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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549

FORM 10-K

           ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

           TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     

Commission File Number 001-11350

CTO REALTY GROWTH, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Maryland

59-0483700

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

1140 N. Williamson Blvd., Suite 140

Daytona Beach, Florida

32114

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code

(386) 274-2202

SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OF THE ACT

Title of each class:

    

Trading Symbol

    

Name of each exchange on which registered:

Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share

CTO

NYSE

6.375% Series A Cumulative Redeemable

Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value per share

CTO PrA

NYSE

SECURITIES REGISTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(g) OF THE ACT:

NONE

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    YES      NO  

At June 30, 2021, the aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $305,315,253 based upon the last reported sale price on the NYSE on June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter. The determination of affiliate status is solely for the purpose of this report and shall not be construed as an admission for the purposes of determining affiliate status.

The number of shares of the registrant’s Common Stock outstanding on February 17, 2022 was 5,968,590.

Registrant incorporates by reference into Part III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14) of this Annual Report on Form 10-K portions of CTO Realty Growth, Inc.’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) pursuant to Regulation 14A. The definitive Proxy Statement will be filed with the Commission not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    

    

Page #

PART I

Item 1.

BUSINESS

2

Item 1A.

RISK FACTORS

14

Item 1B.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

45

Item 2.

PROPERTIES

45

Item 3.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

45

Item 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

45

PART II

Item 5.

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

46

Item 6.

RESERVED

48

Item 7.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

49

Item 7A.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

64

Item 8.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

64

Item 9.

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

65

Item 9A.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

65

Item 9B.

OTHER INFORMATION

66

PART III

Item 10.

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS, AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

66

Item 11.

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

66

Item 12.

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

66

Item 13.

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

66

Item 14.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

66

PART IV

Item 15.

EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

67

Item 16.

FORM 10-K SUMMARY

67

SIGNATURES

73

PART I

When we refer to “we,” “us,” “our,” or “the Company,” we mean CTO Realty Growth, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. References to “Notes to Financial Statements” refer to the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements of CTO Realty Growth, Inc. included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the documents that are incorporated by reference, that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Also, when the Company uses any of the words “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” or similar expressions, the Company is making forward-looking statements. Management believes the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based upon present expectations and reasonable assumptions. However, the Company’s actual results could differ materially from those set forth in the forward-looking statements. Further, forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and the Company undertakes no obligation to update or revise such forward-looking statements to reflect changed assumptions, the occurrence of unanticipated events or changes to future operating results over time, unless required by law.  The risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those presented in our forward-looking statements, include, but are not limited to, the following:

we are subject to risks related to the ownership of commercial real estate that could affect the performance and value of our properties;
our business is dependent upon our tenants successfully operating their businesses, and their failure to do so could materially and adversely affect us;
competition that traditional retail tenants face from e-commerce retail sales, or the integration of brick and mortar stores with e-commerce retail operators, could adversely affect our business;
we operate in a highly competitive market for the acquisition of income properties and more established entities or other investors may be able to compete more effectively for acquisition opportunities than we can;
the loss of revenues from our income property portfolio or certain tenants would adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows;
our revenues include receipt of management fees and potentially incentive fees derived from our provision of management services to PINE and the loss or failure, or decline in the business or assets, of PINE could substantially reduce our revenues;
there are various potential conflicts of interest in our relationship with Alpine Income Property Trust, Inc. (“PINE”), including our executive officers and/or directors who are also officers and/or directors of PINE, which could result in decisions that are not in the best interest of our stockholders;
a prolonged downturn in economic conditions could adversely impact our business, particularly with regard to our ability to maintain revenues from our income-producing assets;
a part of our investment strategy is focused on investing in commercial loan and master lease investments which may involve credit risk;
we may suffer losses when a borrower defaults on a loan and the value of the underlying collateral is less than the amount due;
the Company’s real estate investments are generally illiquid;
if we are not successful in utilizing the like-kind exchange structure in deploying the proceeds from dispositions of income properties, or our like-kind exchange transactions are disqualified, we could incur significant taxes and our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely impacted;
the Company may be unable to obtain debt or equity capital on favorable terms, if at all, or additional borrowings may impact our liquidity or ability to monetize any assets securing such borrowings;
servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to service or pay our debt;
our operations and properties could be adversely affected in the event of natural disasters, pandemics, or other significant disruptions;
we may encounter environmental problems which require remediation or the incurrence of significant costs to resolve, which could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows;
failure to remain qualified as real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes would cause us to be taxed a regular corporation, which would substantially reduce funds available for distribution to stockholders;
the risk that the REIT requirements could limit our financial flexibility;
our limited experience operating as a REIT;
our ability to pay dividends consistent with the REIT requirements, and expectations as to timing and amounts of such dividends;
the ability of our board of directors (the “Board”) to revoke our REIT status without stockholder approval;

1

our exposure to changes in U.S. federal and state income tax laws, including changes to the REIT requirements; and
an epidemic or pandemic (such as the outbreak and worldwide spread of the novel coronavirus (the “COVID-19 Pandemic”)), and the measures that international, federal, state and local governments, agencies, law enforcement and/or health authorities implement to address it, may precipitate or materially exacerbate one or more of the above-mentioned and/or other risks and may significantly disrupt or prevent us from operating our business in the ordinary course for an extended period.

The Company describes the risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially in “Risk Factors” (Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K), “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” (Part II, Item 7A), and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations” (Part II, Item 7).

ITEM 1.              BUSINESS

DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS

We are a publicly traded, primarily retail-oriented, REIT that was founded in 1910. We own and manage, sometimes utilizing third-party property management companies, 22 commercial real estate properties in 10 states in the United States. As of December 31, 2021, we owned 9 single-tenant and 13 multi-tenant income-producing properties comprising 2.7 million square feet of gross leasable space.

In addition to our income property portfolio, as of December 31, 2021, our business included the following:

Management Services:

A fee-based management business that is engaged in managing PINE, see Note 6, “Related Party Management Services Business” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8.

Commercial Loan and Master Lease Investments:

A portfolio of two commercial loan investments and two commercial properties, which are included in the 22 commercial real estate properties above, whose leases are classified as commercial loan and master lease investments.

Real Estate Operations:

A portfolio of subsurface mineral interests associated with approximately 370,000 surface acres in 19 counties in the State of Florida (“Subsurface Interests”); and

An inventory of historically owned mitigation credits as well as mitigation credits produced by the Company’s mitigation bank. The mitigation bank owns a 2,500 acre parcel of land in the western part of Daytona Beach, Florida and, pursuant to a mitigation plan approved by the applicable state and federal authorities, produces mitigation credits that are sold to developers of land in the Daytona Beach area for the purpose of enabling the developers to obtain certain regulatory permits for property development (the “Mitigation Bank”). Prior to the Interest Purchase (hereinafter defined in Note 8, “Investment in Joint Ventures” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8) completed on September 30, 2021, the Company held a 30% retained interest in the entity that owns the Mitigation Bank.

On December 10, 2021, the entity that held approximately 1,600 acres of undeveloped land in Daytona Beach, Florida (the “Land JV”), of which the Company previously held a 33.5% retained interest, completed the sale of all of its remaining land holdings for $66.3 million to Timberline Acquisition Partners, LLC an affiliate of Timberline Real Estate Partners (the “Land JV Sale”). Proceeds to the Company after distributions to the other member of the Land JV, and before taxes, were $24.5 million. Prior to the completion of the Land JV Sale, the Company was engaged in managing the Land JV, as further described in Note 6, “Related Party Management Services Business” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8. As a result of the Land JV Sale and corresponding dissolution of the Land JV, the Company no longer holds a retained interest in the Land JV as of December 31, 2021.

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Our business also includes our investment in PINE. As of December 31, 2021, the fair value of our investment totaled $41.0 million, or 15.6% of PINE’s outstanding equity, including the units of limited partnership interest (“OP Units”) we hold in Alpine Income Property OP, LP (the “PINE Operating Partnership”), which are redeemable for cash, based upon the value of an equivalent number of shares of PINE common stock at the time of the redemption, or shares of PINE common stock on a one-for-one basis, at PINE’s election. Our investment in PINE generates investment income through the dividends distributed by PINE. In addition to the dividends we receive from PINE, our investment in PINE may benefit from any appreciation in PINE’s stock price, although no assurances can be provided that such appreciation will occur, the amount by which our investment will increase in value, or the timing thereof. Any dividends received from PINE are included in investment and other income (loss) on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.  

Discontinued Operations. The Company reports the historical financial position and results of operations of disposed businesses as discontinued operations when it has no continuing interest in the business. On October 16, 2019, the Company sold a controlling interest in its wholly owned subsidiary that held 5,300 acres of undeveloped land in Daytona Beach, Florida. On October 17, 2019, the Company sold its interest in the golf operations. For the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company has reported the historical financial position and the results of operations related to the Land JV and the golf operations as discontinued operations (see Note 25, “Assets and Liabilities Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8). The cash flows related to discontinued operations have been disclosed. There were no discontinued operations during the years ended December 31, 2021 or 2020.

The Company operates in four primary business segments: income properties, management services, commercial loan and master lease investments, and real estate operations. The identifiable assets and liabilities related to the discontinued real estate operations have been separately disclosed as discontinued real estate operations for the years presented.

The following is a summary of financial information regarding the Company’s business segments for the years ended December 31 (in thousands): 

    

2021

    

2020

    

2019

Revenues:

Income Properties

$

50,679

$

49,953

$

41,956

Management Services

3,305

2,744

304

Interest Income from Commercial Loan and Master Lease Investments

    

2,861

3,034

    

1,829

Real Estate Operations

13,427

650

852

Total Revenues

$

70,272

$

56,381

$

44,941

Operating Income (Loss):

Income Properties

$

36,864

$

37,965

$

34,955

Management Fee Income

3,305

2,744

304

Commercial Loan and Master Lease Investments

2,861

3,034

1,829

Real Estate Operations

4,812

(2,573)

748

General and Administrative Expenses

(11,202)

(11,567)

(9,818)

Impairment Charges

(17,599)

(9,147)

Depreciation and Amortization

(20,581)

(19,063)

(15,797)

Gain on Disposition of Assets

28,316

9,746

21,978

Gain (Loss) on Extinguishment of Debt

(3,431)

1,141

Total Operating Income

$

23,345

$

12,280

$

34,199

Identifiable Assets:

Income Properties

$

630,747

$

531,325

$

464,285

Management Services

1,653

700

381

Commercial Loan and Master Lease Investments

39,095

38,321

35,742

Real Estate Operations

26,512

59,717

65,555

Discontinued Real Estate Operations

833

833

Corporate and Other (1)

35,132

35,804

137,398

Total Assets

$

733,139

$

666,700

$

704,194

(1) Corporate and other assets consist primarily of cash and restricted cash, property, plant, and equipment related to the other operations, as well as the general and corporate operations.

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BUSINESS PLAN

Our business plan going forward is primarily focused on investing in income-producing real estate, with a focus on multi-tenant, primarily retail-oriented, properties. We may also self-develop multi-tenant income properties, as we have done in the past. We may also invest in commercial loans or similar financings secured by commercial real estate. We may acquire multi-tenant income properties, and possibly single-tenant net lease assets that fall outside our ROFO Agreement (hereinafter defined) with PINE, with proceeds from the sale of an income property currently in our portfolio, and because our current properties generally have low tax bases, we may seek to have the sale of the current income property qualify for income tax deferral through the like-kind exchange provisions under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). The low tax basis in our income property portfolio is the result of us having acquired the original land primarily in the early part of our more than 100-year history.

Our investment strategy seeks to acquire income properties, primarily multi-tenants,  which will continue to broaden the credit base of our lease tenants, diversify our income property portfolio geographically, with an emphasis on major markets and growth markets in the U.S., and diversify the type of income-producing properties.

Our access to sources of debt financing, particularly our borrowing capacity under our revolving credit facility (as amended and restated, the “Credit Facility”), also provide a source of capital for our investment strategy. Our strategy is to utilize leverage, when appropriate and necessary, and potentially proceeds from sales of income properties, the disposition or payoffs of our commercial loan and master lease investments, and certain transactions involving our Subsurface Interests, to acquire income properties. We may also acquire or originate commercial loan and master lease investments, invest in securities of real estate companies, or make other shorter-term investments. Our targeted investment classes may include the following:

Multi-tenant, primarily retail-oriented, properties in major metropolitan areas and growth markets, typically stabilized;
Single-tenant retail or other commercial, double or triple net leased, properties in major metropolitan areas and growth markets that are compliant with our commitments under the PINE ROFO Agreement;
Ground leases, whether purchased or originated by the Company, that are compliant with our commitments under the ROFO Agreement;
Self-developed retail or other commercial properties;
Commercial loan and master lease investments, whether purchased or originated by the Company, with loan terms of 1-10 years with strong risk-adjusted yields secured by property types to include hotel, retail, residential, land and industrial;
Select regional area investments using Company market knowledge and expertise to earn strong risk-adjusted yields; and
Real estate-related investment securities, including commercial mortgage-backed securities, preferred or common stock, and corporate bonds.

Our investments in income-producing properties are typically subject to long-term leases. For multi-tenant properties, each tenant typically pays its proportionate share of the aforementioned operating expenses of the property, although for such properties we typically incur additional costs for property management services. Single-tenant leases are typically in the form of triple or double net leases and ground leases. Triple-net leases generally require the tenant to pay property operating expenses such as real estate taxes, insurance, assessments and other governmental fees, utilities, repairs and maintenance, and capital expenditures.

INCOME PROPERTIES

We have pursued a strategy of investing in income-producing properties, when possible, by utilizing the proceeds from real estate transactions, including the disposition of income properties and non-income producing assets.

Our strategy for investing in income-producing properties is focused on factors including, but not limited to, long-term real estate fundamentals and target markets, including major markets or those markets experiencing significant economic growth. We employ a methodology for evaluating targeted investments in income-producing properties which includes an evaluation of: (i) the attributes of the real estate (e.g. location, market demographics, comparable properties in the market, etc.); (ii) an evaluation of the existing tenant(s) (e.g. credit-worthiness, property level sales, tenant rent levels compared to the market, etc.); (iii) other market-specific conditions (e.g. tenant industry, job and population growth in the

4

market, local economy, etc.); and (iv) considerations relating to the Company’s business and strategy (e.g. strategic fit of the asset type, property management needs, ability to use a Section 1031 like-kind exchange structure, etc.).

We believe investment in income-producing assets provides attractive opportunities for generally stable cash flows and increased returns over the long run through potential capital appreciation. In 2020, we experienced a short term decrease in cash from operations as our tenants were impacted by the COVID-19 Pandemic and certain tenants’ rents were abated or deferred during the year. A prolonged imposition of mandated closures or other social-distancing guidelines as a result of the COVID-19 Pandemic may adversely impact more our tenants’ ability to generate sufficient revenues, and could force additional tenants to default on their leases, or result in the bankruptcy or insolvency of tenants, which would diminish the rental revenue we receive under our leases. The rapid development and fluidity of the pandemic precludes any prediction as to the ultimate adverse impact on our business, however during the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company did not experience significant adverse effects related to the COVID-19 Pandemic.

During the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company acquired eight multi-tenant income properties for an aggregate purchase price of $249.1 million, or a total acquisition cost of $249.8 million including capitalized acquisition costs. Of the total acquisition cost, $78.0 million was allocated to land, $124.9 million was allocated to buildings and improvements, $49.7 million was allocated to intangible assets pertaining to the in-place lease value, leasing costs, and above market lease value, and $2.8 million was allocated to intangible liabilities for the below market lease value. The weighted average amortization period for the intangible assets and liabilities was 6.8 years at acquisition.

The properties acquired during the year ended December 31, 2021 are described below:

Tenant Description

    

Tenant Type

    

Property Location

Date of Acquisition

    

Property Square-Feet

Purchase Price
($000's)

    

Percentage Leased at Acquisition

    

Remaining Lease Term at Acquisition Date (in years)

Jordan Landing

Multi-Tenant

West Jordan, UT

03/02/21

170,996

$

20,000

100%

7.9

Eastern Commons

Multi-Tenant

Henderson, NV

03/10/21

133,304

18,500

96%

6.9

The Shops at Legacy

Multi-Tenant

Plano, TX

06/23/21

236,867

72,500

83%

6.9

Beaver Creek Crossings

Multi-Tenant

Apex, NC

12/02/21

320,732

70,500

97%

5.8

125 Lincoln & 150 Washington

Multi-Tenant

Santa Fe, NM

12/20/21

136,638

16,250

66%

2.7

369 N. New York Ave.

Multi-Tenant

Winter Park, FL

12/20/21

28,008

13,200

100%

5.0

The Exchange at Gwinnett

Multi-Tenant

Buford, GA

12/30/21

69,265

34,000

98%

10.7

Ashford Lane Outparcel (1)

Multi-Tenant

Atlanta, GA

12/30/21

15,681

4,100

19%

0.9

Total / Weighted Average

1,111,491

$

249,050

6.5

(1)

Represents a two-tenant outparcel to Ashford Lane, the Company’s multi-tenant income property located in Atlanta, Georgia.

During the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company sold one multi-tenant income property and 14 single-tenant income properties for a total disposition volume of $162.3 million. The sale of the properties generated aggregate gains of $28.2 million.

The income properties disposed of during the year ended December 31, 2021 are described below (in thousands):

Tenant Description

    

Tenant Type

Date of Disposition

Sales Price

Gain on Sale

World of Beer/Fuzzy's Taco Shop, Brandon, FL

Multi-Tenant

01/20/21

$

2,310

$

599

Moe's Southwest Grill, Jacksonville, FL (4)

Single-Tenant

02/23/21

2,541

109

Burlington, N. Richland Hills, TX

Single-Tenant

04/23/21

11,528

62

Staples, Sarasota, FL

Single-Tenant

05/07/21

4,650

662

CMBS Portfolio (1)

Single-Tenant

06/30/21

44,500

3,899

Chick-fil-A, Chandler, AZ (4)

Single-Tenant (2)

07/14/21

2,884

1,582

JPMorgan Chase Bank, Chandler, AZ (4)

Single-Tenant (2)

07/27/21

4,710

2,738

Fogo De Chao, Jacksonville, FL (4)

Single-Tenant (3)

09/02/21

4,717

866

Wells Fargo, Raleigh, NC

Single-Tenant

09/16/21

63,000

17,480

24 Hour Fitness, Falls Church, VA

Single-Tenant

12/16/21

21,500

212

Total

$

162,340

$

28,209

(1)

On June 30, 2021, the Company sold six single-tenant income properties (the “CMBS Portfolio”) to PINE for an aggregate purchase price of $44.5 million.

(2)

Represents a single-tenant outparcel to Crossroads Towne Center, the Company’s multi-tenant income property located in Chandler, Arizona.

(3)

Represents a single-tenant property at The Strand at St. Johns Town Center, the Company’s multi-tenant income property located in Jacksonville, Florida.

(4)

Property or outparcel represents a ground lease.

5

Our current portfolio of 9 single-tenant income properties generates $12.1 million of revenues from annualized straight-line base lease payments and had a weighted average remaining lease term of 25.3 years as of December 31, 2021. Our current portfolio of 13 multi-tenant properties generates $40.9 million of revenue from annualized straight-line base lease payments and had a weighted average remaining lease term of 7.0 years as of December 31, 2021.

As part of our overall strategy for investing in income-producing properties, we self-developed two single-tenant net lease restaurant properties on a six-acre beachfront parcel in Daytona Beach, Florida. The development was completed in January of 2018 and rent commenced from both tenants pursuant to their separate leases. On a limited basis, we have acquired and may continue to selectively acquire other real estate, either vacant land or land with existing structures, that we would demolish and develop into additional income properties. Our investments in vacant land or land with existing structures would target opportunistic acquisitions of select sites, which may be distressed, with an objective of having short investment horizons. Should we pursue such acquisitions, we may seek to partner with developers to develop these sites rather than self-develop the properties. As of December 31, 2021, the Company had invested $5.7 million, including raze and entitlement costs, to acquire six acres in downtown Daytona Beach that is located in an opportunity zone. During the three months ended December 31, 2021, the Company sold the six-acre parcel for a sales price of $6.25 million.

Our focus on acquiring income-producing investments includes a continual review of our existing income property portfolio to identify opportunities to recycle our capital through the sale of income properties based on, among other possible factors, the current or expected performance of the property and favorable market conditions. We sold 14 single-tenant income properties, including four ground leases, and one multi-tenant income property during the year ended December 31, 2021. As a result of entering the Exclusivity and Right of First Offer Agreement with PINE (the “ROFO Agreement”) which generally prevents us from investing in single-tenant net lease income properties, our income property investment strategy will be focused on multi-tenant, primarily retail-oriented, properties. We may pursue this strategy by monetizing certain of our single-tenant properties, and should we do so, we would seek to utilize the 1031 like-kind exchange structure to preserve the tax-deferred gain on the original transaction(s) that pertains to the replacement asset.

As of December 31, 2021, the Company owned 9 single-tenant and 13 multi-tenant income properties in 10 states. Following is a summary of these properties:

Tenant

    

City

    

State

    

Area
(Square Feet)

Carpenter Hotel (1)

Austin

TX

73,508

Chuy's

Jacksonville

FL

7,950

Crabby's Oceanside

Daytona Beach

FL

5,780

Fidelity

Albuquerque

NM

210,067

Firebirds Wood Fired Grill

Jacksonville

FL

6,948

General Dynamics

Reston

VA

64,319

LandShark Bar & Grill

Daytona Beach

FL

6,264

Party City Corporation

Oceanside

NY

15,500

Sabal Pavilion

Tampa

FL

120,500

9 Single-Tenant Properties

510,836

245 Riverside

Jacksonville

FL

136,853

Westcliff Shopping Center

Fort Worth

TX

136,185

The Strand at St. Johns Town Center

Jacksonville

FL

204,552

Crossroads Towne Center

Chandler

AZ

244,711

Ashford Lane

Atlanta

GA

285,052

Westland Gateway Plaza (1)

Hialeah

FL

108,029

Jordan Landing

West Jordan

UT

170,996

Eastern Commons

Henderson

NV

133,304

The Shops at Legacy

Plano

TX

236,867

Beaver Creek Crossings

Apex

NC

320,732

125 Lincoln & 150 Washington

Santa Fe

NM

136,638

369 N. New York Ave.

Winter Park

FL

28,008

The Exchange at Gwinnett

Buford

GA

69,265

13 Multi-Tenant Properties

2,211,192

22 Total Properties

2,722,028

(1)

The leases with the Master Tenant in Hialeah (“Westland Gateway Plaza”) and Carpenter Hotel have been recorded in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets as commercial loan and master lease investments due to tenant repurchase options (see Note 5, “Commercial Loan and Master Lease Investments” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8).

6

The weighted average economic and physical occupancy rates of our income properties at December 31st for each of the last three years on a portfolio basis are as follows:

Year

    

Single-Tenant Economic / Physical
Occupancy

    

Multi-Tenant Economic / Physical
Occupancy

2019

100% / 100%

82% / 82%

2020

100% / 100%

83% / 82%

2021

100% / 100%

86% / 85%

The information on lease expirations of our total income property portfolio for each of the ten years starting with 2022 is as follows:

Year

    

# of Tenant Leases
Expiring

    

Total Square Feet of Leases Expiring

    

Annual Rents
Expiring (1)
($000's)

    

Percentage of
Gross
Annual Rents
Expiring (1)

2022

31

94,608

$

2,486

5.0%

2023

27

187,901

$

4,270

8.6%

2024

19

67,840

$

1,764

3.6%

2025

21

134,236

$

3,334

6.7%

2026

39

372,844

$

6,694

13.5%

2027

20

255,919

$

3,650

7.4%

2028

20

471,931

$

9,173

18.5%

2029

16

227,747

$

4,220

8.5%

2030

10

93,318

$

1,783

3.6%

2031

34

111,280

$

2,551

5.1%

(1) Annual Rents consist of the in-place base rent to be received pursuant to each lease agreement (i.e. not on a straight-line basis).

The majority of leases have additional option periods beyond the original term of the lease, which typically are exercisable at the tenant’s option.

MANAGEMENT SERVICES BUSINESS

Our business plan includes generating revenue from managing PINE. Pursuant to the management agreement with PINE, the Company generates a base management fee equal to 1.5% of PINE’s total equity. The structure of the base fee provides the Company with an opportunity for the base fee to grow should PINE’s independent board members determine to raise additional equity capital in the future. The Company also has an opportunity to achieve additional cash flows as manager of PINE pursuant to the terms of an annual incentive fee, as further described in Note 6, “Related Party Management Services Business” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8.

Through December 31, 2021, the Company also generated management fees as the Land JV manager.  Pursuant to the terms of the operating agreement for the Land JV, the initial amount of the management fee was $20,000 per month. The management fee was evaluated quarterly, and as land sales occurred in the Land JV, the basis for our management fee was reduced as the management fee was based on the value of real property that remained in the Land JV. The monthly management fee as of December 31, 2021, was $10,000 per month.

COMMERCIAL LOAN AND MASTER LEASE INVESTMENTS

Our investments in commercial loans or similar structured finance investments, such as mezzanine loans or other subordinated debt, have been and are expected to continue to be secured by real estate or the borrower’s pledge of its ownership interest in the entity that owns the real estate. The loans we invest in or originate are for commercial real estate located in the United States and its territories, and are current or performing with either a fixed or floating rate. Some of these loans may be syndicated in either a pari-passu or senior/subordinated structure. Commercial first mortgage loans generally provide for a higher recovery rate due to their senior position in the underlying collateral. Commercial mezzanine loans are typically secured by a pledge of the borrower’s equity ownership in the underlying commercial real estate. Unlike a mortgage, a mezzanine loan is not secured by a lien on the property. An investor’s rights in a mezzanine loan are usually governed by an intercreditor agreement that provides holders with the rights to cure defaults and exercise control on certain decisions of any senior debt secured by the same commercial property.

7

2021 Commercial Loan and Master Lease Investments Portfolio. During the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company originated a loan in connection with the sale of a land parcel with an existing structure located in Daytona Beach, Florida. The principal loan amount of $0.4 million bears interest at a fixed rate of 10.00% and has an initial term of 1.5 years. As of December 31, 2021, the Company’s commercial loan and master lease investments portfolio included two commercial loan investments and two commercial properties with a carrying value of $39.1 million.

2020 Commercial Loan and Master Lease Investments Portfolio. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company invested in four commercial loans totaling $28.2 million including one $21.0 million master lease investment classified as a commercial loan and master lease investment due to future repurchase rights. In addition, the Company generated aggregate proceeds of $23.0 million resulting from (i) the sale of four of its commercial loan and master lease investments for $20.0 million, of which the Company recognized a loss of $0.4 million, (ii) the repayment of its $2.0 million loan provided to the buyer of the Company’s former golf operations, and (iii) a $1.0 million principal payment on a loan prior to its disposal. In connection with marketing the loan portfolio in advance of their upcoming maturities, the Company recognized an aggregate impairment charge on the loan portfolio of $1.9 million. As of December 31, 2020, the Company’s commercial loan and master lease investment portfolio included one commercial loan investment and two commercial properties with a carrying value of $38.3 million.

2019 Commercial Loan and Master Lease Investments Portfolio. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company invested $34.7 million on four commercial loans. Two were mortgage notes of $8.0 million and $8.25 million secured by a parcel of land in Orlando, Florida and a full-service hotel in Austin, Texas, respectively. In addition, in connection with the sale of the Company’s golf operations, the Company provided a $2.1 million loan to the buyer, with a maturity of one year and an interest rate of 7.5%. The Company also invested $16.3 million in the Carpenter Hotel which is classified as a commercial loan and master lease investment due to future repurchase rights. As of December 31, 2019, the Company’s commercial loan and master lease investment portfolio included the three loans with a carrying value of $34.6 million, a weighted average interest rate of 11.3% and a remaining duration to maturity of 0.5 years.

REAL ESTATE OPERATIONS – CONTINUING

Daytona Beach Development. During the three months ended September 30, 2021, the Company entered into a purchase and sale agreement to sell a six-acre parcel of land with existing structures in downtown Daytona Beach and other contiguous parcels (the “Daytona Beach Development”) for a sales price of $6.25 million, which sale was completed on December 28, 2021, resulting in a gain of $0.2 million. The Daytona Beach Development, representing a substantial portion of an entire city block in downtown Daytona Beach adjacent to International Speedway Boulevard, a major thoroughfare in Daytona Beach, was acquired by the Company for $4.1 million. Prior to its disposition, the Company incurred $1.6 million in raze and entitlement costs related to the Daytona Beach Development.

Mitigation Credits. The Company owns mitigation credits and mitigation credit rights with an aggregate cost basis of $24.7 million as of December 31, 2021, representing a $22.1 million increase from the balance as of December 31, 2020. During the three months ended September 30, 2021, the Company completed the Interest Purchase, hereinafter defined in Note 8, “Investment in Joint Ventures” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8. As a result of the Interest Purchase, as of September 30, 2021, the Company owns 100% of the Mitigation Bank, and therefore its underlying assets, which includes an inventory of mitigation credits. Certain of the mitigation credits are currently available for sale with the remainder to become available as they are released to the Mitigation Bank by the applicable state and federal authorities pursuant to the completion of phases of the approved mitigation plans (“Mitigation Credit Rights”). At the time of the Interest Purchase on September 30, 2021, the Company’s cost basis in the newly acquired mitigation credits and Mitigation Credit Rights totaled $0.9 million and $21.6 million, respectively, which is comprised of (i) $15.6 million of the $18.0 million Interest Purchase allocated to the mitigation credit assets and (ii) the $6.9 million previously recorded value of the retained interest in the entity that owns the Mitigation Bank.

Revenues and the cost of sales of mitigation credit sales are reported as revenues from, and direct costs of, real estate operations, respectively, in the consolidated statements of operations. During the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company sold six mitigation credits for proceeds of $0.7 million with a cost basis of $0.5 million. Additionally, two mitigation credits with a cost basis of $0.1 million were accrued for as an expense during the year ended December 31, 2021, as such credits are to be provided to buyers of land at no cost. Mitigation credit sales totaled less than $0.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2020, which sales were offset by an aggregate charge to cost of sales totaling $3.1 million, comprised of (i) 42 mitigation credits with a cost basis of $2.9 million that were provided at no cost to buyers, (ii) the Company’s purchase of two mitigation credits for $0.2 million, and (iii) 31 mitigation credits with a cost basis of less

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than $0.1 million transferred to buyers of land previously sold and of which costs were accrued for in prior years at the time of the original land sale. There were no mitigation credit sales during the year ended December 31, 2019. Additionally, during the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company transferred 13.31 federal mitigation credits to the permit related to the land that gave rise to an environmental restoration matter that has been fully resolved as of December 31, 2021. These credits had an aggregate cost basis of $0.1 million and are included in general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Subsurface Interests. As of December 31, 2021, the Company owns 370,000 acres of Subsurface Interests. The Company leases certain of the Subsurface Interests to mineral exploration firms for exploration. The Company’s subsurface operations consist of revenue from the leasing of exploration rights and in some instances, additional revenues from royalties applicable to production from the leased acreage, which revenues are included within real estate operations in the consolidated statements of operations. During the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company sold approximately 84,900 acres of subsurface oil, gas, and mineral rights for a sales price of $4.6 million. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company sold 345 acres of subsurface interests totaling $0.4 million. There were no subsurface sales during the year ended December 31, 2019.

Prior to September 2019, the Company leased certain of the Subsurface Interests to a mineral exploration organization for exploration. The lessee had previously exercised renewal options through the eighth year of the lease which ended on September 22, 2019. The Lessee elected not to renew the oil exploration lease beyond September 22, 2019. Lease income generated by the annual lease payments was recognized on a straight-line basis over the guaranteed lease term. For the year ended December 31, 2019, lease income of $0.6 million was recognized with no lease income recognized during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.

During the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, the Company also received oil royalties from operating oil wells on 800 acres under a separate lease with a separate operator. Revenues received from oil royalties totaled less than $0.1 million during each respective year.

The Company is not prohibited from selling any or all of its Subsurface Interests. The Company may release surface entry rights or other rights upon request of a surface owner for a negotiated release fee typically based on a percentage of the surface value. Should the Company complete a transaction to sell all or a portion of its Subsurface Interests or complete a release transaction, the Company may utilize the like-kind exchange structure in acquiring one or more replacement investments including income-producing properties. Cash payments for the release of surface entry rights totaled $0.1 million, $0.2 million, and $0.1 million during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively.

Land Impairments. There were no impairment charges on the Company’s undeveloped land holdings, or its income property portfolio, during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, or 2019. The $17.6 million impairment charge recognized during the year ended December 31, 2021, which is comprised of a $16.5 million charge during the three months ended June 30, 2021 and a $1.1 million charge during the three months ended December 31, 2021, is related to the Company’s previously held retained interest in the Land JV. The aggregate impairment charge of $17.6 million is a result of eliminating the investment in joint ventures based on the final proceeds received through distributions of the Land JV in connection with closing the sale of substantially all of the Land JV’s remaining land to Timberline Acquisition Partners, an affiliate of Timberline Real Estate Partners (“Timberline”), for a final sales price of $66.3 million.

Additionally, during the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company recognized an aggregate $7.2 million impairment charge comprised of a $0.1 million impairment charge on one of the land parcels included in the Daytona Beach Development and a $7.1 million impairment charge on the Company’s previously held retained interest in the Land LV. The $7.1 million impairment on the Company’s previously held retained interest in the Land JV was the result of a re-forecast of the anticipated undiscounted future cash flows to be received by the Company based on the estimated timing of future land sales from the Land JV.

Real Estate Operations – Discontinued Operations

Land JV. As previously noted, the Land JV, of which the Company previously held a 33.5% retained interest, completed the sale of all of its remaining land holdings on December 10, 2021. From its inception on October 16, 2019 through December 31, 2021, the Land JV completed $147.0 million in land sales, during which period the Company pursued land sales on the acreage that formerly comprised its land holdings on behalf of the partners of the Land JV (“JV

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Partners”) in its role as manager of the Land JV. Upon the closing of the sale of the Land JV's remaining assets to Timberline, the value of the Company’s previously held retained interest in the Land JV was realized in the form of proceeds, which totaled $24.5 million, to the Company after distributions to the other member of the Land JV.

2019 Land Sales. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company completed five land sales transactions, including: (i) the Magnetar Land Sale (hereinafter defined) for 5,300 acres of land, for total proceeds of $97.0 million; (ii) two transactions with Unicorp Development representing 23.6 acres and generating aggregate proceeds of $7.1 million; (iii) the sale of 38 acres for total proceeds of $0.7 million, and (iv) a land sale to NADG for 13 acres generating proceeds of $3.0 million. In total, during 2019, the Company sold 5,400 acres generating proceeds of $108.0 million. Including the $48.9 million recognized on the previously held retained interest in the Land JV, gains of $133.0 million, or $20.60 per share, after tax, were recognized.

REIT CONVERSION

On September 3, 2020, the Board unanimously approved a plan for the Company to elect to be subject to tax as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes commencing with its taxable year ended December 31, 2020. Subsequently, during a special meeting of stockholders held on November 9, 2020, the Company’s stockholders approved the merger of CTO Realty Growth, Inc., a Florida corporation (“CTO FL”), with and into CTO NEWCO REIT, Inc. (“CTO MD”), a wholly owned Maryland subsidiary of CTO FL (the “Merger”) in order to reincorporate in Maryland and facilitate its ongoing compliance with the REIT requirements by ensuring that certain standard REIT ownership limitations and transfer restrictions apply to CTO’s capital stock.

As of December 31, 2020, the Company had completed certain internal reorganization transactions necessary to begin operating in compliance with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes for the taxable year ended December 31, 2020.

In order to comply with certain REIT requirements set forth in the Code, we hold certain of our non-REIT assets and operations through taxable REIT subsidiaries (“TRSs”) and subsidiaries of TRSs. A TRS is a subsidiary of a REIT that is generally subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on its earnings. Net income from our TRSs either will be retained by our TRSs and used to fund their operations, or will be distributed to us, where it will either be reinvested by us into our business or available for distribution to our stockholders. However, distributions from our TRSs to us will not produce qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test applicable to REITs and thus may be limited.

To maintain its qualification as a REIT, the Company must meet certain organizational and operational requirements, including a requirement to distribute at least 90% of the Company’s annual REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding net capital gain, to its stockholders (which is computed and which does not necessarily equal net income as calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles). As a REIT, the Company is generally not subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax to the extent of its distributions to stockholders. If the Company fails to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, the Company will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on its taxable income at regular corporate rates and generally will not be permitted to qualify for treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification is lost unless the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) grants the Company relief under certain statutory provisions. Such an event could materially adversely affect the Company’s net income and net cash available for distribution to stockholders. Even if the Company qualifies for taxation as a REIT, the Company may be subject to state and local taxes on its income and property and federal income and excise taxes on its undistributed income.

In connection with the REIT conversion, on November 9, 2020, the Board declared a special distribution on its shares of common stock in an aggregate amount of $55.8 million (the “Special Distribution”), payable in cash and shares of the Company’s common stock, in order to distribute the Company’s previously undistributed earnings and profits attributable to taxable periods ended on or prior to December 31, 2019, as required in connection with the Company’s election to be taxable as a REIT. The Special Distribution was paid on December 21, 2020 to stockholders of record as of the close of business on November 19, 2020 through an aggregate of $5.6 million in cash and the issuance of 1,198,963 shares of the Company’s common stock.

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REIT CONVERSION MERGER

On January 29, 2021, in connection with the REIT conversion, the Company completed the Merger. As a result of the Merger, existing shares of CTO FL common stock were automatically converted, on a one-for-one basis, into shares of common stock of CTO MD. CTO MD is a corporation organized in the state of Maryland and has been renamed “CTO Realty Growth, Inc.”  CTO MD’s charter includes certain standard REIT provisions, including ownership limitations and transfer restrictions applicable to the Company’s capital stock. See Note 14, “Equity” for the Company’s disclosure related to the equity adjustments recorded during the three months ended March 31, 2021 in connection with the Merger.

In connection with the REIT conversion and the Merger, CTO FL applied to list CTO MD’s common stock on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under CTO FL’s ticker symbol, “CTO.”  This application was approved, and CTO MD’s common stock began trading on the NYSE on February 1, 2021 under the ticker symbol “CTO.”

COMPETITION

The real estate industry is, in general, a highly competitive industry. Our business plan is focused on investing in commercial real estate that produces income primarily through the leasing of assets to tenants. To identify investment opportunities in income-producing real estate assets and to achieve our investment objectives, we compete with numerous companies and organizations, both public as well as private, of varying sizes, ranging from organizations with local operations to organizations with national scale and reach, and in some cases, we compete with individual real estate investors. In all the markets in which we compete to acquire income properties, price is the principal method of competition, with transaction structure and certainty of execution also being significant considerations for potential sellers. Should we need to re-lease our single-tenant income properties or space(s) in our multi-tenant properties, we would compete with many other property owners in the local market based on, among other elements, price, location of our property, potential tenant improvements, and lease term.

Our business plan may also focus on investing in commercial real estate through the acquisition or origination of mortgage financings secured by commercial real estate. Competition for investing in commercial mortgage loans and similar financial instruments can include financial institutions such as banks, life insurance companies, institutional investors such as pension funds, and other lenders including mortgage REITs, REITs, and high net worth investors. The organizations that we compete with are of varying sizes, ranging from organizations with local operations to organizations with national scale and reach. Competition from these interested parties is based on, amongst other things, pricing or rate, financing structure, and other elements of the typical terms and conditions of a real estate financing.

REGULATION

General. Our properties are subject to various laws, ordinances and regulations, including those relating to fire and safety requirements, and affirmative and negative covenants and, in some instances, common area obligations. Our tenants have primary responsibility for compliance with these requirements pursuant to our leases. We believe that each of our properties has the necessary permits and approvals.

Americans With Disabilities Act. Under Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”), and rules promulgated thereunder, in order to protect individuals with disabilities, public accommodations must remove architectural and communication barriers that are structural in nature from existing places of public accommodation to the extent “readily achievable.” In addition, under the ADA, alterations to a place of public accommodation or a commercial facility are to be made so that, to the maximum extent feasible, such altered portions are readily accessible to and usable by disabled individuals. The “readily achievable” standard considers, among other factors, the financial resources of the affected site and the owner, lessor or other applicable person.

Compliance with the ADA, as well as other federal, state and local laws, may require modifications to properties we currently own or may purchase or may restrict renovations of those properties. Failure to comply with these laws or regulations could result in the imposition of fines or an award of damages to private litigants, as well as the incurrence of the costs of making modifications to attain compliance, and future legislation could impose additional obligations or restrictions on our properties. Although our tenants are generally responsible for all maintenance and repairs of the property pursuant to our lease, including compliance with the ADA and other similar laws or regulations, we could be held liable as the owner of the property for a failure of one of our tenants to comply with these laws or regulations.

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ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS

Federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations regulate, and impose liability for, releases of hazardous or toxic substances into the environment. Under various of these laws and regulations, a current or previous owner, operator or tenant of real estate may be required to investigate and clean up hazardous or toxic substances, hazardous wastes or petroleum product releases or threats of releases at the property, and may be held liable to a government entity or to third parties for property damage and for investigation, clean-up and monitoring costs incurred by those parties in connection with the actual or threatened contamination. These laws may impose clean-up responsibility and liability without regard to fault, or whether the owner, operator or tenant knew of or caused the presence of the contamination. The liability under these laws may be joint and several for the full amount of the investigation, clean-up and monitoring costs incurred or to be incurred or actions to be undertaken, although a party held jointly and severally liable may seek to obtain contributions from other identified, solvent, responsible parties of their fair share toward these costs. These costs may be substantial and can exceed the value of the property. In addition, some environmental laws may create a lien on the contaminated site in favor of the government for damages and costs it incurs in connection with the contamination. As the owner or operator of real estate, we also may be liable under common law to third parties for damages and injuries resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the real estate. The presence of contamination, or the failure to properly remediate contamination, on a property may adversely affect the ability of the owner, operator or tenant to sell or rent that property or to borrow using the property as collateral and may adversely impact our investment in that property.

Some of our properties contain, have contained or are adjacent to or near other properties that have contained or currently contain storage tanks for the storage of petroleum products or other hazardous or toxic substances. Similarly, some of our properties were used in the past for commercial or industrial purposes, or are currently used for commercial purposes, that involve or involved the use of petroleum products or other hazardous or toxic substances or are adjacent to or near properties that have been or are used for similar commercial or industrial purposes. These operations create a potential for the release of petroleum products or other hazardous or toxic substances, and we could potentially be required to pay to clean up any contamination. In addition, environmental laws regulate a variety of activities that can occur on a property, including the storage of petroleum products or other hazardous or toxic substances, air emissions, water discharges and exposure to lead-based paint. Such laws may impose fines or penalties for violations and may require permits or other governmental approvals to be obtained for the operation of a business involving such activities. As a result of the foregoing, we could be materially and adversely affected.

Environmental laws also govern the presence, maintenance and removal of asbestos-containing materials (“ACM”). Federal regulations require building owners and those exercising control over a building’s management to identify and warn, through signs and labels, of potential hazards posed by workplace exposure to installed ACM in their building. The regulations also have employee training, record keeping and due diligence requirements pertaining to ACM. Significant fines can be assessed for violation of these regulations. As a result of these regulations, building owners and those exercising control over a building’s management may be subject to an increased risk of personal injury lawsuits by workers and others exposed to ACM. The regulations may affect the value of a building containing ACM in which we have invested. Federal, state and local laws and regulations also govern the removal, encapsulation, disturbance, handling and/or disposal of ACM when those materials are in poor condition or in the event of construction, remodeling, renovation or demolition of a building. These laws may impose liability for improper handling or a release into the environment of ACM and may provide for fines to, and for third parties to seek recovery from, owners or operators of real properties for personal injury or improper work exposure associated with ACM.

When excessive moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or is not addressed over a period of time. Some molds may produce airborne toxins or irritants. Indoor air quality issues can also stem from inadequate ventilation, chemical contamination from indoor or outdoor sources and other biological contaminants such as pollen, viruses and bacteria. Indoor exposure to airborne toxins or irritants above certain levels can be alleged to cause a variety of adverse health effects and symptoms, including allergic or other reactions. As a result, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants at any of our properties could require us to undertake a costly remediation program to contain or remove the mold or other airborne contaminants from the affected property or increase indoor ventilation. In addition, the presence of significant mold or other airborne contaminants could expose us to liability from our tenants, employees of our tenants or others if property damage or personal injury occurs.

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We obtain Phase I environmental assessments on all properties acquired. Phase I environmental site assessments are limited in scope and therefore may not reveal all environmental conditions affecting a property. However, if recommended in the initial assessments, we may undertake additional assessments such as soil and/or groundwater samplings or other limited subsurface investigations and ACM or mold surveys to test for substances of concern. A prior owner or operator of a property or historic operations at our properties may have created a material environmental condition that is not known to us or the independent consultants preparing the site assessments. Material environmental conditions may have arisen after the review was completed or may arise in the future, and future laws, ordinances or regulations may impose material additional environmental liability. If environmental concerns are not satisfactorily resolved in any initial or additional assessments, we may obtain environmental insurance policies to insure against potential environmental risk or loss depending on the type of property, the availability and cost of the insurance and various other factors we deem relevant. Our ultimate liability for environmental conditions may exceed the policy limits on any environmental insurance policies we obtain, if any.

Generally, our leases require the lessee to comply with environmental law and provide that the lessee will indemnify us for any loss or expense we incur as a result of the lessee’s violation of environmental law or the presence, use or release of hazardous materials on our property attributable to the lessee. If our lessees do not comply with environmental law, or we are unable to enforce the indemnification obligations of our lessees, our results of operations would be adversely affected.

We cannot predict what other environmental legislation or regulations will be enacted in the future, how existing or future laws or regulations will be administered or interpreted or what environmental conditions may be found to exist on our properties in the future. Compliance with existing and new laws and regulations may require us or our tenants to spend funds to remedy environmental problems. If we or our tenants were to become subject to significant environmental liabilities, we could be materially and adversely affected.

HUMAN CAPITAL

We believe that our employees are one of our greatest resources.  In order to attract and retain high performing individuals, we are committed to partnering with our employees to provide opportunities for their professional development and promote their well-being.  To that end, we have undertaken various initiatives, including the following:

providing opportunities to participate in industry conferences;
providing regular feedback to assist in employee development and providing opportunities for employees to provide suggestions to management and safely register complaints;
focusing on creating a workplace that values employee health and safety, and to that end, facilitating employees working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic;
committing to the full inclusion of all qualified employees and applicants and providing equal employment opportunities to all persons, in accordance with the principles of the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission and the principles of the ADA; and
appreciating the many contributions of a diverse workforce, understanding that diverse backgrounds bring diverse perspectives, resulting in unique insights.

At December 31, 2021, the Company had 19 full-time employees and considers its employee relations to be satisfactory.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

The Company’s executive offices are located at 1140 N. Williamson Blvd., Suite 140 Daytona Beach, Florida, and its telephone number is (386) 274-2202.

The Company’s website is www.ctoreit.com. The Company intends to comply with the requirements of Item 5.05 of Form 8-K regarding amendments to and waivers under the code of business conduct and ethics applicable to its Chief Executive Officer, Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer by providing such information on its website within four days after effecting any amendment to, or granting any waiver under, that code, and we will maintain such information on our website for at least twelve months. The information contained on the Company’s website does not constitute part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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On the Company’s website you can also obtain, free of charge, a copy of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as soon as reasonably practicable, after the Company files such material electronically with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“Commission” or “SEC”). The public may read and obtain a copy of any materials the Company files electronically with the Commission at www.sec.gov.

ITEM 1A.              RISK FACTORS

SUMMARY OF RISK FACTORS

Below is a summary of the principal factors that make an investment in our securities speculative or risky. This summary does not address all of the risks that we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized in this risk factor summary, and other risks that we face, can be found below under the heading “Risk Factors” and should be carefully considered, together with other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and our other filings with the SEC, before making an investment decision regarding our securities.

The COVID-19 Pandemic and its variants, and the future outbreak of other highly infectious or contagious diseases, could materially and adversely impact or disrupt our tenant’s business operations and as a result adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and performance.
We are subject to risks related to the ownership of commercial real estate that could affect the performance and value of our properties.
Adverse changes in U.S., global and local regions or markets that impact our tenants’ businesses may materially and adversely affect us generally and the ability of our tenants to make rental payments to us pursuant to our leases.
Our business is dependent upon our tenants successfully operating their businesses, and their failure to do so could materially and adversely affect us.
The loss of revenues from our income property portfolio or certain tenants would adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows.
Retail properties, particularly those with multiple tenants, depend on the presence of and successful operation of an anchor tenant or tenants  and the failure of such tenant’s business or the loss of the anchor tenant(s) could adversely affect the overall success of our property and thereby could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to risks that affect the general retail environment in the United States, such as weakness in the economy, the level of consumer spending, the adverse financial condition of large consumer retail companies and competition from discount and internet retailers, any of which could adversely affect market rents for retail space and the willingness or ability of retail tenants to lease space in our multi-tenant properties.
A significant portion of the revenue we generate from our income property portfolio is concentrated in specific industry classifications and/or geographic locations and any prolonged dislocation in those industries or downturn in those geographic areas  would adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows.
Our revenues include receipt of management fees and potentially incentive fees derived from our provision of management services to PINE and the loss or failure, or decline in the business or assets, of PINE could substantially reduce our revenues.
There are various potential conflicts of interest in our relationship with PINE, including our executive officers and/or directors who are also officers and/or directors of PINE, which could result in decisions that are not in the best interest of our stockholders.
A part of our investment strategy is focused on investing in commercial loan and master lease investments which may involve credit risk.
We may invest in fixed-rate loan investments, and an increase in interest rates may adversely affect the value of these investments, which could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The commercial loans or similar financings we may acquire that are secured by commercial real estate typically depend on the ability of the property owner to generate income from operating the property. Failure to do so may result in delinquency and/or foreclosure.
We may suffer losses when a borrower defaults on a loan and the value of the underlying collateral is less than the amount due.

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The Company’s real estate investments are generally illiquid.
We may experience a decline in the fair value of our real estate assets or investments which could result in impairments and would impact our financial condition and results of operations.
The Company has several stockholders that beneficially own more than 5% of the Company’s outstanding common stock and exercise the related voting rights of those shares. Actions by these stockholders, including trading activity, could have a material adverse impact on the trading price of our stock.
The Company may be unable to obtain debt or equity capital on favorable terms, if at all, or additional borrowings may impact our liquidity or ability to monetize any assets securing such borrowings.
Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to service or pay our debt.
Our operations and properties could be adversely affected in the event of natural disasters, pandemics, or other significant disruptions.
We may encounter environmental problems which require remediation or the incurrence of significant costs to resolve, which could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
Failure to remain qualified as a REIT, would cause us to be taxed as a regular corporation, which would substantially reduce funds available for distributions to our stockholders.
Even if we qualify as a REIT, we may face other tax liabilities that could reduce our cash flows and negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.
If we failed to distribute our Pre-REIT Conversion Earnings and Profits, we could fail to qualify as a REIT.
Failure to make required distributions would subject us to U.S. federal corporate income tax.
Complying with REIT requirements may limit our ability to hedge our liabilities effectively and may cause us to incur tax liabilities.
The prohibited transactions tax may limit our ability to dispose of our properties.
The ability of the Board to revoke our REIT qualification without stockholder approval may cause adverse consequences to our stockholders.
If we are not successful in utilizing the like-kind exchange structure in deploying the proceeds from dispositions of income properties, or our like-kind exchange transactions are disqualified, we could incur significant taxes and our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely impacted.
Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.

RISK FACTORS

Our business is subject to a number of significant risks. The risks described below may not be the only risks which potentially could impact our business. These additional risks include those which are unknown now or that are currently considered immaterial. If any of the circumstances, events, or developments described below actually occur to a significant degree, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and/or cash flows could be materially adversely affected, and the trading price of our common stock and preferred stock could decline. You should carefully consider the following risks and all the other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto.

Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 Pandemic, and the future outbreak of other highly infectious or contagious diseases, could materially and adversely impact or disrupt our tenant’s business operations and as a result adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and performance. 

Since late December 2019, the COVID-19 Pandemic has spread globally, including every state in the United States. The COVID-19 Pandemic has had, and other future pandemics could have, repercussions across regional and global economies and financial markets. The outbreak of COVID-19 Pandemic and its variants have significantly adversely impacted global economic activity and produced significant volatility in the global financial markets. The global impact of the outbreak has been rapidly evolving and, as cases of COVID-19 have continued to be identified in additional countries, many countries, including the United States, have reacted by instituting quarantines, mandating business and school closures and restricting travel.

 

Certain states and cities, including those in which we own properties, have also reacted by instituting quarantines, restrictions on travel, “shelter at home” rules, and importantly restrictions on the types of business that may continue to operate or requiring others to shut down completely. Additional states and cities may implement similar restrictions. As a result, the COVID-19 Pandemic is negatively impacting most every industry directly or indirectly. A number of our tenants have announced temporary closures of their stores and requested rent deferral, or in some instances, rent abatement while

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the pandemic remains. Many experts predict that the COVID-19 Pandemic will trigger, or even has already triggered, a period of global economic slowdown or possibly a global recession. The COVID-19 Pandemic, or a future pandemic, could have material and adverse effects on our ability to successfully operate our business and, as a result, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows due to, among other factors:

a complete or partial closure of, or other operational issues at, one or more of our properties resulting from government or tenant action;
the reduced economic activity could severely impact our tenants' businesses, financial condition and liquidity and may cause one or more of our tenants to be unable to meet their obligations to us in full, or at all, or to otherwise seek modifications of such obligations;
the reduced economic activity could result in a recession, which could negatively impact consumer discretionary spending;
difficulty accessing debt and equity capital on attractive terms, or at all, and a severe disruption and instability in the global financial markets or deteriorations in credit and financing conditions may affect our access to capital necessary to fund business operations on a timely basis;
a general decline in business activity and demand for real estate transactions could adversely affect our ability or desire to grow our portfolio of properties;
a deterioration in our or our tenants’ ability to operate in affected areas or delays in the supply of products or services to us or our tenants from vendors that are needed for our or our tenants' efficient operations could adversely affect our operations and those of our tenants; and
the potential negative impact on the health of the Company’s personnel, particularly if a significant number of them are impacted, could result in a deterioration in our ability to ensure business continuity during a disruption.

  

The extent to which the COVID-19 Pandemic impacts our operations and those of our tenants will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with any degree of certainty, including the scope, severity, and duration of the COVID-19 Pandemic, and the impact of actions taken by governmental and health organizations to contain the COVID-19 Pandemic or mitigate its impact, and the direct and indirect economic effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic and containment measures, among others. Additional closures by our tenants of their businesses and early terminations by our tenants of their leases could reduce our cash flows, which could impact our ability to continue paying dividends to our stockholders at expected levels or at all. The rapid onset of the COVID-19 Pandemic and the continued uncertainty of its duration and long-term impact precludes any prediction of the magnitude of the adverse impact on the U.S. economy, our tenant’s businesses and ours. Consequently, the COVID-19 Pandemic presents material uncertainty and risk with respect to our business operations, and therefore our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Further, many risk factors disclosed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, should be interpreted as heightened risks as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Risks Related to Our Business

Income Property Operations

We are subject to risks related to the ownership of commercial real estate that could affect the performance and value of our properties. 

Factors beyond our control can affect the performance and value of our properties. Our core business is the ownership of commercial properties that generate lease revenue from either a single tenant in a stand-alone property or multiple tenants occupying a single structure or multiple structures. Accordingly, our performance is subject to risks incident to the ownership of commercial real estate, including:

inability to collect rents from tenants due to financial hardship, including bankruptcy;
changes in local real estate conditions in the markets where our properties are located, including the availability and demand for the properties we own;
changes in consumer trends and preferences that affect the demand for products and services offered by our tenants;
adverse changes in national, regional and local economic conditions;
inability to lease or sell properties upon expiration or termination of existing leases;
environmental risks, including the presence of hazardous or toxic substances on our properties;
the subjectivity of real estate valuations and changes in such valuations over time;

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illiquidity of real estate investments, which may limit our ability to modify our portfolio promptly in

response to changes in economic or other conditions;

zoning or other local regulatory restrictions, or other factors pertaining to the local government institutions

which inhibit interest in the markets in which our properties are located;

changes in interest rates and the availability of financing;
competition from other real estate companies similar to ours and competition for tenants, including

competition based on rental rates, age and location of properties and the quality of maintenance, insurance

and management services;

acts of God, including natural disasters and global pandemics, such as the COVID-19 Pandemic and its variants, which impact the United States, which may result in uninsured losses;
acts of war or terrorism, including consequences of terrorist attacks;
changes in tenant preferences that reduce the attractiveness and marketability of our properties to

tenants or cause decreases in market rental rates;

costs associated with the need to periodically repair, renovate or re-lease our properties;
increases in the cost of our operations, particularly maintenance, insurance or real estate taxes

which may occur even when circumstances such as market factors and competition cause a reduction in our revenues;

changes in governmental laws and regulations, fiscal policies and zoning ordinances and the related

costs of compliance with laws and regulations, fiscal policies and ordinances including in response to global pandemics whereby our tenants’ businesses are forced to close or remain open on a limited basis only; and

commodities prices.

The occurrence of any of the risks described above may cause the performance and value of our properties to decline, which could materially and adversely affect us.

Adverse changes in U.S., global and local regions or markets that impact our tenants’ businesses may materially and adversely affect us generally and the ability of our tenants to make rental payments to us pursuant to our leases.

Our results of operations, as well as the results of operations of our tenants, are sensitive to changes in U.S., global and local regions or markets that impact our tenants’ businesses. Adverse changes or developments in U.S., global or regional economic conditions may impact our tenants’ financial condition, which may adversely impact their ability to make rental payments to us pursuant to the leases they have with us and may also impact their current or future leasing practices. Adverse economic conditions such as high unemployment levels, rising interest rates, increased tax rates and increasing fuel and energy costs may have an impact on the results of operations and financial conditions of our tenants, which would likely adversely impact us. During periods of economic slowdown and declining demand for real estate, we may experience a general decline in rents or increased rates of default under our leases. A lack of demand for rental space could adversely affect our ability to maintain our current tenants and gain new tenants, which may affect our growth, profitability and ability to pay dividends.

Our business is dependent upon our tenants successfully operating their businesses, and their failure to do so could materially and adversely affect us. 

Each of our properties is occupied by a single tenant or multiple tenants. Therefore, the success of our investments in these properties is materially dependent upon the performance of our tenants. The financial performance of any one of our tenants is dependent on the tenant’s individual business, its industry and, in many instances, the performance of a larger business network that the tenant may be affiliated with or operate under. The financial performance of any one of our tenants could be adversely affected by poor management, unfavorable economic conditions in general, changes in consumer trends and preferences that decrease demand for a tenant’s products or services or other factors, including the impact of a global pandemic which affects the United States, over which neither they nor we have control. Our portfolio includes properties leased to tenants that operate in multiple locations, which means we own multiple properties operated by the same tenant. To the extent we own multiple properties operated by one tenant, the general failure of that single tenant or a loss or significant decline in its business could materially and adversely affect us. 

At any given time, any tenant may experience a decline in its business that may weaken its operating results or the overall financial condition of individual properties or its business as a whole. Any such decline may result in our tenant failing to make rental payments when due, declining to extend a lease upon its expiration, delaying occupancy of our property or the commencement of the lease or becoming insolvent or declaring bankruptcy. We depend on our tenants to

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operate their businesses at the properties we own in a manner which generates revenues sufficient to allow them to meet their obligations to us, including their obligations to pay rent, maintain certain insurance coverage, pay real estate taxes, make repairs and otherwise maintain our properties. The ability of our tenants to fulfill their obligations under our leases may depend, in part, upon the overall profitability of their operations. Cash flow generated by certain tenant businesses may not be sufficient for a tenant to meet its obligations to us pursuant to the applicable lease. We could be materially and adversely affected if a tenant representing a significant portion of our operating results or a number of our tenants were unable to meet their obligations to us.

Retail properties, particularly those with multiple tenants, depend on the presence of and successful operation of an anchor tenant or tenants  and the failure of such tenant’s business or the loss of the anchor tenant(s) could adversely affect the overall success of our property and thereby could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Retail properties, like other properties, are subject to the risk that tenants may be unable to make their lease payments or may decline to extend a lease upon its expiration. A multi-tenant property is particularly sensitive to the risk that a tenant that occupies a large area of a commercial retail property (commonly referred to as an anchor tenant) is unable to make their lease payments, does not extend their lease upon its expiration, or otherwise vacates their rented space. A lease termination by an anchor tenant or tenants could impact leases of other tenants. Other tenants may be entitled to modify the terms of their existing leases in the event of a lease termination by an anchor tenant, or the closure of the business of an anchor tenant that leaves its space vacant even if the anchor tenant continues to pay rent. Any such modifications or conditions could be unfavorable to us as the property owner and could decrease rents or expense recoveries. Additionally, should an anchor tenant vacate their leased space customer traffic to the property may be decreased, which could lead to decreased sales at other stores thus adversely impacting the tenant’s operations and impacting their ability to pay rent. In the event of default by a tenant or anchor store, we may experience delays and costs in enforcing our rights as landlord to recover amounts due to us under the terms of our agreements with those parties.

We are subject to risks that affect the general retail environment in the United States, such as weakness in the economy, the level of consumer spending, the adverse financial condition of large consumer retail companies and competition from discount and internet retailers, any of which could adversely affect market rents for retail space and the willingness or ability of retail tenants to lease space in our multi-tenant properties.

 

A significant portion of the properties in our income property portfolio are commercial properties that were developed to be occupied by retail tenants and thus we are subject to the risks that affect the retail sector generally, as well as the market for retail space. The business environment for retail operators and the market for retail space have previously been, and could again be, adversely affected by weakness in the national, regional and local economies, the level of consumer spending and consumer confidence, the adverse financial condition of some large retail companies, the consolidation of operators that occurs from time to time in the retail sector, any excess amount of retail space in a number of markets and increasing competition from discount retail operators, outlet malls, internet or e-commerce retail businesses and other online businesses. Increases in consumer spending through e-commerce channels may significantly affect our retail tenants’ ability to generate sales in their stores and could affect the way future tenants lease space. In addition, some of our retail tenants face competition from the expanding market for digital content and hardware. New and enhanced technologies, including new digital technologies and new web services technologies, may increase competition for certain of our retail tenants. While we devote considerable effort and resources to analyze and respond to tenant trends, preferences and consumer spending patterns, we cannot predict with certainty what future tenants will require to operate their business, what demands will be made for the build out of future retail spaces and how much revenue will be generated at traditional “brick and mortar” locations. If we are unable to anticipate and respond promptly to trends in the market, our occupancy levels and rental amounts may decline.

Any of the foregoing factors could adversely affect the financial condition of our retail tenants and the willingness of retail operators to lease space at our income properties. In turn, these conditions could negatively affect market rents for retail space and could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations and to pay distributions to the Company’s stockholders.

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Competition that traditional retail tenants face from e-commerce retail sales, or the integration of brick and mortar stores with e-commerce retail operators, could adversely affect our business.

Our retail tenants face increasing competition from e-commerce businesses. E-commerce sales continue to account for an increasing percentage of retail sales in the U.S. and this trend is likely to continue. These trends may have an impact on decisions that retail businesses make regarding their utilization of “brick and mortar” stores. Changes in shopping trends as a result of the growth in e-commerce may also impact the profitability of retail operators that do not adapt to changes in market conditions. The continued growth of e-commerce sales could decrease the need for traditional retail outlets and reduce the demand for retail space and property requirements. These conditions could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows if we are unable to meet the needs of our tenants or if our tenants encounter financial difficulties as a result of changing market conditions.

A key element of our future success will depend upon, among other things, our ability to successfully execute our strategy to invest in income-producing assets which if unsuccessful could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

There is no assurance that we will be able to continue to execute our strategy of investing in income-producing assets, including income properties and commercial loans or similar financings secured by real estate. There is no assurance that the number of properties in our income property portfolio or the number of loans in our loan investment portfolio will expand at all or, if they expand, at any specified rate or to any specified size. The growth in our portfolios of income-producing assets provide earnings and cash flow through the added rents or interest payments. If we continue to invest in diverse geographic markets other than the markets in which we currently own income properties or loan investments, we will be subject to risks associated with investing in new markets as those markets may be relatively unfamiliar to us. In addition, investments in new markets may introduce increased costs to us relating to factors including the regulatory environment and the local and state tax structure. Additionally, there is no assurance we will be able to continue to make investments in commercial loans or similar financings secured by real estate. Consequently, if we are unable to successfully execute our strategy of investing in income-producing assets or some or all of our investments, including in new markets, introduce increased operating costs our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be adversely affected.

We operate in a highly competitive market for the acquisition of income properties and more established entities or other investors may be able to compete more effectively for acquisition opportunities than we can.

A number of entities and other investors compete with us to purchase income properties. We compete with REITs, public and private real estate focused companies, high wealth individual investors, and others. Many of our competitors are substantially larger and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do. Several of our public company competitors have greater access to capital, typically by raising equity or debt financing, have significant amounts of capital available and investment objectives that overlap with ours, which often creates competition for acquisition opportunities. Some competitors may have a lower cost of capital and access to funding sources that are not available to us. In addition, some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different assessments of investment risk, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of income property acquisitions and establish more relationships than us. We cannot be assured that the competitive pressures we face will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and therefore our cash flows. Also, because of this competition, we may not be able to take advantage of attractive acquisition opportunities from time to time, and we can offer no assurance that we will be able to identify and purchase assets that are consistent with our objectives.

The loss of revenues from our income property portfolio or certain tenants would adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows.

Certain of our tenants may account for a significant portion of our total revenues and or square footage in our income property portfolio (see Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” under the heading Concentration of Credit Risk in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8). The default, financial distress, or bankruptcy of one or all of our major tenants could cause substantial vacancies in some of the largest properties in our income property portfolio and reduce our revenues from our income property operations significantly, thereby adversely impacting our results of operations and cash flows. Vacancies reduce our revenue until the affected properties can be re-leased and could decrease the value of each such vacant property. Upon the expiration of the leases that are currently in place, we may not be able to re-lease a vacant property at a comparable lease rate or without incurring additional expenditures in connection with such re-leasing. If, following the loss of an income property tenant, we are unable to re-lease the income property at

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comparable rental rates and in a timely manner, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.

A significant portion of the revenue we generate from our income property portfolio is concentrated in specific industry classifications and/or geographic locations and any prolonged dislocation in those industries or downturn in those geographic areas  would adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows.

Certain of our tenants and or geographic concentrations may account for a significant portion of our base rent revenue (see Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” under the heading Concentration of Credit Risk in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8). Such geographic concentrations could be heightened by the fact that our investments may be concentrated in certain areas that are affected by COVID-19 more than other areas. Any financial hardship and/or economic downturns in the financial industry, including a downturn similar to the financial crisis in 2007 through 2009, or in the states noted could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.

Certain provisions of the Company’s leases may be unenforceable.

The Company’s rights and obligations with respect to its leases are governed by written agreements with its tenants. A court could determine that one or more provisions of such an agreement are unenforceable, such as a particular remedy, a termination provision, or a provision governing the Company’s remedies for default of the tenant. If we were unable to enforce provisions of a lease agreement or agreements, our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows could be adversely impacted.

We may not be able to dispose of properties we target for sale to recycle our capital.

While the Company’s strategy may include selectively selling non-core or other income-producing properties to recycle our capital, we may be unable to sell properties targeted for disposition due to adverse market or other conditions or not achieve the pricing or timing that is consistent with our expectations. This may adversely affect, among other things, the Company’s ability to deploy capital into the acquisition of other income-producing properties, the execution of our overall operating strategy and consequently our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We may seek to conduct development activities, including the development of new income properties or the redevelopment or renovation of existing income properties, which may cause us to experience unexpected costs and have other risks that may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. 

We have recently and may in the future develop new income properties. In addition, we have in recent years and may in the future redevelop, significantly renovate or otherwise invest additional capital in certain of our existing income properties to improve the assets and enhance the opportunity for increased returns on our overall investment. These various development activities, particularly the development of new income properties, is subject to a number of risks, including risks associated with construction work and risks of cost overruns due to construction delays or other factors that may increase the expected costs of a project. Furthermore, the commencement of development projects is subject to other risks including the receipt of zoning or entitlements and other required governmental permits and authorizations. In addition, we may incur development costs in connection with projects that are ultimately not pursued to completion. Any of the development activities noted may be financed under our Credit Facility or through other forms of financing. If such financing is not available on acceptable terms, our development activities may not be pursued or may be curtailed. In addition, such development activities would likely reduce the available borrowing capacity on our Credit Facility which we use for the acquisition of income properties and other operating needs. The risks associated with development activities, including but not necessarily limited to those noted, could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

Management of and Investment in PINE

Our revenues include receipt of management fees and potentially incentive fees derived from our provision of management services to PINE and the loss or failure, or decline in the business or assets, of PINE could substantially reduce our revenues.

The fees we earn from providing management services to PINE could become a substantial source of our revenues. The revenues we generate from managing PINE depend in large part on the ability of PINE to raise capital to invest in real

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estate assets and on the positive performance of their investments and stockholder returns. The performance of PINE is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties. Therefore, our operating results and our ability to maintain and grow our revenues depends upon the ability of PINE and their significant tenants to maintain and grow their respective businesses. Our operating results and our ability to maintain and grow our revenues also depend upon the ability of PINE to maintain and grow their market capitalizations and to achieve positive stockholder returns in excess of applicable total stockholder return indexes. Reduced business activities, market capitalizations or stockholder returns, sales of assets or the failure of PINE or the termination of our management agreement with PINE could materially reduce our revenues and our profitability thereby adversely impacting our cash flows and results of operations.

Our management agreement with PINE is subject to termination  for events of default or non-performance, and any such termination could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our management with PINE may be terminated by PINE in certain circumstances. Depending upon the circumstances of a termination, we may or may not be entitled to receive a termination fee. If our management agreement with PINE is terminated, we may be unable to replace the lost revenue. Even if we receive a termination fee upon the termination of the management agreement with PINE, we may be unable to invest the after tax proceeds from the termination fee we receive in opportunities that earn returns equal to or greater than the revenues lost as a result of the terminated management agreement. The termination of our management agreement with PINE could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

An internalization of PINE’s management functions could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In the future, PINE’s board of directors may consider internalizing the functions performed for PINE by us. We may be unable to replace the revenue that we would have received in the future in the absence of an internalization transaction. In the event that we and PINE agree to an internalization transaction, the payment of the internalization price to us would be in lieu of the payment of any termination fee. The internalization price would be payable in cash, shares of PINE’s common stock or OP Units, or a combination thereof, as determined by a majority of PINE’s independent directors in their sole discretion. Even if the internalization price paid to us in connection with an internalization is substantial, we cannot assure you that any cash, shares of PINE’s common stock or OP Units received in connection with an internalization transaction will ultimately lead to returns equal to or greater than the revenues lost as a result of the internalization transaction.

Internalization transactions, including without limitation, transactions involving the acquisition of external advisors or property managers affiliated with entity sponsors have also, in some cases, been the subject of litigation. Even if these claims are without merit, we could be forced to spend significant amounts of money defending claims which would reduce the amount of funds available for us to invest in properties or other investments and to pay distributions to our stockholders. All of these factors could have a material adverse effect on us.

We do not have significant experience managing a REIT.

In connection with PINE’s initial public offering we entered into a management agreement with PINE pursuant to which we manage the day-to-day operations of its business. We do not have significant experience managing a REIT, and our only experience managing a REIT stems from the experience of certain of our executives who previously worked for a REIT. We will be paid a management fee to manage PINE’s business and we may be paid an incentive fee which will depend on numerous factors, including our ability to make investments on behalf of PINE that generate attractive, risk-adjusted returns, and thereby result in PINE’s stockholders achieving a necessary level of return. A key element of PINE’s success will likely include its ability to raise additional equity capital to fund its goals for growth. Our successful performance as the manager of PINE will therefore depend, in part, our ability to assist PINE in raising equity capital in amounts sufficient to support PINE’s goals and on acceptable terms. Our successful performance as the manager of PINE will also depend on our ability to access financing for PINE, and on acceptable terms. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in this business, that PINE will achieve its objectives, will invest successfully in income properties and

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will generally operate successfully, or that we will earn fees from PINE sufficient to recover the costs we have incurred or to provide a suitable return on our investment in PINE.

Declines in the market values of our investment in PINE may adversely affect periodic reported results.

We hold a significant equity interest in PINE as of December 31, 2021, including the OP Units we hold in the PINE Operating Partnership as further described in Note 1, “Organization” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8. PINE is publicly traded and as such their common stock is subject to the risks associated with public equities, include, but are not limited to market risk broadly, risks associated with the REIT industry, and risks associated with the real estate industry more specifically. The public equity markets can be volatile, and the value of PINE’s share  may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time. A significant decrease in the trading price of PINE’s shares  could result in losses that have a material adverse effect on the value of our investment in PINE  which could adversely impact our financial condition.

There are various potential conflicts of interest in our relationship with PINE, including our executive officers and/or directors who are also officers and/or directors of PINE, which could result in decisions that are not in the best interest of our stockholders.

We are subject to conflicts of interest that may exist or could arise in the future with PINE, including our executive officers and/or directors who are also directors or officers of PINE. Conflicts may include, without limitation: conflicts arising from the enforcement of agreements between us and PINE; conflicts in the amount of time that our officers and employees will spend on our affairs versus PINE's affairs; and conflicts in future transactions that we may pursue with PINE. Transactions between us and PINE would be subject to certain approvals of our directors; however, there can be no assurance that such approval will be successful in achieving terms and conditions as favorable to us as would be available from a third party. Our president and chief executive officer who is also one of directors also serves on PINE's board of directors.

Our directors and executive officers have duties to our company under applicable Maryland law, and our executive officers and our directors who are also directors or officers of PINE also have duties to PINE under applicable Maryland law. Those duties may come in conflict from time to time. We have duties as the manager of PINE which may come in conflict with our duties to our stockholders from time to time. In addition, conflicts of interest may exist or could arise in the future with our duties to PINE as its manager in connection with future investment opportunities.

Commercial Loan and Master Lease Investments

A part of our investment strategy is focused on investing in commercial loan and master lease  investments which may involve credit risk.

As part of our business strategy, we have invested in commercial loans secured by commercial real estate and may in the future invest in other commercial loans or similar financings secured by real estate. Investments in commercial loans or similar financings of real estate involve credit risk with regard to the borrower, the borrower’s operations and the real estate that secures the financing. The credit risks include, but are not limited to, the ability of the borrower to execute their business plan and strategy, the ability of the borrower to sustain and/or improve the operating results generated by the collateral property, the ability of the borrower to continue as a going concern, and the risk associated with the market or industry in which the collateral property is utilized. Our evaluation of the investment opportunity in a mortgage loan or similar financing includes these elements of credit risk as well as other underwriting criteria and factors. Further, we may rely on third party resources to assist us in our investment evaluation process and otherwise in conducting customary due diligence. Our underwriting of the investment or our estimates of credit risk may not prove to be accurate, as actual results may vary from our estimates. In the event we underestimate the performance of the borrower and/or the underlying real estate which secures our commercial loan or financing, we may experience losses or unanticipated costs regarding our investment and our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be adversely impacted.

Because of competition, we may not be able to acquire commercial loans or similar financings at all or at favorable yields.

If in the future we seek to invest in commercial loans or similar financings secured by underlying real estate, we may not be able to acquire such loan investments at favorable spreads over our borrowing costs. We will compete with many other investment groups including other REITs, public and private investment funds, life insurance companies,

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commercial and investment banks and, commercial finance companies, including some of the third parties with which we expect to have relationships. In most instances the competition has greater financial capacity, are larger organizations and has a greater operating presence in the market. As a result, we may not be able to acquire commercial loans or similar financings in the future at all or at favorable spreads over our borrowing costs, which could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows and would likely result in the need for any growth in our portfolio of income-producing assets to be achieved through the acquisition of income properties.

Debt and preferred equity investments could cause us to incur expenses, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

We may own in the future investments in first mortgages, mezzanine loans, junior participations and preferred equity interests. Such investments may or may not be recourse obligations of the borrower and are not insured or guaranteed by governmental agencies or otherwise. In the event of a default under these obligations, we may have to take possession of the collateral securing these interests including through foreclosure proceedings. Borrowers may contest enforcement of foreclosure or our other remedies and may seek bankruptcy protection to potentially block our actions to enforce their obligations to us. Relatively high loan-to-value ratios and declines in the value of the underlying collateral property may prevent us from realizing an amount equal to our investment upon foreclosure or realization even if we make substantial improvements or repairs to the underlying real estate to maximize such property’s investment potential. Although we have maintained and regularly evaluated financial reserves to properly accrue for potential future losses, our reserves would reflect management’s judgment of the probability and severity of losses and the value of the underlying collateral. We cannot be certain that our judgment will prove to be correct and that our reserves, if any, will be adequate over time to protect against future losses due to unanticipated adverse changes in the economy or events adversely affecting specific properties, assets, tenants, borrowers, industries in which our tenants and borrowers operate or markets in which our tenants and borrowers, or their properties are located. If we are unable to enforce our contractual rights, including but not limited to, taking possession of the collateral property in a foreclosure circumstance, or our reserves for credit losses prove inadequate, we could suffer losses which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

The mezzanine loan assets that we may acquire will involve greater risks of loss than senior loans secured by income-producing properties.

We may acquire mezzanine loans, which generally take the form of subordinated loans secured by the underlying property or loans secured by a pledge of the ownership interests of either the entity owning the property or a pledge of the ownership interests of the entity that owns the interest in the entity owning the property. These types of assets involve a higher degree of risk than senior mortgage lending secured by income-producing real property, because the loan may become unsecured as a result of foreclosure by the senior lender. In the event of a bankruptcy of the entity providing the pledge of its ownership interests as security, we may not have full recourse to the assets of such entity, or the assets of the entity may not be sufficient to satisfy our mezzanine loan. If a borrower defaults on our mezzanine loan or the debt that is senior to our loan, or in the event of a borrower bankruptcy, our mezzanine loan will only be satisfied after the senior debt has been satisfied. As a result, we may not recover some or all of our initial investment. In addition, mezzanine loans may have higher loan-to-value ratios than conventional mortgage loans, resulting in less equity in the property and increasing the risk of loss of principal. Significant losses related to our mezzanine loans would result in operating losses for us and could adversely impact our financial condition and cash flows.

We may invest in fixed-rate loan investments, and an increase in interest rates may adversely affect the value of these investments, which could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Increases in interest rates may negatively affect the market value of our investments, particularly any fixed-rate commercial loans or other financings we have invested in. Generally, any fixed-rate commercial loans or other financings will be more negatively affected by rising interest rates than adjustable-rate assets. We are required to reduce the book value of our investments by the amount of any decrease in their fair value. Reductions in the fair value of our investments could decrease the amounts we may borrow to purchase additional commercial loan or similar financing investments, which could impact our ability to increase our operating results and cash flows. Furthermore, if our borrowing costs are rising while our interest income is fixed for the fixed-rate investments, the spread between our borrowing costs and the fixed-rate we earn on the commercial loans or similar financing investments will contract or could become negative which would adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

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The commercial loans or similar financings we may acquire that are secured by commercial real estate typically depend on the ability of the property owner to generate income from operating the property. Failure to do so may result in delinquency and/or foreclosure.

Commercial loans are secured by commercial property and are subject to risks of delinquency and foreclosure and therefore risk of loss. The ability of a borrower to repay a loan secured by an income-producing property typically is dependent primarily upon the successful operation of such property rather than upon the existence of independent income or assets of the borrower. If the net operating income of the property is reduced, the borrower’s ability to repay the loan may be impaired. In the event of any default under a commercial loan held directly by us, we will bear a risk of loss of principal to the extent of any deficiency between the value of the collateral and the principal and accrued interest of the commercial loan, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, operating results and cash flows. In the event of the bankruptcy of a commercial loan borrower, the mortgage loan to such borrower will be deemed to be secured only to the extent of the value of the underlying collateral at the time of bankruptcy (as determined by the bankruptcy court), and the lien securing the loan will be subject to the avoidance powers of the bankruptcy trustee or debtor-in-possession to the extent the lien is unenforceable under state law. Foreclosure of a loan can be an expensive and lengthy process, which could have a substantial negative effect on our anticipated return on the foreclosed commercial loan. If the borrower is unable to repay a mortgage loan or similar financing our inability to foreclose on the asset in a timely manner, and/or our inability to obtain value from reselling or otherwise disposing of the asset for an amount equal to our investment basis, would adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

The activities or actions of a third-party servicer engaged to service our investment in a commercial loan or similar debt financing could adversely impact the value of our investment or our results of operations and cash flows.

Any future investments in first mortgages, mezzanine loans or other debt financings secured by real estate may require a third-party servicer to service the loan on our behalf and/or on behalf of third parties who have invested in some portion of the debt financing. An intended or unintended breach by the servicer with regard to their servicing of the debt financing or in their contractual obligations and fiduciary duties to us or the other holders of the debt financing could adversely impact the value of our investment or our results of operations and cash flows.

We may suffer losses when a borrower defaults on a loan and the value of the underlying collateral is less than the amount due.

If a borrower defaults on a non-recourse loan, we will only have recourse to the real estate-related assets collateralizing the loan. If the underlying collateral value is less than the loan amount, we will suffer a loss. Conversely, commercial loans we invest in may be unsecured or be secured only by equity interests in the borrowing entities. These loans are subject to the risk that other lenders in the capital stack may be directly secured by the real estate assets of the borrower or may otherwise have a superior right to repayment. Upon a default, those collateralized lenders would have priority over us with respect to the proceeds of a sale of the underlying real estate. In such cases, we may lack control over the underlying asset collateralizing our loan or the underlying assets of the borrower before a default and, as a result, the value of the collateral may be reduced by acts or omissions by owners or managers of the assets. In addition, the value of the underlying real estate may be adversely affected by some or all of the risks referenced above that pertain to the income-producing properties that we own.

Commercial loans we may invest in may be backed by individual or corporate guarantees from borrowers or their affiliates which guarantees are not secured. If the guarantees are not fully or partially secured, we typically rely on financial covenants from borrowers and guarantors which are designed to require the borrower or guarantor to maintain certain levels of creditworthiness. Should we not have recourse to specific collateral pledged to satisfy such guarantees or recourse loans, we will have recourse as an unsecured creditor only to the general assets of the borrower or guarantor, some or all of which may be pledged as collateral for other lenders. There can be no assurance that a borrower or guarantor will comply with its financial covenants, or that sufficient assets will be available to pay amounts owed to us under our loans and guarantees. Because of these factors, we may suffer additional losses which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.

Upon a borrower bankruptcy, we may not have full recourse to the assets of the borrower to satisfy our loan. Additionally, in some instances, our loans may be subordinate to other debt of certain borrowers. If a borrower defaults on our loan or on debt senior to our loan, or a borrower files for bankruptcy, our loan will be satisfied only after the senior debt receives payment. Where debt senior to our loan exists, the presence of inter-creditor arrangements may limit our

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ability to amend our loan documents, assign our loans, accept prepayments, exercise our remedies (through “standstill” periods), and control decisions made in bankruptcy proceedings. Bankruptcy and borrower litigation can significantly increase collection costs and the time needed for us to acquire title to the underlying collateral (if applicable), during which time the collateral and/or a borrower’s financial condition may decline in value, causing us to suffer additional losses.

If the value of collateral underlying a loan declines, or interest rates increase during the term of a loan, a borrower may not be able to obtain the necessary funds to repay our loan at maturity through refinancing because the underlying property revenue cannot satisfy the debt service coverage requirements necessary to obtain new financing. If a borrower is unable to repay our loan at maturity, we could suffer additional loss which may adversely impact our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.

As a result of any of the above factors or events, the losses we may suffer could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Other Investments

Investments in securities of companies operating in the real estate industry, including debt and equity instruments such as corporate bonds, preferred or common stock, or convertible instruments could cause us to incur losses or other expenses which could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

We currently own and may own in the future, investments in corporate securities of companies operating in the real estate industry including debt and equity instruments such as corporate bonds, preferred or common stock, or convertible instruments. Certain of these investments may be traded on an exchange or other active market whereby the price of the underlying instrument is quoted daily and those quoted prices and thus the market value of the instrument varies during a given trading day. Certain of these investments may be traded on an exchange or market that is not deemed an active market but where the price of the investment fluctuates daily or otherwise. Adverse fluctuations in the value of these investments, whether market-generated or not, are reflected as unrealized losses on our balance sheet. We may choose to or be required to liquidate these investments in whole or in part and at prices that result in realized losses on our investment. Should we incur realized losses on liquidating these investments, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows would be adversely impacted.

General

We are subject to a number of risks inherent with the real estate industry and in the ownership of real estate assets or investment in financings secured by real estate, which may adversely affect our returns from our investments, our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Factors beyond our control can affect the performance and value of our real estate assets including our income properties, investments in commercial loans or similar financings secured by real estate or other investments, and our Subsurface Interests. Real estate assets are subject to various risks, including but not limited to the following:

Adverse changes in national, regional, and local economic and market conditions where our properties or the properties underlying a loan investment are located;
Competition from other real estate companies similar to ours and competition for tenants, including competition based on rental rates, age and location of the property and the quality of maintenance, insurance, and management services;
Changes in tenant preferences that reduce the attractiveness and marketability of our income properties to tenants or decreases in market rental rates;
Zoning or other local regulatory restrictions, or other factors pertaining to the local government institutions which inhibit interest in the markets in which our income-producing assets are located;
Costs associated with the need to periodically repair, renovate or re-lease our income properties;
Increases in the cost of our operations, particularly maintenance, insurance, or real estate taxes which may occur even when circumstances such as market factors and competition cause a reduction in our revenues;
Changes in governmental laws and regulations, fiscal policies and zoning ordinances and the related costs of compliance with laws and regulations, fiscal policies, and ordinances;
Commodities prices;

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Illiquidity of real estate investments which may limit our ability to modify our income-producing asset portfolios promptly in response to changes in economic or other conditions;
Acts of God, including natural disasters, which may result in uninsured losses; and
Acts of war or terrorism, including consequences of terrorist attacks.

If any of these or similar events occurs, it may reduce our return from an affected real estate asset or investment which could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

The Company’s real estate investments are generally illiquid.

Real estate investments, including investments in income properties, joint ventures and subsurface interests, are relatively illiquid; therefore, it may be difficult for us to sell such assets if the need or desire arises, and otherwise the Company’s ability to make rapid adjustments in the size and content of our income property portfolio or other real estate assets in response to economic or other conditions is limited. Illiquid assets typically experience greater price volatility, as a ready market does not exist, and can be more difficult to value. In addition, validating third party pricing for illiquid assets may be more subjective than more liquid assets. As a result, if we are required to quickly liquidate all or a portion of certain of our real estate assets or income-producing assets, we may realize significantly less than the value at which we have previously recorded our assets. Further, certain expenditures necessary to operate our income property operations generally do not decrease and may in fact increase in response to weakening economic conditions or other market disruptions, which expenditures may include maintenance costs, insurance costs and, in some instances, interest expense. This relationship of revenue and expenditures may result, under certain market conditions, in declining operating results and reduced cash flows and thereby could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition.  

We may experience a decline in the fair value of our real estate assets or investments which could result in impairments and would impact our financial condition and results of operations.

A decline in the fair market value of our long-lived assets may require us to recognize an “other-than-temporary” impairment against such assets (as defined by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) authoritative accounting guidance) if certain conditions or circumstances related to an asset were to change and we were to determine that, with respect to any such asset, there was an unrealized loss to the fair value of the asset. The fair value of our long-lived assets depends on market conditions, including estimates of future demand for these assets, and the revenues that can be generated from such applicable assets including land or an income property. If such a determination were to be made, we would recognize the estimated unrealized losses through earnings and write down the depreciated or amortized cost of such assets to a new cost basis, based on the fair value of such assets on the date they are considered to be other-than-temporarily impaired. Such impairment charges reflect non-cash losses at the time of recognition; subsequent disposition or sale of such assets could further affect our future losses or gains, as they are based on the difference between the sales price received and the adjusted depreciated or amortized cost of such assets at the time of sale.

Downturns in the U.S. economy and real estate markets have at times caused the fair value of certain of our properties to decrease. If the real estate market were to experience another decline, we may be required to take write-downs against our earnings for other than temporary impairments in the value of our real estate assets including our income properties, commercial loan and master lease investments and similar financings or other capitalized costs. Any such non-cash charges could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

From time to time we make investments in companies over which we do not have control. Some of these companies may operate in industries that differ from our current operations, with different risks than investing in real estate.

From time to time we make debt or equity investments in other companies that we may not control or over which we may not have sole control. Although these businesses generally have a significant real estate component, some of them may operate in businesses that are different from our primary business segments. Consequently, investments in these businesses, among other risks, subject us to the operating and financial risks of industries other than real estate and to the risk that we do not have sole control over the operations of these businesses.

From time to time we may make additional investments in or acquire other entities that may subject us to similar risks. Investments in entities over which we do not have sole control, including joint ventures, present additional risks such as having differing objectives than our partners or the entities in which we invest, or becoming involved in disputes, or

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competing with those persons. In addition, we rely on the internal controls and financial reporting controls of these entities and their failure to maintain effectiveness or comply with applicable standards may adversely affect us.

If we are not successful in utilizing the like-kind exchange structure in deploying the proceeds from dispositions of income properties, or our like-kind exchange transactions are disqualified, we could incur significant taxes and our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely impacted.

Our strategy of investing in income-producing properties includes the utilization, when possible, of proceeds obtained from the disposition of income properties or from prior land transactions which qualify for deferral of the applicable income tax through the like-kind exchange provisions of the Code (“Section 1031”). Land sales transactions that we completed in which we applied the provisions of Section 1031 may be disqualified for such treatment if we are deemed to have conducted activities on the land or in connection with the transaction that are inconsistent with the activities of a long-term investor such as the activities of a developer or a dealer. In addition, if we fail to complete a qualifying acquisition utilizing the aforementioned proceeds or complete the intended qualifying acquisition outside the specified period of time allowed for completing such transaction the application of the Section 1031 provisions would be disqualified.  If a transaction we deemed qualifying for like-kind exchange treatment is subsequently disqualified by the IRS, we may be subject to increased income taxes and penalties, which would adversely impact our results of operations and our cash flows.

If the provisions of Section 1031 of the Code regarding the like-kind exchange structure were altered substantially or eliminated, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely impacted.

A fundamental element of our strategy is investing in income-producing properties, in some instances utilizing, the proceeds obtained from the disposition of our income properties and previously in our land holdings, which qualify for deferral of the applicable income tax through the Section 1031 like-kind exchange provisions of the Code. If the provisions of Section 1031 of the Code, including the deferral of taxes on gains related to the sale of real property such as our income properties, were to be altered substantially or eliminated, or one of our Section 1031 like-kind exchanges was successfully challenged by the IRS and determined to be currently taxable, our taxable income and earnings and profits would increase, which could increase the ordinary dividend income to our stockholders. In some circumstances, we could be required to pay additional dividends or, in lieu of that, corporate income tax, possibly including interest and penalties.

Quarterly results may fluctuate and may not be indicative of future quarterly performance.

Our quarterly operating results could fluctuate; therefore, reliance should not be placed on past quarterly results as indicative of our performance in future quarters. Factors that could cause quarterly operating results to fluctuate include, among others, variations in the performance of our income-producing assets, market values of our investment in PINE, costs associated with debt, general economic conditions, the state of the real estate and financial markets and the degree to which we encounter competition in our markets.

Risks related to Our Financing

General

The Company may be unable to obtain debt or equity capital on favorable terms, if at all, or additional borrowings may impact our liquidity or ability to monetize any assets securing such borrowings.

In order to further our business objectives, we may seek to obtain additional debt financing or raise equity capital and may be unable to do so on favorable terms, if at all. We may obtain unsecured debt financing in addition to our Credit Facility which could decrease our borrowing capacity under the Credit Facility. Other sources of available capital may be more expensive or available under terms that are more restrictive than the Company’s existing debt capital. Any of these occurrences could adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

An increase in our borrowing costs would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

While we have no short-term maturities in our long-term debt, should we seek to incur additional debt to help finance our acquisitions, increased interest rates would reduce the difference, or spread, that we may earn between the yield on the investments we make and the cost of the leverage we employ to finance such investments. It is possible that the spread on investments could be reduced to a point at which the profitability from investments would be significantly reduced or

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eliminated entirely. This would adversely affect our returns on our assets, and therefore adversely impact our financial condition, our results of operations, and cash flows, and could require us to liquidate certain or all of these assets.

Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to service or pay our debt.

Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on, to pay any cash due upon conversion of, or to refinance our indebtedness, including the Company’s $51.0 million aggregate principal amount of 3.875% Convertible Senior Notes due 2025 (the “2025 Notes”), depends on our future operating and financial performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.

Our level of indebtedness could have significant adverse consequences and our cash flow may be insufficient to meet our debt service obligations.

Our level of indebtedness, as further described in Note 17 “Long-Term Debt” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, could have significant adverse consequences on our business and operations, including the following:

it may increase our vulnerability to changes in economic conditions (including increases in interest rates) and limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and/or industry;
we may be at a disadvantage compared to our competitors with comparatively less indebtedness;
we may be unable to hedge our debt, or such hedges may fail or expire, leaving us exposed to potentially volatile interest or currency exchange rates; and
we may be unable to refinance our indebtedness or obtain additional financing as needed or on favorable terms.

Our ability to generate sufficient cash flow determines whether we will be able to (i) meet our existing or potential future debt service obligations; (ii) refinance our existing or potential future indebtedness; and (iii) fund our operations, working capital, acquisitions, capital expenditures, and other important business uses. Our future cash flow is subject to many factors beyond our control and we cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations, or that future sources of cash will be available to us on favorable terms, to meet all of our debt service obligations and fund our other important business uses or liquidity needs. As a result, we may be forced to take other actions to meet those obligations, such as selling properties, raising equity, or delaying capital expenditures, any of which may not be feasible or could have a material adverse effect on us.

We continue to have the ability to incur debt; if we incur substantial additional debt, the higher levels of debt may affect our ability to pay the interest and principal of our debt.

Despite our current consolidated debt levels, we and our subsidiaries may incur substantial additional debt in the future (subject to the restrictions contained in our debt instruments), some of which may be secured debt. The indenture governing our 2025 Notes does not restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness, whether secured or unsecured, or require us to maintain financial ratios or specified levels of net worth or liquidity. If we incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future, these higher levels of indebtedness may affect our ability to pay the principal of, and interest on, our outstanding debt and our creditworthiness generally.

Declines in the value of the assets in which we invest will adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and make it costlier to finance these assets.

Generally, we use our income property investments as collateral for our financings or as the borrowing base for our Credit Facility. Any decline in their value, a significant decrease in the rent received from the portfolio, or perceived market uncertainty about the value of our income properties, could make it difficult for us to obtain or renew financing on favorable terms or at all, or maintain our compliance with terms of any financing arrangements already in place.

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Changes in the method pursuant to which LIBOR is determined and planned discontinuation of LIBOR may affect our financial results.

In July 2017, the chief executive of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, or the FCA, which regulates LIBOR, announced that the FCA intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. It is not possible to predict the effect of these changes, other reforms or the establishment of alternative reference rates in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. On March 5, 2021, ICE Benchmark Administration (“IBA”), the administrator of LIBOR, announced plans to cease publication of USD LIBOR on December 31, 2021 for only the one week and two month USD LIBOR tenors, and on June 30, 2023 for all other USD LIBOR tenors. While this announcement extends the transition period to June 2023, the United States Federal Reserve issued a statement advising banks to stop new USD LIBOR issuances by the end of 2021. In light of these recent announcements, the future of LIBOR at this time is uncertain and any changes in the methods by which LIBOR is determined or regulatory activity related to LIBOR’s phaseout could cause LIBOR to perform differently than in the past or cease to exist. If that were to occur, the level of interest payments we incur may change. In addition, although certain of our LIBOR based obligations provide for alternative methods of calculating the interest rate payable on certain of our obligations if LIBOR is not reported, which include requesting certain rates from major reference banks in London or New York, or alternatively using LIBOR for the immediately preceding interest period or using the initial interest rate, as applicable, uncertainty as to the extent and manner of future changes may result in interest rates and/or payments that are higher than, lower than or that do not otherwise correlate over time with the interest rates and/or payments that would have been made on our obligations if LIBOR rate was available in its current form. Although regulators and IBA have made clear that the recent announcements should not be read to say that LIBOR has ceased or will cease, we cannot make assurances that LIBOR will survive in its current form, or at all.

In the United States, efforts to identify a set of alternative U.S. dollar reference interest rates include proposals by the Alternative Reference Rates Committee of the Federal Reserve Board (the “ARRC”) and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. On July 29, 2021, the ARRC formally recommended the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or SOFR, as its preferred alternative replacement rate for LIBOR, and on December 3, 2021, the ARRC announced statutory fallback recommendations for one week and two month USD LIBOR tenors. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York began publishing SOFR rates in 2018. The market transition away from LIBOR and towards SOFR is expected to be gradual and complicated. There are significant differences between LIBOR and SOFR, such as LIBOR being an unsecured lending rate versus SOFR which is a secured lending rate, and SOFR being an overnight rate versus LIBOR which reflects term rates at different maturities. These and other differences create the potential for basis risk between the two rates. The impact of any basis risk between LIBOR and SOFR may negatively affect our operating results. Any of these alternative methods could have an adverse impact on the market for or value of any LIBOR-linked securities, loans, derivatives and other financial obligations or extensions of credit held by or due to us or on our overall financial condition or results of operations. Although SOFR is the ARRC’s recommended replacement rate, whether or not SOFR attains market traction as a LIBOR replacement tool remains in question.

We may utilize derivative instruments to hedge risk, which may adversely affect our borrowing cost and expose us to other risks.

The derivative instruments we may use could be in the form of interest rate swaps, interest rate caps and or interest rate collars. Interest rate swaps effectively change variable-rate debt obligations to fixed-rate debt obligations or fixed-rate debt obligations to variable-rate debt obligations. Interest rate caps limit our exposure to rising interest rates. Interest rate collars limit our exposure to rising interest rates while also limited our benefit from declining interest rates.

Our use of derivative instruments also involves the risk that a counterparty to a hedging arrangement could default on its obligation and the risk that we may have to pay certain costs, such as transaction fees or breakage costs, if a hedging arrangement is terminated by us. To limit the risk of counterparty default, we generally seek to enter into hedging arrangements with counterparties that are large, creditworthy financial institutions typically rated at least "A/A2" by S&P and Moody's, respectively.

Developing an effective strategy for dealing with alterations in interest rates is complex and any strategy aimed at managing exposures to changing interest rates would likely not be able to completely insulate us from risks associated with such fluctuations. There can be no assurance that any hedging activities will have the desired beneficial impact on our results of operations or financial condition.

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Significant increases in interest rates could have an adverse effect on our operating results.

Our operating results depend in part on the difference between the income achieved from our income-producing assets and management fee income streams and the interest expense incurred in connection with our interest-bearing liabilities. Changes in the general level of interest rates prevailing in the financial markets will affect the spread between our income-producing assets and management fee income streams and our interest-bearing liabilities subject to the impact of interest rate floors and caps, as well as the amounts of floating rate assets and liabilities. Any significant compression of the spreads between income-producing assets and management fee income streams and interest-bearing liabilities could have a material adverse effect on us. While interest rates remain low by historical standards, rates have recently risen and are generally expected to rise in the coming years, although there is no certainty as to the amount by which they may rise. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors, including governmental monetary and tax policies, domestic and international economic and political conditions, and other factors beyond our control. In the event of a significant rising interest rate environment, rates could create a mismatch between the income we generate from our income-producing assets and management fee income streams and the interest expense incurred on our floating rate debt that could have a significant adverse effect on our financial condition, our operating results and, our cash flows. An increase in interest rates could also, among other things, reduce the value of certain of our income-producing assets and our ability to realize gains from the sale of such assets.

Our Credit Facility

The Company’s Credit Facility and secured financings include certain financial and/or other covenants that could restrict our operating activities, and the failure to comply with such covenants could result in a default that accelerates the required payment of such debt.

The Credit Facility contains certain financial and operating covenants, including, among other things, certain coverage ratios and limitations on our ability to incur debt and limits on the repurchase of the Company’s stock and similar restrictions. In addition, the Credit Facility contains certain covenants pertaining to maximum levels of investment in certain types of assets, the number and make-up of the properties in the borrowing base, and similar covenants typical for this type of indebtedness. The Company’s secured indebtedness generally contains covenants regarding debt service coverage ratios. The Company’s ability to meet or maintain compliance with these and other debt covenants may be dependent on the performance of the Company’s tenants under their leases. The Company’s failure to comply with certain of our debt covenants could result in a default that may, if not cured, accelerate our payment obligations under such debt and limit the Company’s available cash flow for acquisitions, dividends, or operating costs, which would likely have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. In addition, these defaults could impair the Company’s access to the debt and equity markets.

Our Convertible Notes

Certain investors in the convertible debt issuance may also invest in our common stock utilizing trading strategies which may increase the volatility in or adversely affect the trading price and liquidity of our common stock.

Investors in, and potential purchasers of, the 2025 Notes may employ, or seek to employ, a convertible arbitrage strategy with respect to the 2025 Notes. Investors that employ a convertible arbitrage strategy with respect to our convertible debt instruments typically implement that strategy by selling short the common stock underlying the 2025 Notes and dynamically adjusting their short position while they hold the 2025 Notes. Investors may also implement this strategy by entering into swaps on our common stock in lieu of or in addition to short selling our common stock. These strategies, particularly the effect short sales or equity swaps with respect to our common stock, could increase the volatility of our stock price or otherwise adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.

We may not have the liquidity or ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of the 2025 Notes or purchase the 2025 Notes as required upon a fundamental change, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon a purchase or conversion of the 2025 Notes.

Following certain potential events qualifying as a fundamental change under the indenture governing the 2025 Notes, including a change in control, holders of 2025 Notes will have the right to require us to purchase their 2025 Notes for cash. A fundamental change may also constitute an event of default or a prepayment event under, and result in the acceleration of the maturity of, our then-existing indebtedness. In addition, upon conversion of the 2025 Notes, unless we elect to

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deliver solely shares of our common stock to settle such conversion (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we will be required to make cash payments in respect of the 2025 Notes being converted. There is no assurance that we will have sufficient financial resources, or will be able to arrange financing, to pay the fundamental change purchase price or make cash payments upon conversion. In addition, restrictions in our then existing credit facilities or other indebtedness, if any, may not allow us to purchase the 2025 Notes upon a fundamental change or make cash payments upon conversion. Our failure to purchase the 2025 Notes upon a fundamental change or make cash payments upon conversion thereof when required would result in an event of default with respect to the 2025 Notes which could, in turn, constitute a default under the terms of our other indebtedness, if any. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and purchase the 2025 Notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof.

To the extent we issue shares of our common stock to satisfy all or a portion of the settlement of our 2025 Notes, conversions of the 2025 Notes will dilute the ownership interest of our existing stockholders, including holders who had previously converted their 2025 Notes into common stock.

To the extent we issue shares of our common stock to satisfy all or a portion of our conversion obligation pursuant to the 2025 Notes, the conversion of some or all of the 2025 Notes into common stock will dilute the ownership interests of our existing stockholders. Any sales in the public market of our common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of the 2025 Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the 2025 Notes could depress the price of our common stock.

The fundamental change purchase feature of our 2025 Notes may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial attempt to take over our company.

The terms of the 2025 Notes require us to offer to purchase the 2025 Notes for cash in the event of a fundamental change, as defined in the indenture agreement of the 2025 Notes. A non-stock takeover of the Company may trigger the requirement that we purchase the 2025 Notes. This feature may have the effect of delaying or preventing a takeover of the Company that would otherwise be beneficial to investors.

The accounting method for our 2025 Notes, which may be settled in cash, may have a material effect on our reported financial results.

Under Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options, which we refer to as ASC 470-20, an entity must separately account for the liability and equity components of the convertible debt instruments (such as the 2025 Notes) that may be settled entirely or partially in cash upon conversion in a manner that reflects the issuer’s economic interest cost. The effect of ASC 470-20 on the accounting for the 2025 Notes is that the equity component is required to be included in the additional paid-in capital section of stockholders’ equity on our consolidated balance sheet, and the value of the equity component would be treated as original issue discount for purposes of accounting for the debt component of the 2025 Notes. As a result, we will be required to record a greater amount of non-cash interest expense in current periods presented because of the amortization of the discounted carrying value of the 2025 Notes to their face amount over the term of the 2025 Notes. We will report lower net income (or greater net loss) in our financial results because ASC 470-20 requires interest to include both the current period’s amortization of the debt discount  and the instrument’s coupon interest, which could adversely affect our reported or future financial results, and/or the market price of our common stock.

The Company’s 2025 Notes were accounted for utilizing the treasury stock method as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021. During the periods presented, the Company overcame the presumption of share settlement and, therefore, there was no dilutive impact. In accordance with Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2020-06 and concurrent to adoption on January 1, 2022, the Company will be required to account for its convertible instruments utilizing the if-converted method, at which time, the Company’s diluted EPS calculation will include the dilutive impact of the 2025 Notes, irrespective of intended cash settlement. The implementation of such guidance may adversely affect our diluted earnings per share.

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Risks Associated with Certain Events, Environmental Issues and, Climate Change

Our operations and properties could be adversely affected in the event of natural disasters, pandemics, or other significant disruptions.

Our corporate headquarters and many of our properties are located in Florida, where major hurricanes have occurred. We have income properties in other states or regions that experience similar or other natural disasters. Depending on where any hurricane makes landfall, our properties in Florida could experience significant damage. In addition, the occurrence and frequency of hurricanes in Florida could also negatively impact demand for our real estate assets because of consumer perceptions of hurricane risks. In addition to hurricanes, the occurrence of other natural disasters and climate conditions in Florida and other states, such as tornadoes, floods, fires, unusually heavy or prolonged rain, droughts, and heat waves, could have an adverse effect on our ability to develop properties or realize income from our properties. In addition to the various forms of natural disasters that could impact our operations and the performance of our income producing assets, pandemics occurring throughout the world could lead to disruptions in the global economy or significant economies throughout the world which could adversely impact our tenant’s operations, their ability to pay rent and consequently our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely impacted. If a hurricane, earthquake, natural disaster, health pandemic or other similar significant disruption occurs, we may experience disruptions to our operations and damage to our properties, which could have an adverse effect on our business, our financing condition, our results of operations, and our cash flows.

Acts of violence, terrorist attacks or war may affect the markets in which the Company operates and adversely affect the Company’s results of operations and cash flows.

Terrorist attacks or other acts of violence may negatively affect the Company’s operations. There can be no assurance that there will not be terrorist attacks against businesses within the United States. These attacks may directly impact the Company’s physical assets or business operations or the financial condition of its tenants, lenders or other institutions with which the Company has a relationship. The United States may be engaged in armed conflict, which could have an impact on these parties. The consequences of armed conflict are unpredictable, and the Company may not be able to foresee events that could have an adverse effect on its business. More generally, the occurrence of any of these events or the threat of these events, could cause consumer confidence and spending to decrease or result in increased volatility in the United States and worldwide financial markets and economies. They also could result in or cause an economic recession in the United States or abroad. Any of these occurrences could have an adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

We may encounter environmental problems which require remediation or the incurrence of significant costs to resolve, which could adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Under various federal, state and local laws, ordinances and regulations, we may be required to investigate and clean up certain hazardous or toxic substances released on or in properties we own or operate or that we previously owned or operated, and we may be required to pay other costs relating to hazardous or toxic substances or incur costs or obligations associated with wetland areas on our land holdings. Any such liability may be imposed without regard to whether the Company’s management had knowledge, were notified or were otherwise aware of the origination of the environmental or wetland issues or were responsible for their occurrence. The presence of environmental issues or the failure to remediate properly any such losses at any of our properties may adversely affect our ability to sell or lease those properties, or to borrow using those properties as collateral. The costs or liabilities could exceed the value of the affected real estate. The costs or liabilities associated with resolving environmental issues could be significant.

The uses of any of our income properties prior to our acquisition, and the building materials used in the construction of the property are among the property-specific factors that will affect how the environmental laws are applied to our properties. In general, before we acquire our income properties, independent environmental consultants are engaged to conduct Phase I environmental assessments, which generally do not involve invasive techniques such as soil or groundwater sampling.  Depending on the Phase I results, we may elect to obtain Phase II environmental assessments which do involve this type of sampling. There can be no assurance that environmental liabilities have not developed since these environmental assessments were performed or that future uses or conditions (including changes in applicable environmental laws and regulations) or new information about previously unidentified historical conditions will not result in the imposition of environmental liabilities.

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If we are subject to any material costs or liabilities associated with environmental, our financial condition, results of operations and our cash flows could be adversely affected.

We are subject to certain risks associated with investing in real estate, including potential liabilities under environmental laws and risks of loss from weather conditions, man-made or natural disasters, climate change and terrorism.

Under various U.S. federal, state and local environmental laws, ordinances and regulations, a current or previous owner of real estate (including, in certain circumstances, a secured lender that succeeds to ownership or control of a property) may become liable for the costs of removal or remediation of certain hazardous or toxic substances at, on, under or in its property. Those laws typically impose cleanup responsibility and liability without regard to whether the owner or control party knew of or was responsible for the release or presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. The costs of investigation, remediation or removal of those substances may be substantial. The owner or control party of a site may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from a site. Certain environmental laws also impose liability in connection with the handling of or exposure to asbestos-containing materials, pursuant to which third parties may seek recovery from owners of real properties for personal injuries associated with asbestos-containing materials. While a secured lender is not likely to be subject to these forms of environmental liability, when we foreclose on real property, we become an owner and are subject to the risks of environmental liability. Additionally, our net lease assets require our tenants to undertake the obligation for environmental compliance and indemnify us from liability with respect thereto. There can be no assurance that our tenants will have sufficient resources to satisfy their obligations to us.

Weather conditions and man-made or natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, floods, droughts, fires and other environmental conditions can damage properties we own. Additionally, we own properties located near the coastline and the value of our properties will potentially be subject to the risks associated with long-term effects of climate change. A significant number of our properties are located in major urban areas which, in recent years, have been high risk geographical areas for terrorism and threats of terrorism. Certain forms of terrorism including, but not limited to, nuclear, biological and chemical terrorism, political risks, environmental hazards and/or Acts of God may be deemed to fall completely outside the general coverage limits of our insurance policies or may be uninsurable or cost prohibitive to justify insuring against. Furthermore, if the U.S. Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act is repealed or not extended or renewed upon its expiration, the cost for terrorism insurance coverage may increase and/or the terms, conditions, exclusions, retentions, limits and sub-limits of such insurance may be materially amended, and may effectively decrease the scope and availability of such insurance to the point where it is effectively unavailable. Future weather conditions, man-made or natural disasters, effects of climate change or acts of terrorism could adversely impact the demand for, and value of, our assets and could also directly impact the value of our assets through damage, destruction or loss, and could thereafter materially impact the availability or cost of insurance to protect against these events. Although we believe our owned real estate and the properties collateralizing our loan assets are adequately covered by insurance, we cannot predict at this time if we or our borrowers will be able to obtain appropriate coverage at a reasonable cost in the future, or if we will be able to continue to pass along all of the costs of insurance to our tenants. Any weather conditions, man-made or natural disasters, terrorist attack or effect of climate change, whether or not insured, could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance, liquidity and the market price of our common or preferred stock. In addition, there is a risk that one or more of our property insurers may not be able to fulfill their obligations with respect to claims payments due to a deterioration in its financial condition.

The Company’s operations and financial condition may be adversely affected by climate change, including possible changes in weather patterns, weather-related events, government policy, laws, regulations, and economic conditions.

In recent years, the assessment of the potential impact of climate change has begun to impact the activities of government authorities, the pattern of consumer behavior, and other areas that impact the business environment in the United States including, but not limited to, energy-efficiency measures, water use measures, and land-use practices. The promulgation of policies, laws or regulations relating to climate change by governmental authorities in the U.S. and the markets in which the Company owns real estate may require the Company to invest additional capital in our income properties. In addition, the impact of climate change on businesses to whom the Company seeks to lease its income properties is not reasonably determinable at this time. While not generally known at this time, climate change may impact weather patterns or the occurrence of significant weather events which could impact economic activity or the value of real estate in specific markets in which the Company owns its assets. The occurrence of any of these events or conditions may

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adversely impact the Company’s ability to lease its income properties, which would adversely impact the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.  

Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure

Certain provisions of Maryland law could inhibit changes in control of our company.

Certain “business combination” and “control share acquisition” provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law, or the MGCL, may have the effect of deterring a third party from making a proposal to acquire us or of impeding a change in control under circumstances that otherwise could provide the holders of our common stock with the opportunity to  realize a premium over the then-prevailing market price of our common stock. Pursuant to the MGCL, the Board has by resolution exempted business combinations between us and any other person. Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of shares of our stock. However, there can be no assurance that these exemptions will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future. Our charter and bylaws and Maryland law also contain other provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change of control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or that our stockholders otherwise believe to be in their best interest.

Our charter contains stock ownership limits, which may delay, defer or prevent a change of control.

In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, no more than 50% in value of our outstanding capital stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals during the last half of any calendar year, and at least 100 persons must beneficially own our stock during at least 335 days for each taxable year other than our initial REIT taxable year. “Individuals” for this purpose include natural persons, private foundations, some employee benefit plans and trusts and some charitable trusts. To assist us in complying with these limitations, among other purposes, our charter generally prohibits any person from directly or indirectly owning more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of any class or series of our capital stock. These ownership limitations could have the effect of discouraging a takeover or other transaction in which holders of our common stock might receive a premium for their shares over the then prevailing market price or which holders might believe to be otherwise in their best interests.

Our charter’s constructive ownership rules are complex and may cause the outstanding shares owned by a group of related individuals or entities to be deemed to be constructively owned by one individual or entity. As a result, the acquisition of less than these percentages of the outstanding shares by an individual or entity could cause that individual or entity to own constructively in excess of these percentages of the outstanding shares and thus violate the share ownership limits. Our charter also provides that any attempt to own or transfer shares of our common stock or preferred stock in excess of the stock ownership limits without the consent of the Board or in a manner that would cause us to be “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code (without regard to whether the shares are held during the last half of a taxable year) will result in the shares being automatically transferred to a trustee for a charitable trust or, if the transfer to the charitable trust is not automatically effective to prevent a violation of the share ownership limits or the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our shares, any such transfer of our shares will be null and void.

Our rights and the rights of our stockholders to take action against our directors and executive officers are limited,

which could limit your recourse in the event of actions not in your best interest.

Our charter limits the liability of our present and former directors and executive officers to us and our stockholders for money damages to the maximum extent permitted under Maryland law. Under current Maryland law, our present and former directors and executive officers will not have any liability to us or our stockholders for money damages other than liability resulting from (i) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (ii) active and deliberate dishonesty by the director or executive officer that was established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action. As a result, we and our stockholders have limited rights against our present and former directors and executive officers, which could limit your recourse in the event of actions not in your best interest.

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Risks Related to Our Qualification and Operation as a REIT

Failure to remain qualified as a REIT, would cause us to be taxed as a regular corporation, which would substantially reduce funds available for distributions to our stockholders.

We believe that our organization and method of operation has enabled us to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2020, and we intend to continue to be organized and operate in such a manner. However, we cannot assure you that we will remain qualified as a REIT. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our actual results of operations for any particular taxable year will satisfy such requirements.

If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, we will face serious tax consequences that will substantially reduce the funds available for distributions to our stockholders because:

we would not be allowed a deduction for dividends paid to stockholders in computing our taxable income and would be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates;
we could be subject to increased state and local taxes; and
unless we are entitled to relief under certain U.S. federal income tax laws, we could not re-elect REIT status until the fifth calendar year after the year in which we failed to qualify as a REIT.

In addition, if we fail to remain qualified as a REIT, we will no longer be required to make distributions. As a result of all these factors, our failure to remain qualified as a REIT could impair our ability to expand our business and raise capital, and it would adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or ability to make distributions to our stockholders and the trading price of our common stock.

Even if we remain qualified as a REIT, we may face other tax liabilities that could reduce our cash flows and negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.

Even if we remain qualified for taxation as a REIT, we may be subject to certain U.S. federal, state and local taxes on our income and assets, including taxes on any undistributed income, tax on income from some activities conducted as a result of a foreclosure and state or local income, property and transfer taxes. In addition, any partnership in which we have an interest may be liable at the entity level for tax imposed under those procedures. Further, our TRSs will be subject to regular corporate U.S. federal, state and local taxes. The TRS rules also impose a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. Any of these taxes would decrease cash available for distributions to stockholders, which, in turn, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations or ability to make distributions to our stockholders and the trading price of our common stock.

If we failed to distribute our Pre-REIT Conversion Earnings and Profits, we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

To qualify as a REIT, we must not have any non-REIT accumulated earnings and profits, as measured for U.S. federal income tax purposes, at the end of any REIT taxable year. We were treated as a C corporation prior to our first REIT year, which was our taxable year ended December 31, 2020. Thus, we were required to distribute our Pre-REIT Conversion Earnings and Profits by the end of the 2020 taxable year. While we believe that the Special Distribution satisfied the requirements relating to the distribution of our Pre-REIT Conversion Earnings and Profits, the determination of the amount of accumulated earnings and profits attributable to non-REIT years is a complex factual and legal determination. There are substantial uncertainties relating to the computation of our Pre-REIT Earnings and Profits. Information used at the time we completed our analysis may have been less than complete or we may have interpreted the applicable law differently from the IRS. In addition, the IRS could, in auditing tax years through 2019, successfully assert that our taxable income should be increased, which could increase our Pre-REIT Conversion Earnings and Profits. Thus, we could have failed to satisfy the requirement that we distribute all of our Pre-REIT Conversion Earnings and Profits by the close of our first taxable year as a REIT. Although there are procedures available to cure a failure to distribute all of our Pre-REIT Conversion Earnings and Profits, we cannot now determine whether we will be able to take advantage of them or the economic impact to us of doing so. If it is determined that we had undistributed Pre-REIT Conversion Earnings and Profits as of the end of any taxable year in which we elect to qualify as a REIT, and we are unable to cure the failure to distribute such earnings and profits, then we would fail to qualify as a REIT under the Code.

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Failure to make required distributions would subject us to U.S. federal corporate income tax.

We intend to continue to operate in a manner so as to maintain our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we generally are required to distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding any net capital gain, each year to our stockholders. To the extent that we satisfy this distribution requirement but distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, we will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our undistributed taxable income. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if the actual amount that we pay out to our stockholders in a calendar year is less than a minimum amount specified under the Code.

Complying with REIT requirements may cause us to forego otherwise attractive opportunities or liquidate otherwise attractive investments.

To maintain our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we must continually satisfy tests concerning, among other things, the sources of our income, the nature and diversification of our assets, the amounts we distribute to our stockholders and the ownership of our stock. In order to meet these tests, we may be required to forego investments we might otherwise make. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our performance.

In particular, we must ensure that at the end of each calendar quarter, at least 75% of the value of our assets consists of cash, cash items, government securities and qualified real estate assets. The remainder of our investment in securities (other than government securities, securities of TRSs and qualified real estate assets) generally cannot include more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer or more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. In addition, in general, no more than 5% of the value of our assets (other than government securities, securities of TRSs and qualified real estate assets) can consist of the securities of any one issuer, no more than 20% of the value of our total assets can be represented by the securities of one or more TRSs and no more than 25% of our assets can be represented by debt of “publicly offered REITs” (i.e., REITs that are required to file annual and periodic reports with the SEC under the Exchange Act), unless secured by real property or interests in real property. If we fail to comply with these requirements at the end of any calendar quarter, we must correct the failure within 30 days after the end of the calendar quarter or qualify for certain statutory relief provisions to avoid losing our REIT qualification and suffering adverse tax consequences. As a result, we may be required to liquidate otherwise attractive investments. These actions could have the effect of reducing our income and amounts available for distribution to our stockholders.

Our relative lack of experience in operating under the constraints imposed on us as a REIT may hinder the achievement of our investment objectives.

The Code imposes numerous constraints on the operations of REITs that do not apply to other investment vehicles. Our qualification as a REIT depends upon our ability to meet requirements regarding our organization and ownership, distributions of our income, the nature and diversification of our income and assets and other tests imposed by the Code. Any failure to comply could cause us to fail to satisfy the requirements associated with maintaining our REIT status. We have relatively limited experience operating under these constraints, which may hinder our ability to take advantage of attractive investment opportunities and to achieve our investment objectives. As a result, we cannot assure you that we will be able to operate our business under these constraints. If we fail to qualify as a REIT for any taxable year, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at corporate rates. In addition, we would generally be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year of losing our REIT status. Losing our REIT status would reduce our net earnings available for investment or distribution to stockholders because of the additional tax liability. In addition, distributions to stockholders would no longer qualify for the dividends paid deduction, and we would no longer be required to make distributions. If this occurs, we might be required to borrow funds or liquidate some investments in order to pay the applicable tax.

Complying with REIT requirements may limit our ability to hedge our liabilities effectively and may cause us to incur tax liabilities.

The REIT provisions of the Code may limit our ability to hedge our liabilities. Any income from a hedging transaction we enter into to manage risk of interest rate changes, price changes or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made to acquire or carry real estate assets, if properly identified under applicable Treasury Regulations, does not constitute “gross income” for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests applicable to REITs. In addition, certain income from hedging transactions entered into to hedge existing hedging positions after any portion of

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the hedged indebtedness or property is extinguished or disposed of will not be included in income for purposes of the 75% and 95% gross income tests. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions will likely be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of the gross income tests. As a result of these rules, we may need to limit our use of advantageous hedging techniques or implement those hedges through a TRS. This could increase the cost of our hedging activities because our TRSs would be subject to tax on gains or expose us to greater risks associated with changes in interest rates than we would otherwise want to bear. In addition, losses in a TRS generally will not provide any tax benefit, except for being carried forward against future taxable income of such TRS.

Our ability to provide certain services to our tenants may be limited by the REIT rules or may have to be provided through a TRS.

As a REIT, we generally cannot provide services to our tenants other than those that are customarily provided by landlords, nor can we derive income from a third party that provides such services. If we forego providing such services to our tenants, we may be at a disadvantage to competitors that are not subject to the same restrictions. However, we can provide such non-customary services to tenants or share in the revenue from such services if we do so through a TRS, though income earned by such TRS will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax.

The prohibited transactions tax may limit our ability to dispose of our properties.

A REIT’s net income from prohibited transactions is subject to a 100% tax. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. We may be subject to the prohibited transaction tax equal to 100% of net gain upon a disposition of real property. Although a safe harbor to the characterization of the sale of real property by a REIT as a prohibited transaction is available, we cannot assure you that we can comply with the safe harbor or that we will avoid owning property that may be characterized as held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. Consequently, we may choose not to engage in certain sales of our properties, may structure dispositions as Section 1031 like-kind exchanges, or may conduct such sales through a TRS, which would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax.

We may pay taxable dividends in our stock and cash, in which case stockholders may sell shares of our stock to pay tax on such dividends, placing downward pressure on the market price of our stock.

We may satisfy the 90% distribution test with taxable distributions of our stock. The IRS has issued Revenue Procedure 2017-45 authorizing elective cash/stock dividends to be made by “publicly offered REITs.” Pursuant to Revenue Procedure 2017-45, the IRS will treat the distribution of stock pursuant to an elective cash/stock dividend as a distribution of property under Section 301 of the Code (i.e., a dividend), as long as at least 20% of the total dividend is available in cash and certain other parameters detailed in the Revenue Procedure are satisfied. On November 30, 2021, the IRS issued Revenue Procedure 2021-53, which temporarily reduced (through June 30, 2022) the minimum amount of the distribution that must be available in cash to 10%.

With respect to any taxable dividend payable in cash and stock, taxable stockholders receiving such dividends will be required to include the full amount of the dividend as ordinary income to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, stockholders may be required to pay income tax with respect to such dividends in excess of the cash dividends received. If a U.S. stockholder sells the stock that it receives as a dividend in order to pay this tax, the sales proceeds may be less than the amount included in income with respect to the dividend, depending on the market price of our stock at the time of the sale. Furthermore, with respect to certain non-U.S. stockholders, we may be required to withhold U.S. federal income tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in stock. If we make a taxable dividend payable in cash and our stock and a significant number of our stockholders determine to sell shares of our stock in order to pay taxes owed on dividends, it may put downward pressure on the trading price of our stock.

The ability of the Board to revoke our REIT qualification without stockholder approval may cause adverse consequences to our stockholders.

Our charter provides that the Board may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without the approval of our stockholders, if it determines in good faith that it is no longer in our best interest to continue to qualify as a REIT. If we cease to qualify as a REIT, we would become subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income and would no

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longer be required to distribute most of our taxable income to our stockholders, which may have adverse consequences on our total return to our stockholders.

There are limits on our ownership of TRSs and our transactions with a TRS may cause us to be subject to a 100% penalty tax on certain income or deductions if those transactions are not conducted on arm’s-length terms.

Overall, no more than 20% of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRS. A TRS will be subject to applicable U.S. federal, state and local corporate income tax on its taxable income, and its after tax net income will be available for distribution to us but is not required to be distributed to us. In addition, the Code limits the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a TRS to its parent REIT to assure that the TRS is subject to an appropriate level of corporate taxation and, in certain circumstances, other limitations on deductibility may apply. The Code also imposes a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. We will monitor the value of our respective investments in our TRSs for the purpose of ensuring compliance with TRS ownership limitations and will structure our transactions with such TRSs on terms that we believe are arm’s length to avoid incurring the 100% excise tax described above. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to comply with the 20% limitation or to avoid application of the 100% excise tax.

If we are not successful in utilizing the like-kind exchange structure in deploying the proceeds from dispositions of income properties, or our like-kind exchange transactions are disqualified, we could incur significant taxes and our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely impacted.

Although, as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the taxable income that we distribute to our stockholders, we will nevertheless pay tax at the highest applicable regular U.S. federal corporate income tax rate (currently 21%) if we recognize built-in gain on the sale or disposition of any asset we held on January 1, 2020 (the first day of our first REIT year), during the five-year period after such date (the “Built-in Gains Tax”). Our strategy of investing in income-producing properties includes the utilization, when possible, of proceeds obtained from the disposition of income properties or from prior land transactions which qualify for deferral of the applicable income tax through the Section 1031 like-kind exchange provisions. Conducting Section 1031 exchanges generally will not trigger the Built-in Gains Tax. However, sales transactions that we completed in which we applied the provisions of Section 1031 may be disqualified for such treatment if we are deemed to have conducted activities on the land or in connection with the transaction that are inconsistent with the activities of a long-term investor such as the activities of a developer or a dealer. In addition, if we fail to complete a qualifying acquisition utilizing the aforementioned proceeds or complete the intended qualifying acquisition outside the specified period of time allowed for completing such transaction the application of the Section 1031 provisions would be disqualified. If a transaction we deemed qualifying for like-kind exchange treatment is subsequently disqualified by the IRS, we may be subject to increased income taxes, including the Built-in Gains Tax, which would adversely impact our results of operations and our cash flows.

If the provisions of Section 1031 of the Code regarding the like-kind exchange structure were altered substantially or eliminated, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely impacted.

A fundamental element of our strategy is investing in income-producing properties, in some instances utilizing the proceeds obtained from the disposition of our income properties in tax deferred Section 1031 like-kind exchanges. As noted above, the use of Section 1031 like-kind exchanges will generally allow us to avoid the Built-in Gains Tax that may apply during the five-year period following our REIT conversion. If the provisions of Section 1031 of the Code, including the deferral of taxes on gains related to the sale of real property such as our income properties, were to be altered substantially or eliminated, we may be subject to increased income taxes, including the Built-in Gains Tax, which may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and our cash flows.

You may be restricted from acquiring or transferring certain amounts of our common stock.

The stock ownership restrictions of the Code for REITs and the 9.8% share ownership limit in our charter may inhibit market activity in our capital stock and restrict our business combination opportunities.

In order to maintain our qualification as a REIT, five or fewer individuals, as defined in the Code, may not own, beneficially or constructively, more than 50% in value of our issued and outstanding capital stock at any time during the last half of a taxable year. Attribution rules in the Code determine if any individual or entity beneficially or constructively owns our shares of capital stock under this requirement. Additionally, at least 100 persons must beneficially own our shares

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of capital stock during at least 335 days of each taxable year other than our initial REIT taxable year. To help insure that we meet these tests, our charter restricts the acquisition and ownership of shares of our capital stock.

Our charter, with certain exceptions, requires our directors to take such actions as are necessary and desirable to preserve our qualification as a REIT. Unless exempted by the Board, our charter prohibits any person from beneficially or constructively owning more than 9.8% in value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of the outstanding shares of any class or series of our shares of capital stock. The Board may not grant an exemption from this restriction to any person if such exemption would result in our failing to qualify as a REIT. This as well as other restrictions on transferability and ownership will not apply, however, if the Board determines in good faith that it is no longer in our best interest to continue to qualify as a REIT.

Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.

The maximum U.S. federal income tax rate applicable to “qualified dividend income” payable to U.S. stockholders that are taxed at individual rates is 20% (plus the 3.8% surtax on net investment income, if applicable). Dividends payable by REITs, however, generally are not eligible for the reduced rates on qualified dividend income. However, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2026, ordinary REIT dividends constitute “qualified business income” and thus a 20% deduction is available to individual taxpayers with respect to such dividends, resulting in a 29.6% maximum U.S. federal income tax rate (plus the 3.8% surtax on net investment income, if applicable) for individual U.S. stockholders. However, to qualify for this deduction, the stockholder receiving such dividends must hold the dividend-paying REIT stock for at least 46 days (taking into account certain special holding period rules) of the 91-day period beginning 45 days before the stock becomes ex-dividend, and cannot be under an obligation to make related payments with respect to a position in substantially similar or related property. The more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate qualified dividends could cause investors who are taxed at individual rates to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs, including our common stock.

We may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes, in each instance with potentially retroactive effect, that could reduce the market price of our common stock.

At any time, the U.S. federal income tax laws governing REITs or the administrative interpretations of those laws may be amended. We cannot predict when or if any new U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, or any amendment to any existing U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, will be adopted, promulgated or become effective and any such law, regulation or interpretation may take effect retroactively. We and our stockholders could be adversely affected by any such change in the U.S. federal income tax laws, regulations or administrative interpretations which, in turn, could materially adversely affect our ability to make distributions to our stockholders and the trading price of our common stock.

Risks Associated with our Common Stock

The Company has several stockholders that beneficially own more than 5% of the Company’s outstanding common stock and exercise the related voting rights of those shares. Actions by these stockholders, including trading activity, could have a material adverse impact on the trading price of our stock.

Certain of our stockholders, specifically several institutional investment funds, each beneficially own more than 5% of the outstanding common stock of the Company. The daily trading activity in our stock is substantially lower, on average, than the total amount of shares owned by these stockholders. Any substantial trading activity executed by these large stockholders could have an adverse impact on the trading price of the Company’s stock which may impact our ability to raise capital through equity financing, which may adversely impact our ability to execute our business plan.

Other Operational Risks

Our operations could be negatively impacted by the loss of key management personnel.

We believe our future success depends, to a significant extent, on the efforts of each member of the Company’s senior management and our ability to attract and retain key personnel. The loss of, or our inability to replace, any member of senior management could adversely affect our operations and our ability to execute our business strategies and thereby

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our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. We maintain key man life insurance on our Chief Executive Officer, but we do not have key man life insurance policies on the other members of our senior management.

Uninsured losses may adversely affect the Company’s ability to pay outstanding indebtedness.

The Company’s income-producing properties are generally covered by comprehensive liability, fire, and extended insurance coverage, typically paid by the tenant under the triple-net and double-net lease structure. The Company believes that the insurance carried on our properties is adequate and in accordance with industry standards. There are, however, types of losses (such as from hurricanes, earthquakes, floods or other types of natural disasters, or wars, terrorism, or other acts of violence) which may be uninsurable or the cost of insuring against these losses may not be economically justifiable. If an uninsured loss occurs or a loss exceeds policy limits, the Company could lose both its invested capital and anticipated revenues from the property, thereby reducing the Company’s cash flow, impairing the value of the impacted income properties and adversely impacting the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

We are highly dependent on information systems and certain third-party technology service providers, and systems failures not related to cyber-attacks or similar external attacks could significantly disrupt our business, which may, in turn, negatively affect the market price of our common stock and preferred stock and adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows.

Our business is highly dependent on communications and information systems. Any failure or interruption of our systems or our networks could cause delays or other problems in our operations and communications. We rely heavily on our financial, accounting and other data processing systems. In addition, much of our information technology infrastructure is or may be managed by third parties and as such we also face the risk of operational failure, termination, or capacity constraints by any of these third parties with which we do business or that facilitate our business activities. It is difficult to determine what, if any, negative impact may directly result from any specific interruption or disruption of our networks or systems or any failure to maintain performance, reliability and security of our technological infrastructure, but significant events impacting our systems or networks could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and cash flows and negatively affect the market price of our common stock and preferred stock.

We are required to make a number of judgments in applying accounting policies, and different estimates and assumptions could result in changes to our financial condition and results of operations.

Material estimates that are particularly susceptible to significant change underlie our determination of the reserve for loan losses, which is based primarily on the estimated fair value of loan collateral, as well as the valuation of real estate assets and deferred tax assets. While we have identified those accounting policies that are considered critical and have procedures in place to facilitate the associated judgments, different assumptions in the application of these policies could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance and results of operations and actual results may differ materially from our estimates.

Changes in accounting rules will affect our financial reporting.

The FASB has issued new accounting standards that will affect our financial reporting.

In January 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-01 which is in response to concerns about structural risks of interbank offered rates (“IBORs”), and, particularly, the risk of cessation of the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), regulators in numerous jurisdictions around the world have undertaken reference rate reform initiatives to identify alternative reference rates that are more observable or transaction based and less susceptible to manipulation. The amendments in ASU 2021-01 are effective immediately and clarify that certain optional expedients and exceptions in Topic 848 for contract modifications and hedge accounting apply to derivatives that are affected by the discounting transition. The Company believes it’s interest rate swaps, hereinafter described in Note 18, “Interest Rate Swaps” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8, meet the scope of Topic 848-10-15-3A and therefore, Company will be able to continue to apply a perfectly effective assessment method for each interest rate swap by electing the corresponding optional expedient for subsequent assessments.

In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06 related to simplifying the accounting for convertible instruments by removing certain separation models for convertible instruments. Among other things, the amendments in the update also provide for improvements in the consistency in earnings per share (“EPS”) calculations by amending the guidance by

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requiring that an entity use the if-converted method for convertible instruments. The amendments in ASU 2020-06 are effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2021. The Company adopted ASU 2020-06 as of January 1, 2022, at which time, the Company’s diluted EPS calculation will include the dilutive impact of the 2025 Notes (hereinafter defined), irrespective of intended cash settlement. Further, the Company elected, upon adoption, to utilize the modified retrospective approach, negating the required restatement of EPS for periods prior to adoption.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments ("ASU 2016-13") which was issued to provide financial statement users with more decision-useful information about the expected credit losses on financial instruments held by a reporting entity. This amendment replaces the incurred loss impairment methodology in current accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. ASU 2016-13 is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company adopted the changes to ASC 326, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses on January 1, 2020 and there was no material impact on the consolidated financial statements.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases ("ASU 2016-02"), and in July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, Leases ("ASU 2018-11"), to address two requirements of ASU 2016-02. ASU 2016-02 and ASU 2018-11 are effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. ASU 2016-02 requires the recognition of lease assets and lease liabilities by lessees for those leases classified as operating or finance leases. For operating and finance leases, a lessee will be required to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability, initially measured at the present value of the lease payments, in its statement of financial position. Lessees under operating leases will be required to recognize a single lease cost, calculated so that the cost of the lease is allocated over the lease term generally on a straight-line basis, and classify all cash payments within operating activities in its statement of cash flows. Lessees under finance leases will be required to recognize interest expense on the lease liability (under the effective interest method) and amortization expense of the right-of-use asset (generally on a straight-line basis), each reflected separately in its statement of operations. At the beginning of the period of adoption, January 1, 2019, through a cumulative-effect adjustment, the Company increased right-of use assets and lease liabilities for operating leases for which the Company is the lessee. The amount of the adjustment totaled $0.7 million and was reflected as an increase in other assets and accrued and other liabilities for corporate leases totaling $0.5 million and an increase in assets held for sale and liabilities held for sale for golf operations segment leases totaling $0.2 million. There were no adjustments related to the leases for which the Company is the lessor.

Management decided to elect the practical expedient package that allows us: (a) to not reassess whether any expired or existing contracts entered into prior to January 1, 2019 are or contain leases; (b) to not reassess the lease classification for any expired or existing leases entered into prior to January 1, 2019; and (c) to not reassess initial direct costs for any expired or existing leases entered into prior to January 1, 2019. In addition, we will elect to not record on our consolidated balance sheets leases whose term is less than 12 months at lease inception.

ASU 2018-11 amends ASU 2016-02 so that: (a) entities may elect to not recast the comparative periods presented when transitioning to ASC 842 by allowing entities to change their initial application to the beginning of the period of adoption; and (b) provides lessors with a practical expedient to not separate non-lease components from the associated lease component of the contractual payments if certain conditions are met. Management decided to elect both of these provisions.

Changes in accounting standards could affect the comparability of our reported results with prior periods and our ability to comply with financial covenants under our debt instruments. We may also need to change our accounting systems and processes to enable us to comply with the new standards, which may be costly.

For additional information regarding new accounting standards, refer to Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8. under the heading "Recently Issued Accounting Standards.”

41

Actions of the U.S. government, including the U.S. Congress, Federal Reserve, U.S. Treasury and other governmental and regulatory bodies, to stabilize or reform the financial markets, or market responses to those actions, may not achieve the intended effect and may adversely affect our business.

The U.S government, including the U.S. Congress, the Federal Reserve, the U.S Treasury and other governmental and regulatory bodies have increased their focus on the regulation of the financial industry in recent years. New or modified regulations and related regulatory guidance may have unforeseen or unintended adverse effects on the financial industry. Laws, regulations or policies, including tax laws and accounting standards and interpretations, currently affecting us may change at any time. Regulatory authorities may also change their interpretation of these statutes and regulations. Therefore, our business may also be adversely affected by future changes in laws, regulations, policies or interpretations or regulatory approaches to compliance and enforcement.

Various legislative bodies have also considered altering the existing framework governing creditors' rights and mortgage products including legislation that would result in or allow loan modifications of various sorts. Such legislation may change the operating environment in substantial and unpredictable ways. We cannot predict whether new legislation will be enacted, and if enacted, the effect that it or any regulations would have on our activities, financial condition, or results of operations.

Under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, all public accommodations and commercial facilities must meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons, compliance with which may be costly.

Compliance with the ADA requirements could involve modifications to our income properties. Other federal, state and local laws may require modifications to or restrict further renovations of our income properties. Although we believe that our income properties are sufficiently in compliance with current requirements, noncompliance with the ADA or related laws or regulations could result in the imposition of governmental fines or in the award to private litigants of damages against us. Costs such as these, as well as the general costs of compliance with these laws or regulations, may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

The impact of financial reform legislation and legislation promulgated thereunder on us is uncertain.

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), enacted in 2010, instituted a wide range of reforms that will have an impact on all financial institutions. Many of the requirements called for in the Dodd-Frank Act will be implemented over time, most of which will be subject to implementing regulations over the course of several years. Many of these regulations have yet to be promulgated or are only recently promulgated In 2018, several changes were made to the Dodd-Frank Act, including the repeal of certain provisions that eased restrictions on small and medium-sized banks of the Dodd-Frank Act. It is possible that the Biden administration will reverse a number of U.S. President Trump’s policies, including those that relate to deregulation, and will increase the number of financial regulators as current vacancies in the bureaucracy are prioritized and filled under the Biden administration. Given the uncertainty associated with the Dodd-Frank Act itself and the manner in which the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act will be implemented by the various regulatory agencies and through regulations, the full impact such requirements will have on our business, results of operations or financial condition is unclear. The changes resulting from the Dodd-Frank Act may require us to invest significant management attention and resources to evaluate and make necessary changes in order to comply with new statutory and regulatory requirements. Failure to comply with any such laws, regulations or principles, or changes thereto, may negatively impact our business, results of operations and financial condition. While we cannot predict what effect any changes in the laws or regulations or their interpretations would have on us, these changes could be materially adverse to us and our stockholders.

The Company’s failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could have a material adverse effect on its business, operating results, and price of our common stock and preferred stock.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“SOX”) as amended or modified from time to time, requires annual management assessments of the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. If the Company fails to maintain the adequacy of its internal control over financial reporting, the Company may not be able to ensure that it can conclude on an ongoing basis that it has effective internal control over financial reporting and therefore would likely not be in compliance with SOX. An effective system of internal controls over financial reporting, particularly those related to revenue recognition, are necessary for the Company to prepare and produce reliable financial reports and to maintain its qualification as a public company and are important in reducing the risk of financial fraud. If the Company cannot provide

42

reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, its business and operating results could be harmed, qualification as a public company listed on NYSE could be jeopardized, investors could lose confidence in the Company’s reported financial information, and the market price of the Company’s common stock and preferred stock could drop significantly.

If we are unable to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act or our internal control over financial reporting is not effective, the reliability of our financial statements may be questioned, and the market price of our common stock and preferred stock may suffer.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires any company subject to the reporting requirements of the U.S. securities laws to do a comprehensive evaluation of its and its consolidated subsidiaries’ internal control over financial reporting. The rules governing the standards that must be met for management to assess our internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation to meet the detailed standards under the rules. During the course of its testing, our management may identify material weaknesses or deficiencies which may not be remedied in time to meet the deadline imposed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If our management cannot favorably assess the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting or our auditors identify material weaknesses in our internal controls, investors may lose confidence in our reported financial results and the market price of our common stock and preferred stock may decline.

We are subject to substantial regulation and numerous contractual obligations and internal policies, and failure to comply with these provisions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to substantial regulation and numerous contractual obligations and internal policies. We are subject to regulation by the SEC, the NYSE, and other federal, state and local or international governmental bodies and agencies or self-regulatory organizations. Moreover, we must comply with the REIT rules, and we are also responsible for managing or assisting with the regulatory aspects of PINE’s compliance with applicable REIT rules. The level of regulation and supervision to which we and PINE are subject varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and is based on the type of business activity involved. The regulations to which we and PINE are subject are extensive, complex and require substantial management time and attention. Our failure or PINE’s failure to comply with any of the regulations, contractual obligations or policies applicable to it may subject us to extensive investigations, as well as substantial penalties and reputational risk, and our business and operations could be materially adversely affected. Our lack of compliance with applicable law could result in, among other things, our inability to enforce contracts, our default under contracts (including our management agreements with PINE) and our ineligibility to contract with and receive revenue from PINE. We have numerous contractual obligations with which we must comply on a continuous basis to operate our business, the default of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition. We have established internal policies designed to ensure that we manage our business in accordance with applicable law and regulation and in accordance with our contractual obligations. These internal policies may not be effective in all regards; and, if we fail to comply with our internal policies, we could be subjected to additional risk and liability.

Employee misconduct could harm us by subjecting us to significant legal liability, reputational harm and loss of business.

There is a risk that our employees could engage in misconduct that adversely affects our business. We are subject to a number of obligations and standards arising from our business and our authority over PINE or the ventures we manage. The violation of these obligations and standards by any of our employees may adversely affect PINE or the ventures we manage and us. Our business often requires that we deal with confidential matters of great significance to PINE and the ventures we manage. If our employees improperly use or disclose confidential information, we and PINE or the ventures we manage could suffer serious harm to our and its reputation, financial position and current and future business relationships and face potentially significant litigation. It is not always possible to detect or deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in all cases. If any of our employees were to engage in or be accused of misconduct, our business and our reputation could be adversely affected. Misconduct by an employee might rise to the level of a default that would permit PINE or the ventures we manage to terminate the management agreements with us for cause and without paying a termination fee, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

43

The Company’s ability to pay dividends in the future is subject to many factors.

The Company has consistently paid a dividend since 1976. Payment of the Company’s dividend depends upon the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.  The Company’s ability to continue to pay dividends may be adversely impacted if any of the events or conditions associated with the risks described in this section were to occur.

General Risk Factors

Cybersecurity risks and cyber incidents could adversely affect the Company’s business and disrupt operations.

Cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. These incidents can include, but are not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. The result of these incidents could include, but are not limited to, disrupted operations, misstated financial data, liability for stolen assets or information, increased cybersecurity protection costs, litigation, and reputational damage adversely affecting customer or investor confidence. Should any such cyber incidents or similar events occur, the Company’s assets, particularly cash, could be lost and, as a result, the Company’s ability to execute its business and strategy could be impaired, thereby adversely affecting its financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

The market value of the Company’s common stock and preferred stock is subject to various factors that may cause significant fluctuations or volatility.

As with other publicly-traded securities, the market price of the Company’s common stock, preferred stock and convertible notes depends on various factors, which may change from time to time and/or may be unrelated to the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows and such factors may cause significant fluctuations or volatility in the market price of the Company’s common stock and preferred stock. These factors include, but are likely not limited to, the following:

General economic and financial market conditions including a weak economic environment;
Level and trend of interest rates;
The Company’s ability to access the capital markets to raise additional debt or equity capital;
Changes in the Company’s cash flows or results of operations;
The Company’s financial condition and performance;
Market perception of the Company compared to other real estate companies;
Market perception of the real estate sector compared to other investment sectors; and
Volume of average daily trading and the amount of the Company’s common stock and preferred stock available to be traded.

Significant legal proceedings may adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.

We are subject to the risk of litigation, derivative claims, securities class actions, regulatory and governmental investigations and other litigation including proceedings arising from investor dissatisfaction with our operating performance. If any claims were brought against us and resulted in a finding of substantial legal liability, the finding could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations or cause significant reputational harm to us, which could significantly adversely impact our business. Allegations of improper conduct by private litigants or regulators, regardless of veracity, may harm our reputation, and adversely impact our ability to grow our business or maintain our management of PINE or the ventures in which we have a financial interest.

We are subject to risks related to corporate social responsibility.

Our business faces public scrutiny related to environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) activities. We risk damage to our reputation if we fail to act responsibly in a number of areas, such as diversity and inclusion, environmental stewardship, support for local communities, corporate governance and transparency and considering ESG factors in our investment processes. Adverse incidents with respect to ESG activities could impact the cost of our operations and

44

relationships with investors, all of which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Additionally, new legislative or regulatory initiatives related to ESG could adversely affect our business.

ITEM 1B.            UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2.              PROPERTIES

Our principal offices are located at 1140 N. Williamson Blvd., Suite 140, Daytona Beach, Florida 32114.

As of December 31, 2021, the Company owns the following properties: (i) 9 properties occupied by single-tenants located in Florida, New Mexico, New York, Texas, and Virginia; (ii) 13 multi-tenant properties located in Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Texas, and Utah; (iii) full or fractional subsurface oil, gas, and mineral interests underlying 370,000 “surface acres” in 19 counties in Florida; and (iv) a 2,500 acre parcel of land in the western part of Daytona Beach, Florida owned indirectly through the Company's 100% interest in the Mitigation Bank. Please refer to Item 1. “Business” for a more detailed discussion of our properties.

ITEM 3.              LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

From time to time, the Company may be a party to certain legal proceedings, incidental to the normal course of its business. While the outcome of the legal proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty, the Company does not expect that these proceedings will have a material effect upon our financial condition or results of operations. See Note 23, “Commitments and Contingencies” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8 for additional disclosure related to the Company’s legal proceedings.

ITEM 4.              MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

45

PART II

ITEM 5.              MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER REPURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

COMMON STOCK PRICES AND DIVIDENDS

The Company’s common stock trades on the NYSE under the symbol “CTO”. The Company has paid dividends on a continuous basis since 1976, the year in which its initial dividends were paid. Aggregate annual dividends per common share, which were paid quarterly and exclude the Special Distribution (hereinafter defined) totaled $4.00 and $1.90 during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.

On November 9, 2020, the Board declared the Special Distribution on its shares of common stock in an aggregate amount of $55.8 million, payable in cash and shares of the Company’s common stock, in order to distribute the Company’s previously undistributed earnings and profits attributable to taxable periods ended on or prior to December 31, 2019, as required in connection with the Company’s election to be taxable as a REIT. The Special Distribution was paid on December 21, 2020 to stockholders of record as of the close of business on November 19, 2020 through an aggregate of $5.6 million in cash and the issuance of 1,198,963 shares of the Company’s common stock.

The level of future dividends will be subject to an ongoing review of the Company’s operating results and financial position, the annual distributions requirements under the REIT provisions of the Code and, among other factors, the overall economy, with an emphasis on our local real estate market and our capital needs.

The number of stockholders of record as of February 17, 2022 (without regard to shares held in nominee or street name) was 407. Many of the Company’s shares of common stock are held by brokers and institutions on behalf of stockholders, the Company is unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

There were no unregistered sales of equity securities during the year ended December 31, 2021 which were not previously reported.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The following repurchases of shares of the Company’s common stock were made during the three months ended December 31, 2021:

    

Total Number
of Shares
Purchased

    

Average Price
Paid per Share

    

Total Number of
Shares Purchased as a Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs (1)

    

Maximum Number (or
Approximate Dollar
Value) of Shares That
May yet be Purchased
Under the Plans or
Programs
($000's) (1)

10/01/2021 - 10/31/2021

$

$

5,908

11/01/2021 - 11/30/2021

17,779

$

54.27

17,779

$

4,943

12/01/2021 - 12/31/2021

22,774

$

54.65

22,774

$

3,698

Total

40,553

$

54.48

40,553

(1) In February 2020, the Board approved a $10.0 million common stock repurchase program, which was announced on February 12, 2020. The repurchase program does not have an expiration date.

46

STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH

COMPARISON OF 5-YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*

Among CTO Realty Growth, Inc., the Russell 2000 Index,

the FTSE Nareit Equity REITs Index, the NYSE Composite Index, the 2020 Peer Group and the 2021 Peer Group

The following performance graph shows a comparison of cumulative total stockholder return from a $100 investment in stock of the Company over the five-year period ending December 31, 2021, with the cumulative stockholder return of the following: (i) the Russell 2000 Index; (ii) the FTSE Nareit Equity REITs Index; (iii) the NYSE Composite Index, a real estate industry index provided by Research Data Group; (iv) an index of selected issuers in our old Peer Group (composed of Agree Realty Corp., Cedar Realty Trust, Inc., Five Point Holdings, LLC, Four Corners Property Trust, Inc., Getty Realty Corp., Lexington Realty Trust, One Liberty Properties, Inc., Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., St. Joe Company, Stratus Properties, Inc., Tejon Ranch Company, Trinity Place Holdings, Inc., Urstadt Biddle Properties, Inc., and Whitestone REIT (the “2020 Peer Group”)); and (v) an index of selected issuers in our new Peer Group (composed of Armada Hoffler Properties, Inc., Acadia Realty Trust, Agree Realty Corporation, Chatham Lodging Trust, Clipper Realty Inc., Four Corners Property Trust, Inc., Getty Realty Corp., Monmouth Real Estate Investment Corp., NetSTREIT Corp., One Liberty Properties Inc., Plymouth Industrial REIT Inc., RPT Realty, Seritage Growth Properties, and Whitestone REIT (the “2021 Peer Group”)). The Company has modified the 2020 Peer Group to (i) add Armada Hoffler Properties, Inc., Acadia Realty Trust, Chatham Lodging Trust, Clipper Realty Inc., Monmouth Real Estate Investment Corp., NetSTREIT Corp., Plymouth Industrial REIT Inc., RPT Realty and Seritage Growth Properties and (ii) remove Cedar Realty Trust, Inc., Five Point Holdings, LLC, Lexington Realty Trust, Rexford Industrial Realty, Inc., St. Joe Company, Stratus Properties, Inc., Tejon Ranch Company, Trinity Place Holdings, Inc. and Urstadt Biddle Properties, Inc.

The Company believes that the 2021 Peer Group more accurately and appropriately reflects its peers.

Graphic

47

    

12/16

    

12/17

    

12/18

    

12/19

    

12/20

    

12/21

CTO Realty Growth, Inc.

100.00

119.26

99.03

114.58

105.08

164.85

Russell 2000

100.00

114.65

102.02

128.06

153.62

176.39

NYSE Composite

100.00

118.73

108.10

135.68

145.16

175.18

FTSE Nareit Equity REITs

100.00

105.23

100.36

126.45

116.34

166.64

2020 Peer Group

100.00

106.53

99.62

128.97

135.31

189.40

2021 Peer Group

100.00

106.33

101.75

121.36

97.34

123.56

ITEM 6.              [Reserved]

48

ITEM 7.              MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Forward-Looking Statements

When the Company uses any words such as “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” or similar expressions, the Company is making forward-looking statements. Although management believes that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are based upon current expectations and reasonable assumptions, the Company’s actual results could differ materially from those set forth in the forward-looking statements. Certain factors or risks that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those the Company anticipates or projects are described in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Given these uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such statements, which speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any document incorporated herein by reference. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly release any revisions to these forward-looking statements that may be made to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Our Business

We are a publicly traded, primarily retail-oriented, REIT that was founded in 1910. We own and manage, sometimes utilizing third-party property management companies, 22 commercial real estate properties in 10 states in the United States. As of December 31, 2021, we owned 9 single-tenant and 13 multi-tenant income-producing properties comprising 2.7 million square feet of gross leasable space.

In addition to our income property portfolio, as of December 31, 2021, our business included the following:

Management Services:

A fee-based management business that is engaged in managing PINE, see Note 6, “Related Party Management Services Business” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8.

Commercial Loan and Master Lease Investments:

A portfolio of two commercial loan investments and two commercial properties, which are included in the 22 commercial real estate properties above, whose leases are classified as commercial loan and master lease investments.

Real Estate Operations:

A portfolio of subsurface mineral interests associated with approximately 370,000 surface acres in 19 counties in the State of Florida (“Subsurface Interests”); and

An inventory of historically owned mitigation credits as well as mitigation credits produced by the Company’s mitigation bank. The mitigation bank owns a 2,500 acre parcel of land in the western part of Daytona Beach, Florida and, pursuant to a mitigation plan approved by the applicable state and federal authorities, produces mitigation credits that are sold to developers of land in the Daytona Beach area for the purpose of enabling the developers to obtain certain regulatory permits for property development (the “Mitigation Bank”). Prior to the Interest Purchase (hereinafter defined in Note 8, “Investments in Joint Ventures”) completed on September 30, 2021, the Company held a 30% retained interest in the entity that owns the Mitigation Bank.

On December 10, 2021, the Land JV, of which the Company previously held a 33.5% retained interest, completed the Land JV Sale. Proceeds to the Company after distributions to the other member of the Land JV, and before taxes, were $24.5 million. Prior to the completion of the Land JV Sale, the Company was engaged in managing the Land JV, as further described in Note 6, “Related Party Management Services Business” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8. As a result of the Land JV Sale and corresponding dissolution of the Land JV, the Company no longer holds a retained interest in the Land JV as of December 31, 2021.

49

Our business also includes our investment in PINE. As of December 31, 2021, the fair value of our investment totaled $41.0 million, or 15.6% of PINE’s outstanding equity, including the OP Units we hold in the PINE Operating Partnership, which are redeemable for cash, based upon the value of an equivalent number of shares of PINE common stock at the time of the redemption, or shares of PINE common stock on a one-for-one basis, at PINE’s election. Our investment in PINE generates investment income through the dividends distributed by PINE. In addition to the dividends we receive from PINE, our investment in PINE may benefit from any appreciation in PINE’s stock price, although no assurances can be provided that such appreciation will occur, the amount by which our investment will increase in value, or the timing thereof. Any dividends received from PINE are included in investment and other income (loss) on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.  

Discontinued Operations. The Company reports the historical financial position and results of operations of disposed businesses as discontinued operations when it has no continuing interest in the business. On October 16, 2019, the Company sold a controlling interest in its wholly owned subsidiary that held 5,300 acres of undeveloped land in Daytona Beach, Florida. On October 17, 2019, the Company sold its interest in the golf operations. For the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company has reported the historical financial position and the results of operations related to the Land JV and the golf operations as discontinued operations (see Note 25, “Assets and Liabilities Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8). The cash flows related to discontinued operations have been disclosed. There were no discontinued operations during the years ended December 31, 2021 or 2020.

REIT Conversion

As of December 31, 2020, the Company had completed certain internal reorganization transactions necessary to begin operating in compliance with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes under the Code, commencing with the taxable year ended December 31, 2020. See Item 1, “Business” for information related to the Company’s REIT conversion and related transactions. On January 29, 2021, in connection with the REIT conversion, the Company completed the Merger in order to reincorporate in Maryland and facilitate its ongoing compliance with the REIT requirements.

50

Selected Historical Financial Information

The following table summarizes our selected historical financial information for each of the last five fiscal years (in thousands except per share amounts). The selected financial information has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. Additional data for fiscal years 2021, 2020, and 2019 is included elsewhere in this report.

Fiscal Years Ended

    

2021

    

2020

    

2019

    

2018

    

2017

Total Revenues

$

70,272

$

56,381

$

44,941

$

43,658

$

38,651

Operating Income

$

23,345

$

12,280

$

34,199

$

31,385

$

7,745

Net Income Attributable to the Company

$

29,940

$

78,509

$

114,973

$

37,168

$

41,719

Distributions to Preferred Stockholders

(2,325)

Net Income Attributable to Common Stockholders

$

27,615

$

78,509

$

114,973

$

37,168

$

41,719

Per Share Information:

Basic:

Income From Continuing Operations Attributable to Common Stockholders

$

4.69

$

16.69

$

3.32

$

2.72

$

3.92

Income From Discontinued Operations (Net of Income Tax) Attributable to Common Stockholders

19.71

4.04

3.61

Basic Net Income per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders

$

4.69

$

16.69

$

23.03

$

6.76

$

7.53

Diluted:

Income From Continuing Operations Attributable to Common Stockholders

$

4.69

$

16.69

$

3.32

$

2.71

$

3.90

Income From Discontinued Operations (Net of Income Tax) Attributable to Common Stockholders

19.68

4.01

3.58

Diluted Net Income per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders

$

4.69

$

16.69

$

23.00

$

6.72

$

7.48

Dividends Declared and Paid - Preferred Stock

$

0.77

$

$

$

$

Dividends Declared and Paid - Common Stock

$

4.00

$

13.88

$

0.44

$

0.27

$

0.18

Summary of Financial Position:

Real Estate—Net

$

494,695

$

442,384

$

370,591

$

368,751

$

342,628

Total Assets

$

733,139

$

666,700

$

704,194

$

556,841

$

466,667

Stockholders’ Equity

$

430,480