Registration Statement No.333-264388
Filed Pursuant to Rule 433

 

Subject to Completion, dated October 4, 2022
Pricing Supplement to the Prospectus dated May 26, 2022,
the Prospectus Supplement dated May 26, 2022 and the Product Supplement dated September 22, 2022

 

 

 

US$ [ ]
Senior Medium-Term Notes, Series I
Buffer Enhanced Return Notes due November 30, 2023
Linked to the NASDAQ-100 Index®

 

· The notes are designed for investors who are seeking 200.00% leveraged positive return based on any appreciation in the level of the NASDAQ-100 Index® (the “Reference Asset”) , subject to the Maximum Redemption Amount (as defined below). Investors must be willing to accept that the payment at maturity will not exceed the Maximum Redemption Amount.
· The Maximum Redemption Amount is $1,150.00 for each $1,000 in principal amount (a 15.00% return on the notes).
· If the Reference Asset decreases by more than 15.00% from its Initial Level, investors will lose 1% of the principal amount for each 1% decrease in the level of the Reference Asset from its Initial Level to its Final Level in excess of 15.00%. In such a case, you will receive a cash amount at maturity that is less than the principal amount, and may lose up to 85.00% of your principal amount at maturity.
· Investing in the notes is not equivalent to a hypothetical direct investment in the Reference Asset.
· The notes do not bear interest. The notes will not be listed on any securities exchange.
· All payments on the notes are subject to the credit risk of Bank of Montreal.
· The notes will be issued in minimum denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000.
· The CUSIP number of the notes is 06374VAJ5.
· Our subsidiary, BMO Capital Markets Corp. (“BMOCM”), is the agent for this offering. See “Supplemental Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)” below.
· The notes will not be subject to conversion into our common shares or the common shares of any of our affiliates under subsection 39.2(2.3) of the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation Act (the “CDIC Act”).

 

Terms of the Notes:1

 

 Pricing Date:  October 26, 2022    Valuation Date:  November 27, 2023
 Settlement Date:  October 31, 2022    Maturity Date:  November 30, 2023

1Expected. See “Key Terms of the Notes” below for additional details.

 

  Price to Public1 Agent’s Commission1 Proceeds to Bank of Montreal1

Per Note

Total

100%

[ ]

1.93%

[ ]

98.07%

[ ]

 

1 The total “Agent’s Commission” and “Proceeds to Bank of Montreal” to be specified above will reflect the aggregate amounts at the time Bank of Montreal establishes its hedge positions on or prior to the Pricing Date, which may be variable and fluctuate depending on market conditions at such times. Certain dealers who purchased the notes for sale to certain fee-based advisory accounts may forego some or all of their selling concessions, fees or commissions. The public offering price for investors purchasing the notes in these accounts may be between $980.70 and $1,000 per $1,000 in principal amount. We or one of our affiliates may also pay a referral fee to certain dealers in connection with the distribution of the notes.

 

Investing in the notes involves risks, including those described in the “Selected Risk Considerations” section beginning on page P-5 hereof, the “Additional Risk Factors Relating to the Notes” section beginning on page PS-5 of the product supplement, and the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page S-1 of the prospectus supplement and on page 8 of the prospectus.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these notes or passed upon the accuracy of this document, the product supplement, the prospectus supplement or the prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense. The notes will be our unsecured obligations and will not be savings accounts or deposits that are insured by the United States Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Deposit Insurance Fund, the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other governmental agency or instrumentality or other entity.

 

On the date hereof, based on the terms set forth above, the estimated initial value of the notes is $960.20 per $1,000 in principal amount. The estimated initial value of the notes on the Pricing Date may differ from this value but will not be less than $910.00 per $1,000 in principal amount. However, as discussed in more detail below, the actual value of the notes at any time will reflect many factors and cannot be predicted with accuracy.

 

BMO CAPITAL MARKETS

 

     
 

 

Key Terms of the Notes:

 

Reference Asset:  The NASDAQ-100 Index® (ticker symbol "NDX") . See "The Reference Asset" below for additional information.
   
Payment at Maturity:

If the Final Level of the Reference Asset is greater than its Initial Level and the Percentage Change of the Reference Asset multiplied by the Upside Leverage Factor is greater than or equal to the Maximum Return, the payment at maturity for each $1,000 in principal amount of the notes will equal the Maximum Redemption Amount.

 

If the Final Level of the Reference Asset is greater than its Initial Level and the Percentage Change of the Reference Asset multiplied by the Upside Leverage Factor is less than the Maximum Return, then the amount that investors will receive at maturity for each $1,000 in principal amount of the notes will equal:

 

$1,000 + [$1,000 x (Percentage Change of the Reference Asset x Upside Leverage Factor)]

 

If the Final Level of the Reference Asset is less than its Initial Level, but is not less than its Buffer Level, then investors will, for each $1,000 in principal amount of the notes, receive the principal amount of $1,000 and no additional return.

 

If the Final Level of the Reference Asset is less than its Buffer Level, then the amount that investors will receive at maturity for each $1,000 in principal amount of the notes will equal:

 

$1,000 + [$1,000 x (Percentage Change of the Reference Asset + Buffer Percentage)]

 

In this case, investors will lose 1% of their principal for each 1% that the Final Level of the Reference Asset declines from its Initial Level in excess of 15.00%. You may lose up to 85.00% of the principal amount of your notes.

   
Upside Leverage Factor: 200.00%
   
Maximum Return: 15.00%
   
Maximum Redemption Amount: The payment at maturity will not exceed the Maximum Redemption Amount of $1,150.00 per $1,000 in principal amount of the notes.
   
Percentage Change:

The quotient, expressed as a percentage, of the following formula:

 

(Final Level - Initial Level)
Initial Level

   
Initial Level:2 The closing level of the Reference Asset on the Pricing Date.
   
Buffer Level:2 85.00% of the Initial Level.
   
Buffer Percentage:2 15.00% Accordingly, you will receive the principal amount of your notes at maturity only if the level of the Reference Asset does not decrease by more than 15.00% over the term of the notes. If the Final Level of the Reference Asset is less than its Buffer Level, you will receive less than the principal amount of your notes at maturity and you could lose up to 85.00% of the principal amount of your notes.
   
Final Level: The closing level of the Reference Asset on the Valuation Date.
   
Pricing Date:1 October 26, 2022
   
Settlement Date:1 October 31, 2022
   
Valuation Date:1 November 27, 2023
   
Maturity Date:1 November 30, 2023
   
Calculation Agent: BMOCM
   
Selling Agent: BMOCM

 

1 Expected and subject to the occurrence of a market disruption event, as described in the accompanying product supplement. If we make any change to the expected Pricing Date and Settlement Date, the Valuation Date and Maturity Date will be changed so that the stated term of the notes remains approximately the same.

 

2As determined by the calculation agent and subject to adjustment in certain circumstances. See “General Terms of the Notes — Adjustments to a Reference Asset that Is an Index” in the product supplement for additional information.

 

2
 

 

Payoff Example

 

The following table shows the hypothetical payout profile of an investment in the notes based on various hypothetical Final Levels (and the corresponding Percentage Change) of the Reference Asset, reflecting the 200.00% Upside Leverage Factor, Maximum Return of 15.00%, and Buffer Level of 85.00% of the Initial Level. Please see “Examples of the Hypothetical Payment at Maturity for a $1,000 Investment in the Notes” below for more detailed examples.

 

 

Hypothetical Percentage Change
of the Reference Asset

 

 

Participation in Percentage
Change

 

 

Hypothetical Return of the
Notes

 

 

10.00%

 

7.50%

 

 

200% Upside Exposure, subject to the Maximum Return

 

 

15.00%

 

15.00%

 

 

5.00%

 

3.00%

 

 

200% Upside Exposure

 

 

10.00%

 

6.00%

 

 

0%

 

-15%

 

 

Buffer Level of 85.00% of Initial Level

 

 

0%

 

0%

 

 

-25%

 

-35%

 

 

1x Loss Beyond Buffer Level

 

 

-10%

 

-20%

 

 

3
 

 

Additional Terms of the Notes

 

You should read this document together with the product supplement dated September 22, 2022, the prospectus supplement dated May 26, 2022 and the prospectus dated May 26, 2022. This document, together with the documents listed below, contains the terms of the notes and supersedes all other prior or contemporaneous oral statements as well as any other written materials including preliminary or indicative pricing terms, correspondence, trade ideas, structures for implementation, sample structures, fact sheets, brochures or other educational materials of ours or the agent. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters set forth in Additional Risk Factors Relating to the Notes in the product supplement, as the notes involve risks not associated with conventional debt securities. We urge you to consult your investment, legal, tax, accounting and other advisers before you invest in the notes.

 

You may access these documents on the SEC website at www.sec.gov as follows (or if such address has changed, by reviewing our filings for the relevant date on the SEC website):

 

Product supplement dated September 22, 2022:

https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/927971/000121465922011396/j922220424b2.htm

 

Prospectus supplement dated May 26, 2022 and prospectus dated May 26, 2022:

https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/0000927971/000119312522160519/d269549d424b5.htm

 

 

Our Central Index Key, or CIK, on the SEC website is 927971. As used in this document, "we", "us" or "our" refers to Bank of Montreal.

 

We have filed a registration statement (including a prospectus) with the SEC for the offering to which this document relates. Before you invest, you should read the prospectus in that registration statement and the other documents that we have filed with the SEC for more complete information about us and this offering. You may obtain these documents free of charge by visiting the SEC's website at http://www.sec.gov. Alternatively, we will arrange to send to you the prospectus (as supplemented by the prospectus supplement and product supplement) if you request it by calling our agent toll-free at 1-877-369-5412.

 

4
 

 

Selected Risk Considerations

 

An investment in the notes involves significant risks. Investing in the notes is not equivalent to investing directly in the Reference Asset. These risks are explained in more detail in the “Additional Risk Factors Relating to the Notes” section of the product supplement.

 

Risks Related to the Structure or Features of the Notes

 

· Your investment in the notes may result in a loss. — The notes do not guarantee any return of principal. If the Final Level is less than its Buffer Level, you will lose 1% of the principal amount for each 1% that the Final Level is less than the Initial Level in excess of the Buffer Percentage. In such a case, you will receive at maturity a cash payment that is less than the principal amount of the notes and may be significantly less than the principal amount of your notes. Accordingly, you could lose up to 85.00% of the principal amount of your notes.

· Your return on the notes is limited to the Maximum Redemption Amount, regardless of any appreciation in the levels of the Reference Asset. — The return on your notes will not be greater than the Maximum Redemption Amount. This will be the case even if the Percentage Change of the Reference Asset multiplied by the Upside Leverage Factor exceeds the Maximum Return.

· Your return on the notes may be lower than the return on a conventional debt security of comparable maturity. — The return that you will receive on your notes, which could be negative, may be less than the return you could earn on other investments. The notes do not provide for interest payments and the payment you receive at maturity, if any, may be less than the principal amount of the notes. Even if your return on the notes is positive, your return may be less than the return you would earn if you bought a conventional senior interest bearing debt security of ours with the same maturity or if you invested directly in the Reference Asset. Your investment may not reflect the full opportunity cost to you when you take into account factors that affect the time value of money.

 

Risks Related to the Reference Asset

 

· Owning the notes is not the same as a hypothetical direct investment in the Reference Asset or a security directly linked to the Reference Asset. — The return on your notes will not reflect the return you would realize if you made a hypothetical direct investment in the Reference Asset or the underlying securities of the Reference Asset or a security directly linked to the performance of the Reference Asset or the underlying securities of the Reference Asset and held that investment for a similar period. Your notes may trade quite differently from the Reference Asset. Changes in the level of the Reference Asset may not result in comparable changes in the market value of your notes. Even if the level of the Reference Asset increases during the term of the notes, the market value of the notes prior to maturity may not increase to the same extent. It is also possible for the market value of the notes to decrease while the level of the Reference Asset increases.

· You will not have any shareholder rights and will have no right to receive any shares of any company included in the Reference Asset at maturity. — Investing in your notes will not make you a holder of any securities included in the Reference Asset. Neither you nor any other holder or owner of the notes will have any voting rights, any right to receive dividends or other distributions, or any other rights with respect to such underlying securities.

· We have no affiliation with the index sponsor and will not be responsible for the index sponsor's actions. — The sponsor of the Reference Asset is not our affiliate and will not be involved in the offering of the notes in any way. Consequently, we have no control over the actions of the index sponsor, including any actions of the type that would require the calculation agent to adjust the payment to you at maturity. The index sponsor has no obligation of any sort with respect to the notes. Thus, the index sponsor has no obligation to take your interests into consideration for any reason, including in taking any actions that might affect the value of the notes. None of our proceeds from the issuance of the notes will be delivered to the index sponsor.

· You must rely on your own evaluation of the merits of an investment linked to the Reference Asset. — In the ordinary course of their businesses, our affiliates from time to time may express views on expected movements in the levels of the Reference Asset or the prices of the securities included in the Reference Asset. One or more of our affiliates have published, and in the future may publish, research reports that express views on the Reference Asset or these securities. However, these views are subject to change from time to time. Moreover, other professionals who deal in the markets relating to the Reference Asset at any time may have significantly different views from those of our affiliates. You are encouraged to derive information concerning the Reference Asset from multiple sources, and you should not rely on the views expressed by our affiliates. Neither the offering of the notes nor any views which our affiliates from time to time may express in the ordinary course of their businesses constitutes a recommendation as to the merits of an investment in the notes.

 

Risks Relating to the NASDAQ-100® Index

 

· An investment in the notes is subject to risks associated with foreign securities markets. — The NASDAQ-100® Index tracks the value of certain foreign equity securities. You should be aware that investments in securities linked to the value of foreign equity securities involve particular risks. The foreign securities markets comprising the NASDAQ-100® Index may have less liquidity and may be more volatile than U.S. or other securities markets and market developments may affect foreign markets differently from U.S. or other securities markets. Direct or indirect government intervention to stabilize these foreign securities markets, as well as cross-shareholdings in foreign companies, may affect trading prices and volumes in these markets. Also, there is generally less publicly available information about foreign companies than about those U.S. companies that are subject to the reporting requirements of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, and foreign companies are subject to accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards and requirements that differ from those applicable to U.S. reporting companies.
Prices of securities in foreign countries are subject to political, economic, financial and social factors that apply in those geographical regions. These factors, which could negatively affect those securities markets, include the possibility of recent or future changes in a foreign government’s economic and fiscal policies, the possible imposition of, or changes in, currency exchange laws or other laws or restrictions applicable to foreign companies or investments in foreign equity securities and the possibility of fluctuations in the rate of exchange between currencies, the possibility of outbreaks of hostility and political instability and the possibility of natural disaster or adverse public health developments in the region. Moreover, foreign economies may differ favorably or unfavorably from the U.S. economy in important respects such as growth of gross national product, rate of inflation, capital reinvestment, resources and self-sufficiency.

 

5
 

 

General Risk Factors

 

· Your investment is subject to the credit risk of Bank of Montreal. — Our credit ratings and credit spreads may adversely affect the market value of the notes. Investors are dependent on our ability to pay any amounts due on the notes, and therefore investors are subject to our credit risk and to changes in the market’s view of our creditworthiness. Any decline in our credit ratings or increase in the credit spreads charged by the market for taking our credit risk is likely to adversely affect the value of the notes.

· Potential conflicts. — We and our affiliates play a variety of roles in connection with the issuance of the notes, including acting as calculation agent. In performing these duties, the economic interests of the calculation agent and other affiliates of ours are potentially adverse to your interests as an investor in the notes. We or one or more of our affiliates may also engage in trading of securities included in the Reference Asset on a regular basis as part of our general broker-dealer and other businesses, for proprietary accounts, for other accounts under management or to facilitate transactions for our customers. Any of these activities could adversely affect the level of the Reference Asset and, therefore, the market value of, and the payments on, the notes. We or one or more of our affiliates may also issue or underwrite other securities or financial or derivative instruments with returns linked or related to changes in the performance of the Reference Asset. By introducing competing products into the marketplace in this manner, we or one or more of our affiliates could adversely affect the market value of the notes.

· Our initial estimated value of the notes will be lower than the price to public. — Our initial estimated value of the notes is only an estimate, and is based on a number of factors. The price to public of the notes will exceed our initial estimated value, because costs associated with offering, structuring and hedging the notes are included in the price to public, but are not included in the estimated value. These costs include any underwriting discount and selling concessions, the profits that we and our affiliates expect to realize for assuming the risks in hedging our obligations under the notes and the estimated cost of hedging these obligations. The initial estimated value of the notes may be as low as the amount indicated on the cover page hereof.

· Our initial estimated value does not represent any future value of the notes, and may also differ from the estimated value of any other party. — Our initial estimated value of the notes as of the date hereof is, and our estimated value as determined on the Pricing Date will be, derived using our internal pricing models. This value is based on market conditions and other relevant factors, which include volatility of the Reference Asset, dividend rates and interest rates. Different pricing models and assumptions could provide values for the notes that are greater than or less than our initial estimated value. In addition, market conditions and other relevant factors after the Pricing Date are expected to change, possibly rapidly, and our assumptions may prove to be incorrect. After the Pricing Date, the value of the notes could change dramatically due to changes in market conditions, our creditworthiness, and the other factors set forth herein and in the product supplement. These changes are likely to impact the price, if any, at which we or BMOCM would be willing to purchase the notes from you in any secondary market transactions. Our initial estimated value does not represent a minimum price at which we or our affiliates would be willing to buy your notes in any secondary market at any time.

· The terms of the notes are not determined by reference to the credit spreads for our conventional fixed-rate debt. — To determine the terms of the notes, we will use an internal funding rate that represents a discount from the credit spreads for our conventional fixed-rate debt. As a result, the terms of the notes are less favorable to you than if we had used a higher funding rate.

· Certain costs are likely to adversely affect the value of the notes. — Absent any changes in market conditions, any secondary market prices of the notes will likely be lower than the price to public. This is because any secondary market prices will likely take into account our then-current market credit spreads, and because any secondary market prices are likely to exclude all or a portion of any underwriting discount and selling concessions, and the hedging profits and estimated hedging costs that are included in the price to public of the notes and that may be reflected on your account statements. In addition, any such price is also likely to reflect a discount to account for costs associated with establishing or unwinding any related hedge transaction, such as dealer discounts, mark-ups and other transaction costs. As a result, the price, if any, at which BMOCM or any other party may be willing to purchase the notes from you in secondary market transactions, if at all, will likely be lower than the price to public. Any sale that you make prior to the Maturity Date could result in a substantial loss to you.

· Lack of liquidity. — The notes will not be listed on any securities exchange. BMOCM may offer to purchase the notes in the secondary market, but is not required to do so. Even if there is a secondary market, it may not provide enough liquidity to allow you to trade or sell the notes easily. Because other dealers are not likely to make a secondary market for the notes, the price at which you may be able to trade the notes is likely to depend on the price, if any, at which BMOCM is willing to buy the notes.

· Hedging and trading activities. — We or any of our affiliates have carried out or may carry out hedging activities related to the notes, including purchasing or selling shares of securities included in the Reference Asset, futures or options relating to the Reference Asset or securities included in the Reference Asset or other derivative instruments with return liked or related to changes in the performance on the Reference Asset or securities included in the Reference Asset. We or our affiliates may also trade in the securities included in the Reference Asset or instruments related to the Reference Asset or such securities from time to time. Any of these hedging or trading activities on or prior to the Pricing Date and during the term of the notes could adversely affect the payments on the notes.

· Many economic and market factors will influence the value of the notes. — In addition to the level of the Reference Asset and interest rates on any trading day, the value of the notes will be affected by a number of economic and market factors that may either offset or magnify each other, and which are described in more detail in the product supplement.

· Significant aspects of the tax treatment of the notes are uncertain. — The tax treatment of the notes is uncertain. We do not plan to request a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service or from any Canadian authorities regarding the tax treatment of the notes, and the Internal Revenue Service or a court may not agree with the tax treatment described herein.
The Internal Revenue Service has released a notice that may affect the taxation of holders of “prepaid forward contracts” and similar instruments. According to the notice, the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Treasury are actively considering whether the holder of such instruments should be required to accrue ordinary income on a current basis. While it is not clear whether the notes would be viewed as similar to such instruments, it is possible that any future guidance could materially and adversely affect the tax consequences of an investment in the notes, possibly with retroactive effect.

Please read carefully the section entitled "U.S. Federal Tax Information" herein, the section entitled "Supplemental Tax Considerations—Supplemental U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations" in the accompanying product supplement, the section entitled "United States Federal Income Taxation" in the accompanying prospectus and the section entitled "Certain Income Tax Consequences" in the accompanying prospectus supplement. You should consult your tax advisor about your own tax situation.

 

6
 

 

Examples of the Hypothetical Payment at Maturity for a $1,000 Investment in the Notes

 

The following table illustrates the hypothetical payments on a note at maturity. The hypothetical payments are based on a $1,000 investment in the note, a hypothetical Initial Level of 100.00, a hypothetical Buffer Level of 85.00 (85.00% of the hypothetical initial level), the Maximum Return of 15.00%, the Maximum Redemption Amount of $1,150.00, and a range of hypothetical Final Levels and the effect on the payment at maturity.

 

The hypothetical examples shown below are intended to help you understand the terms of the notes. The actual cash amount that you will receive at maturity will depend upon the Final Level of the Reference Asset. You may lose some or all of the principal amount at maturity.

 

 

 

Hypothetical Final Level Hypothetical Final Level
Expressed as a Percentage of the
Initial Level
Hypothetical Payment at
Maturity
Hypothetical Return on the Notes
200.00 200.00% $1,150.00 15.00%
180.00 180.00% $1,150.00 15.00%
160.00 160.00% $1,150.00 15.00%
140.00 140.00% $1,150.00 15.00%
120.00 120.00% $1,150.00 15.00%
107.50 107.50% $1,150.00 15.00%
105.00 105.00% $1,100.00 10.00%
100.00 100.00% $1,000.00 0.00%
95.00 95.00% $1,000.00 0.00%
90.00 90.00% $1,000.00 0.00%
85.00 85.00% $1,000.00 0.00%
84.99 84.99% $999.90 -0.01%
80.00 80.00% $950.00 -5.00%
40.00 40.00% $550.00 -45.00%
20.00 20.00% $350.00 -65.00%
0.00 0.00% $150.00 -85.00%

The following examples illustrate how the returns set forth in the table above are calculated.

 

Example 1: The level of the Reference Asset decreases from the hypothetical Initial Level of 100.00 to a hypothetical Final Level of 80.00, representing a Percentage Change of –20.00%. Because the Percentage Change of the Reference Asset is negative and its hypothetical Final Level is less than its Buffer Level, the investor receives a payment at maturity of $950.00 per $1,000 in principal amount of the notes, calculated as follows:

 

$1,000 + [$1,000 x (–20.00% + 15.00%)] = $950.00

 

Example 2: The level of the Reference Asset decreases from the hypothetical Initial Level of 100.00 to a hypothetical Final Level of 95.00, representing a Percentage Change of –5%. Although the Percentage Change of the Reference Asset is negative, because its hypothetical Final Level is greater than its Buffer Level, the investor receives a payment at maturity equal to the principal amount of the notes.

 

Example 3: The level of the of the Reference Asset increases from the hypothetical Initial Level of 100.00 to a hypothetical Final Level of 105.00, representing a Percentage Change of 5.00%. Because the hypothetical Final Level of the Reference Asset is greater than its hypothetical Initial Level and the Percentage Change multiplied by the Upside Leverage Factor does not exceed the Maximum Return, the investor receives a payment at maturity of $1,100.00 per $1,000 in principal amount of the notes, calculated as follows:

 

$1,000 + $1,000 x (5.00% x 200.00%) = $1,100.00

 

Example 4: The level of the Reference Asset increases from the hypothetical Initial Level of 100.00 to a hypothetical Final Level of 120.00, representing a Percentage Change of 20.00%. Because the hypothetical Final Level of the Reference Asset is greater than its hypothetical Initial Level, and the Percentage Change multiplied by the Upside Leverage Factor exceeds the Maximum Return, the investor receives a payment at maturity of $1,150.00 per $1,000 in principal amount of the notes (the Maximum Redemption Amount). The return on the notes in this example is less than the Percentage Change of the Reference Asset.

 

7
 

 

U.S. Federal Tax Information

 

By purchasing the notes, each holder agrees (in the absence of a change in law, an administrative determination or a judicial ruling to the contrary) to treat each note as a pre-paid derivative contract for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In the opinion of our counsel, Mayer Brown LLP, it would generally be reasonable to treat the notes as pre-paid derivative contracts in respect of the Reference Asset(s) for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of your investment in the notes are uncertain and the Internal Revenue Service could assert that the notes should be taxed in a manner that is different from that described in the preceding sentence. Please see the discussion in the product supplement dated September 22, 2022 under “Supplemental Tax Considerations—Supplemental U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Notes Treated as Pre-Paid Derivative Contracts,” which applies to the notes.

 

8
 

 

Supplemental Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)

 

BMOCM will purchase the notes from us at a purchase price reflecting the commission set forth on the cover hereof. BMOCM has informed us that, as part of its distribution of the notes, it will reoffer the notes to other dealers who will sell them. Each such dealer, or each additional dealer engaged by a dealer to whom BMOCM reoffers the notes, will receive a commission from BMOCM, which will not exceed the commission set forth on the cover page. We or one of our affiliates may also pay a referral fee to certain dealers in connection with the distribution of the notes. 

 

Certain dealers who purchase the notes for sale to certain fee-based advisory accounts may forego some or all of their selling concessions, fees or commissions. The public offering price for investors purchasing the notes in these accounts may be less than 100% of the principal amount, as set forth on the cover page of this document. Investors that hold their notes in these accounts may be charged fees by the investment advisor or manager of that account based on the amount of assets held in those accounts, including the notes. 

 

We will deliver the notes on a date that is greater than two business days following the pricing date. Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the notes more than two business days prior to the issue date will be required to specify alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement. 

 

We own, directly or indirectly, all of the outstanding equity securities of BMOCM, the agent for this offering. In accordance with FINRA Rule 5121, BMOCM may not make sales in this offering to any of its discretionary accounts without the prior written approval of the customer. 

 

We reserve the right to withdraw, cancel or modify the offering of the notes and to reject orders in whole or in part. You may cancel any order for the notes prior to its acceptance. 

 

You should not construe the offering of the notes as a recommendation of the merits of acquiring an investment linked to the Reference Asset or as to the suitability of an investment in the notes. 

 

BMOCM may, but is not obligated to, make a market in the notes. BMOCM will determine any secondary market prices that it is prepared to offer in its sole discretion. 

 

We may use the final pricing supplement relating to the notes in the initial sale of the notes. In addition, BMOCM or another of our affiliates may use the final pricing supplement in market-making transactions in any notes after their initial sale. Unless BMOCM or we inform you otherwise in the confirmation of sale, the final pricing supplement is being used by BMOCM in a market-making transaction.

 

For a period of approximately three months following issuance of the notes, the price, if any, at which we or our affiliates would be willing to buy the notes from investors, and the value that BMOCM may also publish for the notes through one or more financial information vendors and which could be indicated for the notes on any brokerage account statements, will reflect a temporary upward adjustment from our estimated value of the notes that would otherwise be determined and applicable at that time. This temporary upward adjustment represents a portion of (a) the hedging profit that we or our affiliates expect to realize over the term of the notes and (b) any underwriting discount and the selling concessions paid in connection with this offering. The amount of this temporary upward adjustment will decline to zero on a straight-line basis over the three-month period. 

 

9
 

 

Additional Information Relating to the Estimated Initial Value of the Notes

 

Our estimated initial value of the notes on the date hereof , and that will be set forth on the cover page of the final pricing supplement relating to the notes, equals the sum of the values of the following hypothetical components:

 

· a fixed-income debt component with the same tenor as the notes, valued using our internal funding rate for structured notes; and 

· one or more derivative transactions relating to the economic terms of the notes. 

 

The internal funding rate used in the determination of the initial estimated value generally represents a discount from the credit spreads for our conventional fixed-rate debt. The value of these derivative transactions is derived from our internal pricing models. These models are based on factors such as the traded market prices of comparable derivative instruments and on other inputs, which include volatility, dividend rates, interest rates and other factors. As a result, the estimated initial value of the notes on the Pricing Date will be determined based on the market conditions on the Pricing Date. 

 

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The Reference Asset

 

All disclosures contained in this pricing supplement regarding the Reference Asset, including, without limitation, their make-up, method of calculation, and changes in their components and their historical closing levels, have been derived from publicly available information prepared by the applicable sponsor. The information reflects the policies of, and is subject to change by, the sponsor. The sponsor owns the copyrights and all rights to the Reference Asset. The sponsor is under no obligation to continue to publish, and may discontinue publication of, the Reference Asset. Neither we nor BMO Capital Markets Corp. accepts any responsibility for the calculation, maintenance or publication of and Reference Asset or any successor. We encourage you to review recent levels of the Reference Asset prior to making an investment decision with respect to the notes.

 

The NASDAQ-100® Index

 

The NASDAQ-100 Index® is a modified market capitalization-weighted index of 100 of the largest stocks of both U.S. and non-U.S. non-financial companies listed on The NASDAQ Stock Market based on market capitalization. It does not contain securities of financial companies, including investment companies. The NASDAQ-100 Index® which includes companies across a variety of major industry groups, was launched on January 31, 1985, with a base index value of 250.00. On January 1, 1994, the base index value was reset to 125.00. The NASDAQ-100 Index® composition is reviewed on an annual basis in December. Nasdaq, Inc. publishes the NASDAQ-100 Index®. Current information regarding the market value of the Nasdaq-100 Index® is available from Nasdaq, Inc. as well as numerous market information services.

 

The share weights of the component securities of the Nasdaq-100 Index® at any time are based upon the total shares outstanding in each of those securities and are additionally subject, in certain cases, to rebalancing. Accordingly, each underlying stock’s influence on the level of the NASDAQ-100 Index® is directly proportional to the value of its share weight.

 

Index Calculation

 

At any moment in time, the level of the NASDAQ-100 Index® equals the aggregate value of the then-current share weights of each of the component securities, which are based on the total shares outstanding of each such component security, multiplied by each such security’s respective last sale price on The NASDAQ Stock Market (which may be the official closing price published by The NASDAQ Stock Market), and divided by a scaling factor (the “divisor”), which becomes the basis for the reported level of the NASDAQ-100 Index®. The divisor serves the purpose of scaling such aggregate value to a lower order of magnitude, which is more desirable for reporting purposes.

 

Underlying Stock Eligibility Criteria and Annual Ranking Review

 

Initial Eligibility Criteria

 

To be eligible for initial inclusion in the NASDAQ-100 Index®, a security must be listed on The NASDAQ Stock Market and meet the following criteria:

 

· the security’s U.S. listing must be exclusively on the NASDAQ Global Select Market or the NASDAQ Global Market;

· the security must be issued by a non-financial company (any industry other than financials) according to the Industry Classification Benchmark (ICB);

· the security may not be issued by an issuer currently in bankruptcy proceedings;

· the security must generally be a common stocks, ordinary shares, American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), or tracking stock (closed-end funds, convertible debentures, exchange traded funds, limited liability companies, limited partnership interests, preferred stocks, rights, shares or units of beneficial interests, warrants, units and other derivative securities are not included in the NASDAQ-100 Index®, nor are the securities of investment companies). Companies organized as Real Estate Investment Trusts (“REITs”) are not eligible for index inclusion. If the security is a depositary receipt representing a security of a non-U.S. issuer, then references to the "issuer" are references to the underlying security and the total shares outstanding (“TSO”) is the actual depositary shares outstanding as reported by the depositary banks;

· the security must have a three-month average daily trading volume of at least 200,000 shares;

· if the security is issued by an issuer organized under the laws of a jurisdiction outside the United States, it must have listed options on a recognized market in the United States or be eligible for listed-options trading on a recognized options market in the United States;

· the issuer of the security may not have entered into a definitive agreement or other arrangement that would make it ineligible for index inclusion and where the transaction is imminent as determined by the Index Management Committee;

· the issuer of the security may not have annual financial statements with an audit opinion that is currently withdrawn; and

· the issuer of the security must have “seasoned” on the NASDAQ Stock Market or another recognized market (generally, a company is considered to be seasoned if it has been listed on a market for at least three full months, excluding the first month of initial listing).

 

Continued Eligibility Criteria

 

In addition, to be eligible for continued inclusion in the NASDAQ-100 Index® the following criteria apply:

 

· the security’s U.S. listing must be exclusively on the NASDAQ Global Select Market or the NASDAQ Global Market;

· the security must be issued by a non-financial company;

· the security may not be issued by an issuer currently in bankruptcy proceedings;

· the security must have an average daily trading volume of at least 200,000 shares in the previous three-month trading period as measured annually during the ranking review process described below;

 

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· if the issuer of the security is organized under the laws of a jurisdiction outside the United States, then such security must have listed options on a recognized market in the United States or be eligible for listed-options trading on a recognized options market in the United States, as measured annually during the ranking review process;

· the issuer of the security may not have entered into a definitive agreement or other arrangement that would likely result in the security no longer being eligible;

· the security must have an adjusted market capitalization equal to or exceeding 0.10% of the aggregate adjusted market capitalization of the NASDAQ-100 Index® at each month-end. In the event that a company does not meet this criterion for two consecutive month-ends, it will be removed from the NASDAQ-100 Index® effective after the close of trading on the third Friday of the following month; and

· the issuer of the security may not have annual financial statements with an audit opinion that is currently withdrawn.

 

These eligibility criteria may be revised from time to time by Nasdaq, Inc. without regard to the notes.

 

Annual Ranking Review

 

The component securities are evaluated on an annual basis (the “Ranking Review”), except under extraordinary circumstances, which may result in an interim evaluation, as follows. Securities that meet the applicable eligibility criteria are ranked by market value. Eligible securities that are already in the NASDAQ-100 Index® and that are ranked in the top 100 eligible securities (based on market capitalization) are retained in the NASDAQ-100 Index®. A security that is ranked 101 to 125 is also retained, provided that such security was ranked in the top 100 eligible securities as of the previous Ranking Review or was added to the NASDAQ-100 Index® subsequent to the previous Ranking Review. Securities not meeting such criteria are replaced. The replacement securities chosen are those eligible securities not currently in the NASDAQ-100 Index® that have the largest market capitalization. The data used in the ranking includes end of October market data and is updated for total shares outstanding submitted in a publicly filed SEC document via EDGAR through the end of November.

 

Replacements are made effective after the close of trading on the third Friday in December. Moreover, if at any time during the year other than the Ranking Review, a component security is determined by NASDAQ OMX to become ineligible for continued inclusion in the NASDAQ-100 Index®, the security will be replaced with the largest market capitalization security meeting the eligibility criteria listed above and not currently included in the NASDAQ-100 Index®. Issuers that are added as a result of a spin-off are not replaced until after they have been included in a reconstitution.

 

Index Maintenance

 

In addition to the Ranking Review, the securities NASDAQ-100 Index® are monitored every day by Nasdaq, Inc. with respect to changes in total shares outstanding arising from corporate events, such as stock dividends, stock splits and certain spin-offs and rights issuances. Nasdaq, Inc. has adopted the following quarterly scheduled weight adjustment procedures with respect to those changes. If the change in total shares outstanding arising from a corporate action is greater than or equal to 10%, that change will be made to the NASDAQ-100 Index® as soon as practical, normally within ten days of such corporate action. Otherwise, if the change in total shares outstanding is less than 10%, then all such changes are accumulated and made effective at one time on a quarterly basis after the close of trading on the third Friday in each of March, June, September and December.

 

In either case, the share weights for those component securities are adjusted by the same percentage amount by which the total shares outstanding have changed in those securities. Ordinarily, whenever there is a change in the share weights, a change in a component security, or a change to the price of a component security due to spin-off, rights issuances or special cash dividends, Nasdaq, Inc. adjusts the divisor to ensure that there is no discontinuity in the level of the NASDAQ-100 Index® that might otherwise be caused by any of those changes. All changes will be announced in advance.

 

Index Rebalancing

 

Under the methodology employed, on a quarterly basis coinciding with Nasdaq, Inc.’s quarterly scheduled weight adjustment procedures, the component securities are categorized as either “Large Stocks” or “Small Stocks” depending on whether their current percentage weights (after taking into account scheduled weight adjustments due to stock repurchases, secondary offerings or other corporate actions) are greater than, or less than or equal to, the average percentage weight in the NASDAQ-100 Index® (i.e., as a 100-stock index, the average percentage weight in the NASDAQ-100 Index® is 1%).

 

This quarterly examination will result in an index rebalancing if it is determined that: (1) the current weight of the single largest market capitalization component security is greater than 24% or (2) the “collective weight” of those component securities, the individual current weights of which are in excess of 4.5%, when added together, exceed 48%. In addition, Nasdaq, Inc. may conduct a special rebalancing at any time if it is determined to be necessary to maintain the integrity of the NASDAQ-100 Index®.

 

If either one or both of these weight distribution requirements are met upon quarterly review, or Nasdaq, Inc. determines that a special rebalancing is required, a weight rebalancing will be performed. First, relating to weight distribution requirement (1) above, if the current weight of the single largest component security exceeds 24%, then the weights of all Large Stocks will be scaled down proportionately towards 1% by enough of an amount for the adjusted weight of the single largest component security to be set to 20%. Second, relating to weight distribution requirement (2) above, for those component securities whose individual current weights or adjusted weights in accordance with the preceding step are in excess of 4.5%, if their “collective weight” exceeds 48%, then the weights of all Large Stocks will be scaled down proportionately towards 1% by just enough amount for the “collective weight,” so adjusted, to be set to 40%.

 

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The aggregate weight reduction among the Large Stocks resulting from either or both of the above rescalings will then be redistributed to the Small Stocks in the following iterative manner. In the first iteration, the weight of the largest Small Stock will be scaled upwards by a factor which sets it equal to the average Index weight of 1.0%. The weights of each of the smaller remaining Small Stocks will be scaled up by the same factor, reduced in relation to each stock’s relative ranking among the Small Stocks, such that the smaller the component security in the ranking, the less the scale-up of its weight. This is intended to reduce the market impact of the weight rebalancing on the smallest component securities in the NASDAQ-100 Index®.

 

In the second iteration, the weight of the second largest Small Stock, already adjusted in the first iteration, will be scaled upwards by a factor which sets it equal to the average index weight of 1%. The weights of each of the smaller remaining Small Stocks will be scaled up by this same factor, reduced in relation to each stock’s relative ranking among the Small Stocks, such that, once again, the smaller the component stock in the ranking, the less the scale-up of its weight.

 

Additional iterations will be performed until the accumulated increase in weight among the Small Stocks exactly equals the aggregate weight reduction among the Large Stocks from rebalancing in accordance with weight distribution requirement (1) and/or weight distribution requirement (2).

 

Then, to complete the rebalancing procedure, once the final percent weights of each of the component securities are set, the share weights will be determined anew based upon the last sale prices and aggregate capitalization of the NASDAQ-100 Index® at the close of trading on the last day in February, May, August and November. Changes to the share weights will be made effective after the close of trading on the third Friday in March, June, September and December, and an adjustment to the divisor will be made to ensure continuity of the NASDAQ-100 Index®.

 

Ordinarily, new rebalanced weights will be determined by applying the above procedures to the current share weights. However, Nasdaq, Inc. may from time to time determine rebalanced weights, if necessary, by instead applying the above procedure to the actual current market capitalization of the component securities. In those instances, Nasdaq, Inc. would announce the different basis for rebalancing prior to its implementation.

 

License Agreement

 

The notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by Nasdaq, Inc. or its affiliates (NASDAQ, with its affiliates, are referred to as the “Corporations”). The Corporations have not passed on the legality or suitability of, or the accuracy or adequacy of descriptions and disclosures relating to, the notes. The Corporations make no representation or warranty, express or implied to the owners of the notes or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in securities generally or in the notes particularly, or the ability of the NASDAQ-100 Index® to track general stock market performance. The Corporations' only relationship to the Issuer (“Licensee”) is in the licensing of the Nasdaq®, the NASDAQ-100 Index®, and certain trade names of the Corporations and the use of the NASDAQ-100 Index® which is determined, composed and calculated by NASDAQ without regard to Licensee or the notes. NASDAQ has no obligation to take the needs of the Licensee or the owners of the notes into consideration in determining, composing or calculating the NASDAQ-100 Index®. The Corporations are not responsible for and have not participated in the determination of the timing of, prices at, or quantities of the notes to be issued or in the determination or calculation of the equation by which the notes are to be converted into cash. The Corporations have no liability in connection with the administration, marketing or trading of the notes.

 

THE CORPORATIONS DO NOT GUARANTEE THE ACCURACY AND/OR UNINTERRUPTED CALCULATION OF NASDAQ-100 Index® OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN, THE CORPORATIONS MAKE NO WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AS TO RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED BY LICENSEE, OWNERS OF THE NOTES, OR ANY OTHER PERSON OR ENTITY FROM THE USE OF THE NASDAQ-100 Index® OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. THE CORPORATIONS MAKE NO EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE WITH RESPECT TO THE NASDAQ-100 Index® OR ANY DATA INCLUDED THEREIN. WITHOUT LIMITING ANY OF THE FOREGOING, IN NO EVENT SHALL THE CORPORATIONS HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY LOST PROFITS OR SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF NOTIFIED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

 

 

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