreement with the Treasury to borrow up to $420.0 million in secured term loans pursuant to the ERP under the CARES Act. On October 23, 2020, we amended and restated our Loan Agreement with the Treasury to increase the maximum amount available to be borrowed by us to $622 million. As of December 31, 2020, we had borrowed $45.0 million under the ERP. As discussed above, we repaid the outstanding loan under the ERP on February 4, 2021;
During the third quarter of 2020, we completed $376.0 million in financings secured by aircraft, including the issuance of enhanced equipment trust certificates and two sale-leaseback transactions. See Note 2 and Note 8 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more information on our financing activities; and
In December 2020, we commenced our ATM Program. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2020, 2.1 million shares were sold in the ATM Program at an average price of $19.79 per share, with net proceeds of approximately $41.2 million.

As discussed above, on February 4, 2021, we completed a our Notes Offering for an aggregate of $1.2 billion principal amount of 5.750% senior secured notes due 2026. Immediately prior to the closing of the offering, we repaid in full the $45.0 million loan from the Treasury under the ERP. We continue to explore and pursue options to raise additional financing as opportunities may arise.

We cannot assure you that the assumptions used to estimate our liquidity requirements will be correct because we have never experienced such an unprecedented event impacting global travel, and as a consequence, our ability to predict the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is uncertain. In addition, the magnitude and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic is uncertain. However, based on our assumptions and estimates with respect to the temporary suspension of nearly the entirety of our operations, and our financial condition, we believe that the liquidity described in the preceding paragraphs will be sufficient to fund our liquidity requirements over at least the next twelve months.
Cash Flows
Net cash used in operating activities was $310.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to net cash provided by operating activities of $485.1 million in the prior year. Operating cash flows are primarily derived from providing air transportation to customers. The vast majority of tickets are purchased in advance of when travel is provided, and in some cases, several months before the anticipated travel date. The significant decline in operating cash flows during the twelve months ended December 31, 2020 was largely driven by the adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our financial results.
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Cash used in investing activities was $98.8 million and $405.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Investing activities included capital expenditures, primarily related to aircraft and other equipment, the sale and leaseback of two A321-200neo aircraft, and the purchases and sales of short-term investments. During the year ended December 31, 2020, capital expenditures were approximately $105.3 million, the majority of which relate to predelivery payments for our Boeing 787-9 aircraft deliveries and the purchase of our last A321neo aircraft in May 2020 as compared with $397.4 million in capital expenditures during the year ended December 31, 2019. The reduction in capital expenditures was primarily driven by the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in the suspension of non-essential projects as well as the deferral of Boeing 787-9 aircraft deliveries and thus, pre-delivery payments. Refer to Note 14 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on the amendment of our B787 purchase agreement. During the year ended December 31, 2020, our purchases and sales of short-term investments resulted in net cash outflow of $107.5 million as compared to net cash outflow of $11.1 million during the prior year. Additionally, during the year ended December 31, 2020, we entered into two sale and leaseback transactions generating total proceeds of $114.0 million. We did not execute any sale and leaseback transactions during the prior year. Refer to Note 9 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional discussion on our sale and leaseback transactions.
Net cash provided by financing activities was $546.1 million and $24.5 million for years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. As discussed above, cash from financing activities is primarily driven from financings and equity offerings completed by us during 2020 to increase liquidity in response to the adverse financial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. This is in comparison to $227.9 million in financings entered into in the prior year. Refer to Note 8 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on our debt obligations and Note 13 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for information on our equity offering. During the year ended December 31, 2020, and prior to the suspension of our dividend and share repurchase programs pursuant to the CARES Act and the CAA 2021, we returned $13.0 million to our shareholders through a combination of share repurchases and dividend payments, as compared to $91.5 million during the prior year.
Credit Card Holdbacks
Under our bank-issued credit card processing agreements, proceeds from advance ticket sales may be held back to serve as collateral to cover any possible chargebacks or other disputed charges that may occur. These holdbacks, are reported as restricted cash in our Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, there were no holdbacks held with our credit card processors.
In the event of a material adverse change in our business, the holdback could increase to an amount up to 100% of the applicable credit card activity for all unflown tickets, which would also result in an increase in the required level of restricted cash. If we are unable to obtain a waiver of, or otherwise mitigate the increase in the restriction of cash, it could have a material adverse impact on our operations.
Pension and Other Postretirement Benefit Plan Funding
As of December 31, 2020, the excess of the projected benefit obligations over the fair value of plan assets was approximately $224.7 million. We contributed $4.1 million and $3.8 million to our disability plan in 2020 and 2019, respectively.
During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we were not required to, and did not make, contributions to our defined benefit pension plan. In 2018, we contributed $50.0 million to our defined benefit pension plans (excluding one-time settlement payments). Future funding requirements for our defined benefit and other postretirement plans are dependent upon many factors such as interest rates, funded status, applicable regulatory requirements and the level and timing of asset returns. Given available funding credits in the defined benefit plan, we do not anticipate making any cash contributions to our defined benefit plan during 2021.
Stock Repurchase Program and Dividends
In November 2018, our Board of Directors approved a new stock repurchase program pursuant to which we may repurchase up to $100 million of our outstanding common stock over a two-year period through December 2020. On March 18, 2020, we indefinitely suspended all repurchases under the approved repurchase plan in connection with our receipt of financial assistance under the CARES Act and the CAA 2021, which restricts us from repurchasing shares and making dividend payments until March 31, 2022. We spent $7.5 million and $68.8 million to repurchase and retire approximately 0.3 million shares and 2.5 million shares of our common stock in open market transactions during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

The following table displays information with respect to our stock repurchase programs as of December 31, 2020:
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(in thousands, except repurchase price) Share Repurchase Authorization
(in '000s)
Weighted Average Repurchase Price Planned Completion Date Authorization Remaining
(in '000s)
April 2015 Program $ 100,000  $ 25.75  April 2017 Completed April 2017
April 2017 Program 100,000  39.85  May 2019 Completed December 2017
November 2017 Program 100,000  36.71  December 2019 Completed December 2018
November 2018 Program 100,000  27.47  Suspended Suspended

We declared and paid cash dividends of $5.5 million, $22.8 million, and $24.2 million in 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively. Our receipt of financial assistance under the CARES Act and the CAA 2021 precludes us from making any further dividend payments until March 31, 2022.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
An off-balance sheet arrangement is any transaction, agreement or other contractual arrangement involving an unconsolidated entity under which a company has (i) made guarantees, (ii) retained a contingent interest in transferred assets, (iii) an obligation under derivative instruments classified as equity or (iv) any obligation arising out of a material variable interest in an unconsolidated entity that provides financing, liquidity, market risk or credit risk support to the company, or that engages in leasing, hedging or research and development arrangements with the company. We have no arrangements of the types described in the first three categories that we believe may have a current or future material effect on our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations. We do have obligations arising out of variable interests in unconsolidated entities related to certain aircraft leases. To the extent our leases and related guarantees are with a separate legal entity other than a governmental entity, we are not the primary beneficiary because the lease terms are consistent with market terms at the inception of the lease, and the lease does not include a residual value guarantee, fixed price purchase option, or similar feature.
Contractual Obligations
Our estimated contractual obligations as of December 31, 2020 are summarized in the following table:
Contractual Obligations Total Less than 1 Year 1-3 Years 3-5 Years More than 5 Years
  (in thousands)
Debt obligations, including principal and interest (1) $ 1,345,360  $ 156,471  $ 526,756  $ 279,006  $ 383,127 
Finance lease obligations, including principal and interest (2) 167,844  27,130  55,420  29,159  56,135 
Operating leases obligations (2) 782,133  110,921  196,241  158,539  316,432 
Aircraft purchase commitments (3) 1,654,955  8,483  501,173  913,030  232,269 
Other commitments (4) 416,570  78,566  141,485  107,850  88,669 
Projected employee benefit contributions (5) 78,600  —  25,900  38,000  14,700 
Total contractual obligations $ 4,445,462  $ 381,571  $ 1,446,975  $ 1,525,584  $ 1,091,332 
(1)Represents scheduled principal and estimated interest payments under our long-term debt based on interest rates specified in the applicable debt agreements. Principal and interest payments for debt denominated in Japanese Yen is estimated using the spot rate as of December 31, 2020.
(2)Refer to Note 9 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding finance and operating leases.
(3)Amounts include our firm commitments for aircraft and aircraft related equipment. On October 26, 2020, we entered into an amendment to our 787-9 purchase agreement with Boeing, providing for a change in our aircraft delivery schedule to between 2022 through 2026. The committed expenditures under the amended agreement is reflected in the table above.
(4)Amounts include commitments for services provided by third parties for aircraft maintenance, IT, capacity purchases, and reservations. Total contractual obligations do not include long-term contracts where the commitment is variable in nature (with no minimum guarantee), such as aircraft maintenance deposits due under operating leases and fees due under certain other agreements such as aircraft maintenance power-by-the-hour, computer reservation systems and credit card processing agreements, or when the agreements contain short-term cancellation provisions.
(5)Amounts include our estimated minimum contributions to our pension plans (based on actuarially determined estimates) and contributions to our pilots’ disability plan. Amounts are subject to change based on numerous factors, including interest rate levels, the amount and timing of asset returns and the impact of future legislation
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Capital Commitments
As of December 31, 2020, we had the following capital commitments consisting of firm aircraft and engine orders and purchase rights:
Aircraft Type Firm
Orders
Purchase
Rights
Expected Delivery Dates
A321neo aircraft —  N/A
B787-9 aircraft 10  10  Between 2022 and 2026
General Electric GEnx spare engines:      
B787-9 spare engines Between 2022 and 2025
Committed expenditures for these aircraft, engines, and related flight equipment are approximately $8 million in 2021, $343 million in 2022, $158 million in 2023, $505 million in 2024, $408 million in 2025, and $232 million thereafter.
In order to complete the purchase of these aircraft and fund related costs, we may need to secure additional financing. We are also currently exploring various financing alternatives, and while we believe that such financing will be available to us, there can be no assurance that financing will be available when required, or on acceptable terms, or at all. The inability to secure such financing could have an impact on our ability to fulfill our existing purchase commitments and a material adverse effect on our operations.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We believe the disclosure of non-GAAP financial measures is useful information to readers of our financial statements because:
We believe it is the basis by which we are evaluated by industry analysts and investors;
These measures are often used in management and board of directors' decision making analysis;
It improves a reader's ability to compare our results to those of other airlines; and
It is consistent with how we present information in our quarterly earnings press releases.
See table below for reconciliation between GAAP consolidated net income to adjusted consolidated net income, including per share amounts (in thousands unless otherwise indicated). The adjustments are described below:
During the year ended December 31, 2020, the effective tax rate included a tax benefit of $45.4 million resulting from the rate differential between the prevailing tax rate of 21% during the years that generated the NOLs and the previous tax rate of 35% that was in effect during the years to which NOLs were carried back as a result of the enactment of the CARES Act. This benefit is attributed to the enactment of the CARES Act and we believe that exclusion of this tax benefit provides investors comparability of results between periods.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized $240.6 million in contra-expense related to grant proceeds from the PSP. The grant proceeds were recognized in proportion to estimated wages and benefits expense over the period the PSP covers. We utilized all proceeds under the PSP as of September 30, 2020.
Changes in fair value of derivative contracts, net of tax, are based on market prices for open contracts as of the end of the reporting period. This adjustment includes the unrealized gains and losses on fuel and interest rate derivatives (not designated as hedges) that will settle in future periods and the reversal of prior period unrealized amounts. Excluding the impact of these derivative adjustments allows investors to analyze our core operational performance and compare our results to other airlines in the periods presented below.
Changes in fair value of foreign currency derivative contracts, net of tax, are based on market prices for open contracts as of the end of the reporting period. This adjustment includes the unrealized amounts of foreign currency derivatives (not designated as hedges) that will settle in future periods and the reversal of prior period unrealized amounts. We believe that excluding the impact of these derivative adjustments helps investors analyze our operational performance and compare our results to other airlines in the periods presented below.
Change in unrealized losses on foreign debt are based on fluctuations in foreign exchanges rates related to foreign-denominated debt agreements. We believe that excluding the impact of these amounts helps investors analyze our operational performance and compare our results to other airlines in the periods presented below.
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Loss (gain) on sale of aircraft is the result of adjustments to the final purchase price for three of our Boeing 767-300 aircraft included in a forward sale agreement we entered into in January 2018 and described below. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we recorded a loss of $0.3 million. During the year ended December 31, 2019, we recorded a gain on disposal of Boeing 767-300 aircraft equipment of $1.9 million in conjunction with the retirement of our Boeing 767-300 fleet.

2020 Special Items
During the first quarter of 2020, we recognized $126.9 million of special items in the Consolidated Statements of Operation, comprised of the following:
On April 3, 2020, we received notification from the AFA that the CBA was ratified by its members. The ratified CBA provided for, among other things, a ratification payment, payable over twelve months. We recorded a $23.5 million ratification bonus, of which $20.2 million related to service prior to January 1, 2020, and was recorded as a special item.
We recognized a goodwill impairment charge of $106.7 million. Refer to Note 2 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional discussion.
During the second quarter of 2020, we recognized a charge of $34.0 million associated with the impairment of certain of our long-lived assets. Refer to Note 2 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional discussion.
During the third quarter of 2020, we announced and completed voluntary separation programs across each of our labor groups providing for one-time severance payments, the establishment of health reimbursement accounts and other benefits. Additionally, we announced involuntary separation programs, the majority of which were effective October 1, 2020. We recorded $17.5 million in severance and benefits as an operating special item and $5.7 million related to special termination benefits and curtailment loss as a nonoperating special item in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
During the fourth quarter of 2020, we recorded long-lived asset impairment of approximately $5.4 million, comprised of an additional write-down of our ATR-42 and ATR-72 fleet of approximately $4.9 million as a result of ongoing market uncertainty attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic. We also wrote off of approximately $0.5 million in capitalized software projects that were permanently suspended in response to the continuing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we recorded $0.3 million in additional costs for the finalization of the voluntary and involuntary separation programs discussed above.
2018 Contract Terminations Expense
During the year ended December 31, 2018, we terminated two contracts which incurred a total of $35.3 million in contract terminations expense. The transactions are described below:

In January 2018, we entered into a transaction with our lessor to early terminate and purchase three Boeing 767-300 aircraft leases and concurrently entered into a forward sale agreement for the same three Boeing 767-300 aircraft, including two Pratt & Whitney 4060 engines for each aircraft. These aircraft were previously accounted for as operating leases. In order to exit the lease and purchase the aircraft, we agreed to pay a total of $67.1 million (net of all deposits) of which a portion was expensed immediately and recognized as a contract termination fee. The expensed amount represents the total purchase price amount over fair value of the aircraft purchased as of the date of the transaction.

In February 2018, we exercised our right to terminate our aircraft purchase agreement with Airbus for six Airbus A330-800neo aircraft and the purchase rights for an additional six Airbus A330-800neo aircraft. To terminate the purchase agreement, we were obligated to repay Airbus for concessions received relating to a prior firm order, training credits, as well as forfeit the pre-delivery progress payments made towards the flight equipment. We recorded a contract terminations expense to reflect the termination penalty in our consolidated statements of operations.

We believe that excluding such special items helps investors analyze our operational performance and compare our results to other airlines in the periods presented below.
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  Year Ended December 31,
  2020 2019 2018
  Total Diluted Per Share Total Diluted Per Share Total Diluted Per Share
(in thousands, except for per share data)
GAAP net income (loss), as reported $ (510,935) $ (11.08) $ 223,984  $ 4.71  $ 233,200  $ 4.62 
Adjusted for:
CARES Act - carryback of additional NOLs (45,416) (0.99) —  —  —  — 
CARES Act grant recognition (240,648) (5.22) —  —  —  — 
Changes in fair value of fuel derivative contracts (2,105) (0.05) (5,694) (0.13) 19,973  0.39 
Unrealized loss on non-designated fx positions 1,327  0.03  —  —  —  — 
Unrealized loss on foreign debt 14,759  0.32  696  0.02  380  0.01 
Loss (gain) on sale of aircraft —  —  (1,948) (0.04) 309  0.01 
Special items 184,111  3.99  —  —  —  — 
Nonoperating special items 5,682  0.12  —  —  —  — 
Contract terminations expense —  —  —  —  35,322  0.70 
Tax effect of adjustments 42,252  0.92  1,845  0.04  (14,365) (0.29)
Adjusted net income (550,973) (11.96) 218,883  4.60  274,819  5.44 
Operating Costs per Available Seat Mile (CASM)
We have separately listed in the table below our fuel costs per ASM and non-GAAP unit costs, excluding fuel and special items. These amounts are included in CASM, but for internal purposes we consistently use cost metrics that exclude fuel and special items (if applicable) to measure and monitor its costs.
CASM and CASM, excluding fuel, loss (gain) on sale of aircraft, contract terminations expense, and special items, are summarized in the table below:
  Year Ended December 31,
  2020 2019 2018
(in thousands, except for CASM figures)
GAAP operating expenses $ 1,492,424  $ 2,504,751  $ 2,523,043 
Adjusted for:
Aircraft fuel, including taxes and delivery (161,363) (542,573) (599,544)
CARES Act PSP grant recognition 240,648  —  — 
Special items (184,111) —  — 
Contract terminations expense —  —  (35,322)
Loss (gain) on sale of aircraft —  1,948  (309)
Adjusted operating expenses $ 1,387,598  $ 1,964,126  $ 1,887,868 
Available Seat Miles 7,560,486    20,596,711    20,171,911 
CASM—GAAP 19.74  ¢ 12.16  ¢ 12.51  ¢
Adjusted for:
Aircraft fuel, including taxes and delivery (2.13) (2.62) (2.97)
CARES Act PSP grant recognition 3.18  —  — 
Special items (2.44) —  — 
Contract terminations expense —  —  (0.18)
Adjusted CASM 18.35  ¢ 9.54  ¢ 9.36  ¢
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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon financial statements that have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates. 
Critical accounting policies and estimates are defined as those accounting policies and accounting estimates that are reflective of significant judgments and uncertainties, and that potentially result in materially different results under different assumptions and conditions. Our most critical accounting policies and estimates are described below. See the summary of significant accounting policies included in Note 1 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional discussion of the application of these estimates and other accounting policies.
Revenue Recognition
Passenger revenue. We record direct passenger ticket sales and tickets sold by other airlines for use on Hawaiian as passenger revenue when the transportation is provided or when scheduled flights for tickets are expected to expire unused. The value of unused passenger tickets is included in current liabilities as Air traffic liability. Prior to the second quarter of 2020, non-refundable tickets sold and credits issued generally expired 13 months from the date of issuance or flight, as applicable. In April 2020, we announced the waiver of certain change fees and extended ticket validity for up to 24 months. We assessed the impact of this change and believe that the classification of Air Traffic Liability as a current liability continues to remain appropriate. We record an estimate of breakage revenue on the scheduled flight date for tickets that will expire unused. These estimates are based on the evaluation of actual historical results and forecasted trends. Given the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on actual results and its continued impact on demand, we have monitored, and will continue to monitor customers' travel behavior and may adjust our estimates in the future. Ticket change fees are recorded in Air traffic liability and recognized when the related transportation is provided.
Frequent flyer revenue. HawaiianMiles, Hawaiian's frequent flyer travel award program, provides a variety of awards to program members based on accumulated mileage. ASC 606 requires us to account for miles earned by passengers in the HawaiianMiles program through flight activity as a component of the passenger revenue ticket transaction at the estimated selling price of the miles. Ticket consideration received is allocated between the performance obligations, primarily travel and miles earned by passengers. The allocated value of the miles is deferred until the free travel or other award is used by the passenger, at which time it is included in passenger revenue. The value of the ticket used in the determination of the estimated selling price is based on the historical value of equivalent flights to those provided for loyalty awards and the related miles redeemed to obtain that award adjusted for breakage or fulfillment. The equivalent ticket value (ETV) includes a fulfillment discount (breakage) to reflect the value of the award ticket over the number of miles that, based on historical experience, will be needed to obtain the award. On a quarterly basis, we calculate the ETV by analyzing the fares of similar tickets for the prior 12 months, considering cabin class and geographic region.

We also sell mileage credits to companies participating in our frequent flyer program. These contracts generally include multiple performance obligations, including the transportation that will ultimately be provided when the mileage credits are redeemed and marketing and brand related activities.

During the first quarter of 2018, we amended our partnership with Barclaycard US, Hawaiian's co-branded credit card partner. Management determined that the amendment should be accounted for as a termination of the existing contract and the creation of a new contract under ASC 606 and the relative selling price was determined for each performance obligation of the new agreement. The new agreement continues through 2024 and includes improved economics and enhanced product offerings for our Barclay's co-branded cardholders. The amended agreement did not change, and includes the following performance obligations; (i) transportation that will ultimately be provided when mileage credits are redeemed (transportation), (ii) the Hawaiian Airlines brand and access to its members lists (collectively, brand performance), (iii) marketing, and (iv) airline benefits to cardholders, including discounts and anniversary travel benefits, baggage waivers and inflight purchase credits. We determined the relative fair value of each performance obligation by estimating the selling prices of the deliverables by considering discounted cash flows using multiple inputs and assumptions, including: (1) the expected number of miles to be awarded and redeemed; (2) the estimated weighted average equivalent ticket value, adjusted by a fulfillment discount; (3) the estimated total annual cardholder spend; (4) an estimated royalty rate for the Hawaiian portfolio; and (5) the expected use of each of the airline benefits. The overall consideration received is allocated to the performance obligations based on their relative selling prices.

The transportation performance obligation is deferred and recognized as passenger revenue when the transportation is provided. The value to the financial institution is provided each time a new cardholder chooses the Hawaiian branded credit card and each
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time a cardholder chooses to use the co-branded credit card. Therefore, we recognize revenue for the brand performance obligation as members use their co-brand credit card and the resulting mileage credits are issued to them, which best correlates with our performance toward satisfying the obligation.

Accounting for frequent flyer revenue involves the use of various techniques to estimate revenue. To determine the total estimated transaction price, we forecast future credit card activity based on historical data. The relative selling price is determined using management’s estimated standalone selling price of each performance obligation. The objective of using the estimated selling price based methodology is to determine the price at which we would transact a sale if the product or service were sold on a standalone basis. Accordingly, we determine our best estimate of selling price by considering multiple inputs and methods including, but not limited to, discounted cash flows, brand value, number of miles awarded and number of miles redeemed. We estimate the selling price of miles using an ETV adjusted for a fulfillment discount as described above.

Miles expire after 18 months of member account inactivity. We review our breakage estimates annually based upon the latest available information regarding redemption and expiration patterns (e.g., credit card and non-credit card holders). Our estimate of the expected expiration of miles requires significant management judgment. Current and future changes to expiration assumptions or to the expiration policy, or to program rules and program could affect the estimated value of a mile. Due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including changes to our ticket validity and exchange policies, management continues to monitor customers' travel behavior and may adjust its estimates in the future as additional information becomes available.
Pension and Other Postretirement and Postemployment Benefits
The calculation of pension and other postretirement and postemployment benefit expenses and its corresponding liabilities require the use of significant assumptions, including the assumed discount rate, the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets, expected mortality rates of the plan participants, and the expected health care cost trend rate. Changes in these assumptions will impact the expense and liability amounts, and future actual experience may differ from these assumptions.
The significant assumptions as of December 31, 2020 are as follows:
Pension:    
Discount rate to determine projected benefit obligation 2.63  %
Expected return on plan assets 6.76  % ^
Postretirement:    
Discount rate to determine projected benefit obligation 3.38  %
Expected return on plan assets N/A  
Expected health care cost trend rate:    
Initial 6.50  %
Ultimate 4.75  %
Years to reach ultimate trend rate 6  
Disability:    
Discount rate to determine projected benefit obligation 3.40  %
Expected return on plan assets 4.90  % ^
N/A      Not Applicable
^    Expected return on plan assets used to determine the net periodic benefit expense for 2021 is 6.29% for the pension plans and 4.28% for the disability plan.
The expected long-term rate of return assumption is developed by evaluating input from the trustee managing the plans' assets, including the trustee's review of asset class return expectations by several consultants and economists, as well as long-term inflation assumptions. Our expected long-term rate of return on plan assets is based on a target allocation of assets, which is based on our goal of earning the highest rate of return while maintaining risk at acceptable levels. The Retirement Plan for Pilots of Hawaiian Airlines, Inc. and the Pilot's Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association Disability and Survivor's Benefit Plan strive to have assets sufficiently diversified so that adverse or unexpected results from any one security class will not have an unduly detrimental impact on the entire portfolio. We believe that our long-term asset allocation on average will approximate the targeted allocation. We periodically review our actual asset allocation and rebalance the pension plan's investments to our targeted allocation when considered appropriate. Pension expense increases as the expected rate of return on plan assets decreases. Lowering the expected long-term rate of return by 100 basis points will have the following effects on our estimated
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2021 pension and disability benefit expense recorded in wages and benefits and nonoperating expense:
  100 Basis Point Decrease
  (in millions)
Increase in estimated 2021 pension expense $ 3.7 
Increase in estimated 2021 disability benefit expense 0.4 
We determine the appropriate discount rate for each of our plans based on current rates on high quality corporate bonds that would generate the cash flow necessary to pay plan benefits when due. The pension and other postretirement benefit liabilities and future expense both increase as the discount rate is reduced. Lowering the discount rate by 100 basis points would have the following effects:
  100 Basis Point Decrease
  (in millions)
Increase in pension obligation as of December 31, 2020 $ 60.0 
Increase in other postretirement benefit obligation as of December 31, 2020 22.7 
Decrease in estimated 2021 pension expense (operating and nonoperating) (0.9)
Increase in estimated 2021 other postretirement benefit expense (operating and nonoperating) 1.7 
The health care cost trend rate is based upon an evaluation of our historical trends and experience taking into account current and expected market conditions. Changes in the assumed current health care cost trend rate by year by 100 basis points would have the following annual effects:
  100 Basis Point Increase
  (in millions)
Increase in other postretirement benefit obligation as of December 31, 2020 $ 10.7 
Increase in estimated 2021 other postretirement benefit expense (operating and nonoperating) 1.4 
  100 Basis Point Decrease
  (in millions)
Decrease in other postretirement benefit obligation as of December 31, 2020 $ 9.2 
Increase in estimated 2021 other postretirement benefit expense (operating and nonoperating) 0.9 
Goodwill and Indefinite-lived Intangible Assets
Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives are not amortized. We assess the carrying value of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets on an annual basis and, if certain events or circumstances indicate that an impairment loss may have been incurred, on an interim basis. We assess the value of its goodwill and indefinite-lived assets under either a qualitative or quantitative approach. When we evaluate goodwill for impairment using a quantitative approach, we estimate the fair value of the reporting unit by considering its market capitalization. If the reporting unit's fair value exceeds its carrying value, no further testing is required. If, however, the reporting unit's carrying value exceeds its fair value, we then determine the amount of the impairment charge, if any. We recognize an impairment charge if the carrying value of the reporting unit's goodwill exceeds its estimated fair value.
During the first quarter of 2020, the adverse economic impact and declining passenger demand attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic drove our stock price to 52-week lows and significantly reduced future cash flow projections. We qualitatively assessed that an impairment loss may have been incurred as of March 31, 2020 and performed an interim test of the recoverability of our goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets. We determined that the estimated fair value of our one reporting unit was less than its carrying value and that the deficit between fair value and the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeded the amount of goodwill on our Consolidated Balance Sheets, leading to the recognition of a goodwill impairment charge of $106.7 million. Fair value was determined using a combination of an income approach, which estimates fair value based upon projections of future revenues, expenses, and cash flows discounted to its present value, and a market approach. The valuation methodology and underlying financial information included in our determination of fair value required significant judgments by management. The principal assumptions used in our discounted cash flow analysis consisted of (a) the long-term projections of future financial performance and (b) the weighted-average cost of capital of market participants, adjusted for the risk attributable to the industry in which we operate. Under the market approach, the principal assumption included an estimate for a control premium.
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As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $13.5 million in indefinite-lived intangible assets subject to impairment. We determined that the fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets exceeded its carrying value and was not impaired.
Long-Lived Assets
Our long-lived assets used in operations, consisting principally of aircraft and other non-aircraft equipment, are classified as property and equipment, net on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, and have a carrying value of approximately $2.1 billion at December 31, 2020. We review long-lived assets used in operations for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate, in management's judgment, that the assets might be impaired and the undiscounted cash flows estimated to be generated by those assets are less than their carrying value. To determine whether impairment exists for aircraft used in operations, assets are grouped at the fleet-type level (the lowest level for which there are identifiable cash flows) and future cash flows are estimated based on projections of capacity, passenger mile yield, fuel costs, labor costs and other relevant factors. If, at any time, management determines the net carrying value of an asset is not recoverable, the amount is reduced to its fair value during the period in which such determination is made. Any changes in the estimated useful lives of these assets will be accounted for prospectively.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, including capacity reductions, the temporary grounding of the majority of our fleet, as well as reduced future cash flow projections, we previously identified, and continue to identify, indicators of impairment of our long-lived assets. During the second quarter of 2020, it was determined that the net carrying values of our ATR-42 and ATR-72 fleets and assets held under our commercial real estate subsidiary were not recoverable through the generation of future undiscounted cash flows as of June 30, 2020. We estimated the fair value of our ATR-42 and ATR-72 fleets using a third-party valuation, which takes into consideration market pricing information, among other factors, and resulted in a $27.5 million impairment charge. We estimated the fair value of our commercial real-estate entity using a combination of a market and income-based approach, which estimates fair value based upon projections of future revenues, expenses, and cash flows discounted to its present value, which resulted in a $3.4 million impairment charge. The principal assumptions used in our discounted cash flow analysis consisted of (a) the long-term projections of future financial performance and (b) the weighted-average cost of capital of market participants, adjusted for the risk attributable to us and the industry in which we operate.
During the fourth quarter of 2020, we recorded long-lived asset impairment of approximately $5.4 million, comprised of an additional write-down of our ATR-42 and ATR-72 fleet of $4.9 million as a result of ongoing market uncertainty attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic. We also wrote off of approximately $0.5 million in capitalized software projects that were permanently suspended in response to the continuing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Given the substantial reduction in our active aircraft and diminished projections of future cash flows in the near and medium term, we evaluated the remainder of our fleet and determined that only the fleet types discussed above were impaired as the forecasted future cash flows from operation of the fleet through the respective retirement dates continue to exceed their carrying values. We will continue to monitor the duration and extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and will continue to evaluate our current fleet and other long-lived assets for impairment accordingly.
Income Tax Valuation Allowance
We periodically assess whether it is more likely than not that we will generate sufficient taxable income to realize our deferred income tax assets and establish valuation allowances if it is not likely we will realize our deferred income tax assets. In making this determination, we consider all available positive and negative evidence and make certain assumptions. We consider, among other things, our deferred tax liabilities, the overall business environment, our historical financial results, our industry's historically cyclical financial results and potential current and future tax planning strategies. We cannot presently determine when we will be able to generate sufficient taxable income to realize all of our state deferred tax assets. Accordingly, as of December 31, 2020, we recorded a valuation allowance of $9.6 million against our deferred tax assets. If we determine that it is more likely than not that we will generate sufficient taxable income to realize the remainder of our deferred income tax assets, we will reverse our valuation allowance (in full or in part), resulting in an income tax benefit in the period such a determination is made.
ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.
We are subject to market risk exposure related to commodity (fuel) prices, interest rates, and foreign currency exchange rates. The adverse effects of potential changes in these market risks are discussed below. In an effort to manage our exposure to these risks, we may enter into derivative contracts from time to time and may revise our derivative portfolio as market conditions change.
The sensitivity analyses presented do not consider the effects that such adverse changes may have on overall economic activity nor do they consider additional actions we might undertake to mitigate our exposure to such changes. Actual results may differ.


Aircraft Fuel
Aircraft fuel costs constitute a significant portion of our operating expense. Fuel costs represented 11% of our operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2020. Approximately 69% of our fuel is based on Singapore jet fuel prices, 28% is based on U.S. West Coast jet fuel prices, and 3% on other jet fuel prices. We periodically enter into derivative financial instruments to manage our exposure to changes in the price of jet fuel. As of December 31, 2020, we hedged approximately 4% of our projected fuel requirements for 2021. A one cent increase in the cost of a gallon of jet fuel would result in approximately $2.7 million of additional annual fuel expense based on 2019 operational levels.
Interest Rates
Our exposure to market risk associated with changes in interest rates is primarily associated with our debt obligations. At December 31, 2020, we had $891.3 million of fixed-rate and $280.0 million of variable-rate debt. Market risk associated with our fixed rate long-term debt relates to the potential reduction in fair value from an increase in interest rates. An increase of 100 basis points in average annual interest rates would have decreased the estimated fair value of our fixed-rate long-term debt by $22.1 million at December 31, 2020.
Foreign Currency
We have exposure to market risk associated with changes in foreign currency exchange rates because we generate sales, incur expenses, and have debt denominated and paid in foreign currencies, predominantly in Japanese Yen and to a lesser extent, the Australian Dollar.
To manage exchange rate risk, we transact our international sales and expenditures in the same foreign currency, to the extent practical. Additionally, our Yen denominated debt serves as a natural hedge against the volatility of exchange rates against cash inflows. We also have an established foreign currency derivative program, where we periodically enter into foreign currency forward contracts. At December 31, 2020, the fair value of our foreign currency forwards reflected a net liability position of $1.4 million in the consolidated balance sheet. We estimate that a 10% depreciation or appreciation in the U.S. dollar, relative to the Japanese Yen and Australian Dollar, would result in a change in annual pretax income, excluding the impact of foreign currency hedges, of approximately $5.0 million.
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ITEM 8.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA.
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors of Hawaiian Holdings, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Hawaiian Holdings, Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, shareholders' equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes and financial statement schedules listed in the Index at Item 15(a) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB, the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated February 12, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.

Impairment of goodwill
Description of the Matter
During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $106.7 million. As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company assesses whether goodwill is impaired on an annual basis and, if certain events or circumstances indicate that an impairment loss may have been incurred, on an interim basis. Due to the adverse economic impact and declining passenger demand attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company determined that an impairment loss may have been incurred as of March 31, 2020 and performed an interim quantitative test of the recoverability of its goodwill balance using a combination of income and market-based approaches to estimate fair value.

Auditing the goodwill impairment test was complex and highly judgmental due to significant estimation required in estimating the fair value of the Company. The fair value estimate was sensitive to significant assumptions, specifically the revenue growth rates, cost per available seat mile, and weighted-average cost of capital.
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How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over management’s determination of the fair value of the reporting unit, including the valuation model, the significant underlying assumptions selected by management, and data inputs used in the valuation model.

To test the estimated fair value of the Company, our audit procedures included, among others, evaluating the significant data and assumptions used to develop the estimate, including
comparison of such data and assumptions to current industry trends, the Company’s accounting records, and market data of peer companies. We involved our specialist to assist in evaluating the methodologies and key assumptions used to estimate the fair value, including the weighted average cost of capital. Our specialist also performed comparative calculations and sensitivity analyses over the significant assumptions used in developing the fair value estimate and to test the significant assumptions used in aggregate. In addition, we tested management’s reconciliation of the estimated fair value to the market capitalization of the Company.
Impairment of long-lived assets
Description of the Matter
At December 31, 2020, the Company’s long-lived assets balance was $2.1 billion. This balance consists principally of aircraft and other non-aircraft equipment. As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company reviews long-lived assets used in operations for impairment when events and changes in circumstances indicate that the asset groups may be impaired. When an indicator of potential impairment is identified, the Company estimates its undiscounted future cash flows of the asset group. When the carrying value of the asset group is greater than its undiscounted future cash flows, the Company estimates the fair value of the asset group to calculate any impairment charges.

During 2020, the Company determined that the net carrying values of the ATR-42 fleet and ATR-72 fleet were not recoverable through the generation of undiscounted future cash flows. The Company estimated the fair value of its ATR-42 fleet and ATR-72 fleet using a third-party specialist, which resulted in a $32.4 million impairment charge.

Auditing the valuation of long-lived assets was complex and highly judgmental due to the significant estimation involved in determining the fair value of the aircraft in the current market environment. The fair value estimate was sensitive to significant assumptions, specifically published sources of independent appraisals based on the long-term use assumptions.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company’s long-lived assets impairment process. This included controls over the significant data and assumptions used in the Company’s valuation of its asset groups that were not recoverable through the generation of undiscounted future cash flows.

To test the valuation of the Company’s asset groups that were not recoverable through the generation of undiscounted future cash flows, we involved our specialist to assist in evaluating the methodologies and key assumptions used in the valuation performed by the Company’s third-party specialist. Our specialist also provided corroborative prices for each aircraft fleet.

/s/ ERNST & YOUNG LLP  

We have served as the Company's auditor since 1999.

Honolulu, Hawai'i
February 12, 2021
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Hawaiian Holdings, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Operations
For the Years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
  2020 2019 2018
  (in thousands, except per share data)
Operating Revenue:      
Passenger $ 664,799  $ 2,597,772  $ 2,602,793 
Other 180,014  234,456  234,618 
Total 844,813  2,832,228  2,837,411 
Operating Expenses:    
Wages and benefits 387,910  723,656  684,719 
Aircraft fuel, including taxes and delivery 161,363  542,573  599,544 
Aircraft rent 103,890  118,904  125,961 
Maintenance materials and repairs 121,571  249,772  239,759 
Aircraft and passenger servicing 58,016  164,275  157,796 
Commissions and other selling 46,297  130,216  129,315 
Depreciation and amortization 151,665  158,906  139,866 
Other rentals and landing fees 73,808  129,622  126,903 
Purchased services 99,050  131,567  131,651 
Contract terminations expense —  —  35,322 
Special items 184,111  —  — 
Other 104,743  155,260  152,207 
Total 1,492,424  2,504,751  2,523,043 
Operating Income (Loss) (647,611) 327,477  314,368 
Nonoperating Income (Expense):    
Other nonoperating special items (5,682) —  — 
Interest expense and amortization of debt discounts and issuance costs (40,439) (27,864) (33,001)
Interest income 8,731  12,583  9,242 
Capitalized interest 3,236  4,492  7,887 
Other components of net periodic benefit cost, excluding settlements 1,300  (3,864) (825)
Gains (losses) on fuel derivatives (6,930) (6,709)