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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-226650

 

The information in this preliminary prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. A registration statement relating to these securities has been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and is effective. This preliminary prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell these securities and they are not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JUNE 3, 2020

Preliminary Prospectus Supplement

(To Prospectus Dated July 15, 2019)

                 Shares

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

We are offering                  shares of our common stock.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ALRN.” On June 2, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market was $1.16 per share.

As of May 29, 2020, the aggregate market value of our outstanding shares of common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $40,176,630, which was calculated based on 24,800,389 shares held by non-affiliates on such date and a price per share of $1.62, which was the closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on such date. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell securities in a public primary offering with a value exceeding one-third of the aggregate market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates in any 12-month period, so long as the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates remains below $75 million. During the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus supplement, we have offered and sold $762,000 of securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3.

We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company” as defined under the federal securities laws and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements.

You should read carefully this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus before you invest.

Investing in our securities involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement and the risk factors incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

 

 

     Per Share      Total  

Public offering price

   $                $            

Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)

   $                $            

Proceeds to us (before expenses)

   $                $            

 

(1)

See “Underwriting” for a description of the total compensation payable to the underwriters.

The underwriters also have the option to purchase up to an additional                  of our common stock on the same terms and conditions set forth above for 30 days after the date of this prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters expect to deliver the securities against payment on or about June                 , 2020.

 

 

Sole Book-Running Manager

William Blair

The date of this prospectus supplement is                     , 2020


Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Prospectus Supplement

 

     Page  

About this Prospectus Supplement

     S-1  

Prospectus Supplement Summary

     S-2  

The Offering

     S-7  

Risk Factors

     S-8  

Forward-Looking Statements

     S-11  

Use of Proceeds

     S-13  

Dilution

     S-14  

Material U.S. Federal Tax Considerations for Non-U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock

     S-15  

Underwriting

     S-19  

Legal Matters

     S-27  

Experts

     S-27  

Where You Can Find More Information

     S-28  

Incorporation by Reference

     S-28  

Prospectus

 

     Page  

About this Prospectus

     1  

Risk Factors

     2  

Where You Can Find More Information

     3  

Incorporation of Certain Documents By Reference

     3  

Special Note Regarding Forward-looking Information

     4  

Aileron Therapeutics, Inc.

     5  

Use of Proceeds

     6  

Description of Debt Securities

     7  

Description of Capital Stock

     16  

Description of Units

     22  

Description of Warrants

     23  

Forms of Securities

     24  

Plan of Distribution

     26  

Legal Matters

     29  

Experts

     29  

 

i


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About this Prospectus Supplement

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the specific terms of this common stock offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, provides more general information. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or any document incorporated by reference therein filed prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement; provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

Neither we nor the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to purchase, the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus in any jurisdiction to or from any person to whom or from whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation of an offer in such jurisdiction. The information contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, or incorporated by reference herein or therein is accurate only as of the respective dates thereof, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or of any sale of our common stock. It is important for you to read and consider all information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, in making your investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus.

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus do not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Aileron Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

 

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Prospectus Supplement Summary

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and in the documents we incorporate by reference herein and therein. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should read this entire prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus carefully, especially the risks of investing in our common stock discussed under “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020, along with our consolidated financial statements and notes to those consolidated financial statements and the other information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before making an investment decision.

Our Company

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company advancing a product candidate called ALRN-6924, which is based on our proprietary technology of stabilized cell-permeating alpha-helical peptides. The stabilized helical structure of our peptides allows the design of cell-permeating therapeutic agents with large molecular surfaces for optimal target binding properties. Our focus is to improve the standard of care for patients with cancer by developing safe and effective therapies that leverage our proprietary peptide platform.

Based on its mechanism of action, preclinical data and interim clinical data, we believe that there may be a significant opportunity to develop ALRN-6924 as an agent that reduces the toxic side effects of chemotherapy in the bone marrow of cancer patients without adversely impacting the anti-cancer activity of chemotherapy against p53-mutant tumors. This is a concept known as “chemoprotection” or “myelopreservation.”

In September 2019, we initiated a Phase 1b/2 trial of ALRN-6924 in patients with small cell lung cancer, or SCLC, being treated with topotecan to assess the ability of ALRN-6924 to reduce the proportion of patients with Grade 3/4 treatment emergent adverse events, or TEAEs, and to mitigate and reduce severe anemia, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia related to treatment with topotecan. We are currently conducting the Phase 1b dose and schedule optimization portion of the trial in patients with advanced, p53-mutated SCLC receiving second line topotecan. We have enrolled patients in the Phase 1b trial at multiple sites in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Poland and Serbia.

To date, we have conducted the Phase 1b portion of the trial in three cohorts at the dose levels of ALRN-6924 of 0.3 mg/kg (n=6), 0.6 mg/kg (n=5) and 1.2 mg/kg (n=6), respectively. We have also initiated an expansion cohort at the 0.3 mg/kg dose level and expect to enroll approximately eight patients in this expansion cohort. Patients in these cohorts receive topotecan daily on days 1 through 5 of every 21-day treatment cycle and ALRN-6924 24 hours prior to each dose of topotecan (on days 0 through 4 every 21 days).

On June 1, 2020, we announced interim data from the first three cohorts of the trial, using a data cutoff of May 13, 2020. In this trial, 18 patients were enrolled across three ALRN-6924 dose levels (0.3 mg/kg, 0.6 mg/kg and 1.2 mg/kg) in the dose optimization part of the trial and 17 patients completed the first treatment cycle and therefore met protocol-defined criteria for evaluability. A protective effect against severe chemotherapy-induced anemia and thrombocytopenia was observed across all dose levels as compared to historical controls. In addition, patients treated with 0.3 mg/kg ALRN-6924 met the protocol-defined criteria for reduction of National Cancer Institute’s Common Toxicology Criteria, or NCI CTC, Grade 3/4 neutropenia to £ 50% in the first treatment cycle.



 

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Key findings from the interim analysis of the Phase 1b dose optimization part of the trial are as follows:

 

   

Patients treated with 0.3 mg/kg ALRN-6924 showed the lowest rate of NCI CTC Grade 3/4 hematological adverse events, including 17% with anemia, 33% with thrombocytopenia and 67% with neutropenia, across all treatment cycles.

 

   

None of the patients treated at 0.3 mg/kg dose level required transfusions of red blood cells or platelets. The expansion of the 0.3 mg/kg ALRN-6924 dose level from six to a total of 14 patients is underway.

 

   

Across all dose levels patients showed NCI CTC Grade 3/4 hematological adverse events, including 24% with anemia, 35% with thrombocytopenia and 88% with neutropenia.

 

   

Across all dose levels, no patients experienced febrile neutropenia or NCI CTC Grade 3/4 nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or fatigue, which are severe toxicities commonly observed with topotecan treatment in this patient population.

The key interim results from the Phase 1b dose optimization part of the trial as of the data cut-off date of May 13, 2020 are shown in the table below. Three patients remained on treatment in the trial as of the data cut-off date.

 

     ALRN-6924 0.3 mg/kg +
Topotecan 1.5 mg/m2
   ALRN-6924 (all doses) +
Topotecan 1.5 mg/m2

Adverse Events*
NCI CTC Grade
³3

   N (%)

N=6

   N (%)

N=17

All AEs

   5 (83)    16 (94)

Neutropenia

   4 (67)    15 (88)

Leukopenia

   2 (33)    9 (53)

Thrombocytopenia

   2 (33)    6 (35)

Anemia

   1 (17)    4 (24)

Fatigue

     

Nausea

     

Neutropenia

NCI CTC Grade 4**

   2 (33)    8 (47)

 

*

Based on laboratory values (as applicable); all AEs presented are TEAEs

**

In the first treatment cycle

The Phase 1b portion of the trial is designed to identify a dose and a schedule of ALRN-6924 administration to reduce chemotherapy toxicities such as severe anemia and thrombocytopenia, and other toxicities resulting from topotecan. In the ongoing dose optimization part of the study, ALRN-6924 is administered 24 hours before each dose of topotecan, which is administered daily on days 1 through 5 of every 21-day treatment cycle.

Additionally, we plan to assess an alternative schedule of ALRN-6924 administered six hours prior to each topotecan dose in the clinical trial at up to two dose levels in approximately 20 patients. The objective of this alternative schedule evaluation is to determine whether a shorter interval between ALRN-6924 and chemotherapy administration has the potential to expand the myelopreservation effect beyond anemia and thrombocytopenia to neutropenia.

We plan to initiate this schedule optimization part of the trial in June 2020 and to present the results of the schedule-optimization from the ongoing Phase 1b part of the myelopreservation trial in the fourth quarter of 2020. We also plan to report top-line final data from the dose optimization portion of the trial in the fourth quarter of 2020.



 

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Subject to the consummation of this offering, we also plan to initiate a trial of ALRN-6924 in healthy human volunteers to develop a universal dosing regimen for ALRN-6924 for use as a cell cycle arresting agent across a range of additional chemotherapies and tumor indications. Subject to the results of this study and data from the dose- and schedule-optimization trials, and obtaining additional funding beyond the proceeds from the sale of shares in this offering, we expect to initiate a Phase 2 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in second-line SCLC in the first quarter of 2021 and Phase 1b clinical trials in non-small cell lung cancer and in an additional cancer indication in the second quarter of 2021.

We are carefully monitoring the effect of the coronavirus pandemic on its clinical trial sites and the healthcare system, which may impact the future timing of the trial and our planned data announcements.

Risks Associated with Our Business

Our business is subject to a number of risks of which you should be aware before making an investment decision. These risks are discussed more fully in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus supplement immediately following this prospectus supplement summary and in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020, which is incorporated by reference herein. These risks include the following:

 

   

We will need substantial additional funding to continue our operations. If we are unable to raise capital when needed, we may be forced to delay, reduce and/or eliminate our research and drug development programs, reduce headcount, and future commercialization efforts, or take other actions that could adversely affect our business.

 

   

Because as of May 11, 2020 we did not believe that our cash, cash equivalents and investments would be sufficient to fund our operations for at least twelve months, we concluded that these circumstances raised substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.

 

   

We have incurred significant losses since inception. We expect to incur losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability.

 

   

We are dependent on the success of our lead product candidate, ALRN-6924, which is currently in multiple clinical trials. Our clinical trials of ALRN-6924 may not be successful. If our trials prove unsuccessful or if we are unable to obtain approval for and commercialize ALRN-6924 or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.

 

   

The COVID-19 pandemic may affect our ability to conduct our ongoing clinical trials, disrupt regulatory activities, or have other adverse effects on our business and operations, particularly if we enroll patients at clinical trial sites in the United States. In addition, this pandemic has caused substantial disruption in the financial markets and may adversely impact economies worldwide, both of which could result in adverse effects on our business and operations.

 

   

The approach we are taking to discover and develop novel drugs is unproven and may never lead to marketable products.

 

   

We are pursuing the development of ALRN-6924 in combination with other approved therapeutics. If the FDA revokes approval of any such therapeutic, or if safety, efficacy, manufacturing or supply issues arise with any therapeutic that we use in combination with ALRN-6924 in the future, we may be unable to further develop and/or market ALRN-6924, or we may experience significant regulatory delays, and our business could be materially harmed.

 

   

The outcome of preclinical testing and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results and the results of our clinical trials may not satisfy the requirements of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities.



 

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Clinical drug development is a lengthy and expensive process, with an uncertain outcome. If clinical trials of our product candidates fail to demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of regulatory authorities or do not otherwise produce positive results, we may incur additional costs, experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development of our product candidates or be unable to obtain marketing approval.

 

   

The FDA’s acceptance of data from clinical trials outside of the United States is subject to certain conditions, including that the clinical trial must be well designed and conducted and performed by qualified investigators in accordance with good clinical practice; the data must be applicable to the U.S. population and U.S. medical practice in ways that the FDA deems clinically meaningful; and that the trials are conducted in compliance with all applicable U.S. laws and regulations

 

   

If serious adverse or unacceptable side effects are identified during the development of our product candidates or we observe limited efficacy of our product candidates, we may need to abandon or limit the development of one or more of our product candidates.

 

   

We rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and some aspects of our research and preclinical studies, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet deadlines for the completion of such trials, research and studies.

 

   

We contract with third parties for the manufacture of our ALRN-6924 for our ongoing clinical trials, and expect to continue to do so for additional clinical trials and ultimately for commercialization. This reliance on third parties increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our product candidates or drugs or such quantities at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.

 

   

We may enter into strategic collaborations for the development, marketing and commercialization of ALRN-6924 and our other stabilized cell-permeating peptide product candidates. If those collaborations are not successful, the development, marketing and/or commercialization of our product candidates that are the subject of such collaborations would be harmed.

 

   

If we fail to comply with our obligations under our patent licenses with third parties, we could lose license rights that are important to our business.

Our Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on August 6, 2001 under the name Renegade Therapeutics, Inc. We commenced principal operations in 2006 and we subsequently changed our name to Aileron Therapeutics, Inc. in February 2007. Our principal executive office is located at 490 Arsenal Way, Suite 210, Watertown, MA 02472, and our telephone number is (617) 995-0900. Our website address is https://www.aileronrx.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus supplement solely as an inactive textual reference.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company

As a company with less than $1.07 billion of revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. We may remain an emerging growth company for up to five years from the date of the closing of our initial public offering, or until such earlier time as we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue, the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is more than $700 million or we issue more than $1 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted and intend to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure and other requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.



 

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We are also a “smaller reporting company,” meaning that the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million and our annual revenue was less than $100 million during our most recently completed fiscal year. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company if either (i) the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250 million or (ii) our annual revenue was less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million. If we are a smaller reporting company at the time we cease to be an emerging growth company, we may continue to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are available to smaller reporting companies. For so long as we remain a smaller reporting company, we are permitted and intend to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure and other requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not smaller reporting companies.



 

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The Offering

 

Common stock offered by us

                     shares

 

Option to purchase additional shares

The underwriters have an option for a period of 30 days to purchase up to additional shares of our common stock from us, at the public offering price less the underwriting discount and commissions.

 

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

                     shares (or                  shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full)

 

Use of proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund clinical development of ALRN-6924 as a chemoprotective agent; and for working capital and other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-13 of this prospectus supplement.

 

Risk factors

See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement, as well as the other information included in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.

 

Nasdaq Capital Market symbol

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ALRN.”

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 29,086,467 shares of our common stock outstanding as of May 31, 2020 and excludes the following:

 

   

12,935,323 shares of common stock that have been reserved for issuance in connection with warrants outstanding as of May 31, 2020, at an exercise price of $2.00 per share;

 

   

4,453,952 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of May 31, 2020, at a weighted-average exercise price of $2.52 per share; and

 

   

594,416 and 150,000 additional shares of our common stock available for future issuance under our 2017 Stock Incentive Plan and our 2017 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, respectively, as of May 31, 2020, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of common stock reserved under these plans.

Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus supplement reflects and assumes:

 

   

no exercise of the outstanding options and warrants described above; and

 

   

no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to                  additional shares of our common stock.



 

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Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus supplement and the risk factors in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020 and in our other filings with the SEC that we make from time to time, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus, together with other information in this prospectus, the information and documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could suffer materially. In such event, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to This Offering

Sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock, including by us, could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. As of May 31, 2020, we had 29,086,467 shares of common stock outstanding.

In connection with our April 2019 private placement, we entered into a registration rights agreement, pursuant to which we registered for resale the shares purchased in the private placement and shares issuable upon exercise of warrants issued in the private placement. Under this agreement, we filed a registration statement covering the resale of shares by the purchasers and agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to keep this registration statement effective until the date the shares covered by the registration statement have been sold or can be resold without restriction under Rule 144 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.

We have also registered all shares of common stock that we may issue under our equity compensation plans, including upon exercise of outstanding options. These shares can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to volume limitations applicable to affiliates.

Our management has broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may invest or spend the proceeds of this offering in ways with which you may not agree or in ways that may not yield a return.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

In addition, the issuance from time to time of shares of our common stock in this offering, or our ability to issue these shares of common stock in this offering, could result in resales of our common stock by our current stockholders concerned about the potential dilution of their holdings. In turn, these resales could have the effect of depressing the market price for our common stock.

 

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If we fail to regain compliance with the requirements for continued listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market, our common stock could be delisted from trading, which would adversely affect the liquidity of our common stock and our ability to raise additional capital or enter into strategic transaction.

On July 12, 2019, we received a deficiency letter from the Listing Qualifications Department of the Nasdaq Stock Market notifying us that, for the last 30 consecutive business days, the bid price for our common stock had closed below the minimum $1.00 per share requirement for continued inclusion on the Nasdaq Global Market, or the Bid Price Rule. In accordance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A) (the “Compliance Period Rule”), we were provided an initial period of 180 calendar days, or until January 8, 2020, to regain compliance with the Bid Price Rule.

On December 30, 2019, we transferred the listing of our stock from the Nasdaq Global Market to the Nasdaq Capital Market. The Nasdaq Capital Market is a continuous trading market that operates in substantially the same manner as the Nasdaq Global Market and listed companies must meet certain financial requirements and comply with Nasdaq’s corporate governance requirements. Our common stock continues to trade under the symbol “ALRN.” Nasdaq has advised us that following the effectiveness of transfer of our listing, we were granted an additional 180-day period, or until July 6, 2020, to regain compliance with Bid Price Rule. On April 17, 2020, Nasdaq notified us that our date to regain compliance with the Bid Price Rule was extended to September 21, 2020, or the Compliance Date, pursuant to Nasdaq’s proposed rule change to extend the period of time for companies to regain compliance with the bid price and market value of publicly held shares continued listing requirements by tolling the compliance periods through and including June 30, 2020. If, at any time before the Compliance Date, the bid price for our common stock closes at $1.00 or more for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days as required under the Compliance Period Rule, the Staff will provide written notification to us that we are in compliance with the Bid Price Rule, unless the Staff exercises its discretion to extend this 10 day period pursuant to Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(F).

We are seeking stockholder approval at our annual meeting of stockholders scheduled for June 17, 2020 of an amendment to our restated certificate of incorporation to effect a reverse stock split at a ratio of not less than 1-for-5 and not greater than 1-for-25, with the exact ratio to be set within that range at the discretion of our board of directors, as a potential measure to regain compliance with the Bid Price Rule. However, there can be no assurance that we will obtain stockholder approval of the amendment to our restated certificate of incorporation or will be able to regain compliance with the Bid Price Rule. If we do not regain compliance with the Bid Price Rule by the Compliance Date, Nasdaq will notify us that our common stock may be delisted. At that time, we may appeal Nasdaq’s delisting determination to a Nasdaq Listing Qualifications Panel, or Panel. We expect that our stock would remain listed pending the Panel’s decision of our appeal. There can be no assurance that, if we do appeal a delisting determination to the Panel, that such appeal would be successful.

The alternatives to trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market or another national securities exchange are generally considered to be less efficient and less broad-based and the liquidity of our common stock will likely be reduced if we fail to regain compliance with the Bid Price Rule. If we are unable to regain compliance with the Bid Price Rule within the prescribed period, our common stock may be delisted, subject to certain appeal rights. If our common stock is delisted, our ability to raise additional capital or to enter into strategic transactions could be adversely affected. Any potential delisting of our common stock would also make it more difficult for our stockholders to sell our common stock in the public market.

If we obtain stockholder approval for the reverse stock split, and we effect the reverse stock split, there can be no assurance that our total market capitalization after the reverse stock split will be equal to or greater than our market capitalization before the reverse stock split.

There can be no assurance that our total market capitalization of our common stock after the implementation of the reverse stock split will be equal to or greater than the total market capitalization before the reverse stock split or that the per share market price of our common stock following the reverse stock split will increase in

 

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proportion to the reduction in the number of shares of our common stock outstanding in connection with the Reverse Stock Split. Also, we cannot assure you that the reverse stock split will lead to a sustained increase in the trading price of our common stock. The trading price of our common stock may change due to a variety of other factors, including our ability to successfully accomplish our business goals, market conditions and the market perception of our business.

The liquidity of our common stock may be harmed by the reverse stock split given the reduced number of shares that would be outstanding after the reverse stock split, particularly if the expected increase in stock price as a result of the reverse stock split is not sustained. If we effect the reverse stock split, the resulting per-share stock price may nevertheless fail to attract institutional investors and may not satisfy the investing guidelines of such investors and, consequently, the trading liquidity of our common stock may not improve.

The trading price of our common stock has been, and is likely to continue to be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control.

Our stock price is volatile. During the period from June 28, 2017 to June 2, 2020, the closing price of our common stock ranged from a high of $14.91 per share to a low of $0.29 per share. The stock market in general and the market for smaller pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies in particular have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, you may not be able to sell your common stock at or above the public offering price and you may lose some or all of your investment.

If you purchase shares in this offering, you will suffer immediate dilution of your investment.

The public offering price of the shares is substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our common stock. Therefore, if you purchase shares in this offering, you will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds our net tangible book value per share after this offering. Based on the public offering price of $                 per share, you will experience immediate dilution of $                 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering and the assumed public offering price per share. Furthermore, if previously issued options and warrants to acquire common stock are exercised at prices below the public offering price of the shares, you will experience further dilution. For a further description of the dilution that you will experience immediately after this offering, see “Dilution.”

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the public offering price for the shares in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at prices that are less than the price paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price paid by investors in this offering.

 

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Forward-Looking Statements

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein include “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. These statements are based on expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about the industry in which we operate and the beliefs and assumptions of our management. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “goals,” “seek,” “estimate,” “expect,” “hypothesize,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “target,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

The forward-looking statements in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

our plans to develop and commercialize ALRN-6924 and other product candidates, including the potential benefits thereof;

 

   

our ongoing and future clinical trials for ALRN-6924, whether conducted by us or by any future collaborators, including the timing of initiation of these trials and of the anticipated results;

 

   

our expectations regarding our ability to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements with our cash, cash equivalents and investments;

 

   

our expectations related to the use of proceeds from this offering;

 

   

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain marketing approvals for our product candidates;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of any products for which we receive marketing approval;

 

   

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

   

our intellectual property position and strategy;

 

   

our ability to identify additional product candidates with significant commercial potential;

 

   

our plans to enter into collaborations for the development and commercialization of product candidates;

 

   

potential benefits of any future collaboration;

 

   

developments relating to our competitors and our industry;

 

   

the impact of government laws and regulations;

 

   

the impact the coronavirus pandemic will have on the timing of our clinical development and operations;

 

   

our ability to continue as a going concern; and

 

   

our ability to maintain our listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market;

You are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are referenced in the section of this prospectus supplement entitled “Risk Factors” and in the other documents we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K. Except as required by law, we do not undertake or plan to update or revise any such forward-looking statements to reflect

 

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actual results, changes in plans, assumptions, estimates or projections or other circumstances affecting such forward-looking statements occurring after the date of this prospectus supplement, even if such results, changes or circumstances make it clear that any forward-looking information will not be realized. Any public statements or disclosures by us following this prospectus supplement which modify or impact any of the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus supplement will be deemed to modify or supersede such statements in this prospectus supplement.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, collaborations, joint ventures or investments that we may make or enter into.

 

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Use of Proceeds

We estimate that the net proceeds from our issuance and sale of                  shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $                million, or approximately $                 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, in each case after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, to fund clinical development of ALRN-6924 as a chemoprotective agent and for working capital and other general corporate purposes.

As of March 31, 2020, we had cash, cash equivalents and investments of $12.7 million. We believe that the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into the first quarter of 2022. We have based this estimate on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect.

We expect that the net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, will enable us to complete the Phase 1b dose and schedule optimization portion of our Phase 1b/2 trial of ALRN-6924 in patients with SCLC being treated with topotecan and our planned clinical trial in healthy human volunteers to develop a universal dosing regimen for ALRN-6924 for use as a cell cycle arresting agent across a range of additional chemotherapies and tumor indications. We do not expect that net proceeds from this offering, together with our existing cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, will be sufficient, however, to enable us to complete the Phase 2 portion of our Phase 1b/2 trial of ALRN-6924 in patients with SCLC being treated with topotecan or additional clinical trials of ALRN-6924 or to otherwise complete the development of ALRN-6924.

This expected use of the net proceeds from this offering and our existing cash, cash equivalents and investments represents our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions, which could change in the future as our plans and business conditions evolve. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures may vary significantly depending on numerous factors, including the progress of our development, the status of and results from clinical trials, the timing of regulatory submissions and the outcome of regulatory review, as well as any collaborations that we may enter into with third parties for our product candidates and any unforeseen cash needs. As a result, our management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds from this offering.

Pending our use of the net proceeds from this offering, we intend to invest the net proceeds in money market funds, government-insured bank deposit accounts or U.S. government securities.

 

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Dilution

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the price per share you pay in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. Our net tangible book value (deficit) as of March 31, 2020 was approximately $9.7 million, or approximately $0.35 per share of common stock. Net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less our total liabilities, divided by the total number of shares outstanding as of March 31, 2020.

After giving effect to the issuance and sale of                  shares of common stock in this offering at the public offering price of $                 per share, after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of March 31, 2020 would have been approximately $                 million, or approximately $                 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of approximately $                 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution of approximately $                 per share to new investors participating in this offering. The following table illustrates this dilution to the investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering without giving effect to any exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares.

 

Public offering price per share

      $            

Net tangible book value (deficit) per share as of March 31, 2020

   $ 0.35     

Increase in as adjusted net tangible book value per share attributable to investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering

     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

     
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering

      $    
     

 

 

 

If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase up to                 additional shares in full, the as adjusted net tangible book value will increase to $                 per share, representing an immediate increase to existing stockholders of $                 per share and an immediate dilution of $                 per share to investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering.

The information discussed above is illustrative only and will vary based on the actual offering price, the actual number of shares we offer in this offering, and other terms of this offering determined at pricing.

The table does not include:

 

   

1,263,049 shares of common stock issued subsequent to March 31, 2020 in connection with our “at-the-market” offering pursuant to a sales agreement dated July 1, 2019, by and between JonesTrading Institutional Services LLC and us;

 

   

12,935,323 shares of common stock that have been reserved for issuance in connection with warrants outstanding as of March 31, 2020, at an exercise price of $2.00 per share; and

 

   

4,843,849 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of March 31, 2020, at a weighted-average exercise price of $2.84 per share;

 

   

204,519 and 150,000 additional shares of our common stock available for future issuance under our 2017 Stock Incentive Plan and our 2017 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, respectively, as of March 31, 2020, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of common stock reserved under these plans.

To the extent that outstanding stock options or warrants are exercised, new stock options or warrants are issued, or we issue additional shares of common stock in the future, there will be further dilution to investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering.

 

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Material U.S. Federal Tax Considerations for Non-U.S. Holders of Our Common Stock

The following is a discussion of material U.S. federal income and estate tax considerations relating to the purchase, ownership, and disposition of our common stock by a non-U.S. holder. For purposes of this discussion, the term “non-U.S. holder” means a beneficial owner (other than a partnership or other pass-through entity) of our common stock that is not, for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

   

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

 

   

a corporation, or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia;

 

   

an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

 

   

a trust, if a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more U.S. persons have authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or if the trust has a valid election in effect to be treated as a U.S. person under applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations.

This discussion is based on current provisions of the Code, existing and proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, current administrative rulings, and judicial decisions, as in effect as of the date of this prospectus and all of which are subject to change or to differing interpretation, possibly with retroactive effect. Any change or differing interpretation could alter the tax consequences to non-U.S. holders described in this prospectus. In addition, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge one or more of the tax consequences described in this prospectus.

This discussion addresses only non-U.S. holders that hold shares of our common stock as a capital asset (generally, property held for investment). This discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income and estate taxation that may be relevant to a particular non-U.S. holder in light of that non-U.S. holder’s individual circumstances nor does it address the alternative minimum tax, the Medicare tax on net investment income or any aspects of U.S. state, local, or non-U.S. taxes. This discussion also does not consider any specific facts or circumstances that may apply to a non-U.S. holder and does not address the special tax rules applicable to particular non-U.S. holders, such as: insurance companies;

 

   

tax-exempt organizations;

 

   

financial institutions;

 

   

brokers or dealers in securities;

 

   

pension plans;

 

   

controlled foreign corporations;

 

   

passive foreign investment companies;

 

   

owners that hold our common stock as part of a straddle, hedge, conversion transaction, synthetic security, or other integrated investment; and

 

   

certain U.S. expatriates.

In addition, this discussion does not address the tax treatment of partnerships or persons who hold their common stock through partnerships or other entities that are pass-through entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. A partner in a partnership or other pass-through entity that will hold our common stock should consult his, her, or its own tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of the purchase, ownership, and disposition of our common stock through a partnership or other pass-through entity, as applicable.

 

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Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal, state, local, and non-U.S. income and other tax considerations of acquiring, holding, and disposing of our common stock.

Dividends

We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business and do not intend to pay cash dividends in respect of our common stock in the foreseeable future. In the event that we do make distributions on our common stock, those distributions generally will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. If a distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess will be treated as a tax-free return of the non-U.S. holder’s investment, up to such holder’s tax basis in the common stock. Any remaining excess will be treated as capital gain, subject to the tax treatment described below under the heading “—Gain on Disposition of Common Stock.”

Dividends paid to a non-U.S. holder generally will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence. A non-U.S. holder of our common stock who claims the benefit of an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence generally will be required to provide a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or successor form) and satisfy applicable certification and other requirements. A non-U.S. holder that is eligible for a reduced rate of U.S. withholding tax under an income tax treaty may obtain a refund or credit of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing an appropriate claim with the IRS. Non-U.S. holders are urged to consult their own tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under a relevant income tax treaty.

Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a trade or business conducted by a non-U.S. holder within the United States and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, that are attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed base maintained by the non-U.S. holder within the United States are generally exempt from the 30% withholding tax if the non-U.S. holder satisfies applicable certification and disclosure requirements. However, such U.S. effectively connected income is taxed on a net income basis at the same U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code). Any U.S. effectively connected income received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also, under certain circumstances, be subject to an additional “branch profits tax” at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence.

Gain on Disposition of Common Stock

A non-U.S. holder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on gain recognized on a disposition of our common stock unless:

 

   

the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, the gain is attributable to a permanent establishment or fixed base maintained by the non-U.S. holder in the United States; in these cases, the non-U.S. holder will be taxed on a net income basis at the same U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code), and if the non-U.S. holder is a foreign corporation, an additional branch profits tax at a 30% rate, or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty, may also apply;

 

   

the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the disposition and certain other requirements are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty) on the net gain derived from the disposition, which may be offset by U.S.-source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder, if any; or

 

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we are, or have been at any time during the five-year period preceding such disposition (or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period, if shorter), a “U.S. real property holding corporation,” unless our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market and the non-U.S. holder held no more than 5% of our outstanding common stock, directly or indirectly, during the shorter of the five year period ending on the date of the disposition or the period that the non-U.S. holder held our common stock. If we are determined to be a U.S. real property holding corporation and the foregoing exception does not apply, then the non-U.S. holder generally will be taxed on its net gain derived from the disposition at the U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code). Generally, a corporation is a “U.S. real property holding corporation” if the fair market value of its “U.S. real property interests” equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market value of its worldwide real property interests plus its other assets used or held for use in a trade or business. Although there can be no assurance, we believe that we are not currently, and we do not anticipate becoming, a “U.S. real property holding corporation” for U.S. federal income tax purposes. No assurance can be provided that our common stock will be regularly traded on an established securities market for purposes of the rule described above.

Information Reporting and Backup Withholding

We must report annually to the IRS and to each non-U.S. holder the gross amount of the distributions on our common stock paid to such holder and the tax withheld, if any, with respect to such distributions. Non-U.S. holders may have to comply with specific certification procedures to establish that the holder is not a U.S. person (as defined in the Code) in order to avoid backup withholding at the applicable rate with respect to dividends on our common stock. Generally, a non-U.S. holder will comply with such procedures if it provides a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or other applicable Form W-8) or otherwise meets documentary evidence requirements for establishing that it is a non-U.S. holder, or otherwise establishes an exemption. Dividends paid to non-U.S. holders subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax, as described above under the heading “—Dividends,” will generally be exempt from U.S. backup withholding.

Information reporting and backup withholding generally will apply to the proceeds of a disposition of our common stock by a non-U.S. holder effected by or through the U.S. office of any broker, U.S. or foreign, unless the holder certifies its status as a non-U.S. holder and satisfies certain other requirements, or otherwise establishes an exemption. Generally, information reporting and backup withholding will not apply to a payment of disposition proceeds to a non-U.S. holder where the transaction is effected outside the United States through a non-U.S. office of a broker. However, for information reporting purposes, dispositions effected through a non-U.S. office of a broker with substantial U.S. ownership or operations generally will be treated in a manner similar to dispositions effected through a U.S. office of a broker. Non-U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the application of the information reporting and backup withholding rules to them.

Copies of information returns may be made available to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is incorporated under the provisions of a specific treaty or agreement.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Rather, any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a non-U.S. holder can be refunded or credited against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided that an appropriate claim is timely filed with the IRS.

FATCA

Provisions of the Code commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, generally impose a 30% withholding tax on dividends on, and gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of, our common stock if paid to a foreign entity unless (i) if the foreign entity is a “foreign financial institution,” the foreign entity undertakes certain due diligence, reporting, withholding, and certification obligations, (ii) if the foreign entity is not a “foreign financial institution,” the foreign entity identifies certain of its U.S. investors, or (iii) the foreign entity is otherwise excepted under FATCA.

 

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Withholding under FATCA generally applies to payments of dividends on our common stock. While withholding under FATCA may apply to payments of gross proceeds from a sale or other disposition of our common stock, under recently proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations, withholding on payments of gross proceeds is not required. Although such regulations are not final, applicable withholding agents may rely on the proposed regulations until final regulations are issued.

If withholding under FATCA is required on any payment related to our common stock, investors not otherwise subject to withholding (or that otherwise would be entitled to a reduced rate of withholding) on such payment may be required to seek a refund or credit from the IRS. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country may modify the requirements described in this section. Non-U.S. holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the possible implications of FATCA on their investment in our common stock and the entities through which they hold our common stock.

Federal Estate Tax

Common stock owned or treated as owned by an individual who is a non-U.S. holder (as specially defined for U.S. federal estate tax purposes) at the time of death will be included in the individual’s gross estate for U.S. federal estate tax purposes and, therefore, may be subject to U.S. federal estate tax, unless an applicable estate tax or other treaty provides otherwise.

The preceding discussion of material U.S. federal tax considerations is for prospective investors’ information only. It is not tax advice. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the particular U.S. federal, state, local, and non-U.S. tax consequences of purchasing, holding, and disposing of our common stock, including the consequences of any proposed changes in applicable laws.

 

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UNDERWRITING

William Blair & Company, L.L.C. is acting as sole underwriter for the offering. Subject to the terms and conditions set forth in an underwriting agreement between us and the underwriter, we have agreed to sell to the underwriter, and the underwriter has agreed to purchase from us,                 shares of our common stock. The underwriter has agreed to purchase all of the shares sold under the underwriting agreement if any of these shares are purchased.

We have granted to the underwriter an option, exercisable for 30 calendar days from the date of this prospectus, to purchase up to                 additional shares of common stock at the public offering price listed on the cover of this prospectus supplement, less underwriting discounts and commissions. Any shares issued or sold under the option will be issued and sold on the same terms and conditions as the other shares that are the subject of this offering.

We have agreed to indemnify the underwriter against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, relating to losses or claims resulting from material misstatements in or omissions from this prospectus supplement, the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part, certain free writing prospectuses that may be used in the offering and in any marketing materials used in connection with this offering and to contribute to payments the underwriter may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.

Commissions and Discounts

The underwriter has advised us that it proposes initially to offer the shares to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement and to dealers at that price less a concession not in excess of $                 per share. After the public offering, the public offering price, concession or any other term of this offering may be changed.

The following table shows the public offering price, underwriting discount and proceeds before expenses to us. The information assumes either no exercise or full exercise by the underwriter of its option to purchase additional shares.

 

     Per Share      Without
Option
     With
Option
 

Public offering price

   $                  

Underwriting discount

        

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

        

The underwriting agreement provides that the obligation of the underwriter to pay for and accept delivery of the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus supplement are subject to the approval of certain legal matters by its counsel and to certain other conditions. The underwriter is obligated to take and pay for all of the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus supplement if any such shares are taken. However, the underwriter is not required to take or pay for the shares covered by the underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares described above. The underwriter reserves the right to withdraw, cancel or modify offers to the public and to reject orders in whole or in part.

The estimated offering expenses payable by us, exclusive of the underwriting discounts and commissions, are approximately $                , which includes legal, accounting and printing costs and various other fees associated with the registration and listing of our common stock. We have agreed to reimburse the underwriter for certain additional expenses incurred in connection with this offering in an amount up to $150,000. In addition, we have granted the underwriter a right to participate as a bookrunning manager or placement agent in any public or private offering of securities by us for a certain period of time, subject to certain limitations.

 

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No Sales of Similar Securities

We have agreed with the underwriter, for 90 days after the date of this prospectus supplement, subject to specified exceptions not to (i) offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge, grant any option to purchase, make any short sale or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, or file with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act relating to, any shares of our common stock or any securities that are substantially similar to our common stock, including but not limited to any options or warrants to purchase shares of our common stock or any securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for, or that represent the right to receive, common stock or any such substantially similar securities, or publicly disclose the intention to make any offer, sale, pledge, disposition or filing or (ii) enter into any swap or other agreement that transfers, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of our common stock, or any such other securities, whether any such transaction described in clause (i) or (ii) above is to be settled by delivery of our common stock or such other securities, in cash or otherwise, without the prior written consent of the underwriter.

Our directors and executive officers have agreed with the underwriter, for 90 days after the date of this prospectus supplement, subject to specified exceptions, not to (i) offer, pledge, announce the intention to sell, sell, contract to sell, sell any option or contract to purchase, purchase any option or contract to sell, grant any option, right or warrant to purchase, make any short sale or otherwise transfer or dispose of, directly or indirectly, any shares of our common stock or any securities convertible into, exercisable or exchangeable for or that represent the right to receive our common stock (including without limitation, our common stock which may be deemed to be beneficially owned in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC and securities which may be issued upon exercise of a stock option or warrant), whether now owned or hereafter acquired, or (ii) enter into any swap or other agreement that transfers, in whole or in part, any of the economic consequences of ownership of our common stock, whether any such transaction is to be settled by delivery of our common stock or such other securities, in cash or otherwise, without the prior written consent of the underwriter.

Listing

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ALRN.”

Price Stabilization, Short Positions and Penalty Bids

Until the distribution of the shares is completed, SEC rules may limit the underwriter and selling group members from bidding for and purchasing shares of our common stock. However, the underwriter may engage in transactions that stabilize the price of our common stock, such as bids or purchases to peg, fix or maintain that price.

In connection with this offering, the underwriter may purchase and sell shares of our common stock in the open market. These transactions may include short sales, purchases on the open market to cover positions created by short sales and stabilizing transactions. Short sales involve the sale by the underwriter of a greater number of shares than it is required to purchase in this offering. “Covered” short sales are sales made in an amount not greater than the underwriter’s option to purchase additional shares described above. The underwriter may close out any covered short position by either exercising this option or purchasing shares in the open market. In determining the source of shares to close out the covered short position, the underwriter will consider, among other things, the price of shares available for purchase in the open market as compared to the price at which it may purchase shares through this option. “Naked” short sales are sales in excess of this option. The underwriter must close out any naked short position by purchasing shares in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriter is concerned that there may be downward pressure on the price of our common stock in the open market after pricing that could adversely affect investors who purchase in this offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of various bids for or purchases of shares of our common stock made by the underwriter in the open market prior to the closing of this offering.

 

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Similar to other purchase transactions, the underwriter’s purchases to cover short sales may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our common stock or preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of our common stock. As a result, the price of our common stock may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. The underwriter may conduct these transactions on the Nasdaq Capital Market, in the over-the-counter market or otherwise.

Neither we nor the underwriter make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of our common stock. In addition, neither we nor the underwriter make any representation that the underwriter will engage in these transactions or that these transactions, once commenced, will not be discontinued without notice. 

Electronic Offer, Sale and Distribution of Shares

In connection with this offering, the underwriter or securities dealers may distribute prospectuses by electronic means, such as e-mail. In addition, the underwriter may facilitate Internet distribution for this offering to certain of its Internet subscription customers. The underwriter may allocate a limited number of shares for sale to its online brokerage customers. An electronic prospectus is available on the Internet website maintained by the underwriter. The information on the website of such underwriter is not part of this prospectus.

Other Relationships

The underwriter and its affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. The underwriter and its affiliates may engage in from time to time in the future certain investment banking and other commercial dealings in the ordinary course of business with us or our affiliates, for which they have received and may continue to receive customary fees and commissions.

In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the underwriter and its affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers, and such investment and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of the issuer. The underwriter and its affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

Selling Restrictions

Canada

Resale Restrictions

The distribution of shares of our common stock in Canada is being made only in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Alberta and British Columbia on a private placement basis exempt from the requirement that we prepare and file a prospectus with the securities regulatory authorities in each province where trades of these securities are made. Any resale of shares of our common stock in Canada must be made under applicable securities laws which may vary depending on the relevant jurisdiction, and which may require resales to be made under available statutory exemptions or under a discretionary exemption granted by the applicable Canadian securities regulatory authority. Purchasers are advised to seek legal advice prior to any resale of the securities.

 

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Representations of Canadian Purchasers

By purchasing shares of our common stock in Canada and accepting delivery of a purchase confirmation, a purchaser is representing to us and the dealer from whom the purchase confirmation is received that:

 

   

the purchaser is entitled under applicable provincial securities laws to purchase the shares of common stock without the benefit of a prospectus qualified under those securities laws as it is an “accredited investor” as defined under National Instrument 45-106—Prospectus Exemptions,

 

   

the purchaser is a “permitted client” as defined in National Instrument 31-103—Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations,

 

   

where required by law, the purchaser is purchasing as principal and not as agent, and

 

   

the purchaser has reviewed the text above under Resale Restrictions.

Conflicts of Interest

Canadian purchasers are hereby notified that the underwriter is relying on the exemption set out in section 3A.3 or 3A.4, if applicable, of National Instrument 33-105—Underwriting Conflicts from having to provide certain conflict of interest disclosure in this document.

Statutory Rights of Action

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if the offering memorandum (including any amendment thereto) such as this document contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser of these securities in Canada should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

Enforcement of Legal Rights

All of our directors and officers as well as the experts named herein may be located outside of Canada and, as a result, it may not be possible for Canadian purchasers to effect service of process within Canada upon us or those persons. All or a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of those persons may be located outside of Canada and, as a result, it may not be possible to satisfy a judgment against us or those persons in Canada or to enforce a judgment obtained in Canadian courts against us or those persons outside of Canada.

Taxation and Eligibility for Investment

Canadian purchasers of shares of our common stock should consult their own legal and tax advisors with respect to the tax consequences of an investment in the shares of common stock in their particular circumstances and about the eligibility of shares of our common stock for investment by the purchaser under relevant Canadian legislation.

European Economic Area

In relation to each Member State of the European Economic Area that has implemented the Prospectus Directive, each referred to as a Relevant Member State, an offer to the public of any shares of our common stock may not be made in that Relevant Member State, except that an offer to the public in that Relevant Member State of any shares of our common stock may be made at any time under the following exemptions under the Prospectus Directive, if they have been implemented in that Relevant Member State:

 

  (a)

to any legal entity which is a “qualified investor” as defined in the Prospectus Directive;

 

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  (b)

to fewer than 150 natural or legal persons (other than qualified investors as defined in the Prospectus Directive), subject to obtaining the prior consent of the underwriter for any such

 

  (c)

in any other circumstances falling within Article 3(2) of the Prospectus Directive,

provided that no such offer of shares of our common stock shall result in a requirement for the publication by us or any underwriter of a prospectus pursuant to Article 3 of the Prospectus Directive.

For the purposes of this provision, the expression an “offer to the public” in relation to any shares of our common stock in any Relevant Member State means the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and any shares of our common stock to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase any shares of our common stock, as the same may be varied in that Relevant Member State by any measure implementing the Prospectus Directive in that Relevant Member State and the expression ‘‘Prospectus Directive’’ means Directive 2003/71/EC (and amendments thereto, including by Directive 2010/73/EU) and includes any relevant implementing measure in each Relevant Member State.

United Kingdom

The underwriter has represented and agreed that:

 

  (a)

it has not made or will not make an offer of shares of our common stock to the public in the United Kingdom within the meaning of section 102B of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (as amended) (FSMA) except to legal entities which are authorized or regulated to operate in the financial markets or, if not so authorized or regulated, whose corporate purpose is solely to invest in securities or otherwise in circumstances which do not require the publication by us of a prospectus pursuant to the Prospectus Rules of the Financial Services Authority;

 

  (b)

it has only communicated or caused to be communicated and will only communicate or cause to be communicated an invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity (within the meaning of section 21 of FSMA) to persons who have professional experience in matters relating to investments falling within Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005 or in circumstances in which section 21 of FSMA does not apply to us; and

 

  (c)

it has complied and will comply with all applicable provisions of the FSMA with respect to anything done by it in relation to the securities in, from or otherwise involving the United Kingdom.

Hong Kong

No securities have been offered or sold, and no securities may be offered or sold, in Hong Kong, by means of any document, other than to persons whose ordinary business is to buy or sell shares or debentures, whether as principal or agent; or to ‘‘professional investors’’ as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571) of Hong Kong and any rules made under that Ordinance; or in other circumstances which do not result in the document being a ‘‘prospectus’’ as defined in the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32) of Hong Kong or which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32) of Hong Kong. No document, invitation or advertisement relating to the securities has been issued or may be issued or may be in the possession of any person for the purpose of issue (in each case whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere), which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public of Hong Kong (except if permitted under the securities laws of Hong Kong) other than with respect to securities which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to ‘‘professional investors’’ as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571) of Hong Kong and any rules made under that Ordinance.

 

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This prospectus has not been registered with the Registrar of Companies in Hong Kong. Accordingly, this prospectus may not be issued, circulated or distributed in Hong Kong, and the securities may not be offered for subscription to members of the public in Hong Kong. Each person acquiring the securities will be required, and is deemed by the acquisition of the securities, to confirm that he is aware of the restriction on offers of the securities described in this prospectus and the relevant offering documents and that he is not acquiring, and has not been offered any securities in circumstances that contravene any such restrictions.

Singapore

This prospectus has not been, and will not be, registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the shares of common stock may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the shares of common stock be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, whether directly or indirectly, to persons in Singapore other than (i) to an institutional investor (as defined in Section 4A of the Securities and Futures Act, Chapter 289 of Singapore (the “SFA”)) pursuant to Section 274 of the SFA, (ii) to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA) pursuant to Section 275(1), or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A), and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA or (iii) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA, in each case subject to compliance with conditions set forth in the SFA.

Where the common stock is subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is:

 

  (a)

a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or

 

  (b)

a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an individual who is an accredited investor,

securities (as defined in Section 239(1) of the SFA) of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferred within six months after that corporation or that trust has acquired the common stock pursuant to an offer made under Section 275 of the SFA except:

 

  (a)

to an institutional investor pursuant to Section 274 of the SFA or to a relevant person pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or to any person arising from an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) or Section 276(4)(i)(B) of the SFA;

 

  (b)

where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer;

 

  (c)

where the transfer is by operation of law;

 

  (d)

as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA; or

 

  (e)

as specified in Regulation 32 of the Securities and Futures (Offers of Investments) (Shares and Debentures) Regulations 2005 of Singapore.

Switzerland

The shares of common stock may not be publicly offered in Switzerland and will not be listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange, or the SIX, or on any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. This document has been prepared without regard to the disclosure standards for issuance prospectuses under art. 652a or art. 1156 of the Swiss Code of Obligations or the disclosure standards for listing prospectuses under art. 27 ff. of the SIX Listing Rules or the listing rules of any other stock exchange or regulated trading facility in Switzerland. Neither this document nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the shares of common stock or the offering may be publicly distributed or otherwise made publicly available in Switzerland.

 

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Neither this document nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the offering, or the shares of common stock have been or will be filed with or approved by any Swiss regulatory authority. In particular, this document will not be filed with, and the offer of common stock will not be supervised by, the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority FINMA, and the offer of common stock has not been and will not be authorized under the Swiss Federal Act on Collective Investment Schemes, or CISA. Accordingly, no public distribution, offering or advertising, as defined in CISA, its implementing ordinances and notices, and no distribution to any non-qualified investor, as defined in CISA, its implementing ordinances and notices, shall be undertaken in or from Switzerland, and the investor protection afforded to acquirers of interests in collective investment schemes under CISA does not extend to acquirers of common stock.

United Arab Emirates

This offering has not been reviewed, approved or licensed by the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates (the “UAE”), the Emirates Securities and Commodities Authority of the UAE (the “SCA”) and/or any other relevant licensing authority in the UAE including any licensing authority incorporated under the laws and regulations of any of the free zones established and operating in the territory of the UAE (the “Free Zones”), in particular the Dubai Financial Services Authority (the “DFSA”), a regulatory authority of the Dubai International Financial Centre the (“DIFC”) or the Financial Services Regulatory Authority (the “FSRA”), a regulatory authority of Abu Dhabi Global Market (“ADGM”).

This offering is not intended to, and does not, constitute an offer, sale or delivery of shares or other securities under the laws of the UAE. The common stock has not been and will not be registered with or licensed by the SCA or with the UAE Central Bank, the Dubai Financial Market, the Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange or with any other UAE regulatory authority or exchange.

The issue and/or sale of the common stock has not been approved or licensed by the SCA, the UAE Central Bank or any other relevant licensing authority in the UAE, and does not constitute a public offer of securities in the UAE, DIFC, ADGM and/or any other Free Zone in accordance with the Commercial Companies Law, Federal Law No 2 of 2015 (as amended), the Markets Rules of the DFSA, (the “DFSA Markets Rules”), the Markets Rules of the FSRA (the “FSRA Markets Rules”) and/or Nasdaq Dubai Listing Rules or under any other law of the UAE. The common stock may not be offered to the public in the UAE and/or any of the Free Zones.

No marketing or promotion of the common stock has been or will be made from within the UAE and no sale of or subscription for the common stock may or will be consummated within the UAE. It should not be assumed that Vermillion, Inc., Vermillion, Inc.’s advisors, their advisors or any other person is a licensed broker, dealer or investment adviser under the laws of the UAE or that they advise as to the appropriateness of investing in or purchasing or selling securities or other financial products.

This offering is not intended to constitute a financial promotion, an offer, sale or delivery of shares or other securities under the DIFC Markets Law (DIFC Law No. 1 of 2012, as amended) (the “Markets Law”), the DFSA Markets Rules, the Collective Investment Law 2010 (DIFC Law No. 2 of 2010) (the “Collective Investment Law”), the ADGM Financial Services and Markets Regulations 2015 (the “FSMR”), the FSRA Markets Rules, the Funds Rules of the FSRA (“FSRA Funds Rules”), or any other laws and regulations of the DIFC, the DFSA, ADGM or the FSRA.

This offering and the issue or transfer of any securities related to it have not been approved or licensed by the DFSA, and do not constitute an offer of securities in the DIFC in accordance with the Markets Law or the DFSA Markets Rules or the Collective Investment Law or any other laws and regulations of the DIFC or the DFSA. This offering and the issue or transfer of any securities related to it have not been approved or licensed by the FSRA, and do not constitute an offer of securities in ADGM in accordance with the FSMR or the FSRA Markets Rules or the FSRA Funds Rules or any other laws and regulations of ADGM or the FSRA.

 

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Notice to Prospective Investors in Israel

The securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus have not been approved or disapproved by the Israeli Securities Authority (the ‘‘ISA’’), nor have such securities been registered for sale in Israel. The ISA has not issued permits, approvals or licenses in connection with the offering or publishing this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus; nor has it authenticated the details included herein, confirmed their reliability or completeness, or rendered an opinion as to the quality of the securities being offered. The ordinary shares will not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, to the public in Israel, except that the underwriter may offer and sell such shares to Israeli investors who qualify, in accordance with the Israeli Securities Law as ‘‘qualified investors’’ (as defined in the First Appendix to the Israeli Securities Law) and completed and signed a questionnaire regarding such qualification and delivered it to the underwriter. Any resale in Israel, directly or indirectly, to the public of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is subject to restrictions on transferability and must be effected only in compliance with the Israeli securities laws and regulations.

 

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Legal Matters

The validity of the shares of our common stock offered hereby is being passed upon for us by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP. Goodwin Procter LLP is acting as counsel for the underwriters in connection with this offering.

Experts

The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an explanatory paragraph relating to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the financial statements) of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

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Where You Can Find More Information

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.aileronrx.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC. The registration statement contains more information than this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus regarding us and the securities, including certain exhibits and schedules. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement from the SEC at the address listed above or from the SEC’s internet site.

Incorporation by Reference

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus incorporate by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-38130) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed), until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

   

Annual Report on Form  10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, including the information incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement for the 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders;

 

   

Quarterly Report on Form  10-Q for the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020;

 

   

Current Report on Form  8-K filed on April  22, 2020 (Item 8.01 only) and June 1, 2020; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form  8-A filed on June 23, 2017, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Aileron Therapeutics, Inc.

490 Arsenal Way, Suite 210

Watertown, MA 02472

Attn: Investor Relations

(617) 995-0900

 

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PROSPECTUS

$150,000,000

 

 

 

LOGO

Aileron Therapeutics, Inc.

DEBT SECURITIES

COMMON STOCK

PREFERRED STOCK

UNITS

WARRANTS

 

 

We may offer and sell securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $150,000,000 in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ALRN.”

As of July 1, 2019, the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates was approximately $39,796,521, which was calculated based on 22,740,869 shares of outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates and a price per share of $1.75 as of a date within 60 days prior to the date of this prospectus. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell, pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, securities in a public primary offering with a value exceeding one-third of the aggregate market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates in any 12-month period, so long as the aggregate market value of our outstanding common stock held by non-affiliates remains below $75 million. During the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus, we have not offered or sold any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3.

 

 

Investing in these securities involves certain risks. See “Risk Factors” included in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is July 15, 2019.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

RISK FACTORS

     2  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     3  

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

     3  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

     4  

AILERON THERAPEUTICS, INC.

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     16  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     22  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     23  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     24  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     26  

LEGAL MATTERS

     29  

EXPERTS

     29  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC,” utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $150,000,000.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 3 of this prospectus.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or such accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Aileron Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, including the risk factors set forth in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and other filings we make with the SEC from time to time, which are incorporated by reference herein, before making an investment decision pursuant to this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement relating to a specific offering.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by any or all of these risks or by additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial that may adversely affect us in the future.

 

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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at https://www.aileronrx.com/. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-38130) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed.

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K and Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2018, filed with the SEC on March  29, 2019 and May 8, 2019, respectively, including the information specifically incorporated by reference into the Annual Report on Form 10-K from our definitive proxy statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders filed with the SEC on April 30, 2019;

 

   

Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on May 8, 2019;

 

   

Our Current Reports on Form  8-K filed with the SEC on March 1, 2019, April  1, 2019, April 3, 2019, June  5, 2019, June 20, 2019 and June 24, 2019; and

 

   

The description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed on June 23, 2017, including any amendments or reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these documents, which will be provided to you at no cost, by writing or telephoning us using the following contact information:

Aileron Therapeutics, Inc.

490 Arsenal Way, Suite 210

Watertown, Massachusetts 02472

(617) 995-0900

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This prospectus includes and incorporates forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management and expected market growth are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements in this prospectus, particularly in the “Risk Factors” section, that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, collaborations, joint ventures or investments that we may make or enter into.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference herein and have filed or incorporated by reference hereto completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

 

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AILERON THERAPEUTICS, INC.

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company that is focused on developing and commercializing a novel class of stabilized cell-permeating alpha-helical peptides to address intracellular targets in oncology and other therapeutic areas. Our lead product candidate, ALRN-6924, is a cell-permeating peptide that disrupts the interaction of p53 suppressors MDM2 and MDMX with tumor suppressor p53 to reactivate tumor suppression in non-mutant, or wild-type, p53 cancers. Based on preclinical data and preliminary evidence of safety and anti-tumor activity in our ongoing clinical trials, we believe that there may be a significant opportunity to develop ALRN-6924 in combination with other drugs for a wide variety of cancers.

Our clinical development program for ALRN-6924 is currently focused on our ongoing Phase 2a clinical trial of the combination of ALRN-6924 and palbociclib (Ibrance), marketed by Pfizer, Inc., for the treatment of MDM2-amplified advanced solid tumors and our planned Phase 1b/2 clinical trial to evaluate ALRN-6924 as a myelopreservative agent, to protect against chemotherapy-induced bone marrow toxicity. Our first planned clinical trial to assess the myelopreservation opportunity will be in small cell lung cancer patients who will be treated with the chemotherapy topotecan.

We believe that by using our proprietary stabilized cell-permeating peptide platform, we can develop first-in-class molecules, like ALRN-6924, that contain a novel set of properties. As such, our stabilized cell-permeating peptide drugs may be able to address historically undruggable targets, such as intracellular protein-protein interactions like p53 and MDM2/MDMX, that underlie many diseases with high unmet medical need. We believe that stabilized cell-permeating peptide therapeutics have the potential to become a major class of drugs, like small molecules and monoclonal antibodies, for oncology and other therapeutic areas, and may significantly improve treatment paradigms and clinical outcomes for patients.

Our principal executive offices are located at 490 Arsenal Way, Suite 210, Watertown, MA 02472, and our telephone number is (617) 995-0900.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include working capital and capital expenditures, research and development expenses, including clinical trial costs, general and administrative expenses, potential acquisition of, or investment in, companies, technologies, products or assets that complement our business, and repayment and refinancing of debt. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in investment-grade, interest-bearing securities until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may offer debt securities which may be senior or subordinated. We refer to the senior debt securities and the subordinated debt securities collectively as debt securities. The following description summarizes the general terms and provisions of the debt securities. We will describe the specific terms of the debt securities and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions summarized below apply to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the series and any applicable free writing prospectus that we authorize to be delivered. When we refer to “the Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” in this section, we mean Aileron Therapeutics, Inc., excluding, unless the context otherwise requires or as otherwise expressly stated, our subsidiaries.

We may issue senior debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a senior indenture to be entered into between us and a senior trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the senior trustee. We may issue subordinated debt securities from time to time, in one or more series under a subordinated indenture to be entered into between us and a subordinated trustee to be named in a prospectus supplement, which we refer to as the subordinated trustee. The forms of senior indenture and subordinated indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. Together, the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are referred to as the indentures and, together, the senior trustee and the subordinated trustee are referred to as the trustees. This prospectus briefly outlines some of the provisions of the indentures. The following summary of the material provisions of the indentures is qualified in its entirety by the provisions of the indentures, including definitions of certain terms used in the indentures. Wherever we refer to particular sections or defined terms of the indentures, those sections or defined terms are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement. You should review the indentures that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part for additional information.

None of the indentures will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. The applicable indenture will provide that debt securities may be issued up to an aggregate principal amount authorized from time to time by us and may be payable in any currency or currency unit designated by us or in amounts determined by reference to an index.

General

The senior debt securities will constitute our unsubordinated general obligations and will rank pari passu with our other unsubordinated obligations. The subordinated debt securities will constitute our subordinated general obligations and will be junior in right of payment to our senior indebtedness (including senior debt securities), as described under the heading “—Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities—Subordination.” The debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries unless such subsidiaries expressly guarantee such debt securities.

The debt securities will be our unsecured obligations unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Any secured debt or other secured obligations will be effectively senior to the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt or other obligations.

The applicable prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus will include any additional or different terms of the debt securities being offered, including the following terms:

 

   

the title and type of the debt securities;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be senior or subordinated debt securities, and, with respect to debt securities issued under the subordinated indenture the terms on which they are subordinated;

 

   

the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

   

the price or prices at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

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the maturity date or dates of the debt securities and the right, if any, to extend such date or dates;

 

   

the rate or rates, if any, per year, at which the debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates;

 

   

the date or dates from which such interest will accrue, the interest payment dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such interest payment dates and the related record dates;

 

   

the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of that extension;

 

   

the manner of paying principal and interest and the place or places where principal and interest will be payable;

 

   

provisions for a sinking fund, purchase fund or other analogous fund, if any;

 

   

any redemption dates, prices, obligations and restrictions on the debt securities;

 

   

the currency, currencies or currency units in which the debt securities will be denominated and the currency, currencies or currency units in which principal and interest, if any, on the debt securities may be payable;

 

   

any conversion or exchange features of the debt securities;

 

   

whether and upon what terms the debt securities may be defeased;

 

   

any events of default or covenants in addition to or in lieu of those set forth in the indenture;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be issued in definitive or global form or in definitive form only upon satisfaction of certain conditions;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be guaranteed as to payment or performance;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be secured by any collateral and, if so, a general description of the collateral and the terms and provisions of such collateral, security, pledge or other related agreements;

 

   

any material tax implications of the debt securities; and

 

   

any other material terms of the debt securities.

When we refer to “principal” in this section with reference to the debt securities, we are also referring to “premium, if any.”

We may from time to time, without notice to or the consent of the holders of any series of debt securities, create and issue further debt securities of any such series ranking equally with the debt securities of such series in all respects (or in all respects other than (1) the payment of interest accruing prior to the issue date of such further debt securities or (2) the first payment of interest following the issue date of such further debt securities). Such further debt securities may be consolidated and form a single series with the debt securities of such series and have the same terms as to status, redemption or otherwise as the debt securities of such series.

You may present debt securities for exchange and you may present debt securities for transfer in the manner, at the places and subject to the restrictions set forth in the debt securities and the applicable prospectus supplement.

We will provide you those services without charge, although you may have to pay any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with any exchange or transfer, as set forth in the indenture.

Debt securities may bear interest at a fixed rate or a floating rate. Debt securities bearing no interest or interest at a rate that at the time of issuance is below the prevailing market rate (original issue discount securities)

 

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may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to any such discounted debt securities or to certain debt securities issued at par which are treated as having been issued at a discount for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may issue debt securities with the principal amount payable on any principal payment date, or the amount of interest payable on any interest payment date, to be determined by reference to one or more currency exchange rates, securities or baskets of securities, commodity prices or indices. You may receive a payment of principal on any principal payment date, or a payment of interest on any interest payment date, that is greater than or less than the amount of principal or interest otherwise payable on such dates, depending on the value on such dates of the applicable currency, security or basket of securities, commodity or index. Information as to the methods for determining the amount of principal or interest payable on any date, the currencies, securities or baskets of securities, commodities or indices to which the amount payable on such date is linked and certain related tax considerations will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Certain Terms of the Senior Debt Securities

Covenants

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, the senior debt securities will not contain any financial or restrictive covenants, including covenants restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from incurring, issuing, assuming or guaranteeing any indebtedness secured by a lien on any of our or our subsidiaries’ property or capital stock, or restricting either us or any of our subsidiaries from entering into sale and leaseback transactions.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, we may not consolidate with or merge into any other person, in a transaction in which we are not the surviving corporation, or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets substantially as an entirety to any person, in either case, unless:

 

   

the successor entity, if any, is a U.S. corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust (subject to certain exceptions provided for in the senior indenture);

 

   

the successor entity assumes our obligations on the senior debt securities and under the senior indenture;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

   

certain other conditions are met.

No Protection in the Event of a Change in Control

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the senior debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the senior debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

Events of Default

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of senior debt securities, the following are events of default under the senior indenture for any series of senior debt securities:

 

   

failure to pay interest on any senior debt securities of such series when due and payable, if that default continues for a period of 90 days (or such other period as may be specified for such series);

 

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failure to pay principal on the senior debt securities of such series when due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise (and, if specified for such series, the continuance of such failure for a specified period);

 

   

default in the performance of or breach of any of our covenants or agreements in the senior indenture applicable to senior debt securities of such series, other than a covenant breach which is specifically dealt with elsewhere in the senior indenture, and that default or breach continues for a period of 90 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or from the holders of 25% or more in aggregate principal amount of the senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

certain events of bankruptcy or insolvency, whether or not voluntary; and

 

   

any other event of default provided for in such series of senior debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The default by us under any other debt, including any other series of debt securities, is not a default under the senior indenture.

If an event of default other than an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to a series of senior debt securities and is continuing under the senior indenture, then, and in each such case, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series then outstanding under the senior indenture (each such series voting as a separate class) by written notice to us and to the trustee, if such notice is given by the holders, may, and the trustee at the request of such holders shall, declare the principal amount of and accrued interest on such series of senior debt securities to be immediately due and payable, and upon this declaration, the same shall become immediately due and payable.

If an event of default specified in the fourth bullet point above occurs with respect to us and is continuing, the entire principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, on each series of senior debt securities then outstanding shall become immediately due and payable.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement relating to a series of senior debt securities originally issued at a discount, the amount due upon acceleration shall include only the original issue price of the senior debt securities, the amount of original issue discount accrued to the date of acceleration and accrued interest, if any.

Upon certain conditions, declarations of acceleration may be rescinded and annulled and past defaults may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of all the senior debt securities of such series affected by the default, each series voting as a separate class. Furthermore, subject to various provisions in the senior indenture, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities, by notice to the trustee, may waive an existing default or event of default with respect to such senior debt securities and its consequences, except a default in the payment of principal of or interest on such senior debt securities or in respect of a covenant or provision of the senior indenture which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each such senior debt security. Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such senior debt securities shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of the senior indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of a series of senior debt securities may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to such senior debt securities. However, the trustee may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or the senior indenture, that may involve the trustee in personal liability or that the trustee determines in good faith may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of such series of senior debt securities not joining in the giving of such direction and may take any other action it

 

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deems proper that is not inconsistent with any such direction received from holders of such series of senior debt securities. A holder may not pursue any remedy with respect to the senior indenture or any series of senior debt securities unless:

 

   

the holder gives the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities make a written request to the trustee to pursue the remedy in respect of such event of default;

 

   

the requesting holder or holders offer the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any costs, liability or expense;

 

   

the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

   

during such 60-day period, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such series of senior debt securities do not give the trustee a direction that is inconsistent with the request.

These limitations, however, do not apply to the right of any holder of a senior debt security to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such senior debt security in accordance with the terms of such debt security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment in accordance with the terms of such debt security, on or after the due date for the senior debt securities, which right shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the holder.

The senior indenture requires certain of our officers to certify, on or before a fixed date in each year in which any senior debt security is outstanding, as to their knowledge of our compliance with all covenants, agreements and conditions under the senior indenture.

Satisfaction and Discharge

We can satisfy and discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities if:

 

   

we pay or cause to be paid, as and when due and payable, the principal of and any interest on all senior debt securities of such series outstanding under the senior indenture; or

 

   

all senior debt securities of such series have become due and payable or will become due and payable within one year (or are to be called for redemption within one year) and we deposit in trust a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us. Purchasers of the debt securities should consult their own advisers with respect to the tax consequences to them of such deposit and discharge, including the applicability and effect of tax laws other than the U.S. federal income tax law.

Defeasance

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following discussion of legal defeasance and discharge and covenant defeasance will apply to any series of debt securities issued under the indentures.

 

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Legal Defeasance

We can legally release ourselves from any payment or other obligations on the debt securities of any series (called “legal defeasance”) if certain conditions are met, including the following:

 

   

We deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

   

There is a change in current U.S. federal income tax law or an IRS ruling that lets us make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due. Under current U.S. federal income tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities would be treated as though we took back your debt securities and gave you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds deposited in trust. In that event, you could recognize gain or loss on the debt securities you give back to us.

 

   

We deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming the tax law change or ruling described above.

If we accomplish legal defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities. You could not look to us for repayment in the event of any shortfall.

Covenant Defeasance

Without any change of current U.S. federal tax law, we can make the same type of deposit described above and be released from some of the covenants in the debt securities (called “covenant defeasance”). In that event, you would lose the protection of those covenants but would gain the protection of having money and securities set aside in trust to repay the debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following (among other things):

 

   

We must deposit in trust for your benefit and the benefit of all other direct holders of the debt securities of the same series a combination of cash and U.S. government or U.S. government agency obligations that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of that series on their various due dates.

 

   

We must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that under current U.S. federal income tax law we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities any differently than if we did not make the deposit and instead repaid the debt securities ourselves when due.

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you could still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit. In fact, if one of the events of default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities become immediately due and payable, there may be such a shortfall. Depending on the events causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

Modification and Waiver

We and the trustee may amend or supplement the senior indenture or the senior debt securities without the consent of any holder:

 

   

to convey, transfer, assign, mortgage or pledge any assets as security for the senior debt securities of one or more series;

 

   

to evidence the succession of a corporation, limited liability company, partnership or trust to us, and the assumption by such successor of our covenants, agreements and obligations under the senior

 

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indenture or to otherwise comply with the covenant relating to mergers, consolidations and sales of assets;

 

   

to comply with the requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the senior indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act;

 

   

to add to our covenants such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the protection of the holders, and to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the senior indenture or in any supplemental indenture or to conform the senior indenture or the senior debt securities to the description of senior debt securities of such series set forth in this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement;

 

   

to provide for or add guarantors with respect to the senior debt securities of any series;

 

   

to establish the form or forms or terms of the senior debt securities as permitted by the senior indenture;

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the senior indenture by a successor trustee, or to make such changes as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts in the senior indenture by more than one trustee;

 

   

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of any series of senior debt securities;

 

   

to make any change to the senior debt securities of any series so long as no senior debt securities of such series are outstanding; or

 

   

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder in any material respect.

Other amendments and modifications of the senior indenture or the senior debt securities issued may be made, and our compliance with any provision of the senior indenture with respect to any series of senior debt securities may be waived, with the consent of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding senior debt securities of all series affected by the amendment or modification (voting together as a single class); provided, however, that each affected holder must consent to any modification, amendment or waiver that:

 

   

extends the final maturity of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the principal amount of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the rate or extends the time of payment of interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the amount payable upon the redemption of any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

changes the currency of payment of principal of or interest on any senior debt securities of such series;

 

   

reduces the principal amount of original issue discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity or the amount provable in bankruptcy;

 

   

waives an uncured default in the payment of principal of or interest on the senior debt securities (except in the case of a rescission of acceleration as described above);

 

   

changes the provisions relating to the waiver of past defaults or changes or impairs the right of holders to receive payment or to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment or conversion of any senior debt securities of such series on or after the due date therefor;

 

   

modifies any of the provisions of these restrictions on amendments and modifications, except to increase any required percentage or to provide that certain other provisions cannot be modified or

 

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waived without the consent of the holder of each senior debt security of such series affected by the modification; or

 

   

reduces the above-stated percentage of outstanding senior debt securities of such series whose holders must consent to a supplemental indenture or modifies, amends or waives certain provisions of or defaults under the senior indenture.

It shall not be necessary for the holders to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if the holders’ consent approves the substance thereof. After an amendment, supplement or waiver of the senior indenture in accordance with the provisions described in this section becomes effective, the trustee must give to the holders affected thereby certain notice briefly describing the amendment, supplement or waiver. Any failure by the trustee to give such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such amendment, supplemental indenture or waiver.

No Personal Liability of Incorporators, Stockholders, Officers, Directors

The senior indenture provides that no recourse shall be had under any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the senior indenture or any supplemental indenture, or in any of the senior debt securities or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, against any of our incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors, past, present or future, or of any predecessor or successor entity thereof under any law, statute or constitutional provision or by the enforcement of any assessment or by any legal or equitable proceeding or otherwise. Each holder, by accepting the senior debt securities, waives and releases all such liability.

Concerning the Trustee

The senior indenture provides that, except during the continuance of an event of default, the trustee will not be liable except for the performance of such duties as are specifically set forth in the senior indenture. If an event of default has occurred and is continuing, the trustee will exercise such rights and powers vested in it under the senior indenture and will use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent person would exercise under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

The senior indenture and the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act incorporated by reference therein contain limitations on the rights of the trustee thereunder, should it become a creditor of ours or any of our subsidiaries, to obtain payment of claims in certain cases or to realize on certain property received by it in respect of any such claims, as security or otherwise. The trustee is permitted to engage in other transactions, provided that if it acquires any conflicting interest (as defined in the Trust Indenture Act), it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

We may have normal banking relationships with the senior trustee in the ordinary course of business.

Unclaimed Funds

All funds deposited with the trustee or any paying agent for the payment of principal, premium, interest or additional amounts in respect of the senior debt securities that remain unclaimed for two years after the date upon which such principal, premium or interest became due and payable will be repaid to us. Thereafter, any right of any holder of senior debt securities to such funds shall be enforceable only against us, and the trustee and paying agents will have no liability therefor.

Governing Law

The senior indenture and the senior debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York.

 

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Certain Terms of the Subordinated Debt Securities

Other than the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities relating to subordination or otherwise as described in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of subordinated debt securities, the terms of the subordinated indenture and subordinated debt securities are identical in all material respects to the terms of the senior indenture and senior debt securities.

Additional or different subordination terms may be specified in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series.

Subordination

The indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities is subordinate to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as defined in the subordinated indenture. During the continuance beyond any applicable grace period of any default in the payment of principal, premium, interest or any other payment due on any of our senior indebtedness, we may not make any payment of principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities (except for certain sinking fund payments). In addition, upon any payment or distribution of our assets upon any dissolution, winding-up, liquidation or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the subordinated indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all our senior indebtedness. Because of this subordination, if we dissolve or otherwise liquidate, holders of our subordinated debt securities may receive less, ratably, than holders of our senior indebtedness. The subordination provisions do not prevent the occurrence of an event of default under the subordinated indenture.

The term “senior indebtedness” of a person means with respect to such person the principal of, premium, if any, interest on, and any other payment due pursuant to any of the following, whether outstanding on the date of the subordinated indenture or incurred by that person in the future:

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person for money borrowed;

 

   

all of the indebtedness of that person evidenced by notes, debentures, bonds or other securities sold by that person for money;

 

   

all of the lease obligations that are capitalized on the books of that person in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

 

   

all indebtedness of others of the kinds described in the first two bullet points above and all lease obligations of others of the kind described in the third bullet point above that the person, in any manner, assumes or guarantees or that the person in effect guarantees through an agreement to purchase, whether that agreement is contingent or otherwise; and

 

   

all renewals, extensions or refundings of indebtedness of the kinds described in the first, second or fourth bullet point above and all renewals or extensions of leases of the kinds described in the third or fourth bullet point above;

unless, in the case of any particular indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding, the instrument creating or evidencing it or the assumption or guarantee relating to it expressly provides that such indebtedness, renewal, extension or refunding is not superior in right of payment to the subordinated debt securities. Our senior debt securities constitute senior indebtedness for purposes of the subordinated debt indenture.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not complete. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws, each as amended from time to time, and by applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 150,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share. The following description of our capital stock and provisions of our certificate of incorporation and amended and restated by-laws are summaries and are qualified by reference to our certificate of incorporation and by-laws. Copies of these documents are filed with the SEC as exhibits to our registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. As of May 31, 2019, 26,713,617 shares of common stock were outstanding and no shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

Common Stock

Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders will be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Other matters shall be decided by the affirmative vote of our stockholders having a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the stockholders present or represented and voting on such matter, except as otherwise disclosed below. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock.

In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately all assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Listing on The Nasdaq Global Market. Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “ALRN.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar. The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

Preferred Stock

Under the terms of our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.

A series of our preferred stock could, depending on the terms of such series, impede the completion of a merger, tender offer or other takeover attempt. Our board of directors will make any determination to issue preferred shares based upon its judgment as to the best interests of our stockholders. Our directors, in so acting, could issue preferred stock having terms that could discourage an acquisition attempt through which an acquirer may be able to change the composition of our board of directors, including a tender offer or other transaction that some, or a majority, of our stockholders might believe to be in their best interests or in which stockholders might receive a premium for their stock over the then-current market price of the stock.

 

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The preferred stock has the terms described below unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of preferred stock. You should read the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of preferred stock being offered for specific terms, including:

 

   

the designation and stated value per share of the preferred stock and the number of shares offered;

 

   

the amount of liquidation preference per share;

 

   

the price at which the preferred stock will be issued;

 

   

the dividend rate, or method of calculation of dividends, the dates on which dividends will be payable, whether dividends will be cumulative or noncumulative and, if cumulative, the dates from which dividends will commence to accumulate;

 

   

any redemption or sinking fund provisions;

 

   

if other than the currency of the United States, the currency or currencies including composite currencies in which the preferred stock is denominated and/or in which payments will or may be payable;

 

   

any conversion provisions; and

 

   

any other rights, preferences, privileges, limitations and restrictions on the preferred stock.

The preferred stock will, when issued, be fully paid and non-assessable. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, each series of preferred stock will rank equally as to dividends and liquidation rights in all respects with each other series of preferred stock. The rights of holders of shares of each series of preferred stock will be subordinate to those of our general creditors.

Rank. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, rank:

 

   

senior to our common stock and to all equity securities ranking junior to such preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

on a parity with all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank on a parity with the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs; and

 

   

junior to all equity securities issued by us, the terms of which specifically provide that such equity securities rank senior to the preferred stock with respect to dividend rights or rights upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

The term “equity securities” does not include convertible debt securities.

Dividends. Holders of the preferred stock of each series will be entitled to receive, when, as and if declared by our board of directors, cash dividends at such rates and on such dates described in the prospectus supplement. Different series of preferred stock may be entitled to dividends at different rates or based on different methods of calculation. The dividend rate may be fixed or variable or both. Dividends will be payable to the holders of record as they appear on our stock books on record dates fixed by our board of directors, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Dividends on any series of preferred stock may be cumulative or noncumulative, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If our board of directors does not declare a dividend payable on a dividend payment date on any series of noncumulative preferred stock, then the holders of that noncumulative preferred stock will have no right to receive a dividend for that dividend payment date, and we will have no obligation to pay the dividend accrued for that period, whether or not dividends on that series are declared payable on any future dividend payment dates. Dividends on any series of cumulative preferred stock will accrue from the date we initially issue shares of such series or such other date specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of any dividends on any parity securities unless full dividends have been paid or set apart for payment on the preferred stock. If full dividends are not paid, the preferred stock will share dividends pro rata with the parity securities.

No dividends may be declared or paid or funds set apart for the payment of dividends on any securities junior to the preferred stock unless full dividends for all dividend periods terminating on or prior to the date of the declaration or payment will have been paid or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment set apart for payment on the preferred stock.

Liquidation Preference. Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, then, before we make any distribution or payment to the holders of any common stock or any other class or series of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock in the distribution of assets upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, the holders of each series of preferred stock shall be entitled to receive out of assets legally available for distribution to stockholders, liquidating distributions in the amount of the liquidation preference per share set forth in the prospectus supplement, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends thereon. Such dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid noncumulative dividends for prior dividend periods. Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, after payment of the full amount of their liquidating distributions, the holders of preferred stock will have no right or claim to any of our remaining assets. Upon any such voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, if our available assets are insufficient to pay the amount of the liquidating distributions on all outstanding preferred stock and the corresponding amounts payable on all other classes or series of our capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of shares of capital stock ranking on parity with the preferred stock in the distribution of assets, then the holders of the preferred stock and all other such classes or series of capital stock will share ratably in any such distribution of assets in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be entitled.

Upon any such liquidation, dissolution or winding up and if we have made liquidating distributions in full to all holders of preferred stock, we will distribute our remaining assets among the holders of any other classes or series of capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock according to their respective rights and preferences and, in each case, according to their respective number of shares. For such purposes, our consolidation or merger with or into any other corporation, trust or entity, or the sale, lease or conveyance of all or substantially all of our property or assets will not be deemed to constitute a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs.

Redemption. If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, the preferred stock will be subject to mandatory redemption or redemption at our option, as a whole or in part, in each case upon the terms, at the times and at the redemption prices set forth in such prospectus supplement.

The prospectus supplement relating to a series of preferred stock that is subject to mandatory redemption will specify the number of shares of preferred stock that shall be redeemed by us in each year commencing after a date to be specified, at a redemption price per share to be specified, together with an amount equal to all accrued and unpaid dividends thereon to the date of redemption. Unless the shares have a cumulative dividend, such accrued dividends will not include any accumulation in respect of unpaid dividends for prior dividend periods. We may pay the redemption price in cash or other property, as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. If the redemption price for preferred stock of any series is payable only from the net proceeds of the issuance of shares of our capital stock, the terms of such preferred stock may provide that, if no such shares of our capital stock shall have been issued or to the extent the net proceeds from any issuance are insufficient to pay in full the aggregate redemption price then due, such preferred stock shall automatically and mandatorily be converted into the applicable shares of our capital stock pursuant to conversion provisions specified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we will not redeem any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on the preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

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if such series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends for the then current dividend period.

In addition, we will not acquire any preferred stock of a series unless:

 

   

if that series of preferred stock has a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full cumulative dividends on all outstanding shares of such series of preferred stock for all past dividend periods and the then current dividend period; or

 

   

if that series of preferred stock does not have a cumulative dividend, we have declared and paid or contemporaneously declare and pay or set aside funds to pay full dividends on the preferred stock of such series for the then current dividend period.

However, at any time we may purchase or acquire preferred stock of that series (1) pursuant to a purchase or exchange offer made on the same terms to holders of all outstanding preferred stock of such series or (2) by conversion into or exchange for shares of our capital stock ranking junior to the preferred stock of such series as to dividends and upon liquidation.

If fewer than all of the outstanding shares of preferred stock of any series are to be redeemed, we will determine the number of shares that may be redeemed pro rata from the holders of record of such shares in proportion to the number of such shares held or for which redemption is requested by such holder or by any other equitable manner that we determine. Such determination will reflect adjustments to avoid redemption of fractional shares.

Unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement, we will mail notice of redemption at least 30 days but not more than 60 days before the redemption date to each holder of record of preferred stock to be redeemed at the address shown on our stock transfer books. Each notice shall state:

 

   

the redemption date;

 

   

the number of shares and series of preferred stock to be redeemed;

 

   

the redemption price;

 

   

the place or places where certificates for such preferred stock are to be surrendered for payment of the redemption price;

 

   

that dividends on the shares to be redeemed will cease to accrue on such redemption date;

 

   

the date on which the holder’s conversion rights, if any, as to such shares shall terminate; and

 

   

the specific number of shares to be redeemed from each such holder if fewer than all the shares of any series are to be redeemed.

If notice of redemption has been given and we have set aside the funds necessary for such redemption in trust for the benefit of the holders of any shares called for redemption, then from and after the redemption date, dividends will cease to accrue on such shares, and all rights of the holders of such shares will terminate, except the right to receive the redemption price.

Voting Rights. Holders of preferred stock will not have any voting rights, except as required by law or as indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless otherwise provided for under the terms of any series of preferred stock, no consent or vote of the holders of shares of preferred stock or any series thereof shall be required for any amendment to our certificate of

 

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incorporation that would increase the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof or decrease the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or the number of authorized shares of any series thereof (but not below the number of authorized shares of preferred stock or such series, as the case may be, then outstanding).

Conversion Rights. The terms and conditions, if any, upon which any series of preferred stock is convertible into our common stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating thereto. Such terms will include the number of shares of common stock into which the shares of preferred stock are convertible, the conversion price, rate or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at our option or at the option of the holders of the preferred stock, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption.

Transfer Agent and Registrar. The transfer agent and registrar for the preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Delaware Law and Our Charter and Bylaws

Delaware law contains, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws contain, provisions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of us. These provisions, which are summarized below, are expected to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors.

Staggered Board; Removal of Directors

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws divide our board of directors into three classes with staggered three-year terms. In addition, a director may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in an annual election of directors. Any vacancy on our board of directors, including a vacancy resulting from an enlargement of our board of directors, may be filled only by vote of a majority of our directors then in office. The classification of our board of directors and the limitations on the removal of directors and filling of vacancies could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, control of our company.

Stockholder Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings

Our certificate of incorporation provides that any action required or permitted to be taken by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of such holders and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such holders. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws also provide that, except as otherwise required by law, special meetings of our stockholders can only be called by our chairman of the board, our chief executive officer or our board of directors.

Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals

Our bylaws establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors. Stockholders at an annual meeting may consider proposals or nominations specified in the notice of meeting or brought before the meeting by or at the direction of our board of directors or by a stockholder of record on the record date for the meeting who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has delivered timely written notice in proper form to our secretary of the stockholder’s intention to bring such business before the meeting. These provisions could have the effect of delaying until the next stockholder meeting stockholder actions that are favored by the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities.

 

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Delaware Business Combination Statute

We are subject to Section 203 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware. Subject to certain exceptions, Section 203 prevents a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with any “interested stockholder” for three years following the date that the person became an interested stockholder, unless the interested stockholder attained such status with the approval of our board of directors or unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. A “business combination” includes, among other things, a merger or consolidation involving us and the “interested stockholder” and the sale of more than 10% of our assets. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.

Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

The General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, requires a greater percentage. Our bylaws may be amended or repealed by a majority vote of our board of directors or by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors. In addition, the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the votes that all of our stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors is required to amend or repeal or to adopt any provisions inconsistent with any of the provisions of our certificate of incorporation described above under “—Staggered Board; Removal of Directors” and “—Stockholder Action by Written Consent; Special Meetings.”

Exclusive Forum Selection

Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of our company, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or employees to our company or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim against our company arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or our certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or (4) any action asserting a claim against our company governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Although our certificate of incorporation contains the choice of forum provision described above, it is possible that a court could rule that such a provision is inapplicable for a particular claim or action or that such provision is unenforceable.

Authorized but Unissued Shares

Our authorized but unissued shares of common stock and preferred stock are available for future issuance without stockholder approval, subject to any limitations imposed by the listing requirements of the Nasdaq Global Market. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate finance transactions, acquisitions and employee benefit plans. The existence of authorized but unissued and unreserved common stock and preferred stock could make it more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a proxy contest, tender offer, merger or otherwise.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities that may be offered under this prospectus, in any combination. The following, together with the additional information we may include in the applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any units we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately at any time, or at any time before a specified date.

Any applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

 

   

the material terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

   

any material provisions relating to the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

   

any material provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described above.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the accompanying prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the expiration date of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the following terms of any warrants:

 

   

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

   

whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units;

 

   

whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

   

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

   

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

   

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

   

the designation and terms of any equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of any debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the preferred stock with which the warrants are issued and, the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which any warrants issued as part of a unit and the related preferred stock, common stock or debt security will be separately transferable;

 

   

the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the anti-dilution provisions of, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price of, the warrants, if any;

 

   

any redemption or call provisions; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

 

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

Each debt security, warrant and unit will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, warrants or units represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Global Securities

We may issue the debt securities, warrants and units in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant or unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, warrant or unit agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, warrant or unit agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, warrant or unit

 

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agreement, the depositary for the global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants or units, represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, or any trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or any other agent of ours, or any agent of any trustee, warrant agent or unit agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell securities:

 

   

to or through underwriters;

 

   

to or through brokers or dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to one or more purchasers in negotiated sales or competitively bid transactions; or

 

   

through a block trade in which the broker or dealer engaged to handle the block trade will attempt to sell the securities as agent, but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act, and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

   

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price and the proceeds we will receive from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

   

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

 

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If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

   

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any

 

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date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed upon by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP.

EXPERTS

The financial statements incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report (which contains an explanatory paragraph relating to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described in Note 1 to the financial statements) of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

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PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

                , 2020

 

Sole Book-Running Manager

William Blair