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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 For the quarterly period ended April 30, 2022

 

or

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 For the transition period from ______ to ______

 

Commission file number 001-37492

 

ANIXA BIOSCIENCES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   11-2622630
(State or other jurisdiction of   (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)   Identification No.)

 

3150 Almaden Expressway, Suite 250    
San Jose, CA   95118
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)

 

(408) 708-9808

 

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class   Trading symbol   Name of exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per share   ANIX   NASDAQ Capital Market

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer ☐       Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer   Smaller reporting company   Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.

 

On June 10, 2022 the registrant had outstanding 30,471,001 shares of Common Stock, par value $.01 per share, which is the registrant’s only class of common stock.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION  
   
Item 1. Financial Statements.  
     
  Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of April 30, 2022 (Unaudited) and October 31, 2021 1
     
  Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations (Unaudited) for the three and six months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021 2
     
  Condensed Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity (Unaudited) for the three months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021 3
     
  Condensed Consolidated Statements of Shareholders’ Equity (Unaudited) for the six months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021 4
     
  Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited) for the six months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021 5
     
  Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) 6
     
Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. 19
     
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk. 24
     
Item 4. Controls and Procedures. 24
     
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION  
   
Item 1. Legal Proceedings. 25
   
Item 1A. Risk Factors. 25
   
Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds. 25
   
Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities. 25
   
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures. 25
   
Item 5. Other Information. 25
   
Item 6. Exhibits. 25
     
SIGNATURES 26

 

ii

 

 

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1. Financial Statements.

 

ANIXA BIOSCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

 

  April 30,
2022
    October 31,
2021
 
      (Unaudited)          
ASSETS                
Current assets:                
Cash and cash equivalents   $ 27,732     $ 29,128  
Short-term investments     4,499       6,599  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets     332       276  
Total current assets     32,563       36,003  
                 
Operating lease right-of-use asset     234       254  
Total assets   $ 32,797     $ 36,257  
                 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY                
Current liabilities:                
Accounts payable   $ 93     $ 136  
Accrued expenses     1,057       1,095  
Operating lease liability     39       39  
Total current liabilities     1,189       1,270  
                 
Operating lease liability, non-current     202       220  
Total liabilities     1,391       1,490  
                 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 9)     -        -   
                 
Equity:                
Shareholders’ equity:                
Preferred stock, par value $100 per share; 19,860 shares authorized; no shares issued or outstanding     -       -  
Series A convertible preferred stock, par value $100 per share; 140 shares authorized; no shares issued or outstanding     -       -  
Common stock, par value $.01 per share; 100,000,000 shares authorized; 30,154,708 and 30,050,894 shares issued and outstanding as of April 30, 2022 and October 31, 2021, respectively     302       301  
Additional paid-in capital     244,032       239,927  
Accumulated deficit     (212,163 )     (204,790 )
Total shareholders’ equity     32,171       35,438  
Noncontrolling interest (Note 1)     (765 )     (671 )
Total equity     31,406       34,767  
                 
Total liabilities and equity   $ 32,797     $ 36,257  

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

1

 

 

ANIXA BIOSCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS (UNAUDITED)

(in thousands, except per share data)

 

    2022     2021     2022     2021  
    For the three months ended     For the six months ended  
    April 30,     April 30,  
    2022     2021     2022     2021  
                         
Revenue   $ -     $ -     $ -     $ 513  
                                 
Operating costs and expenses:                                
Inventor royalties, contingent legal fees, litigation and licensing expenses     -       -       -       385  
Research and development expenses (including non-cash share-based compensation expenses of $966, $447, $2,243 and $737, respectively)     1,735       1,022       3,573       1,850  
General and administrative expenses (including non-cash share-based compensation expenses of $715, $604, $1,793 and $1,300, respectively)     1,854       1,415       3,896       2,948  
Total operating costs and expenses     3,589       2,437       7,469       5,183  
                                 
Loss from operations     (3,589 )     (2,437 )     (7,469 )     (4,670 )
                                 
Interest income     1       -       2       1  
                                 
Net loss     (3,588 )     (2,437 )     (7,467 )     (4,669 )
                                 
Less: Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest     (44 )     (38 )     (94 )     (62 )
                                 
Net loss attributable to common shareholders   $ (3,544 )   $ (2,399 )   $ (7,373 )   $ (4,607 )
                                 
Net loss per common share attributable to common shareholders:                                
Basic and diluted   $ (0.12 )   $ (0.08 )   $ (0.24 )   $ (0.17 )
                                 
Weighted average common shares outstanding:                                
Basic and diluted     30,152       28,669       30,138       26,888  

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

2

 

 

ANIXA BIOSCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY (UNAUDITED)

(in thousands, except share data)

 

FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED APRIL 30, 2022

 

    Shares     Par Value     Capital     Deficit     Equity     Interest     Equity  
                Additional           Total     Non-        
    Common Stock     Paid-in     Accumulated     Shareholders’     controlling     Total  
    Shares     Par Value     Capital     Deficit     Equity     Interest     Equity  
                                           
Balance, January 31, 2022     30,132,319     $          301     $ 242,281     $ (208,619 )   $ 33,963     $ (721 )   $ 33,242  
Stock option compensation to employees and directors     -       -       1,462       -       1,462       -       1,462  
Stock options and warrants issued to consultants     -       -       219       -       219       -       219  
Common stock issued to consultants     20,000       1       63       -       64       -       64  
Common stock issued pursuant to employee stock purchase plan     2,389       -       7       -       7       -       7  
Net loss     -       -       -       (3,544 )     (3,544 )     (44 )     (3,588 )
Balance, April 30, 2022     30,154,708     $ 302     $ 244,032     $ (212,163 )   $ 32,171     $ (765 )   $ 31,406  

 

FOR THE THREE MONTHS ENDED APRIL 30, 2021

 

    Shares     Par Value     Capital     Deficit     Equity     Interest     Equity  
                Additional           Total     Non-        
    Common Stock     Paid-in     Accumulated     Shareholders’     controlling     Total  
    Shares     Par Value     Capital     Deficit     Equity     Interest     Equity  
                                           
Balance, January 31, 2021     26,179,122     $          262     $ 207,382     $ (194,044 )   $ 13,600     $ (521 )   $ 13,079  
Stock option compensation to employees and directors     -       -       881       -       881       -       881  
Stock options and warrants issued to consultants     -       -       170       -       170       -       170  
Common stock issued upon exercise of stock options     77,571       1       189       -       190       -       190  
Common stock issued pursuant to employee stock purchase plan     1,634       -       3       -       3       -       3  
Common stock issued in a public offering, net of offering expenses of $2,208     4,285,715       43       20,249       -       20,292       -       20,292  
Common stock issued in at-the-market offering, net of offering expenses of $156     905,863       9       4,868       -       4,877       -       4,877  
Net loss     -       -       -       (2,399 )     (2,399 )     (38 )     (2,437 )
Balance, April 30, 2021     31,449,905     $ 315     $ 233,742     $ (196,443 )   $ 37,614     $ (559 )   $ 37,055  

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

3

 

 

ANIXA BIOSCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY (UNAUDITED)

(in thousands, except share data)

 

FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDED APRIL 30, 2022

 

    Shares     Par Value     Capital     Deficit     Equity     Interest     Equity  
                Additional           Total     Non-        
    Common Stock     Paid-in     Accumulated     Shareholders’     controlling     Total  
    Shares     Par Value     Capital     Deficit     Equity     Interest     Equity  
                                           
Balance, October 31, 2021     30,050,894     $          301     $ 239,927     $ (204,790 )   $ 35,438     $ (671 )   $ 34,767  
Stock option compensation to employees and directors     -       -       3,598       -       3,598       -       3,598  
Stock options and warrants issued to consultants     -       -       437       -       437       -       437  
Common stock issued upon exercise of stock options and warrants     81,425       -       -       -       -       -       -  
Common stock issued to consultants     20,000       1       63       -       64       -       64  
Common stock issued pursuant to employee stock purchase plan     2,389       -       7       -       7       -       7  
Net loss     -       -       -       (7,373 )     (7,373 )     (94 )     (7,467 )
Balance, April 30, 2022     30,154,708     $ 302     $ 244,032     $ (212,163 )   $ 32,171     $ (765 )   $ 31,406  

 

FOR THE SIX MONTHS ENDED APRIL 30, 2021

 

    Shares     Par Value     Capital     Deficit     Equity     Interest     Equity  
                Additional           Total     Non-        
    Common Stock     Paid-in     Accumulated     Shareholders’     controlling     Total  
    Shares     Par Value     Capital     Deficit     Equity     Interest     Equity  
                                           
Balance, October 31, 2020     24,248,695     $          242     $ 200,355     $ (191,836 )   $ 8,761     $ (497 )   $ 8,264  
Stock option compensation to employees and directors     -       -       1,756       -       1,756       -       1,756  
Stock options and warrants issued to consultants     -       -       282       -       282       -       282  
Common stock issued upon exercise of stock options     107,451       1       292       -       293       -       293  
Common stock issued pursuant to employee stock purchase plan     1,634       -       3       -       3       -       3  
Common stock issued in a public offering, net of offering expenses of $2,208     4,285,715       44       20,248       -       20,292       -       20,292  
Common stock issued in at-the-market offering, net of offering expenses of $341     2,806,410       28       10,806       -       10,834       -       10,834  
Net loss     -       -       -       (4,607 )     (4,607 )     (62 )     (4,669 )
Balance, April 30, 2021     31,449,905     $ 315     $ 233,742     $ (196,443 )   $ 37,614     $ (559 )   $ 37,055  

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

4

 

 

ANIXA BIOSCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (UNAUDITED)

(in thousands)

 

    2022     2021  
    For the six months ended April 30,  
    2022     2021  
Cash flows from operating activities:                
Reconciliation of net loss to net cash used in operating activities:                
Net loss   $ (7,467 )   $ (4,669 )
Stock option compensation to employees and directors     3,598       1,756  
Stock options and warrants issued to consultants     437       282  
Common stock issued to consultants     64       -  
Gain on sale of equipment     -       (5 )
Amortization of operating lease right-of-use asset     21       29  
Change in operating assets and liabilities:                
Prepaid expenses and other current assets     (56 )     (58 )
Accounts payable     (44 )     205  
Accrued expenses     (37 )     77  
Operating lease liability     (19 )     (29 )
Net cash used in operating activities     (3,503 )     (2,412 )
                 
Cash flows from investing activities:                
Disbursements to acquire short-term investments     (4,249 )     (10,399 )
Proceeds from maturities of short-term investments     6,349       2,640  
Proceeds from sale of equipment     -       35  
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities     2,100       (7,724 )
                 
Cash flows from financing activities:                
Gross proceeds from sale of common stock in a public offering     -       22,500  
Expenses of the public offering     -       (2,208 )
Gross proceeds from sale of common stock in an at-the-market offering     -       11,175  
Expenses of the at-the-market offering     -       (341 )
Proceeds from sale of common stock pursuant to employee stock purchase plan     7       3  
Proceeds from exercise of stock options     -       293  
Net cash provided by financing activities     7       31,422  
                 
Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents     (1,396 )     21,286  
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period     29,128       6,417  
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period   $ 27,732     $ 27,703  

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

5

 

 

ANIXA BIOSCIENCES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(UNAUDITED)

 

1. BUSINESS AND FUNDING

 

Description of Business

 

As used herein, “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” or “Anixa” means Anixa Biosciences, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. Our primary operations involve developing therapies and vaccines that are focused on critical unmet needs in oncology and infectious disease. Our therapeutics programs include (i) the development of a chimeric endocrine receptor T-cell therapy, a novel form of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (“CAR-T”) technology, initially focused on treating ovarian cancer, which is being developed at our subsidiary, Certainty Therapeutics, Inc. (“Certainty”), and (ii) the discovery and ultimately development of anti-viral drug candidates for the treatment of COVID-19 focused on inhibiting certain protein functions of the virus. Our vaccine programs include (i) the development of a preventative vaccine against triple negative breast cancer (“TNBC”), the most lethal form of breast cancer, as well other forms of breast cancer and (ii) a preventative vaccine against ovarian cancer.

 

Our subsidiary, Certainty, is developing immuno-therapy drugs against cancer. Certainty holds an exclusive worldwide, royalty-bearing license to use certain intellectual property owned or controlled by The Wistar Institute (“Wistar”), the nation’s first independent biomedical research institute and a leading National Cancer Institute designated cancer research center, relating to Wistar’s chimeric endocrine receptor targeted therapy technology. We have initially focused on the development of a treatment for ovarian cancer, but we also may pursue applications of the technology for the development of treatments for additional solid tumors. The license agreement requires Certainty to make certain cash and equity payments to Wistar upon achievement of specific development milestones. With respect to Certainty’s equity obligations to Wistar, Certainty issued to Wistar shares of its common stock equal to five percent (5%) of the common stock of Certainty.

 

Certainty, in collaboration with the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Inc. (“Moffitt”), is advancing toward human clinical testing of the CAR-T technology licensed by Certainty from Wistar aimed initially at treating ovarian cancer. We received authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) in August 2021, to commence enrollment and treatment of patients in a Phase 1 clinical trial. We began patient recruitment for the trial in March 2022, and that process is ongoing. This study is a dose-escalation trial with two arms based on injection method—intraperitoneal or intravenous—to determine the maximum tolerated dose in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer and to assess persistence, expansion and efficacy of the modified T-cells. The study is being conducted at Moffitt and will consist of 24 to 48 patients who have received at least two prior lines of chemotherapy. The study is estimated to be completed in two to four years depending on multiple factors including when maximum tolerated dose is reached and the rate of patient recruitment.

 

In April 2020, we entered into a collaboration with OntoChem GmbH (“OntoChem”) to discover and ultimately develop anti-viral drug candidates against COVID-19. Through this collaboration, we utilized advanced computational methods, machine learning, and molecular modeling techniques to perform in silico screening of over 1.2 billion compounds in chemical libraries (including publicly available compounds and OntoChem’s proprietary libraries) to evaluate if any of these compounds could disrupt one of two key enzymes of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the disease COVID-19.

 

6

 

 

The screening process resulted in the identification of multiple compounds that could potentially disrupt critical enzymes of the virus, including the virus’ main protease, Mpro. Several of these compounds were synthesized and tested in in vitro biological assays. Upon completion of these biological assays, we identified two of the most promising compounds and tested them in animal models. In these animal studies, the two compounds were compared to Remdesivir, which at the time the assays were performed was the only anti-viral drug authorized by the FDA for COVID-19. The data showed that administration of the drugs to infected hamsters did not cause any noticeable adverse effects, and monitoring of weight and general animal behavior demonstrated comparable efficacy between each of our compounds and Remdesivir. Based on this promising data in the animal study, we directed our team to proceed to the next stage of drug development and we selected one of the compounds around which our team is performing combinatorial synthetic medicinal chemistry to evaluate whether potency can be increased and pharmacokinetics optimized.

 

In May 2021, after completion of the aforementioned animal studies, OntoChem assigned its rights and obligations related to this collaboration to MolGenie GmbH (“MolGenie”), a company spun-out from OntoChem focused on drug discovery and development. As a result of the MolGenie spin-out, there was no change in the personnel working on our project, and the assignment caused no interruptions to the program’s development.

 

While use of preventative vaccines is widespread throughout much of the developed world, we believe that there is and will continue to be a need for effective treatments for COVID-19. We believe that there are a number of factors that have limited the effectiveness, both in the near and long term, of the vaccines currently in use, including, but not limited to, vaccine persistence, viral escape and perceptions of long-term safety resulting in vaccine resistance. Furthermore, there are currently two new anti-viral treatments, Pfizer’s Paxlovid, which is a combination therapy consisting of the protease-inhibitor nirmatrelvir and the antiretroviral ritonavir and Merck’s polymerase-inhibitor molnupiravir, that have recently been authorized for emergency use in the U.S. These treatments use oral formulations, while all other currently authorized or approved treatments require intravenous administration. As the main component of Pfizer’s treatment is a protease-inhibitor targeting Mpro, it is most similar to our compounds, and we therefore conducted a head-to-head analysis via a Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assay that tested the ability of the compounds to inhibit the function of Mpro. The results of this head-to-head in vitro analysis suggest that our compounds may be five times more effective at inhibiting Mpro than Pfizer’s nirmatrelvir.

 

We hold an exclusive worldwide, royalty-bearing license to use certain intellectual property owned or controlled by The Cleveland Clinic Foundation (“Cleveland Clinic”) relating to certain breast cancer vaccine technology developed at Cleveland Clinic. Utilizing this technology, we are working in collaboration with Cleveland Clinic to develop a method to vaccinate women against contracting breast cancer, focused specifically on TNBC. The focus of this vaccine is a specific protein, α-lactalbumin, that is only expressed during lactation in a healthy mother’s mammary tissue. This protein disappears when the mother is no longer lactating, but reappears in many forms of breast cancer, especially TNBC. Studies have shown that vaccinating against this protein prevents breast cancer in mice.

 

Following the FDA’s authorization to proceed with clinical trials in December 2020, in October 2021, we commenced dosing patients in a Phase 1 clinical trial of our breast cancer vaccine. Funded by a U.S. Department of Defense grant, this study is a multiple-ascending dose Phase 1 trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose of the vaccine in patients with early-stage, triple-negative breast cancer as well as monitor immune response. The study is being conducted at Cleveland Clinic and will consist of 18 to 24 patients who have completed treatment for early-stage, triple-negative breast cancer within the past three years and are currently tumor-free but at high risk for recurrence. During the course of the study, participants will receive three vaccinations, each two weeks apart, and will be closely monitored for side effects and immune response. The study is roughly one-fourth of the way complete and is estimated to be completed by the end of calendar year 2022. Initial indications suggest that an immune response is being observed.

 

7

 

 

In November 2020, we executed a license agreement with Cleveland Clinic pursuant to which the Company was granted an exclusive worldwide, royalty-bearing license to use certain intellectual property owned or controlled by Cleveland Clinic relating to certain ovarian cancer vaccine technology. This technology pertains to among other things, the use of vaccines for the treatment or prevention of ovarian cancers which express the anti-Mullerian hormone receptor 2 protein containing an extracellular domain (“AMHR2-ED”). In healthy tissue, this protein regulates growth and development of egg-containing follicles in the ovary. While expression of AMHR2-ED naturally and markedly declines after menopause, this protein is expressed at high levels in the ovaries of postmenopausal women with ovarian cancer. Researchers at Cleveland Clinic believe that a vaccine targeting AMHR2-ED could prevent the occurrence of ovarian cancer. We entered into a joint development agreement with Cleveland Clinic to advance this vaccine toward human clinical testing.

 

In May 2021, Cleveland Clinic was granted an award for our ovarian cancer vaccine technology by the National Cancer Institute’s (“NCI”) PREVENT program. The NCI is a part of the National Institutes of Health. The PREVENT program is a peer-reviewed agent development program designed to support preclinical development of innovative interventions and biomarkers for cancer prevention and interception towards clinical trials. The scientific and financial resources of the PREVENT program will be used for our ovarian cancer vaccine technology to perform virtually all pre-clinical research and development, manufacturing and IND-enabling studies. This work will be performed at NCI facilities, by NCI scientific staff and with NCI financial resources and will require no material financial expenditures by the Company, nor the transfer of any rights to the Company’s assets.

 

Over the next several quarters, we expect the development of our breast and ovarian cancer vaccines, our COVID-19 therapeutic discovery program and Certainty’s CAR-T technology to be the primary focus of the Company. As part of our legacy operations, the Company remains engaged in limited patent licensing activities regarding its liquid biopsy platform and in the area of encrypted audio/video conference calling. We do not expect these activities to be a significant part of the Company’s ongoing operations nor do we expect these activities to require material financial resources or attention of senior management.

 

Over the past several years, our revenue was derived from technology licensing and the sale of patented technologies, including revenue from the settlement of litigation. We have not generated any revenue to date from our therapeutics or vaccine programs. In addition, while we pursue our therapeutics and vaccine programs, we may also make investments in and form new companies to develop additional emerging technologies. We do not expect to begin generating revenue with respect to any of our current therapy or vaccine programs in the near term. Our strategy is to achieve a profitable outcome by eventually licensing our technologies to large pharmaceutical companies that have the resources and infrastructure in place to manufacture, market and sell our technologies as therapeutics or vaccines. The eventual licensing of any of our technologies may take several years, if it is to occur at all, and may depend on positive results from human clinical trials.

 

Funding and Management’s Plans

 

Based on currently available information as of June 10, 2022, we believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments and expected cash flows will be sufficient to fund our activities for at least the next twelve months. We have implemented a business model that conserves funds by collaborating with third parties to develop our technologies. However, our projections of future cash needs and cash flows may differ from actual results. If current cash on hand, cash equivalents, short-term investments and cash that may be generated from our business operations are insufficient to continue to operate our business, or if we elect to invest in or acquire a company or companies or new technology or technologies that are synergistic with or complementary to our technologies, we may be required to obtain more working capital. We may seek to obtain working capital during our fiscal year 2022 or thereafter through sales of our equity securities or through bank credit facilities or public or private debt from various financial institutions where possible. We cannot be certain that additional funding will be available on acceptable terms, or at all. If we do identify sources for additional funding, the sale of additional equity securities or convertible debt will result in dilution to our stockholders. We can give no assurance that we will generate sufficient cash flows in the future to satisfy our liquidity requirements or sustain future operations, or that other sources of funding, such as sales of equity or debt, would be available or would be approved by our security holders, if needed, on favorable terms or at all. If we fail to obtain additional working capital as and when needed, such failure could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, such lack of funds may inhibit our ability to respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated capital needs, or may force us to reduce operating expenses, which would significantly harm the business and development of operations.

 

8

 

 

Basis of Presentation

 

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 8-03 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, certain information and disclosures required by generally accepted accounting principles in annual financial statements have been omitted or condensed. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related disclosures included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended October 31, 2021. The accompanying October 31, 2021 condensed consolidated balance sheet data was derived from the audited financial statements but does not include all disclosures required by US GAAP. The condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments of a normal recurring nature which, in the opinion of management, are necessary for a fair statement of our financial position as of April 30, 2022, and results of operations and cash flows for the interim periods represented. The results of operations for the three and six months ended April 30, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the entire year.

 

Noncontrolling Interest

 

Noncontrolling interest represents Wistar’s equity ownership in Certainty and is presented as a component of equity. The following table sets forth the changes in noncontrolling interest for the six months ended April 30, 2022 (in thousands):

 

Balance, October 31, 2021   $ (671 )
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest     (94 )
Balance, April 30, 2022   $ (765 )

 

Revenue Recognition

 

Our revenue has been derived solely from technology licensing and the sale of patented technologies. Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of intellectual property rights and satisfaction of other contractual performance obligations to licensees in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive.

 

Our revenue recognition policy requires us to make certain judgments and estimates in connection with the accounting for revenue. Such areas may include determining the existence of a contract and identifying each party’s rights and obligations to transfer goods and services, identifying the performance obligations in the contract, determining the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to separate performance obligations, estimating the timing of satisfaction of performance obligations, determining whether a promise to grant a license is distinct from other promised goods or services and evaluating whether a license transfers to a customer at a point in time or over time.

 

9

 

 

Our revenue arrangements provide for the payment, within 30 days of execution of the agreement, of contractually determined, one-time, paid-up license fees in settlement of litigation and in consideration for the grant of certain intellectual property rights for patented technologies owned or controlled by the Company. These arrangements typically include some combination of the following: (i) the grant of a non-exclusive, retroactive and future license to manufacture and/or sell products covered by patented technologies owned or controlled by the Company, (ii) a covenant-not-to-sue, (iii) the release of the licensee from certain claims, and (iv) the dismissal of any pending litigation. In such instances, the intellectual property rights granted have been perpetual in nature, extending until the expiration of the related patents. Pursuant to the terms of these agreements, we have no further obligations with respect to the granted intellectual property rights, including no obligation to maintain or upgrade the technology, or provide future support or services. Licensees obtained control of the intellectual property rights they have acquired upon execution of the agreement. Accordingly, the performance obligations from these agreements were satisfied and 100% of the revenue was recognized upon the execution of the agreements.

 

Cost of Revenues

 

Cost of revenues include the costs and expenses incurred in connection with our patent licensing and enforcement activities, including inventor royalties paid to original patent owners, contingent legal fees paid to external counsel, other patent-related legal expenses paid to external counsel and licensing and enforcement related research, consulting and other expenses paid to third-parties. These costs are included under the caption “Operating costs and expenses” in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations.

 

Research and Development Expenses

 

Research and development expenses, consisting primarily of employee compensation, payments to third parties for research and development activities and other direct costs associated with developing immuno-therapy drugs against cancer, developing anti-viral drug candidates for COVID-19, developing our breast cancer vaccine, and developing our ovarian cancer vaccine, are expensed in the consolidated financial statements in the period incurred.

 

2. STOCK BASED COMPENSATION

 

The Company maintains stock equity incentive plans under which the Company grants incentive stock options, non-qualified stock options, stock appreciation rights, stock awards, performance awards, or stock units to employees, directors and consultants.

 

Stock Option Compensation Expense

 

The compensation cost for service-based stock options granted to employees and directors is measured at the grant date, based on the fair value of the award using the Black-Scholes pricing model, and is expensed on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period (the vesting period of the stock option) which is one to four years. We recorded stock-based compensation expense related to service-based stock options granted to employees and directors of approximately $875,000 and $881,000 during the three months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively, and approximately $1,605,000 and $1,756,000 during the six months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

 

For stock options granted to employees and directors that vest based on market conditions, such as the trading price of the Company’s common stock exceeding certain price targets, we use a Monte Carlo Simulation in estimating the fair value at grant date and recognize compensation cost over the implied service period (median time to vest). On June 1, 2021, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and our President, Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer were awarded market condition stock options for 2,000,000 shares and 100,000 shares of common stock, respectively, that vest in four equal installments upon the Company’s share price achieving targets ranging from $5.00 to $8.00 per share, with implied service periods of three to fifteen months. We recorded market condition stock-based compensation expense during the three months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021 of approximately $587,000 and $0, respectively, and approximately $1,993,000 and $0 during the six months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

 

10

 

 

The compensation cost for service-based stock options granted to consultants is measured at the grant date, based on the fair value of the award using the Black-Scholes pricing model, and is expensed on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period (the vesting period of the stock option) which is one to three years. We recorded stock-based consulting expense related to stock options granted to consultants of approximately $109,000 and $132,000 during the three months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively, and approximately $218,000 and $186,000 during the six months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

 

Stock Option Plans

 

During the three months ended April 30, 2022, we had two stock option plans: the Anixa Biosciences, Inc. 2010 Share Incentive Plan (the “2010 Share Plan”) and the Anixa Biosciences, Inc. 2018 Share Incentive Plan (the “2018 Share Plan”), which were adopted by our Board of Directors on July 14, 2010 and January 25, 2018, respectively. The 2018 Share Plan was approved by our shareholders on March 29, 2018.

 

Stock Option Activity

 

During the three months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021, we granted options to purchase 1,400,000 shares and 250,000 shares of common stock, respectively, and during the six months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021, we granted options to purchase 1,430,000 shares and 1,380,000 shares of common stock, respectively, to employees and consultants, with exercise prices ranging from $2.62 to $5.30 per share, pursuant to the 2018 Share Plan. During the three months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021, stock options to purchase 0 shares of common stock and 77,571 shares of common stock, net of 7,937 shares withheld on a cashless exercise, respectively, were exercised with aggregate proceeds of $0 and $0, respectively. During the six months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021, stock options to purchase 46,909 shares of common stock, net of 53,091 shares withheld on a cashless exercise and 107,451 shares of common stock, net of 7,937 shares withheld on a cashless exercise, respectively, were exercised with aggregate proceeds of $0 and $0, respectively.

 

2010 Share Plan

 

The 2010 Share Plan provided for the grant of nonqualified stock options, stock appreciation rights, stock awards, performance awards and stock units to employees, directors and consultants. In accordance with the provisions of the 2010 Share Plan, the plan terminated with respect to the ability to grant future awards on July 14, 2020. Information regarding the 2010 Share Plan for the six months ended April 30, 2022 is as follows:

    Shares     Weighted
Average Exercise
Price Per Share
    Aggregate
Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
 
Options outstanding at October 31, 2021     1,1,718,634     $ 2.82          
Exercised     (100,000 )   $ 2.92          
Options outstanding and exercisable at
April 30, 2022
   

1,618,634
    $ 2.81     $ 1,182  

 

The following table summarizes information about stock options outstanding and exercisable under the 2010 Share Plan as of April 30, 2022:

 

Range of
Exercise Prices
   

Number
Outstanding and

Exercisable

   

Weighted Average
Remaining
Contractual Life

(in years)

    Weighted
Average
Exercise Price
 
$ 0.67 - $2.30       527,500       4.0     $ 1.54  
$ 2.58 - $3.13       577,000       2.7     $ 2.76  
$ 3.46 - $5.30       514,134       6.0     $ 4.16  

 

11

 

 

2018 Share Plan

 

The 2018 Share Plan provides for the grant of incentive stock options, nonqualified stock options, stock appreciation rights, stock awards, performance awards and stock units to employees, directors and consultants. As of April 30, 2022, the 2018 Share Plan had 600,000 shares available for future grants. Information regarding the 2018 Share Plan for the six months ended April 30, 2022 is as follows:

    Shares     Weighted
Average Exercise
Price Per Share
    Aggregate Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
 
Options outstanding at October 31, 2021     7,409,992     $ 3.76          
Granted     1,430,000     $ 2.74          
Options outstanding at April 30, 2022     8,839,992     $ 3.60     $ 1,371  
Options exercisable at April 30, 2022     4,364,161     $ 3.63     $ 426  

 

The following table summarizes information about stock options outstanding and exercisable under the 2018 Share Plan as of April 30, 2022:

 

      Options Outstanding     Options Exercisable  
Range of
Exercise Prices
    Number
Outstanding
   

Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual Life

(in years)

    Weighted
Average
Exercise Price
    Number
Exercisable
   

Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual Life

(in years)

    Weighted
Average
Exercise Price
 
$ 2.09 - $3.87       5,369,992       7.9     $ 3.24       3,298,050       7.0     $ 3.49  
$ 3.96 - $5.30       3,470,000       8.5     $ 4.16       1,066,111       7.6     $ 4.07  

 

Non-Plan Options

 

In addition to options granted under stock option plans, during the years ended October 31, 2012 and 2013, the Board of Directors approved the grant of stock options to certain employees and directors. Information regarding stock options that were granted outside of share plans for the six months ended April 30, 2022 is as follows:

    Shares     Weighted
Average Exercise
Price Per Share
    Aggregate Intrinsic Value
(in thousands)
 
Options outstanding at October 31, 2021     1,642,000     $ 2.58          
Options outstanding and exercisable at
April 30, 2022
    1,642,000     $ 2.58     $ 1,108  

 

12

 

 

The following table summarizes information about stock options outstanding and exercisable that were granted outside of share plans as of April 30, 2022:

 

Range of

Exercise Prices

   

Number
Outstanding

and

Exercisable

   

Weighted Average Remaining Contractual Life

(in years)

    Weighted
Average
Exercise Price
 
$ 2.58       1,642,000       0.3     $ 2.58  

 

Stock Awards

 

For stock awards granted to employees, directors and consultants that vest upon grant, we recognize expense at the date of grant based on the grant date closing price of the underlying common stock. We did not grant any stock awards that vested upon grant during the six months ended April 30, 2022 or 2021.

 

Employee Stock Purchase Plan

 

The Company maintains the Anixa Biosciences, Inc. Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”) which permits eligible employees to purchase shares at not less than 85% of the market value of the Company’s common stock on the offering date or the purchase date of the applicable offering period, whichever is lower. The plan was adopted by our Board of Directors on August 13, 2018 and approved by our shareholders on September 27, 2018. During the six months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021, employees purchased 2,389 and 1,634 shares, respectively, with aggregate proceeds of approximately $7,000 and $3,000, respectively.

 

Warrants

 

On October 30, 2020, we issued a warrant, expiring on October 30, 2025, to purchase 60,000 shares of common stock at $2.06 per share, vesting over five months, to a consultant for investor relations services. We recorded consulting expense of approximately $38,000 and $96,000, respectively, during the three and six months ended April 30, 2021, based on the fair value of the warrant on the date of grant recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period. On November 16, 2021, the warrant was exercised on a cashless basis and 25,484 shares were withheld as payment.

 

On November 1, 2021 we issued a warrant, expiring on October 30, 2026, to purchase 60,000 shares of common stock at $4.77 per share, vesting over five months, to a consultant for investor relations services. We recorded consulting expense of approximately $110,000 and $220,000, respectively, during the three and six months ended April 30, 2022, based on the fair value of the warrant on the date of grant recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period.

 

As of April 30, 2022, we also had warrants outstanding to purchase 300,000 shares of common stock at $6.56 per share, issued during fiscal year 2021 and expiring on March 22, 2026.

 

3. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS

 

US GAAP defines fair value and establishes a framework for measuring fair value. We have categorized our financial assets and liabilities, based on the priority of the inputs to the valuation technique, into a three-level fair value hierarchy as set forth below. If the inputs used to measure the financial instruments fall within different levels of the hierarchy, the categorization is based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement of the instrument.

 

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Financial assets and liabilities recorded in the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets are categorized based on the inputs to the valuation techniques as follows:

 

Level 1 – Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in an active market which we have the ability to access at the measurement date.

 

Level 2 – Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on quoted market prices in markets where trading occurs infrequently or whose values are based on quoted prices of instruments with similar attributes in active markets.

 

Level 3 – Financial assets and liabilities whose values are based on prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both unobservable and significant to the overall fair value measurement. These inputs reflect management’s own assumptions about the assumptions a market participant would use in pricing the asset and liabilities.

 

The following table presents the hierarchy for our financial assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of April 30, 2022:

 

    Level 1     Level 2     Level 3     Total  
          (in thousands)        
Money market funds:                                
Cash equivalents   $ 25,294     $ -     $ -     $ 25,294  
Certificates of deposit:                                
Cash equivalents     2,250       -       -       2,250  
Short-term investments     -       1,200               1,200  
U. S. treasury bills                                
Short-term investments     -       3,299       -       3,299  
Total financial assets   $ 27,544     $ 4,499     $ -     $ 32,043  

 

The following table presents the hierarchy for our financial assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of October 31, 2021:

 

    Level 1     Level 2     Level 3     Total  
          (in thousands)        
Money market funds:                                
Cash equivalents   $ 28,949     $ -     $ -     $ 28,949  
Certificates of deposit:                                
Short term investments     -       2,000       -        2,000  
U. S. treasury bills                     -          
Short-term investments     -       4,599       -       4,599  
Total financial assets   $ 28,949     $ 6,599     $ -     $ 35,548  

 

The estimated fair value of prepaid expenses and other current assets and accounts payable approximates their individual carrying amounts due to the short-term nature of these instruments. Cash balances are stated at carrying value which approximates fair value.

 

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4. ACCRUED EXPENSES

 

Accrued expenses consist of the following as of:

 

    April 30,     October 31,  
    2022     2021  
    (in thousands)  
Payroll and related expenses   $ 477     $ 492  
Accrued royalty and contingent legal fees     577       577  
Accrued other     3       26  
Accrued expenses   $ 1,057     $ 1,095  

 

5. NET LOSS PER SHARE OF COMMON STOCK

 

Basic net loss per common share (“Basic EPS”) is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted net loss per common share (“Diluted EPS”) is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of common shares and dilutive common share equivalents and convertible securities then outstanding. Diluted EPS for all periods presented is the same as Basic EPS, as the inclusion of the effect of common share equivalents then outstanding would be anti-dilutive. For this reason, excluded from the calculation of Diluted EPS for the six months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021, were stock options to purchase 12,100,626 and 8,813,626 shares, respectively, and warrants to purchase 360,000 and 860,000 shares, respectively.

 

6. EFFECT OF RECENTLY ADOPTED AND ISSUED PRONOUNCEMENTS

 

In January 2020, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2020-01 (“ASU 2020-01”) Investments-Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments-Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815). The amendments in ASU 2020-01 clarify certain interactions between the guidance to account for certain equity securities under Topic 321, the guidance to account for investments under the equity method of accounting in Topic 323, and the guidance in Topic 815, which could change how an entity accounts for an equity security under the measurement alternative or a forward contract or purchased option to purchase securities that, upon settlement of the forward contract or exercise of the purchased option, would be accounted for under the equity method of accounting or the fair value option in accordance with Topic 825, Financial Instruments. These amendments improve current GAAP by reducing diversity in practice and increasing comparability of the accounting for these interactions. The amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

 

In August 2020, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2020-06 (“ASU 2020-06”), Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity. The amendments in ASU 2020-06 include guidance on convertible instruments and the derivative scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity and simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments which include beneficial conversion features or cash conversion features by removing certain separation models in Subtopic 470-20. Additionally, ASU 2020-06 will require entities to use the “if-converted” method when calculating diluted earnings per share for convertible instruments. The amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect the adoption of this standard to have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

 

In May 2021, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2021-04 (“ASU No. 2021-04”), Issuer’s Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options. The guidance in ASU 2021-04 requires the issuer to treat a modification of an equity-classified written call option (the “option”) that does not cause the option to become liability-classified as an exchange of the original option for a new option. This guidance applies whether the modification is structured as an amendment to the terms and conditions of the option or as termination of the original option and issuance of a new option. The amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect the adoption of this standard to have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

 

15

 

 

In October 2021, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update 2021-08 (“ASU No. 2021-08”), Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers, to require that an acquirer recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. At the acquisition date, an acquirer should account for the related revenue contracts in accordance with Topic 606 as if it had originated the contracts. The amendments in this update should be applied prospectively and are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We do not expect the adoption of this standard to have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

 

7. INCOME TAXES

 

We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for the estimated future tax effects of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect in the years in which the differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is established, when necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. We have provided a full valuation allowance against our deferred tax asset due to our historical pre-tax losses and the uncertainty regarding the realizability of these deferred tax assets.

 

We have substantial net operating loss carryforwards for Federal and California income tax returns. These net operating loss carryforwards could be subject to limitations under Internal Revenue Code section 382. We have no unrecognized income tax benefits as of April 30, 2022 and October 31, 2021 and we account for interest and penalties related to income tax matters, if any, in general and administrative expenses.

 

8. LEASES

 

We lease approximately 2,000 square feet of office space at 3150 Almaden Expressway, San Jose, California (our principal executive offices) from an unrelated party pursuant to an operating lease that was to expire on September 30, 2021. Effective August 17, 2021, the lease was amended to extend the expiration date to September 30, 2024, with an option to extend the lease an additional two years. Our base rent is approximately $5,000 per month and the lease provides for annual increases of approximately 3% and an escalation clause for increases in certain operating costs. The amendment to the lease resulted in a right-of-use asset and lease liability of approximately $260,000 with a discount rate of 10%. Rent expense was approximately $17,000 and $16,000, respectively, for the three months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021, and approximately $33,000 and $32,000, respectively, for the six months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021.

 

For operating leases, the lease liability is initially measured at the present value of the unpaid lease payments. The remaining 53-month lease term as of April 30, 2022 for the Company’s lease includes the noncancelable period of the lease and the additional two-year option period that the Company expects to exercise. All right-of-use assets are reviewed for impairment when indications of impairment are present.

 

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As of April 30, 2022, the annual minimum future lease payments of our operating lease liabilities were as follows:

 

For Periods Ended October 31,   Operating
Leases
 
    (in thousands)  
2022   $ 32  
2023     66  
2024     67  
2025     70  
2026     65  
Total future minimum lease payments, undiscounted     300  
Less: Imputed interest     59  
Present value of future minimum lease payments   $ 241  

 

9. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCES

 

Litigation Matters

 

Other than lawsuits related to the enforcement of our patent rights, we are not a party to any material pending legal proceedings, nor are we aware of any pending litigation or legal proceeding against us that would have a material adverse effect upon our results of operations or financial condition.

 

Impact of Coronavirus Pandemic

 

The ongoing global outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in significant governmental measures being implemented to control the spread of the virus, and while the breadth of these measures has been reduced recently, the Company cannot predict their scope or the severity of the outbreak in the future, and these developments and measures could materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, the operations of the Company’s collaboration partners, and the Company’s results of operations and financial condition. The Company is closely monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on all aspects of its business and has taken steps to minimize its impact on the Company’s business. Although COVID-19 has not had a material adverse impact on the Company’s operations and its clinical and preclinical programs, the extent to which COVID-19 ultimately impacts the Company’s business, results of operations or financial condition will depend on future developments which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the duration of the outbreak, the occurrence of new mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, new information that may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19 or the effectiveness of actions taken to contain the pandemic or mitigate its impact, among others. Certain of the Company’s collaboration partners have experienced shutdowns or other business disruptions. As a result, the Company’s ability to conduct its business in the manner and on the timelines presently planned could be materially or negatively affected, which could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

10. SEGMENT INFORMATION

 

We follow the accounting guidance of ASC 280 “Segment Reporting” (“ASC 280”). Reportable operating segments are determined based on the management approach. The management approach, as defined by ASC 280, is based on the way that the chief operating decision-maker organizes the segments within an enterprise for making operating decisions and assessing performance. While our results of operations are primarily reviewed on a consolidated basis, the chief operating decision-maker manages the enterprise in four reportable segments, each with different operating and potential revenue generating characteristics: (i) CAR-T Therapeutics, (ii) Cancer Vaccines, (iii) Anti-Viral Therapeutics and (iv) Other. The following represents selected financial information for our segments for the three and six months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021 and as of April 30, 2022 and October 31, 2021, in thousands:

 

17

 

      2022       2021       2022       2021  
    For the Three Months Ended April 30,     For the Six Months
Ended April 30,
 
    2022     2021     2022     2021  
Net Loss:                                
CAR-T Therapeutics   $ (1,399 )   $ (1,446 )   $ (3,010 )   $ (2,406 )
Cancer Vaccines     (1,423 )     (662 )     (2,780 )     (1,569 )
Anti-Viral Therapeutics     (757 )     (310 )     (1,661 )     (791 )
Other     (9 )     (19 )     (16 )     97  
Total   $ (3,588 )   $ (2,437 )   $ (7,467 )   $ (4,669 )
Total operating costs and expenses   $ 3,589     $ 2,437     $ 7,469     $ 5,183  
Less non-cash share-based compensation     (1,681 )     (1,051 )     (4,036 )     (2,037 )
Operating costs and expenses excluding non-cash share-based compensation   $ 1,908     $ 1,386     $ 3,433     $ 3,146  
Operating costs and expenses excluding non-cash share based compensation:                                
CAR-T Therapeutics   $ 759     $ 935     $ 1,427     $ 1,492  
Cancer Vaccines     740       299       1,220       837  
Anti-Viral Therapeutics     402       138       774       409  
Other     7       14       12       408  
Total   $ 1,908     $ 1,386     $ 3,433     $ 3,146  

 

    April 30,
2022
    October 31,
2021
 
Total assets:                
CAR-T Therapeutics   $ 13,014     $ 15,068  
Cancer Vaccines     12,680       13,276  
Anti-Viral Therapeutics     6,883       7,368  
Other     220       545  
Total   $ 32,797     $ 36,257  

 

Operating costs and expenses excluding non-cash share-based compensation is the measurement the chief operating decision-maker uses in managing the enterprise.

 

The Company’s consolidated revenue of $513,000 and inventor royalties, contingent legal fees, litigation and licensing expense of $385,000 for the six months ended April 30, 2021 were solely related to our encrypted audio/video conference calling technology, which is included in our Other segment. All our revenue is generated domestically (United States) based on the country in which the licensee is located.

 

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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

 

Information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (this “Report”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Forward-looking statements are not statements of historical facts, but rather reflect our current expectations concerning future events and results. We generally use the words “believes,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “likely,” “will” and similar expressions to identify forward-looking statements. Such forward-looking statements, including those concerning our expectations, involve risks, uncertainties and other factors, some of which are beyond our control, which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements, or industry results, to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. These risks, uncertainties and factors include, but are not limited to, those factors set forth in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2021 and the condensed consolidated financial statements included in this Report. Except as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You are cautioned not to unduly rely on such forward-looking statements when evaluating the information presented in this Report.

 

GENERAL

 

We discuss the description of our business in the Notes to our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

Three months ended April 30, 2022 compared with three months ended April 30, 2021

 

Revenue

 

We had no revenue during the three months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021.

 

Over the past several years, our revenue, if any, was derived from technology licensing and the sale of patented technologies, including revenue from the settlement of litigation. We have not generated any revenue to date from our therapeutics or vaccine programs. In addition, while we pursue our therapeutics and vaccine programs, we may also make investments in and form new companies to develop additional emerging technologies. We do not expect to begin generating revenue with respect to any of our current therapy or vaccine programs in the near term. We intend to achieve a profitable outcome by eventually licensing our technologies to large pharmaceutical companies that have the resources and infrastructure in place to manufacture, market and sell our technologies as therapeutics or vaccines. The eventual licensing of any of our technologies may take several years, if it is to occur at all, and may depend on positive results from human clinical trials.

 

Inventor Royalties, Contingent Legal Fees, Litigation and Licensing Expenses

 

We had no inventor royalties, contingent legal fees, litigation and licensing expenses during the three-month periods ended April 30, 2022 and 2021.

 

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Research and Development Expenses

 

Research and development expenses are related to the development of our cancer therapeutics and vaccine programs and our anti-viral drug program, and increased by approximately $713,000 to approximately $1,735,000 in the three months ended April 30, 2022, from approximately $1,022,000 in the three months ended April 30, 2021. The increase in research and development expenses was primarily due to an increase in employee stock option compensation expense of approximately $529,000, an increase in employee compensation and related costs, other than stock option compensation expense, of approximately $254,000, an increase in outside research and development expense related to our anti-viral drug program of approximately $81,000, offset by a decrease of approximately $158,000 in outside research and development related to our CAR-T therapeutics program.

 

Research and development expenses incurred in the three months ended April 30, 2022 associated with each of our development programs consisted of approximately $709,000 for CAR-T therapeutics, approximately $695,000 for cancer vaccines and approximately $331,000 for anti-viral therapeutics.

 

General and Administrative Expenses

 

General and administrative expenses increased by approximately $439,000 to approximately $1,854,000 in the three months ended April 30, 2022, from approximately $1,415,000 in the three months ended April 30, 2021. The increase in general and administrative expenses was primarily due to an increase in employee compensation and related costs, other than stock option compensation expense, of approximately $250,000, an increase in investor and public relations expense of approximately $199,000, an increase in employee stock option compensation expense of approximately $54,000, offset by a decrease of approximately $52,000 of consultant stock option and warrant expense.

 

Interest Income

 

Interest income was approximately $1,000 and $0 in the three month periods ended April 30, 2022 and 2021.

 

Net Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest

 

The net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest, representing Wistar’s 5% ownership interest in Certainty’s net loss, was approximately $44,000 and $38,000, respectively, in the three months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021.

 

Six months ended April 30, 2022 compared with six months ended April 30, 2021

 

Revenue

 

We had no revenue during the six months ended April 30, 2022.

 

For the six months ended April 30, 2021, we recorded revenue of approximately $513,000 from one license agreement. The license agreement provided for a one-time, non-recurring, lump sum payment in exchange for a non-exclusive retroactive and future license, and covenant not to sue. Pursuant to the terms of the agreement, we have no further obligations with respect to the granted intellectual property rights, including no obligation to maintain or upgrade the technology, or provide future support or services. Accordingly, the performance obligations from this license agreement were satisfied and 100% of the revenue was recognized upon execution of the license agreement.

 

As discussed in Note 1 to our condensed consolidated financial statements, as part of our legacy operations, the Company remains engaged in limited patent licensing activities which we do not expect to be a significant part of our ongoing operations or revenue, nor do we expect these activities to require material financial resources or attention of senior management.

 

20

 

 

We have not generated any revenue to date from our therapeutics or vaccine programs. In addition, while we pursue our therapeutics and vaccine programs, we may also make investments in and form new companies to develop additional emerging technologies. We do not expect to begin generating revenue with respect to any of our current therapy or vaccine programs in the near term. We intend to achieve a profitable outcome by eventually licensing our technologies to large pharmaceutical companies that have the resources and infrastructure in place to manufacture, market and sell our technologies as therapeutics or vaccines. The eventual licensing of any of our technologies may take several years, if it is to occur at all, and may depend on positive results from human clinical trials.

 

Inventor Royalties, Contingent Legal Fees, Litigation and Licensing Expenses

 

We had no inventor royalties, contingent legal fees, litigation and licensing expenses during the six-month period ended April 30, 2022.

 

Inventor royalties, contingent legal fees, litigation and licensing expenses for the six months ended April 30, 2021 were approximately $385,000. Inventor royalties and contingent legal fees are expensed in the period that the related revenues are recognized. Litigation and licensing expenses related to patent assertion, other than contingent legal fees, are expensed in the period incurred.

 

Research and Development Expenses

 

Research and development expenses are related to the development of our cancer therapeutics and vaccine programs and our anti-viral drug program, and increased by approximately $1,723,000 to approximately $3,573,000 in the six months ended April 30, 2022, from approximately $1,850,000 in the six months ended April 30, 2021.

 

The increase in research and development expenses was primarily due to an increase in employee stock option compensation expense of approximately $1,446,000, an increase in employee compensation and related costs, other than stock option compensation expense, of approximately $340,000, an increase in outside research and development expense related to our anti-viral drug program of approximately $96,000, an increase in outside research and development expense related to ovarian cancer program of approximately $71,000, an increase of approximately $59,000 of consultant stock option and warrant expense, offset by a decrease of approximately $180,000 in outside research and development related to our CAR-T therapeutics program and a decrease in license fees of approximately $110,000.

 

Research and development expenses incurred in the six months ended April 30, 2022 associated with each of our development programs consisted of approximately $1,452,000 for CAR-T therapeutics, approximately $1,403,000 for cancer vaccines and approximately $718,000 for anti-viral therapeutics.

 

General and Administrative Expenses

 

General and administrative expenses increased by approximately $948,000 to approximately $3,896,000 in the six months ended April 30, 2022, from approximately $2,948,000 in the six months ended April 30, 2021.

 

The increase in general and administrative expenses was primarily due to an increase in employee stock option compensation expense of approximately $550,000, an increase in investor and public relations expense of approximately $432,000, an increase employee compensation and related costs, other than stock option compensation expense, of approximately $226,000, offset by a decrease in directors stock option expense of approximately $154,000 and as decrease in consultant stock option and warrant expense of approximately $124,000.

 

21

 

 

Interest Income

 

Interest income was approximately $2,000 and $1,000 in the six month periods ended April 30, 2022 and 2021.

 

Net Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest

 

The net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest, representing Wistar’s 5% ownership interest in Certainty’s net loss, was approximately $94,000 and $62,000, respectively, in the six months ended April 30, 2022 and 2021.

 

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

 

Our primary sources of liquidity are cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments.

 

Based on currently available information as of June 10, 2022, we believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents, short-term investments and expected cash flows will be sufficient to fund our activities for at least the next twelve months. We have implemented a business model that conserves funds by collaborating with third parties to develop our technologies. However, our projections of future cash needs and cash flows may differ from actual results. If current cash on hand, cash equivalents, short-term investments and cash that may be generated from our business operations are insufficient to continue to operate our business, or if we elect to invest in or acquire a company or companies or new technology or technologies that are synergistic with or complementary to our technologies, we may be required to obtain more working capital. We may seek to obtain working capital during our fiscal year 2022 or thereafter through sales of our equity securities or through bank credit facilities or public or private debt from various financial institutions where possible. We cannot be certain that additional funding will be available on acceptable terms, or at all. If we do identify sources for additional funding, the sale of additional equity securities or convertible debt will result in dilution to our stockholders. We can give no assurance that we will generate sufficient cash flows in the future to satisfy our liquidity requirements or sustain future operations, or that other sources of funding, such as sales of equity or debt, would be available or would be approved by our security holders, if needed, on favorable terms or at all. If we fail to obtain additional working capital as and when needed, such failure could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, such lack of funds may inhibit our ability to respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated capital needs, or may force us to reduce operating expenses, which would significantly harm the business and development of operations.

 

During the six months ended April 30, 2022, cash used in operating activities was approximately $3,503,000. Cash provided by investing activities was approximately $2,100,000, resulting from the proceeds on maturities of short term investments of approximately $6,349,000, which was offset by the purchase of short term investments totaling approximately $4,249,000. Cash provided by financing activities was approximately $7,000. As a result, our cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments at April 30, 2022 decreased approximately $3,496,000 to approximately $32,231,000 from approximately $35,727,000 at the end of fiscal year 2021.

 

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

The Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In preparing these financial statements, we make assumptions, judgments and estimates that can have a significant impact on amounts reported in our condensed consolidated financial statements. We base our assumptions, judgments and estimates on historical experience and various other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. On a regular basis, we evaluate our assumptions, judgments and estimates and make changes accordingly.

 

22

 

 

We believe that, of the significant accounting policies discussed in Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2021, the following accounting policies require our most difficult, subjective or complex judgments:

 

  Revenue Recognition; and
  Stock-Based Compensation.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

Our revenue has been derived solely from technology licensing and the sale of patented technologies. Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of intellectual property rights and satisfaction of other contractual performance obligations to licensees in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive.

 

Our revenue recognition policy requires us to make certain judgments and estimates in connection with the accounting for revenue. Such areas may include determining the existence of a contract and identifying each party’s rights and obligations to transfer goods and services, identifying the performance obligations in the contract, determining the transaction price and allocating the transaction price to separate performance obligations, estimating the timing of satisfaction of performance obligations, determining whether a promise to grant a license is distinct from other promised goods or services and evaluating whether a license transfers to a customer at a point in time or over time.

 

Our revenue arrangements provide for the payment, within 30 days of execution of the agreement, of contractually determined, one-time, paid-up license fees in settlement of litigation and in consideration for the grant of certain intellectual property rights for patented technologies owned or controlled by the Company. These arrangements typically include some combination of the following: (i) the grant of a non-exclusive, retroactive and future license to manufacture and/or sell products covered by patented technologies owned or controlled by the Company, (ii) a covenant-not-to-sue, (iii) the release of the licensee from certain claims, and (iv) the dismissal of any pending litigation. In such instances, the intellectual property rights granted have been perpetual in nature, extending until the expiration of the related patents. Pursuant to the terms of these agreements, we have no further obligations with respect to the granted intellectual property rights, including no obligation to maintain or upgrade the technology, or provide future support or services. Licensees obtained control of the intellectual property rights they have acquired upon execution of the agreement. Accordingly, the performance obligations from these agreements were satisfied and 100% of the revenue was recognized upon the execution of the agreements.

 

Stock-Based Compensation

 

The compensation cost for service-based stock options granted to employees, directors and consultants is measured at the grant date, based on the fair value of the award using the Black-Scholes pricing model, and is recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period (the vesting period of the stock option) which is one to four years. For employee options vesting if the trading price of the Company’s common stock exceeds certain price targets, we use a Monte Carlo Simulation in estimating the fair value at grant date and recognize compensation cost over the implied service period.

 

For stock awards granted to employees and directors that vest at date of grant, we recognize expense based on the grant date market price of the underlying common stock. For restricted stock awards vesting upon achievement of a price target of our common stock, we use a Monte Carlo Simulation in estimating the fair value at grant date and recognize compensation cost over the implied service period (median time to vest).

 

23

 

 

The Black-Scholes pricing model and the Monte Carlo Simulation we use to estimate fair value requires valuation assumptions of expected term, expected volatility, risk-free interest rates and expected dividend yield. The expected term of stock options represents the weighted average period the stock options are expected to remain outstanding. For employees we use the simplified method, which is a weighted average of the vesting term and contractual term, to determine expected term. The simplified method was adopted since we do not believe that historical experience is representative of future performance because of the impact of the changes in our operations and the change in terms from historical options. For consultants, we use the contract term for expected term. Under the Black-Scholes pricing model, we estimated the expected volatility of our shares of common stock based upon the historical volatility of our share price over a period of time equal to the expected term of the grants. We estimated the risk-free interest rate based on the implied yield available on the applicable grant date of a U.S. Treasury note with a term equal to the expected term of the underlying grants. We made the dividend yield assumption based on our history of not paying dividends and our expectation not to pay dividends in the future.

 

We will reconsider use of the Black-Scholes pricing model and the Monte Carlo Simulation if additional information becomes available in the future that indicates another model would be more appropriate. If factors change and we employ different assumptions in future periods, the compensation expense that we record may differ significantly from what we have recorded in the current period.

 

EFFECT OF RECENTLY ISSUED PRONOUNCEMENTS

 

We do not believe that any of the recently issued accounting pronouncements will have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

 

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

 

As of April 30, 2022, we had investments in short-term, fixed rate and highly liquid instruments that have historically been reinvested when they mature throughout the year. Although our existing instruments are not considered at risk with respect to changes in interest rates or markets for these instruments, our rate of return on these securities could be affected at the time of reinvestment, if any.

 

Item 4. Controls and Procedures.

 

We carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management including our Chief Executive Officer and our President, Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Rule 13(a)-15(b) of the Exchange Act. Based upon that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and our President, Chief Operating Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures are effective as of the end of the period covered by this Report.

 

There was no change in our internal control over financial reporting during the second quarter of fiscal year 2022 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

 

24

 

 

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

 

Item 1. Legal Proceedings.

 

Other than lawsuits related to the enforcement of our patent rights, we are not a party to any material pending legal proceedings, nor are we aware of any pending litigation or legal proceeding against us that would have a material adverse effect upon our results of operations or financial condition.

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

 

There have been no material changes in our risk factors from those disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended October 31, 2021.

 

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds. None.

 

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities. None.

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures. Not Applicable.

 

Item 5. Other Information. None.

 

Item 6. Exhibits.

 

  31.1 Certification of Chief Executive Officer, pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, dated June 10, 2022.
  31.2 Certification of Chief Financial Officer, pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, dated June 10, 2022.
  32.1 Statement of Chief Executive Officer, pursuant to Section 1350 of Title 18 of the United States Code, dated June 10, 2022.
  32.2 Statement of Chief Financial Officer, pursuant to Section 1350 of Title 18 of the United States Code, dated June 10, 2022.
  101.INS Inline XBRL Instance Document
  101.SCH  Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema
  101.CAL  Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase
  101.DEF  Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase
  101.LAB  Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase
  101.PRE  Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase
  104 Cover Page Interactive Data File (formatted in Inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101)

 

25

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this Report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 

  ANIXA BIOSCIENCES, INC.
     
  By: /s/ Dr. Amit Kumar
    Dr. Amit Kumar
    Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
June 10, 2022   (Principal Executive Officer)
     
  By: /s/ Michael J. Catelani
    Michael J. Catelani
    President, Chief Operating Officer and
    Chief Financial Officer
June 10, 2022   (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

 

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