Prospectus Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) (424b4)

Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4)

Registration No. 333-256684

Registration No. 333-257939

 

PROSPECTUS

2,500,000
Shares

Common Stock

We are offering shares of our common stock. Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “BYRN.” The public offering price is $21.00 per share. The last reported sale price on Nasdaq of our common stock on July 15, 2021 was $22.52 per share. Our common stock is also traded on the Canadian Securities Exchange (the “CSE”). The last reported sale price on the CSE of our common stock on July 15, 2021 was $27.88 CAD per share.

You should consider the risks that we have described in “Risk Factors” beginning on page 13 of this prospectus before buying our common stock.

Per Share

Total

Public offering price

$

21.00

$

52,500,000

Underwriting discount

$

1.26

$

3,150,000

Proceeds, before expenses, to us

$

19.74

$

49,350,000

We have granted the underwriters an option to purchase up to an additional 375,000 shares of common stock at the public offering price less the underwriting discount and commissions to cover over-allotments, if any.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The underwriters expect to deliver the common stock to purchasers on or before July 20, 2021.

RAYMOND JAMES

B. Riley Securities, Inc.

Ladenburg Thalmann

The date of this prospectus is July 16, 2021.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

2

 

Prospectus Summary

4

 

The Offering 9
   

Risk Factors

13

 

Use of Proceeds

36

 

Dividend Policy

36

 

Dilution

36

 

Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data

37

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

42

 

Business

56

 

Management

67

 

Executive Compensation

72

 

Certain Relationships and Related-Party Transactions

81

 

Principal Stockholders

82

 

Description of Registrant’s Securities

83

 

Description of Indebtedness

87

 

Certain U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences

88

 

Underwriting

94

 

Legal Matters

98

 

Experts

98

 

Where You Can Find Additional Information

98

 

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

F-1

1

We are responsible for the information contained in this prospectus. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus and in any related free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us. Neither we, nor the underwriters, have authorized anyone to provide you with information different from, or in addition to, the information contained in this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus or in any applicable free writing prospectus is current only as of its date, regardless of its time of delivery or any sale of shares of our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since that date.

For Investors Outside the United States

Neither we nor the underwriters have taken any action that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than the United States. Persons outside the United States are required to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus.

Trademark Notice

Byrna®, our logo, Live Safe™, and Learn Safe™ are registered or common law trademarks of Byrna Technologies Inc. This prospectus contains references to our trademarks, both registered and common law, and to trademarks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights to these trademarks and trade names. All other brand names, trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

Industry, Market, and Other Data

This prospectus includes estimates, projections, and other information concerning our industry and market data, including data regarding the estimated size of the market, projected growth rates, trends and perceptions and preferences of consumers. We obtained this data from industry sources, third-party studies, including market analyses and reports, and internal company data. Industry sources generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Although we are responsible for all of the disclosure contained in this prospectus, and we believe the industry and market data to be reliable as of the date of this prospectus, this information could prove to be inaccurate. We have not independently verified data from these sources or obtained third-party verification of market share data and this information may not be reliable. In addition, these sources may use different definitions of the relevant markets. Data regarding our industry is intended to provide general guidance, but is inherently imprecise.

2

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains “forward-looking statements” that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical or current fact included in this prospectus are forward looking statements. Forward-looking statements refer to our current expectations and projections relating to our financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, strategies, future performance, and business. You can identify forward-looking statements by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. These statements may include words such as “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “can have,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “goal,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “might,” “objective,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and other words and terms of similar meaning in connection with any discussion of the timing or nature of future operational performance or other events. For example, all statements we make relating to our estimated and projected costs, expenditures, and growth rates, our plans and objectives for future operations, growth, or initiatives, or strategies are forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from those that we expect and, therefore, you should not unduly rely on such statements. The risks and uncertainties that could cause those actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements include but are not limited to the following:

We have a limited operating history on which you can evaluate our business, and we have a history of operating losses;

We may require additional capital in the future to support our operations and growth plans;

If we are unable to successfully implement our business plan for the sale of Byrna® HD, our revenue growth could be slower than we expect and our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected;

We depend on the sale of the Byrna® HD and on maintaining and strengthening our brand;

We depend on third-party suppliers including sole source providers for certain components and for all of our chemical irritant projectiles;

We are subject to extensive regulation, non-compliance with which could result in fines, penalties and other costs and liabilities;

If we deliver products with defects, we may be subject to product recalls or negative publicity, our credibility may be harmed, market acceptance of our products may decline, and we may be exposed to liability;

Product liability lawsuits and other litigation against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and to limit commercialization of any products that we may develop in the future;

The markets for security products and defense technology are in a state of technological change which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations;

3

Macroeconomic risks, such as general economic conditions and epidemic and pandemic diseases (including the COVID-19 pandemic), could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and ability to comply with regulatory requirements;

Our performance is influenced by a variety of economic, social, and political factors;

We are subject to extensive regulation and could incur fines, penalties and other costs and liabilities under such requirements;

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, we may lose a competitive advantage or incur substantial litigation costs to protect our rights;

Our trading market is limited, and the trading market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained;

Our stock price may be volatile or may decline, including due to factors beyond our control, resulting in substantial losses for investors purchasing shares in this offering; and

Purchasers in this offering will experience immediate and substantial dilution. 

We make many of our forward-looking statements based on our operating budgets and forecasts, which are based upon assumptions made by management. While we believe that our assumptions are reasonable, we caution that it is very difficult to predict the impact of known factors, and it is impossible for us to anticipate all factors that could affect our actual results.

See the “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this prospectus for a more complete discussion of the risks and uncertainties mentioned above and for discussion of other risks and uncertainties we face that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements attributable to us are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements as well as others made in this prospectus and hereafter in our other SEC filings and public communications. You should evaluate all forward-looking statements made by us in the context of these risks and uncertainties.

We caution you that the risks and uncertainties identified by us may not be all of the factors that are important to you. Furthermore, the forward-looking statements included in this prospectus are made only as of the date hereof. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise, except as required by law.

4

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our common stock, you should carefully read the entire prospectus, including the consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in this prospectus and the information set forth under the headings “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Unless the context requires otherwise, the words “Byrna,” “we,” “company,” “us,” and “our” refer to Byrna Technologies Inc. and its subsidiaries, as applicable.

Company Overview

We are a non-lethal defense technology company specializing in innovative, next-generation solutions for security situations that do not require the use of lethal force. Our mantra is Live Safe, and our core mission is to empower people to safely embrace life. We seek to fulfill our mission by developing easy-to-use self-defense tools that are designed to allow people to live more safely. We are also focused on providing law enforcement and private security customers with non-lethal alternatives to firearms that are intended to reduce shootings and facilitate trust with the communities they serve.

Our product portfolio includes:

The Byrna line of handheld personal security devices designed for use by consumers and professional security customers;

A line of projectiles that are fired by Byrna devices, including chemical irritant, kinetic and inert rounds; and

Accessories and related products, including compressed carbon dioxide (CO2) canisters, sighting systems, holsters and Byrna-branded apparel.

Our flagship personal security device, the Byrna® HD, is a powerful and effective non-lethal self-defense device that is powered by CO2 and fires .68 caliber kinetic and chemical irritant projectiles that are designed to disable a threat from a standoff distance of up to 60 feet.

Our products are sold in both the consumer and security professional markets. In the consumer market, our solutions are designed to provide ordinary civilians with an effective, non-lethal tool to disable, disarm and deter would be assailants and to escape harm’s way. In the professional market, our products are designed to provide domestic and international law enforcement agencies, corrections and custodial officers, private security professionals, private investigators and other professional security users with a practical, non-lethal option to address threats and resolve conflicts without the need to resort to lethal force. Our products can be purchased in most U.S. locations quickly, simply and discreetly, without the requirement for a license, background check or waiting period.

Our strategy is to establish Byrna as a consumer lifestyle brand associated with the confidence people can achieve by knowing they can protect themselves, their loved ones and those around them. We believe we have a significant opportunity to leverage the Byrna brand

5

to expand our product line, broaden our user base and generate increasing sales from new and existing customers.

Our Market Opportunity

In the consumer market, our products are designed to provide peace of mind and protection, while reducing the risk of potentially fatal mistakes that can have life-altering legal, financial and psychological consequences. Importantly, our products are designed to appeal to the needs of gun owners and non-gun owners alike. There are approximately 82 million gun owners in the U.S., according to data from Gallup and the United States Census Bureau. We believe our products offer gun owners an attractive option – a truly effective personal safety device, with a familiar “look and feel” of a firearm, but without the higher risk of potentially fatal mistakes or accidents. For the remaining 173 million adults in the United States who do not own a gun, our products are designed to provide a safe, effective and non-lethal way to protect themselves and their families.

The professional market represents a significant opportunity for our non-lethal security products. Domestically, there are approximately 917,000 police officers, detectives and criminal investigators, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Incidents of police shootings and deaths related to the use of conductive energy devices have become a growing problem in the United States, leading to loss of life, civil unrest and distrust between police officers and civilians. According to The Washington Post, there have been over 6,300 police shootings since 2015, and a Reuters examination found that more than 1,000 people in the U.S. have died after police stunned them with conductive energy devices, with the conductive energy device ruled to be a cause or contributing factor in over 150 of those deaths. Given the human, social and financial impacts of these fatal events, law enforcement organizations are seeking non-lethal tools that can safely protect the officer and the community and de-escalate dangerous situations without having to resort to deadly force. Beyond law enforcement, there are a number of other security-related professions in the United States that we believe are prime candidates for our Byrna® HD device, including 800,000 private security guards, 346,000 corrections officers and 90,000 private detectives, based on data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

We are also targeting the international professional security market, which we believe is multiple times larger than the U.S. market. There are approximately 10 million police officers located in the top 30 international countries based on police population, according to data compiled by World Atlas. In addition, there are an estimated 19 million international private security workers, according to The Guardian.

Our Competitive Strengths

We believe the following strengths distinguish us from our competitors and position us for a leadership position in the non-lethal personal security market:

Effective, Non-Lethal Solution. The Byrna® HD is a practical, non-lethal solution for the consumer and professional security markets. The device is lightweight, compact, cost-effective and can be fired multiple times from a safe range of up to 60 feet, while ensuring a lower likelihood of unintended consequences, such as death or serious injury.

Emerging Lifestyle Brand. We are striving to establish Byrna as a leading consumer lifestyle brand associated with safety, confidence and control. We believe our brand has strong loyalty among our customer base, and accordingly, these

6

customers are more likely to purchase Byrna-branded products and recommend them to their friends and families. 

Passionate User Base. In just two years, we have built a loyal user base of over 63,000 e-commerce customers and over 137,000 subscribers to our marketing list, which we refer to as Byrna Nation. As we seek to expand our business, we will stay focused on maintaining the satisfaction and support of Byrna Nation. 

Broad Market Applicability. Our products are designed to address a wide array of markets, customer segments and geographies. We believe the broad-based appeal of our products has the potential to expand our total addressable market and unlock attractive opportunities for our future growth. 

Razor / Razor Blade Model. Once we sell a launcher to a customer, we are able to sell that same customer projectiles and accessories over the lifetime of their product. Additionally, we believe that as we introduce new launchers, our existing customers will be likely candidates to upgrade to these new and enhanced versions. 

Socially Responsible Solution. We recognize that on one hand there is a growing desire for safety and security in the United States, and on the other hand, an epidemic of gun violence exists in this country. We believe that Byrna offers a safe and effective alternative to lethal firearms and as such, is part of the solution to the growing epidemic of gun violence in America. We believe we have the right product at the right time to address one of America’s greatest challenges. 

Our Growth Strategy

The following are the key pillars of our growth strategy that we believe will enable us to establish Byrna as a leading solutions provider in the non-lethal security market:

New Product Innovation. Over the next 24 months, we plan to introduce seven new launchers and new projectiles including practice projectiles that are environmentally friendly, projectiles that can be fired from a 12 gauge shotgun (potentially opening up to Byrna to an estimated 100 million existing shotguns, extrapolated based on historical information according to gunpolicy.org) and various accessories such as holsters, sighting systems, flashlights and cameras that are designed to enhance the Byrna user experience.

New Sales Channels and Marketing Programs. We plan to launch an Amazon digital storefront within the next three months. We also plan to deepen and broaden our relationships with our network of dealers and distributors.

Law Enforcement Penetration. We see an attractive opportunity to serve the law enforcement market, both domestically and internationally. With the planned introduction of the Byrna LE, we have for the first time a launcher specifically designed for the professional-grade needs of the law enforcement community.

School Safety Enablement. We recently launched the Learn Safe school safety program, designed to enable school personnel, such as school resource officers and security guards, to handle threats that may arise in educational facilities throughout the country without the risks associated with using deadly force inside a school with hundreds or even thousands of students.

7

Strategic Acquisitions. We have successfully used acquisitions to broaden our product line and accelerate our growth plans, and we expect this strategy to continue. For example, in May 2021, we acquired Mission Less Lethal, which provided us with a highly regarded line of non-lethal rifles, valuable intellectual property rights and a more established presence in the law enforcement market.

Selected Risks Associated with Our Business

Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in the section titled “Risk Factors” immediately following this prospectus summary. Some of these principal risks include the following:

We have a limited operating history on which you can evaluate our business, and we have a history of operating losses;

We may require additional capital in the future to support our operations and growth plans;

If we are unable to successfully implement our business plan for the sale of the Byrna® HD, our revenue growth could be slower than we expect and our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected;

We depend on the sale of the Byrna® HD and on maintaining and strengthening our brand;

We depend on third-party suppliers including sole source providers for certain components and for all of our chemical irritant projectiles;

We are subject to extensive regulation, non-compliance with which could result in fines, penalties and other costs and liabilities;

If we deliver products with defects, we may be subject to product recalls or negative publicity, our credibility may be harmed; market acceptance of our products may decline, and we may be exposed to liability;

Product liability lawsuits and other litigation against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and to limit commercialization of any products that we may develop;

The markets for security products and defense technology are in a state of technological change which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations;

Macroeconomic risks, such as general economic conditions and epidemic and pandemic diseases (including the COVID-19 pandemic), could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and ability to comply with regulatory requirements;

Our performance is influenced by a variety of economic, social, and political factors;

We are subject to extensive regulation and could incur fines, penalties and other costs and liabilities under such requirements;

8

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, we may lose a competitive advantage or incur substantial litigation costs to protect our rights;

Our trading market is limited, and the trading market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained;

Our stock price may be volatile or may decline, including due to factors beyond our control, resulting in substantial losses for investors purchasing shares in this offering; and

Purchasers in this offering will experience immediate and substantial dilution.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware on March 1, 2005 under the name Security Devices International Inc. On February 26, 2020, we filed an amendment to our Certificate of Incorporation with the Secretary of State of Delaware changing our name, effective March 4, 2020, to Byrna Technologies Inc. Effective December 19, 2019, we dissolved our wholly-owned subsidiary Security Devices International Canada Corp (“SDICC”). We currently have two wholly-owned subsidiaries, Byrna South Africa (Pty) Ltd. (“Byrna South Africa”) and Roboro Industries Pty LTD (“Roboro”). On May 5, 2020, we acquired all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of Roboro and, as a result, Roboro became our wholly-owned subsidiary. During the year ended November 30, 2020, we utilized Roboro exclusively as a manufacturing and assembly supplier for our products until such operations were assumed by Byrna South Africa.

On April 27, 2021, we effected a 10-for-1 reverse stock split of our common stock (the “Reverse Stock Split”) with exercise prices for our outstanding warrants and stock options appropriately adjusted. As of May 31, 2021, we had an aggregate of 20,693,521 shares of our common stock outstanding.

Effective May 12, 2021, we entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “APA”) to purchase certain assets used in designing, developing, manufacturing, licensing, and selling of products and services in or for the “Mission Less Lethal” brand from Kore Outdoor (U.S.) Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Kore”), a wholly owned subsidiary of Kore Outdoor Inc., a Canadian corporation (“Parent”). The transaction was accounted for as an asset acquisition, with estimated $3.7 million total cost of which $0.2 million were acquisition related expenses. The APA contains certain customary representations, warranties, and covenants of the parties, including a guaranty by Parent of certain obligations of Kore. Pursuant to the APA, among other things, (i) we acquired a fully paid, royalty-free, exclusive, sublicensable, irrevocable, world-wide right and license (to be used in the less than lethal field) to and under certain intellectual property related to certain products, and (ii) we agreed to enter into a supply agreement with Kore providing for the sale from Kore to us of certain products. With this asset acquisition, we now offer the full Mission Less Lethal product line, including the MLR, Mission 4, TPR and TCR launchers.

Our principal executive and administrative offices are located at 100 Burtt Road, Suite 115, Andover, MA 01810, and our telephone number is (978) 868-5011. Our website address is byrna.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and should not be considered to be a part of this prospectus.

9

THE OFFERING

Common stock offered by us

2,500,000 shares of common stock

 

 

Underwriters’ option

We have granted the underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional 375,000 shares from us at the public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions, to cover over-allotments, if any.

 

 

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

23,193,521 shares of common stock (or 23,568,521 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full) based on 20,693,521 shares of common stock outstanding as of May 31, 2021.

 

 

Use of proceeds

We estimate that the net proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $48.6 million (or approximately $56.0 million if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full) based on an offering price of $21.00, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and other general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering for acquisitions or strategic investments in complementary businesses or technologies. We do not currently have any plans for any such acquisitions or investments. We have not allocated specific amounts of net proceeds for any of these purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” for a complete description of the intended use of proceeds from this offering.

 

 

Risk factors

Investing in shares of our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 13 and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before investing in shares of our common stock.

 

 

Nasdaq symbol

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “BYRN.”

The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on shares of our common stock outstanding as of May 31, 2021, and excludes:

warrants to purchase up to 99,055 shares of our common stock at a weighted exercise price of approximately $1.91 per share;

642,050 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding but unexercised options to purchase shares of our common stock as of May 31, 2021, under the Byrna Technologies, Inc. 2020 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2020 Plan”), with a weighted average exercise price of $3.00 per share;

10

1,747,993 shares of our common stock issuable upon the settlement of restricted stock units outstanding as of May 31, 2021 under the 2020 Plan; and

109,957 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under the 2020 Plan.

Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes or reflects:

no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares;

no exercise or settlement of outstanding stock options; and

the Reverse Stock Split.

Summary Consolidated Financial Data

The following tables provide our summary consolidated financial data and should be read in conjunction with “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” and our consolidated financial statements, related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have derived the summary consolidated statements of income data for the fiscal years ended November 30, 2020 and 2019 from our audited consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary condensed statements of income data for the six months ended May 31, 2020 and 2021, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of May 31, 2021 have been derived from our unaudited interim consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future, and the results for any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in any full year.

11

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

Years Ended November 30, 

Six Months Ended May 31,

(in thousands)

2019 

 

2020 

2020 

2021

Net revenue

$

924

 

$

16,566

 

$

1,339

 

$

22,294

 

Cost of goods sold

 

775

 

 

9,058

 

 

857

 

 

9,991

 

Gross profit

 

149

 

 

7,508

 

 

482

 

12,303

 

Operating expenses

 

3,438

 

 

11,818

 

2,959

 

10,691

 

INCOME (LOSS) FROM OPERATIONS

 

(3,289

)

 

(4,310

)

 

(2,477

)

 

1,612

OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign currency transaction
gain (loss)

 

(12

)

 

(91

)

 

(9

)

 

192

Accretion of debt discounts

 

(1,121

)

 

(755

)

 

(755

)

 

 

Interest expense

 

(414

)

 

(233

)

 

(233

)

 

(37

)

Loss on extinguishment of debt

 

 

 

(6,027

)

 

(6,027

 

 

Warrant inducement expense

 

 

 

(845

)

 

(845

)

 

 

Forgiveness of Paycheck Protection Program loan

190

Other financing costs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(9

)

Change in fair value of derivative liabilities

 

426

 

 

 

 

INCOME (LOSS) BEFORE INCOME TAXES

 

(4,410

)

 

(12,261

)

 

(10,346

)

 

1,948

Income tax provision

 

 

293

 

 

183

 

NET INCOME (LOSS)

 

(4,410

)

 

(12,554

)

 

(10,346

)

 

1,765

 

Foreign exchange translation gain for the year

 

(4

)

 

67

 

96

 

178

 

COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)

$

(4,414

)

$

(12,487

)

$

(10,250

)

$

1,943

NET INCOME (LOSS) AVAILABLE TO COMMON SHAREHOLDERS

$

(4,410

)

$

(12,554

)

$

(10,346

)

$

722

 

Net income (loss) per share – basic

$

(0.43

)

$

(0.99

)

$

(0.91

)

$

0.04

Net income (loss) per share – diluted

$

(0.43

)

$

(0.99

)

$

(0.91

)

$

0.04

Weighted-average number of
common shares outstanding
during the period – basic

 

10,354,383

 

12,678,747

 

11,271,719

 

16,359,496

 

Weighted-average number of
common shares outstanding
during the period – diluted

 

10,354,383

 

12,678,747

 

11,271,719

 

17,604,131

 

12

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

Years Ended November 30, 

Six Months Ended May 31,

(in thousands)

2019 

 

2020 

2020 

2021

Non-GAAP Figures:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

$

(3,033

)

$

(2,840

)

$

(1,664

)

$

3,745

 

Non-GAAP net income (loss)(1)

$

(3,501

)

$

(3,608

)

$

(1,975

)

$

3,308

 

Preferred stock dividend

$

$

$

$

(1,043

)

Non-GAAP net income (loss) available to common shareholders

$

(3,501

)

$

(3,608

)

$

(1,975

)

$

2,265

Non-GAAP net income (loss) per share – basic(1)

$

(0.34

)

$

(0.28

)

$

(0.18

)

$

0.14

 

Non-GAAP net income (loss) per share – diluted(1)

$

(0.34

)

$

(0.28

)

$

(0.18

)

$

0.13

 

Weighted-average number of
common shares outstanding
during the period – basic
(1)

 

10,354,383

 

 

12,678,747

 

 

11,271,719

 

 

16,359,496

 

Weighted-average number of
common shares outstanding
during the period – diluted
(1)

 

10,354,383

 

 

12,678,747

 

 

11,271,719

 

 

17,604,131

  

(1)Adjusted EBITDA, Non-GAAP net income (loss), and Non-GAAP net income (loss) per share are non-GAAP financial measures. These non-GAAP financial measures do not replace the presentation of our GAAP financial results and should only be used as a supplement to, not as a substitute for, our financial results presented in accordance with GAAP. Please refer to “Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data – Non-GAAP financial measures” for a description of the use of such measure and reconciliations to comparable GAAP financial measures.

Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:

As of November 30,

As of May 31,

(in thousands)

2019

 

2020

2020

2021

Cash

$

1,081

 

$

3,175

 

$

2,718

 

$

4,391

 

Restricted cash

 

92

 

 

6,481

 

 

92

 

 

954

 

Working capital

 

(818

)

 

4,742

 

 

3,348

 

6,450

 

Total assets

 

3,566

 

 

21,216

 

 

7,662

 

 

22,033

 

Total debt

 

4,634

 

 

190

 

 

326

 

 

1,500

 

Total shareholders’ equity (deficit)

 

(1,984

)

 

8,409

 

 

5,778

 

13,150

 

The consolidated balance sheet data as of May 31, 2021 are presented below:

on an actual basis; and 

on an as adjusted basis to give effect the sale by us of 2,250,000 shares offered by us in this prospectus (excluding the underwriters’ option), after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and other offering expenses.

As of May 31, 2021

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

(in thousands)

Actual

As 
adjusted

Cash

 

$

4,391

 

$

48,796

 

Restricted cash

 

 

954

 

 

954

 

Working capital

 

 

6,450

 

 

50,855

 

Total assets

 

 

22,033

 

 

66,438

 

Total debt

 

 

1,500

 

 

1,500

 

Total shareholders’ equity

 

 

13,150

 

 

57,555

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. These risks include, but are not limited to, those described below, each of which may be relevant to an investment decision. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus, including the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, before deciding whether to invest in shares of our common stock. If any of the following risks or other risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and future prospects could be materially harmed. In that event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations. The risks discussed below also include forward-looking statements, and our actual results may differ substantially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” above.

Risks Related to Our Business

We have a limited operating history on which you can evaluate our business.

We have a limited operating history on which you can evaluate our business. Although our corporate entity has existed since 2005, we have only been manufacturing and selling the Byrna® HD, our largest source of revenue, since April 2019. Moreover, many members of our key senior management team are relatively new to their positions. Our Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”), Chief Supply Chain Officer, and Chief People Officer (“CPO”) began their current roles late in the third quarter in 2020, our Chief Marketing and Revenue Officer (“CMO”) began his role in the first quarter of 2021, and our Chief Governmental Affairs Officer began his role in 2020. As a result, our business may be subject to many of the problems, expenses, delays, and risks inherent in the rapid growth of a relatively new business and the integration of key personnel and infrastructure.

We have a history of operating losses and we cannot guarantee that we will be able to sustain profitability.

We have recorded a net loss in all reporting periods since our inception through the fiscal quarter ended February 28, 2021. Our net loss for the years ended November 30, 2020 and 2019 was $12.6 million and $4.4 million, respectively, our accumulated deficit at November 30, 2020 was $50.2 million. We had a net income for the three months ended May 31, 2021 of $2.0 million compared to a net loss for the three months ended February 28, 2021 of $0.3 million. Our accumulated deficit at February 28, 2021 was $50.5 million and at May 31, 2021 was $48.5 million. There can be no assurance that we will not experience net losses in the future and there can be no assurance of continued profitability.

We expect to require additional financing in the future to generate substantial revenue growth. If we do not obtain such additional financing, our business prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

There can be no assurance that such financing will be available at all or on favorable terms. Failure to significantly grow our revenues may result in us seeking to obtain such additional financing, which could result in delay of our development and sale of our products. Subsequent financing may dilute the ownership interest of our stockholders at the time of the financing and may dilute the value of their stock.

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If we are unable to successfully implement our business plan for the sale of the Byrna® HD, our revenue growth could be slower than we expect and our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

There can be no assurance that our revenues or revenue growth can be sustained. Revenue growth that we have achieved or may achieve may not be indicative of future operating results. The Byrna® HD is a new product and its long-term adoption by the U.S. consumer market, and by potential other markets including law enforcement, private security, and international markets, remains unknown. Among other things, production delays, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, excessive costs, performance failures, new legislation or regulation, competition, or negative publicity could stall or prevent its success in the market and generation of revenue. In addition, we have increased and may increase further our operating expenses in order to fund increases in our manufacturing, distribution, and sales and marketing efforts and increase our administrative resources in anticipation of future growth. To the extent that increases in such expenses precede or are not subsequently followed by increased revenues, our business, operating results and financial condition may be materially adversely affected.

We may not be able to effectively manage our growth.  

As we grow our business, slower growing or reduced demand for our products, increased competition, a decrease in the growth rate of our overall market, failure to develop and successfully market new products, or the maturation of our business or market could harm our business. We expect to make significant investments in research and development and sales and marketing, expand our operations and infrastructure, design and develop or acquire new products, and enhance our existing products. If our sales do not increase at a sufficient rate to offset these increases in our operating expenses, our profitability may decline in future periods.

We have expanded our operations rapidly since our inception. The scope and complexity of our business have increased substantially over the past several years. We have only a limited history operating our business at its current scale. Key members of our management team do not have substantial tenure working together. Consequently, if our operations continue to grow at a rapid pace, we may experience difficulties in managing this growth and building the appropriate processes and controls. Continued growth may increase the strain on our resources, and we could experience operating difficulties, including difficulties in sourcing, logistics, recruiting, maintaining internal controls, marketing, designing innovative products, and meeting consumer needs. If we do not adapt to meet these evolving challenges, the strength of our brand may erode, the quality of our products may suffer, we may not be able to deliver products on a timely basis to our customers, and our corporate culture may be harmed.

Product liability lawsuits against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and to limit commercialization of any products that we may develop.

We may be subject to proceedings or claims that may arise in the ordinary course of the business, which could include product and service warranty claims, which could be substantial. If our products fail to perform as warranted and we fail to quickly resolve product quality or performance issues in a timely manner, our reputation may be tarnished, potential sales may be lost, and we may be forced to pay damages. The occurrence of product defects and the inability to correct errors could result in the delay or loss of market acceptance of our products, material warranty expense, diversion of technological and other resources from our product development efforts, and the loss of credibility with customers, manufacturer’s representatives, distributors, dealers and end-users, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial conditions.

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Our products are used in activities and situations that involve risk of personal injury. Our products expose us to potential product liability, warranty liability, and personal injury claims and litigation relating to the use or misuse of our products, including allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product or activities associated with the product, negligence, and strict liability. If successful, any such claims could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Defects in our products may result in a loss of sales, recall expenses, delay in market acceptance, and damage to our reputation and increased warranty costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition. In addition, our reputation may be adversely affected by such claims, whether or not successful, including potential negative publicity about our products.

We issued a product safety notice in February 2021 and, as a result, took a reserve of $195,000, which we believe to have been adequate. If the safety update fails in the future, new issues arise, or a substantial number of consumers continue to seek exchanges we could also experience damage to our reputation, business, operations (including production rate) and revenues. At May 31, 2021, approximately $133,000 of this reserve remains.

We maintain general liability insurance that includes product liability coverage in amounts that we believe are reasonable, but there is no assurance that we will be able to maintain such insurance on acceptable terms, if at all, in the future and product liability claims may exceed the amount of insurance coverage.

The failure to attract and retain key personnel could have an adverse effect on our operating results.

Our success depends substantially on the efforts and abilities of our senior management and key personnel. The competition for qualified management and key personnel is intense. The loss of services of one or more of our key employees or the inability to hire, train, and retain additional key personnel could delay the development and sale of our products, disrupt our business, and interfere with our ability to execute our business plan.

In addition, our ability to maintain our competitive position is dependent to a large degree on the efforts and skills of our senior management team, including Bryan Ganz, our President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors. The loss of the services of one or more of our key personnel could materially and adversely affect our operations.

We depend on the sale of our personal security devices.

Although we do sell certain other products (such as our 40mm product line) and we expect to introduce new products, including products being developed and products acquired in connection with the acquisition of Mission Less Lethal assets in May 2021, our revenue is derived almost exclusively from the sale of the Byrna® HD. The sale of such personal security devices is influenced by a variety of economic, social, and political factors, including without limitation the level of confidence of consumers in our products and in the security and reliability of online shopping and e-commerce on which we significantly rely, which may result in volatile sales. Sales of the Byrna® HD, including its ammunition and accessories, represented 99% of our total revenue for the year ended November 30, 2020 and for the six months ended May 31, 2021. There can be no assurances of continued demand for the Byrna® HD, and any change in the factors that impact demand and sales that are likely to materially and adversely affect our prospects.

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Sale of our personal security devices and kits depends on the continued availability of our ammunition, some of which is dependent on sole source suppliers.

Our introductory product is purchased most often as a “kit” including the Byrna® HD launcher and samples of our various projectiles. Unavailability of projectiles could delay shipment of kits and materially and adversely affect our operations. Moreover, our “razor/razor blade model” which anticipates future orders of ammunition from the owners of our personal security devices could be materially impacted by the unavailability of projectiles. See Dependence on Sole Suppliers below.

Our business depends on maintaining and strengthening our brand and generating and maintaining demand for our products, and a reduction in such demand could harm our results of operations.

The Byrna name and brand image are integral to the growth of our business, as well as to the implementation of our strategies for expanding our business. Our success depends on the value and reputation of our brand, which, in turn, depends on factors such as the quality, design, performance, functionality, and durability of our products, the image of our e-commerce platform and retail presence, our communication activities, including advertising, social media, and public relations, and our management of the customer experience, including direct interfaces through customer service. Maintaining, promoting, and positioning our brand are important to expanding our customer base, and will depend largely on the success of our marketing and merchandising efforts and our ability to provide consistent, high quality customer experiences. We intend to make substantial investments in these areas in order to maintain and enhance our brand, however such investments may not be successful. Ineffective marketing, negative publicity, product diversion to unauthorized distribution channels, product or manufacturing defects, counterfeit products, unfair labor practices, failure to protect the intellectual property rights in our brand, and inability to provide satisfactory customer service experience as we rapidly expand our business, are some of the potential threats to the strength of our brand, and those and other factors could rapidly and severely diminish customer confidence in us. Furthermore, these factors could cause our customers to lose the personal connection they feel with the Byrna brand. We believe that maintaining and enhancing our brand image in our current markets and in new markets where we have limited brand recognition is important to expanding our customer base. If we are unable to maintain or enhance our brand in current or new markets, our growth strategy and results of operations could be harmed.

We are dependent on our relationships with key third-party suppliers for our business.

We rely on certain third-party suppliers for our business, including sole source suppliers. Sole source suppliers account for approximately 35-40% of the components in our Byrna® HD and 100% of the chemical irritant projectiles we sell as well as certain accessories. Moreover the supplier of our chemical irritant and inert rounds is in South Africa is in an area seriously impacted by the pandemic, and personnel at their factory, including key personnel, have been affected. Our future operating results depend upon our ability to obtain timely delivery of a sufficient amount and a reliable quality of all components on commercially reasonable terms. Failure of a supplier’s business or consolidation within the industry could further limit our ability to purchase key components at all (in the case of sole source suppliers) or in sufficient quantities and on commercially reasonable terms. Demands of competitors, including those with larger operations and stronger bargaining power or those or willing to pay a higher price or to accept lower standards, could also limit our ability to purchase key components in sufficient quantities on commercially reasonable terms. Failure of our suppliers to provide sufficient quantities of components on favorable terms, meet quality standards, or deliver components on a timely basis has occurred due to industry shortages of certain raw materials or for reasons related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and could occur in the future for similar or other reasons. Such failures could delay or stop our production, result in possible lost sales and seriously threaten our liquidity and revenues.

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We are dependent on the quality of parts supplied by and quality controls of our third-party suppliers.

The Byrna® HD contains over 100 parts and we rely on third-party suppliers to deliver parts and materials that comply with our specifications. While we test 100% of our finished products, we do not test 100% of the components and materials they contain. We use randomized statistical inspection for components and materials and these protocols, while we believe them to be reliable, have inherent limitations and may miss parts that do not meet specifications. If those parts pass our completed launcher testing but subsequently cause failures of the products in which they are installed, we may need to undertake product recalls or implement protocols for improved performance or safety, which could negatively impact our reputation and business. Moreover, if any such part failure resulted in a physical injury, it could also subject us to the risks of potential product liability actions and, if our stock price were impacted, security class actions.

Higher costs or unavailability of components, freight, materials and accessories, including ammunition, could adversely affect our financial results.

Delays caused by industry allocations, material shortages (such as plastic or resins), or obsolescence have occurred as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, may continue and could occur in the future (due to the COVID-19 pandemic or other reasons). Such delays may take weeks or months to resolve and may result in increased costs as well as production and product fulfillment delays. In addition, in some cases, parts obsolescence may require a product re-design to ensure quality replacement components. These delays could cause significant delays in manufacturing and loss of sales, leading to adverse effects significantly impacting our financial condition or results of operations and could injure our reputation.

Our freight and import costs and the timely delivery of our products could be adversely impacted by a number of factors which could reduce the profitability of our operations, including: higher fuel costs; potential port closures; theft in transit; permit or customs clearance issues; increased government regulation or changes for imports of foreign products into the United States; delays created by terrorist attacks or threats, public health issues and pandemics and epidemics, national disasters or work stoppages; and other matters. Any interruption of supply for any material components of our products could significantly delay the shipment of our products and have a material adverse effect on our revenues, profitability and financial condition. International or domestic geopolitical or other events, including the imposition of new or increased tariffs and/or quotas by the U.S. government on any of these raw materials or components, could adversely impact the supply and cost of these raw materials or components, and could adversely impact the profitability of our operations. Significantly, the COVID-19 pandemic has, and may continue to, adversely impact our costs and product delivery timing and the availability and favorable pricing of materials used in our products. In addition, due to rapidly increasing demand for our products, we have faced significant challenges, including production backlogs and resulting customer complaints. All of the forgoing could negatively impact our financial results.

If we are unable to successfully design and develop or acquire new products, our business may be harmed.

To maintain and increase sales we must continue to introduce new products and improve or enhance our existing products or new products. The success of our new and enhanced products depends on many factors, including anticipating consumer preferences, finding innovative solutions to consumer problems or acquiring new solutions through mergers and acquisitions, differentiating our products from those of our competitors, and maintaining the strength of our brand. The design and development of our products as well as acquisitions of other businesses

18

are costly and we typically have several products in development at the same time. Problems in the design or quality of our products, or delays in product introduction, may harm our brand, business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our business could be harmed if we are unable to accurately forecast demand for our products or our results of operations.

To ensure adequate inventory supply, we forecast inventory needs and often place orders with our manufacturers before we receive firm orders from our retail partners or customers. If we fail to accurately forecast demand, we may experience excess inventory levels or a shortage of product.

If we underestimate the demand for our products, we or our suppliers may not be able to scale to meet our demand, and this could result in delays in the shipment of our products and our failure to satisfy demand, as well as damage to our reputation and retail partner relationships. If we overestimate the demand for our products, we could face inventory levels in excess of demand, which could result in inventory write-downs or write-offs and the sale of excess inventory at discounted prices, which would harm our gross margins. For example, driven by strong customer demand and a shortage of product in 2020, we experienced a product backlog. In addition, failures to accurately predict the level of demand for our products could cause a decline in sales and harm our results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, we may not be able to accurately forecast our results of operations and growth rate. Forecasts may be particularly challenging as we expand into new markets and geographies and develop and market new products for which we have no or limited historical data. Our historical sales, expense levels, and profitability may not be an appropriate basis for forecasting future results. Our lack of historical data related to new products makes it particularly difficult to make forecasts related to such products. The lead times and reliability of our suppliers has been inconsistent as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and may be affected by global events in the future. These effects are expected to last through the remainder of the pandemic. Pandemic related variances require a very quick pivot and adjustments to the supply chain, production and marketing. If we are unable to make these changes quickly or at all our inventory, production and sales may be materially affected.

Failure to accurately forecast our results of operations and growth rate could cause us to make poor operating decisions that we may not be able to correct in a timely manner. Consequently, actual results could be materially different than anticipated. Even if the markets in which we compete expand, we cannot assure you that our business will grow at similar rates, if at all. Forecasting has been particularly challenging during the COVID-19 pandemic.

We rely on a limited number of third parties for shipping, transportation, logistics, marketing and sales of our products and components. A loss of any of such third-party relationships would have a material adverse effect on our operating results.

We rely on third parties to ship, transport, and provide logistics for our products and components. Our dependence on a limited number of third parties for these services leaves us particularly vulnerable due to our need to secure these parties’ services on favorable terms. Loss of, or an adverse effect on, any of these relationships or failure of any of these third parties to perform as expected could have a material and adverse effect on our operations, sales, revenue, margins, liquidity, reputation and financial and operating results.

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We are dependent on our relationships with third parties for assistance in the preparation of our financial statements, which allow us to meet our financial reporting obligations.

We utilize third-party consultants to assist management in the preparation of our financial statements. Our ability to meet our future financial reporting obligations will continue to depend in part on such services provided by these third parties. Changes in such third-party relationships, personnel, or capacity may impact our ability to timely file our financial statements, which could impact our ability to maintain our listings on the Nasdaq Capital Market and CSE. Failure to maintain such listings could materially adversely affect our ability to raise capital. We have encountered challenges meeting reporting timelines in the past, and we may experience additional challenges in the future.

Any future litigation could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.

From time to time, we may be subject to litigation including product liability claims, intellectual property claims, employment-related claims, commercial disputes, regulatory and enforcement action and stockholder class and derivative actions. Risks associated with legal liability are difficult to assess and quantify, and their existence and magnitude can remain unknown for significant periods of time. In addition, our reputation could be adversely affected by negative publicity surrounding such events regardless of whether or not claims against us are successful. A successful claim brought against us in excess of available insurance or not covered by insurance or indemnification agreements, or any claim that results in significant adverse publicity against us, could have a material adverse effect on our business and our reputation. Furthermore, the litigation process can put material or excessive demands on the time of management and employees, interfering with performance of regular responsibilities and stressing or delaying business operations, and the outcome of litigation is inherently uncertain. We can provide no assurances that these matters will not have a material adverse effect on our business.

If we deliver products with defects, we may be subject to product recalls or negative publicity, our credibility may be harmed, market acceptance of our products may decline, and we may be exposed to liability.

We sell complex products including products that are new to the market and without a long performance history. These products may contain certain design and manufacturing defects including defects in materials and components that we purchase from third parties. There can be no assurance we will be able to detect and fix all defects in the products we sell. Accordingly, our products may experience quality and service problems from time to time that could result in decreased sales and operating margin and harm to our reputation.

We issued a product safety notice in February 2021 and, in connection therewith, took a reserve of $195,000 which we believe to have been adequate. If the safety update fails in the future, new issues arise, or a substantial number of consumers continue to seek an updated product, we could also experience damage to our reputation, business, operations (including production rate) and revenues. At May 31, 2021, approximately $133,000 of this reserve remains.

Seasonality may in the future cause our operating results to vary from quarter to quarter.

The seasonality of our sales is unknown and may cause our operating results to vary in the future. Seasonal variations in our operating results may reduce our cash on hand, increase our inventory levels, and extend our accounts receivable collection periods. This in turn may cause us to increase our debt levels and interest expense to fund our working capital requirements.

20

Our business relationships with third parties could cause us to expend significant resources and incur substantial business risk with no assurance of financial return.

We rely upon business relationships for the manufacturing and distribution of certain products. Our business depends upon our ability to manufacture and sell our products to our customers. We currently do not have the capabilities to manufacture some of our products and product components on our own and are required to enter into agreements with third parties of such services. Additionally, due to the introduction of the Byrna® HD in the fiscal year ended November 30, 2019, we only began recently to establish a sales team for our product and utilize third-party manufacturer’s representatives and a third-party e-commerce shopping platform to facilitate sales most sales of such product. We also rely upon third parties for materials and components, as well as shipping, certain marketing and sales-related services. There can be no assurance that such business relationships can be maintained, will be extended or renewed, or will achieve their goals. If we are unable to enter into business relationships for distribution and sales or if any of our current business relationships are terminated or fail to achieve their goals, our business, operating results and financial condition will be materially adversely affected.

To the extent that we internally develop a sales force, the cost of establishing and maintaining a sales force would be substantial and may exceed our cost effectiveness. The acquisition or development of a sales and distribution infrastructure could require substantial resources, which may divert the attention of our management and key personnel and defer our product development and deployment efforts. In addition, in marketing our products, we would likely compete with companies that currently have extensive and well-funded marketing and sales operations. Despite marketing and sales efforts, we may be unable to compete successfully against these companies. We may not be able to do so on favorable terms. We could rely on third parties to market and sell our products in certain territories, rather than establishing an internal sales force. When we contract with third parties, including entering into collaborations with partners, for the sale and marketing of our products, revenues depend upon the efforts of these third parties, which may not be successful. If we fail to establish successful marketing and sales capabilities or to make arrangements with third parties for such purposes, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects will be materially adversely affected.

Our business depends on our ability to prevent or mitigate the effects of a cybersecurity attack.

Our information technology systems, including third-party run e-commerce and payment service systems, may be subject to cyber-attacks, security breaches or computer hacking including a ransomware attack encrypting corporate information technology equipment, a directed attack against us or a data breach or cyber incident happening to a third-party network and affecting us. Regardless of our efforts, there may still be a breach, and the costs to eliminate, mitigate or address the threats and vulnerabilities before or after a cyber-incident could be significant. Any such breaches or attacks could result in interruptions, delays or cessation of operations and loss of existing or potential suppliers or customers. In addition, breaches of our information technology systems or security measures (including those of our third-party partners) and the unauthorized dissemination of sensitive personal, proprietary or confidential information about our business, our business partners, customers or other third parties could expose us to significant potential liability and reputational harm, materially damage our customer and business partner relationships, and subject us to significant reputational, financial, legal, and operational consequences. Moreover, any such breach or attack could result in litigation against us by customers or other third parties whose data is compromised by any such attack. At this time, we do not carry insurance coverage against losses resulting from a breach of our information technology systems or those of our third-party partners.

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Our business depends on our ability to prevent or mitigate the effects of commercial crime including theft by employees, forgery and electronic crime.

Our internal protocols and controls cannot prevent all instances of theft, forgery, electronic crime or other criminal activity by dishonest employees or external fraudsters. Our money, securities and other property may be vulnerable to theft, damage, and manipulation both on our premises and in transit through a variety of criminal acts including forgery of authorized signatures on business checks, fraudulent manipulation of our computer systems, those of our third-party partners (including e-commerce and payment service systems), or those of third-party financial institution. Such activities could include an employee or hacker transferring unauthorized funds to an outside account, fraudulent electronic funds transfer instructions sent to our bank, receipt of counterfeit currency, social engineering fraud, or mismanagement or theft by persons handling funds of our qualified employee benefit plan. While we have limited coverage against forgery and employee dishonesty under our general liability policy and persons handling funds for our qualified employee benefit plan will be bonded, we do not currently have a comprehensive commercial crime insurance policy to provide broad protection from financial losses related to business-related crime. Moreover, insofar as we have limited coverage in our general insurance policy, deductibles may apply separately to related losses, a single limit may apply to a series of related losses, such coverage is likely to be inadequate to cover a material theft of this nature, particularly if a series of acts occurs over time prior to being discovered, and such coverage may not cover or be inadequate to cover certain types of losses including such indirect or consequential losses as investigative expense coverage, business interruption, loss of potential income, and legal fees, fines and penalties.

Risks Related to Our Industry

The markets for security products and non-lethal defense technology are in a state of technological change which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The markets for security products and non-lethal defense technology, in which our products and services are characterized, are associated with rapidly changing technology, which could result in product obsolescence or short product life cycles. Accordingly, our success is dependent upon our ability to anticipate technological and other changes and to successfully identify, obtain, develop and market new products that satisfy evolving customer requirements. There can be no assurance that we will successfully develop new products or enhance and improve our existing products or that any new products and enhanced and improved existing products will achieve market acceptance. Further, there can be no assurance that competitors will not market products that have perceived advantages over our products or which render the products currently sold by us obsolete or less marketable.

We must commit significant resources to developing new products before knowing whether our investments will result in products the market will accept. To remain competitive, we may be required to invest significantly greater resources than currently anticipated in research and development and product enhancement efforts.

The non-lethal defense technology industry and security products markets are highly competitive and our success depends upon our ability to effectively compete with numerous worldwide business.

We face competition from a number of businesses, including worldwide businesses, many of which have substantially greater financial resources, operating scale, and a broader range of product offerings than we do. In the law enforcement market, in particular, we face competitors

22

who have long-term, established relationships with security professionals who subscribe to an integrated suite of their products, some of which offer features that our current products do not support, and who may have made substantial investments in their hardware, creating an entry barrier to introduction of our competing product. Such competition could adversely affect our ability to win new contracts and sales and renew existing contracts. We operate in a period of intense competition in some key markets, which could affect the profitability of the contracts and sales we do win. If we cannot successfully compete in our industry and business segments, our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer.

Expansion of sales of our product to schools, law enforcement and other governmental or quasi-governmental entities may require expenditure of resources and lengthen our sale cycle.

Generally, entities such as schools, law enforcement and other governmental or quasi-governmental entities consider a wide range of issues before committing to purchase non-lethal defense products, including product benefits, training costs, the cost to use our products in addition to, or in place of, other products, budget constraints and product reliability, safety and efficacy. Such considerations may result in a sales cycle that is longer than and different from sales process related to dealers and consumers. Adverse publicity surrounding our products or the safety of such products also could lengthen our sales cycle with these customers. In addition, if we successfully expand sales of our products to these customers, we could encounter challenges related to funding of law enforcement and other governmental and quasi-governmental entities generally, the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the operating budgets of agencies, states and municipalities that fund such entities and the recent changes in public sentiment around police funding. We may incur substantial selling costs and expend significant effort in connection with the evaluation of our products by such potential customers before they place an order. If these potential customers do not ultimately purchase our products, we will have expended significant resources and received no revenue in return.

Epidemic and pandemic diseases (including the COVID-19 pandemic) could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and ability to comply with regulatory requirements.

Outbreaks of epidemic, pandemic, or contagious diseases, such as COVID-19, could cause disruptions in our business and the businesses of third parties who we depend upon for materials and manufacturing, marketing and other services. These disruptions could include disruptions in our ability to receive materials, manufacture our products, distribute our products, market our products, or obtain services. These disruptions have caused, and could cause further, closures of our facilities or the facilities of our suppliers, manufacturers and dealers, as well as cancellation of events that present significant marketing opportunities such as industry conventions, and trade shows. Any disruption of the businesses of our suppliers, manufacturers or dealers would likely impact our sales and operating results. In addition, a significant outbreak of epidemic, pandemic, or contagious diseases in the human population could result in a widespread health crisis that could adversely affect the economies and financial markets of many countries, resulting in an economic downturn that could affect demand for our products. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows. Additionally, such outbreaks could disrupt our ability to timely file periodic reports required by the Securities and Exchange Commission or the stock exchanges on which our common stock is listed, which may lead to the delisting or downgrading of our common stock on such stock exchanges.

In particular, the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions intended to prevent and mitigate its spread, challenges related to vaccination rollout and new variants of the virus have impacted, and may continue to (and the future outbreak of other highly infectious or contagious diseases likely

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would), significantly and negatively impact our business, for reasons including without limitation: the shut-down of production facilities and distribution facilities as a result of government restrictions, illness and special cleaning; slow-down in production and increased costs due to COVID-19-related health and safety protocols; limited availability of plastic and other components of our products which cause price pressures as well as impair our ability to meet production demand; and shipping challenges. Since March 2020, many of our employees worked remotely for an extended period of time and some continue to do so. Additional extended periods of remote work arrangements could strain our business continuity plans, introduce operational risk, including but not limited to cybersecurity risks, and impair our ability to manage our business. Remote work conditions, including challenges in coordinating with third parties and lack of access to certain records and documents, have caused administrative issues and contributed to our inability in some cases to timely file certain reports required by the SEC. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has had and is expected to continue to have a significant negative impact on general economic conditions, which could adversely impact the sales of our products. All of the forgoing may adversely impact our financial results.

In addition to the impacts the COVID-19 pandemic has had and may continue to have on our operations and administrative functions and those of our third-party suppliers and manufacturers, the demands the pandemic is placing on government agencies, law enforcement and potentially military organizations may impact the ability of customers and potential customers to purchase our 40mm products, products of the Mission Less Lethal brand acquired from Kore Outdoor (U.S.), Inc., or future products directed at those sectors. Similarly, the overall economic downturn, loss of jobs, loss of savings, and loss of disposable income and liquidity on the part of consumers could adversely affect the market for our Byrna® HD and other consumer directed products we may introduce. Moreover, policies instituted to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 may impact or interrupt components and products moving through our supply chain. If facilities close or produce low volume due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we may have difficulty sourcing products to sell in the future and may incur additional costs and lost revenue. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

Our revenues and profits depend on the level of customer spending for our products, which is sensitive to general economic conditions and other factors.

Our products are discretionary items for customers. Therefore, the success of our business depends significantly on economic factors and trends in consumer spending. There are a number of factors that influence consumer spending, including actual and perceived economic conditions, consumer confidence, disposable consumer income, consumer credit availability, unemployment, and tax rates in the markets where we sell our products. Consumers also have discretion as to where to spend their disposable income and may choose to purchase other items or services if we do not continue to provide high-quality products at appropriate price points. As global economic conditions continue to be volatile and economic uncertainty remains, trends in consumer discretionary spending also remain unpredictable and subject to declines. Any of these factors could harm discretionary consumer spending, resulting in a reduction in demand for our products, decreased prices for our products, and harm to our business and results of operations.

Our performance is influenced by a variety of economic, social, and political factors.

Our performance is influenced by a variety of economic, social, and political factors. General economic conditions and consumer spending patterns can negatively impact our operating results. Economic uncertainty, unfavorable employment levels, declines in consumer confidence, increases in consumer debt levels, increased commodity prices, and other economic factors may affect consumer spending on discretionary items and adversely affect the demand for our products.

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In times of economic uncertainty, consumers tend to defer expenditures for discretionary items, which could negatively affect demand for our products. Any substantial deterioration in general economic conditions that diminish consumer confidence or discretionary income could reduce our sales and adversely affect our operating results.

Political and social factors can affect our performance. Concerns about elections, as well as firearm-related incidents and social reaction thereto, and legislature and policy shifts resulting from those elections can affect the demand for our products. In addition, speculation about control of firearms, firearm products, and ammunition at the federal, state, and local level and heightened fears of terrorism and crime can affect consumer demand for our products. Often, such concerns result in an increase in near-term consumer demand and subsequent softening of demand when such concerns subside. Inventory levels in excess of customer demand may negatively impact operating results and cash flow.

Federal and state legislatures frequently consider legislation relating to the regulation of CO2 fired launchers. If such legislation develops, we could find it difficult, expensive, or even impossible to comply with them, impeding new product development and distribution of existing products. Conversely, new legislation could increase the demand for non-lethal weapons like the Byrna® HD beyond our current forecasts and strain or exceed production capability, which could harm our reputation and adversely impact our business.

Risks Related to Regulation

We are subject to extensive regulation and could incur fines, penalties and other costs and liabilities under such requirements.

We are subject to numerous federal, state and local environmental, health and safety legislation and other applicable regulations, laws, and measures relating to the manufacture and sale of our products. There can be no assurance that we will not experience difficulties with our efforts to comply with applicable regulations as they change in the future or that our continued compliance efforts (or failure to comply with applicable requirements) will not have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, business, prospects and financial condition. Our continued compliance with present and changing future laws could restrict our ability to sell our products and expand our operations.

Changes in government policies and legislation could adversely affect our financial results.

The manufacture, sale, purchase, possession and use of weapons (including CO2 powered launchers and chemical irritant devices), ammunitions, firearms, and explosives are subject to federal, state, local, and foreign laws. If such regulation becomes more expansive in the future, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition, and cash flows. The Byrna® HD is a relatively new product that may be subject to certain law and regulations, including those related to CO2 powered launchers, “pepper spray” or “tear gas” devices, and future legislation or regulation. New legislation, regulations, or changes to or new interpretations of existing regulation could impact our ability to manufacture or sell the Byrna® HD and our projectiles, or limit their market, which could impact our cost of sales and demand for Byrna products. Similarly changes in laws related to the domestic or international use of chemical irritants by civilians or law enforcement could impact both our cost of sales and the size of the reachable market.

We may be subject, both directly and indirectly, to the adverse impact of existing and potential future government regulation of our products, technology, operations and markets. For example, the development, production, (re-)exportation, importation, and transfer of our products and

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technology is subject to U.S. and foreign export control, sanctions, customs, import and anti-boycott laws and regulations, including the Export Administration Regulations (the “EAR”) (collectively, “Trade Control Laws”). If one or more of our products or technology, or the parts and components we buy from others, is or becomes subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (the “ITAR”) or national security controls or other controls under the EAR, this could significantly impact our operations, for example by severely limiting our ability to sell, (re-)export, or otherwise transfer our products and technology, or to release controlled technology to foreign person employees or others in the United States or abroad. We may not be able to obtain licenses and other authorizations required under the applicable Trade Control Laws. The failure to satisfy the requirements under the Trade Control Laws, including the failure or inability to obtain necessary licenses or qualify for license exceptions, could delay or prevent the development, production, (re-)export, import, and/or in-country transfer of our products and technology, which could adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

Failure by us, our employees, or others working on our behalf to comply with the applicable Trade Control Laws could result in administrative, civil, or criminal liabilities, including fines, suspension, debarment from bidding for or performing government contracts, or suspension of our export privileges, which could have a material adverse effect on us. We transact with suppliers and others who are exposed to similar risks. Violations of the Trade Control Laws or other applicable laws and regulations could materially adversely affect our products, technology, brand, growth efforts, employees, and business.

Health and safety risks could expose us to potential liability and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

Health and safety issues related to our products may arise that could lead to litigation or other action against us, to regulation of certain of its product components, or to negative publicity. We may be required to modify our technology and may not be able to do so. We may also be required to pay damages that may adversely affect our financial condition. Even if these concerns prove to be baseless, the resulting negative publicity could affect our ability to market certain of our products and, in turn, could harm our business and results from operations.

We are exposed to operating hazards and uninsured risks that could adversely impact our operating results and financial condition.

Our business is subject to a number of risks and hazards including loss of parts or finished goods in inventory or shipment, labor disputes and changes in the regulatory environment. Such occurrences could delay or halt production or sale of goods, result in damage to equipment, personal injury or death, monetary losses and possible legal liability. Although we currently maintain freight and inventory insurance and general liability insurance in amounts which we consider adequate, the nature of these risks is such that liabilities might exceed policy limits, the liabilities and hazards might not be insurable, or we may elect in the future not to insure against such liabilities due to high premium costs or other reasons, in which event we could incur significant costs that could have a materially adverse effect upon our financial position.

Tariffs, sanctions, restrictions on imports or other trade barriers between the United States and various countries, most significantly China, may impact our revenue and results of operations.

Political changes and trends such as populism, protectionism, economic nationalism and sentiment toward internationally operating companies, and resulting tariffs, export controls, trade sanctions, sanctions blocking statutes, or other trade barriers, or changes to tax or other laws and policies, have been and may continue to be disruptive and costly to our business, and these

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can interfere with our expanding international sales, supply chain, production costs, customer relationships, and competitive position. For example, general trade tensions between the United States and China began escalating in 2018, with multiple rounds of U.S. tariffs on Chinese-made goods taking effect. These tariffs currently affect some of the components of our products we import from China, and we may be required to raise our prices on those products due to the tariffs or share the cost of such tariffs with our customers, which could harm our operating performance. We work closely with third parties who monitor, evaluate and keep us informed about the potential impact of the effective and proposed tariffs as well as other recent changes in foreign trade policy on our supply chain, costs, sales and profitability and seek to implement strategies to mitigate such impact, including reviewing sourcing options and working with our vendors and merchants to seek to minimize product coming from China both in existing and new product development and select suppliers in low cost regions where tariff issues are less challenging. Notwithstanding these efforts, it is possible that further tariffs may be imposed on our other imports, or that our business will be impacted by retaliatory trade measures taken by China or other countries in response to existing or future tariffs, causing us to raise prices or make changes to our operations, any of which could materially harm our revenue or operating results. Further escalation of specific trade tensions, such as those between the United States and China, or in global trade conflict more broadly could be harmful to global economic growth, and related decreases in confidence or investment activity in the global markets would adversely affect our business performance. We do business in emerging market jurisdictions, such as South Africa, where economic, political and legal risks are heightened.

Data privacy and security laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we do business could increase the cost of our operations and subject us to possible sanctions and other penalties.

Our business is subject to a number of federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations governing data privacy and security, including with respect to the collection, storage, use, transmission and protection of personal information.

In addition, a number of U.S. states have enacted data privacy and security laws and regulations that govern the collection, use, disclosure, transfer, storage, disposal, and protection of sensitive personal information, such as social security numbers, financial information and other personal information. For example, all 50 states now have data breach laws that require timely notification to individual victims, and at times regulators, if a company has experienced the unauthorized access or acquisition of sensitive personal data. State law developments, which may impose substantial penalties for violations, could impose significant costs for investigations and compliance, allow private class-action litigation and carry significant potential liability for our business. We do not currently have insurance to cover us in the event of a data breach.

The interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations are uncertain and subject to change, and it may require substantial costs to assess, monitor and implement compliance with any additional requirements. Failure to comply with applicable law, including international data protection laws and regulations could result in government enforcement actions (which could include substantial civil or criminal penalties), private litigation or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our operating results and business.

Failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or other applicable anti-corruption legislation, and export controls and trade sanctions, could result in fines or criminal penalties if we expand our business abroad.

We, our business partners, and the industries in which we operate are subject to continuing scrutiny by regulators, other governmental authorities and private sector entities or individuals in the United States, South Africa, the European Union, China, and other jurisdictions, which

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may lead to enforcement actions, adverse changes to our business practices, fines and penalties, or the assertion of private litigation claims and damages that could be material. For example, the expansion of our business internationally exposes us to export controls, trade sanctions import and export clearance requirements, customs, tariffs, anti-corruption legislation, anti-boycott requirements and other obligations and restrictions imposed by the United States and other governments. The U.S. Departments of Justice, Commerce, Treasury, State, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and other U.S. and foreign agencies and authorities have a broad range of civil and criminal penalties they may seek to impose against companies for violations of export controls, trade sanctions, import and export clearance requirements, customs regulations, anti-corruption legislation, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, anti-boycott requirements and other federal statutes, sanctions and regulations and, increasingly, similar or more restrictive foreign laws, rules and regulations, which may also apply to us. By virtue of these laws and regulations, and under laws and regulations in other jurisdictions, we may be obliged to limit our business activities, we may incur costs for becoming and staying compliant, and we may be subject to enforcement actions or penalties for noncompliance, including fines, suspension, debarment from bidding for or performing government contracts, or suspension of our export privileges, which could materially adversely affect our business, operations, products, technology, brand, growth efforts, employees, and business partners. In recent years, U.S. and foreign governments have increased their oversight and enforcement activities with respect to these laws and we expect the relevant agencies to continue to increase these activities. A violation of these laws, sanctions or regulations could result in restrictions on our exports, civil and criminal fines or penalties and could adversely impact our business, operating results, and financial condition. There can be no assurance that the risk management and compliance programs we adopt will mitigate legal and compliance risks.

If our independent suppliers and manufacturing partners do not comply with ethical business practices or with applicable laws and regulations, our reputation, business, and results of operations would be harmed.

Our reputation and our customers’ willingness to purchase our products depend in part on our suppliers’, manufacturers’, and retail partners’ compliance with ethical employment practices, such as with respect to child labor, wages and benefits, forced labor, discrimination, safe and healthy working conditions, and with all legal and regulatory requirements relating to the conduct of their businesses. We do not exercise control over our suppliers, manufacturers, and retail partners and cannot guarantee their compliance with ethical and lawful business practices. If our suppliers, manufacturers, or retail partners fail to comply with applicable laws, regulations, safety codes, employment practices, human rights standards, quality standards, environmental standards, production practices, or other obligations, norms, or ethical standards, our reputation and brand image could be harmed and we could be exposed to litigation and additional costs that would harm our business, reputation, and results of operations.

Risks Related to our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, we may lose a competitive advantage or incur substantial litigation costs to protect our rights.

Our future success depends upon our proprietary technology. Our protective measures, including patent and trade secret protection and nondisclosure agreements, may prove inadequate to protect our proprietary rights. The right to stop others from misusing our trademarks, service marks, patents, designs and copyright in commerce depends to some extent on our ability to show evidence of enforcement of our rights against such misuse in commerce. Our efforts to stop improper use, if insufficient, may lead to loss of trademark and service mark rights, brand loyalty,

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and notoriety among our customers and prospective customers. The scope of any patent that we have or may obtain may not prevent others from developing and selling competing products. The validity and breadth of claims covered in technology patents involve complex legal and factual questions, and the resolution of such claims may be highly uncertain, and expensive. In addition, our patents may be held invalid upon challenge, or others may claim rights in or ownership of our patents.

We may be subject to intellectual property infringement claims, which could cause us to incur litigation costs and divert management attention from our business.

While we believe that our products and intellectual property do not infringe upon the proprietary rights of third parties, and undertake efforts to design around existing third-party patents or designs that we are aware of, a substantial portion of our commercial success depends upon us not infringing the intellectual property rights of others. We may become subject to claims by third parties that our technology infringes their intellectual property rights. Although all reasonable efforts are made to avoid third-party patents, there is no assurance that were a lawsuit to be brought by a third party, we would prevail. We may also become subject to these claims through indemnities that we provide to manufacturers’ representatives, distributors, dealers, retail partners, and certain service providers and consultants.

Any intellectual property infringement claims against us, with or without merit, could be costly and time-consuming to defend and divert our management’s attention from our business. If our products were found to infringe a third party’s proprietary rights, we could be required to enter into costly royalty or licensing agreements to be able to sell our products, and any allegation of infringement could cause certain reputational damage for us and the Byrna brand. Royalty and licensing agreements, if required, may not be available on terms acceptable to us or at all.

Risks Related to our Securities

Our trading market is limited, and the trading market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained.

Our common stock is listed in the United States on the Nasdaq Capital Market (since May 5, 2021, prior to which date our common stock was listed for quotation on the OTCQB marketplace operated by OTC Markets Group Inc.) and in Canada on the CSE; trading has been limited, a substantial amount of our outstanding shares of common stock were issued in private placement and subject to resale restrictions under federal securities laws, and we cannot predict the trading volume in our common stock. In the absence of an active trading market:

investors may have difficulty buying and selling or obtaining market quotations;

market visibility for shares of our common stock may be limited; and

a lack of visibility for shares of our common stock may have a depressive effect on the market price for shares of our common stock. 

A limited trading market could impair your ability to sell your shares at the time you wish to sell them or at a price that you consider reasonable. A limited trading market may also reduce the fair market value of your shares and may also impair our ability to raise capital to continue to fund operations by selling shares.

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We may not maintain qualification for listing on Nasdaq, which may impair your ability to sell your shares.

Our common stock is currently listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market and in Canada on the CSE. The Nasdaq Capital Market requires listed companies to meet certain listing criteria including total number of stockholders, Board of Directors independence, minimum stock price, total value of public float, and in some cases total stockholders’ equity and market capitalization requirements. If for any reason our common stock does not maintain eligibility for listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market, we may list our common stock elsewhere, such as one of the OTC markets, which are generally considered less liquid and more volatile than a national securities exchange, and could mean that certain institutional investors could no longer hold or purchase our stock, and as a result, a purchaser of our common stock may find it more difficult to dispose of, or to obtain accurate quotations as to the price of their shares. This would materially and adversely affect the liquidity of our common stock.

The market price of our common stock may be volatile, which could result in substantial losses for purchasers.

The market price for our common stock may be volatile in response to factors including the following:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;

changes in our financial or operational estimates or projections;

conditions in markets generally;

changes in the economic performance or market valuations of companies similar to ours; and

general economic or political conditions in the United States or elsewhere. 

In addition, if we are unable to successfully meet investor expectations, even if by only a small margin, there could be significant impact on the market price of our common stock.

In some cases, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, stockholders have often instituted class action securities litigation against those companies. Such litigation, if instituted, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management attention and resources, which could significantly harm our business operations and reputation.

Our common stock is listed on two separate stock markets, and investors seeking to take advantage of price differences between such markets may create unexpected volatility in our stock price; in addition, investors may not be able to move stocks for trading between such markets.

Our common stock is listed on both the Nasdaq Capital Market and the CSE. Price levels for our ordinary shares could fluctuate significantly on either market, independent of our share price on the other market. Investors could seek to sell or buy our shares to take advantage of any price differences between the two markets through a practice referred to as arbitrage. Any arbitrage activity could create unexpected volatility on either exchange with respect to both our share price and the volume of shares available for trading.

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Exercise of options or warrants or vesting of restricted stock units may have a dilutive effect on your percentage ownership and may result in a dilution of your voting power and an increase in the number of shares of common stock eligible for future resale in the public market, which may negatively impact the trading price of our shares of common stock.

The exercise of some or all of our outstanding options and warrants, and the vesting of restricted stock units, could result in significant dilution in the percentage ownership interest of our existing stockholders and in a significant dilution of voting rights and earnings per share.

As of May 31, 2021, we had outstanding (i) warrants to purchase up to 99,055 shares of our common stock at a weighted exercise price of approximately $1.91 per share, (ii) options for the issuance of up to 642,050 shares of our common stock upon exercise at a weighted average exercise price of $3.00 under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, and (iii) 1,747,993 restricted stock units.

A failure of our control systems to prevent error or fraud may materially harm our company.

Proper systems of internal controls over financial accounting and disclosure are critical to the operation of a public company. Given the size of our company and the limited number of fulltime employees that we have employed, there may continue to be certain limitations on the effectiveness of our internal controls. Moreover, we do not expect that disclosure controls or internal control over financial reporting will prevent all errors and all fraud, if any. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Further, the design of a control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, have been detected. Failure of our control systems to prevent error or fraud could materially and adversely impact us.

Our directors, executive officers, and significant stockholders may be able to influence us.

Our directors, executive officers, and other holders of more than 5% of our common stock, together with their affiliates, currently own, in the aggregate, 34.6% of our outstanding common stock. As a result, these stockholders, acting together, may have the ability to influence the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, these stockholders, acting together, may be able to influence the management and affairs of our company. Accordingly, this concentration of ownership might decrease the market price of our common stock by:

delaying, deferring, or preventing a change in control of the company;

impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover, or other business combination involving us; or

discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of the company.

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If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or publish negative reports about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced to some extent by the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us and our business. We do not control these analysts. We may be slow to attract research coverage and the analysts who publish information about our common stock could have had relatively little experience with us or our industry, which could affect their ability to accurately forecast our results and could make it more likely that we fail to meet their estimates. In the event we obtain securities or industry analyst coverage, if any of the analysts who cover us provide inaccurate or unfavorable research or issue an adverse opinion regarding our stock price, our stock price could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to regularly cover us or fail to publish reports, we could lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

Substantial future sales, or the perception or anticipation of future sales, of shares of our common stock could cause our stock price to decline.

Our stock price could decline as a result of substantial sales of our common stock, or the perception or anticipation that such sales could occur, particularly sales by our directors, executive officers, and significant stockholders, a large number of shares of our common stock becoming available for sale, or the perception in the market that holders of a large number of shares intend to sell their shares.

In connection with this offering, subject to certain exceptions, our executive officers and directors, and certain shareholders, are expected to enter into lock-up agreements that restrict their ability to sell or transfer shares of our capital stock for 180 days following the offering. The representatives may, in their sole discretion, permit our shareholders who are subject to these lock-up agreements to sell shares prior to the expiration of the lock-up agreements.

We may in the future register shares of common stock that we have issued or may issue under our equity compensation plans and shares of common stock that have been issued upon the conversion of certain convertible securities. Accordingly, these shares will be able to be freely sold in the public market upon issuance as permitted by any applicable securities laws, applicable vesting requirements, and the lock-up agreements described above to the extent such shares are held by our executive officers and directors.

Our charter documents and Delaware law could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us and discourage a takeover.

Our Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, Bylaws, as amended, and Delaware law contain certain provisions that may have the effect of deterring or discouraging, among other things, a non-negotiated tender or exchange offer for shares of common stock, a proxy contest for control of our company, the assumption of control of our company by a holder of a large block of common stock, and the removal of the management of our company. Such provisions also may have the effect of deterring or discouraging a transaction which might otherwise be beneficial to stockholders. Our Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, also may authorize our board of directors, without stockholder approval, to issue one or more series of preferred stock, which could have voting and conversion rights that adversely affect or dilute the voting power of the holders of common stock. Delaware law also imposes conditions on certain business combination transactions with “interested stockholders.” Our Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, authorizes our Board of Directors to fill vacancies or newly created directorships. A majority of the directors then in office may elect a successor to fill any vacancies or newly created directorships. Such provisions cold limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock and impede the ability of the stockholders to replace management.

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The elimination of monetary liability against our directors, officers, and employees under Delaware law and the existence of indemnification rights to our directors, officers, and employees may result in substantial expenditures by us and may discourage lawsuits against our directors, officers, and employees. We also expect to enter into contractual indemnification obligations under employment agreements with our executive officers. The foregoing indemnification obligations could result in our incurring substantial expenditures to cover the cost of settlement or damage awards against directors and officers, which we may be unable to recoup. These provisions and resultant costs may also discourage us from bringing a lawsuit against our directors and officers for breaches of their fiduciary duties and may similarly discourage the filing of derivative litigation by our stockholders against our directors and officers even though such actions, if successful, might otherwise benefit our company and our stockholders.

Our Bylaws, as amended, provide exclusive forum provisions applicable to substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders as well as claims brought under the Securities Act of 1933, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.

Our Bylaws, as amended, provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) is the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company; (b) any action asserting a claim for breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, employee, or agent of the Company to the Company or the Company’s stockholders; (c) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law, the Certificate of Incorporation, or Bylaws; or (d) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine.

In addition, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint against us asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. These choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions or multiple jurisdictions, which could result in expensive and protracted litigation with potentially conflicting outcomes that could exhaust our insurance coverage leaving us exposed to substantial legal expenses and judgments, or otherwise harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future.

We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on a number of factors, including our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, general business conditions, and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment.

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The ongoing requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention, and affect our ability to attract and retain executive management and qualified board members.

As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Act, the Nasdaq Capital Market listing standards and other applicable securities laws, rules, and regulations. Our recent required compliance with these laws, rules, and regulations since our listing on Nasdaq on May 5, 2021 increased our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming, or costly, and increase demand on our systems and resources. The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly, and current reports with respect to our business and results of operations. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting. In order to maintain and, if required, improve our disclosure controls and procedures, and our internal control over financial reporting to meet this standard, significant resources and management oversight may be required. Further, we are subject to the CSE listing standards and applicable law, rules and regulations in Canada, all of which makes some activities even more difficult, time-consuming, or costly, and increase demand on our systems and resources. As a result, management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns and our costs and expenses will increase, which could harm our business and results of operations. Although we have already hired additional employees to comply with these requirements, we will need to hire more employees in the future or engage outside consultants, which will increase our costs and expenses.

In addition, changing laws, regulations, and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs, and making some activities more time consuming. These laws, regulations, and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations, and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from sales-generating activities to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations, and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to their application and practice, regulatory authorities may initiate legal, administrative, or other proceedings against us and our business may be harmed.

As a result of disclosure of information in filings required of us as a public company, our business and financial condition will become more visible, which could be advantageous to, or harm our relationships with, our competitors, suppliers, manufacturers, retail partners, and customers. These disclosures may also make it more likely that we will experience an increase in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If such claims are successful, our business and results of operations could be harmed, and even if the claims are resolved in our favor the time and resources necessary to resolve them could divert the resources of our management and harm our business and results of operations.

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Risks Related to this Public Offering

Investors may not be able to resell their shares at or above the public offering price in this offering.

We listed our common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on May 5, 2021, prior to which date our common stock was traded on the OTCQB. Our stock is also traded on the CSE. The price for our common stock in this offering will be determined through negotiations between the underwriters and us, and may vary substantially from the market price of our common stock following this offering. Stockholders may be unable to sell shares at or above the public offering price or the price at which their shares were purchased.

Our stock price may be volatile or may decline, including due to factors beyond our control, resulting in substantial losses for stockholders.

The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our results of operations;

the financial projections we may provide to the public, any changes in these projections, or our failure to meet these projections;

failure of securities analysts to initiate or maintain coverage of our company, changes in financial estimates by any securities analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;

ratings changes by any securities analysts who follow our company;

sales or potential sales of shares by our stockholders, or the filing of a registration statement for these sales;

adverse market reaction to any indebtedness we may incur or equity we may issue in the future;

announcements by us or our competitors of significant innovations, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;

publication of adverse research reports about us, our industry, or individual companies within our industry;

publicity related to problems in our manufacturing or the real or perceived quality of our products, as well as the failure to timely launch new products that gain market acceptance;

changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of companies in our industry;

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market, including as a result of trends in the U.S. or global economy;

any major change in our Board of Directors or management;

35

lawsuits threatened or filed against us or negative results of any lawsuits;

security breaches or cyberattacks;

legislation or regulation of our business;

loss of key personnel;

new products introduced by us or our competitors;

developments with respect to our trademarks, patents, or proprietary rights;

general market conditions; and

other events or factors, including those resulting from war, incidents of terrorism, pandemics, or responses to these events, which could be unrelated to us or outside of our control.

In addition, stock markets have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies in our industry. In the past, stockholders of other public companies have instituted securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. If we were to become involved in securities litigation, it could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business, and harm our business, results of operations, financial condition, reputation, and cash flows. As a result, you may be unable to resell your shares of common stock at or above the price at which you purchased your shares.

We may invest or spend the proceeds of this offering in ways with which stockholders may not agree or in ways which may not yield a return.

We have not yet determined the net proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock in this offering, or if the offering will occur. We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and other general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering for acquisitions or strategic investments in complementary businesses or technologies. We do not currently have any plans for any such acquisitions or investments. We have not allocated specific amounts of net proceeds for any of these purposes. Our management will have considerable discretion in the application of the net proceeds, and stockholders will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds will be used appropriately or to influence our decisions regarding the use of proceeds. Because of the number and variability of factors that will determine our use of the net proceeds from this offering, if any, their ultimate use may vary substantially from the intended uses. The net proceeds may be used for purposes that do not result in an increase in the value of our business, which could cause our stock price to decline.

Purchasers in this offering will experience immediate and substantial dilution.

The public offering price per share will be substantially higher than the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. As a result, investors purchasing common stock in this offering will experience immediate dilution. In addition, we previously have issued options and warrants to acquire common stock at prices significantly below the public offering price. To the extent outstanding options and warrants are ultimately exercised, there will be further dilution to investors in this offering. In addition, if we issue additional equity securities in other offerings, our stockholders will experience additional dilution.

36

USE OF PROCEEDS

We estimate that the net proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock in this offering will be approximately $48.6 million (or $56.0 million if the underwriters exercise their option), after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. We expect to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and other general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering for acquisitions or strategic investments in complementary businesses or technologies. We do not currently have any plans for any such acquisitions or investments. We have not allocated specific amounts of net proceeds for any of these purposes.

DIVIDEND POLICY

We intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on a number of factors, including our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, general business conditions, and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant.

DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be immediately diluted to the extent of the difference between the offering price per share and the pro forma net tangible book value per share after this offering. Historical net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of common stock outstanding. Dilution in pro forma net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of our common stock in this offering and the pro forma net tangible book value per share of common stock immediately after the consummation of this offering.

Our historical net tangible book value as of May 31, 2021 was $8.7 million, or $0.42 per share.

After giving effect to the sale by us of the 2,500,000 shares of our common stock that we are selling in this offering at the public offering price of $21.00 per share, less underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us and after giving effect to the use of proceeds described in this prospectus, our pro forma net tangible book value as of May 31, 2021 would have been approximately $57.3 million, or approximately $2.47 per share.

37

This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $2.05 per share to existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $18.69 per share to new investors of common stock in this offering. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

Public offering price per share

$21.00

Historical net tangible book value per share as of May 31, 2021, before giving effect to this offering

$0.42

Increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors in this offering

$     2.05


Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share immediately after this offering

$2.47

Dilution per share to new investors in this offering

$18.69

If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock in full, our as adjusted net tangible book value will be $64.7 million, or $2.74 per share, and the dilution per share of common stock to new investors will be $18.43 per share. The discussion and tables above are based on 20,693,521 shares of our common stock outstanding as of May 31, 2021, and excludes:

warrants to purchase up to 99,055 shares of our common stock at a weighted exercise price of approximately $1.91 per share;

642,050 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding but unexercised options to purchase shares of our common stock as of May 31, 2021, under the Byrna Technologies, Inc. 2020 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2020 Plan”), with a weighted average exercise price of $3.00 per share;

1,747,993 shares of our common stock issuable upon the settlement of restricted stock units outstanding as of May 31, 2021 under the 2020 Plan; and

109,957 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under the 2020 Plan.

Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes or reflects:

no exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares;

no exercise or settlement of outstanding stock options; and

the Reverse Stock Split.

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA

The following tables provide our summary consolidated financial data and should be read in conjunction with “Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations” and our consolidated financial statements, related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this prospectus. We have derived the summary consolidated statements of operations data for the fiscal years ended November 30, 2020 and 2019 from our audited consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. The summary condensed statements of operations data for the six months ended May 31, 2020 and 2021, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of May 31, 2021 have been derived from our unaudited interim consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future, and the results for any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in any full year.

38

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

Years Ended November 30,

Six Months Ended May 31,

(in thousands)

2019

2020

2020

2021

Net revenue

 

$

924

 

$

16,566

 

$

1,339

 

$

22,294

 

Cost of goods sold

 

 

775

 

 

9,058

 

 

857

 

 

9,991

 

Gross profit

 

 

149

 

 

7,508

 

 

482

 

12,303

 

Operating expenses

 

 

3,438

 

 

11,818

 

 

2,959

 

 

10,691

 

INCOME (LOSS) FROM OPERATIONS

 

 

(3,289

)

 

(4,310

)

 

(2,477

)

 

1,612

OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign currency transaction
gain (loss)

 

 

(12

)

 

(91

)

 

(9

)

 

192

Accretion of debt discounts

 

 

(1,121

)

 

(755

)

 

(755

)

 

 

Interest expense

 

 

(414

)

 

(233

)

 

(233

)

 

(37

)

Loss on extinguishment of debt

 

 

 

 

(6,027

)

 

(6,027

 

 

Warrant inducement expense

 

 

 

 

(845

)

 

(845

)

 

 

Forgiveness of Paycheck Protection Program loan

190

Other financing costs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(9

)

Change in fair value of derivative liabilities

 

 

426

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INCOME (LOSS) BEFORE
INCOME TAXES

 

 

(4,410

)

 

(12,261

)

 

(10,346

)

 

1,948

Income tax provision

 

 

 

 

293

 

 

 

 

183

 

NET INCOME (LOSS)

 

 

(4,410

)

 

(12,554

)

 

(10,346

)

 

1,765

 

Foreign exchange translation gain
for the year

 

 

(4

)

 

67

 

 

96

 

178

 

COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)

 

$

(4,414

)

$

(12,487

)

$

(10,250

)

$

1,943

NET INCOME (LOSS) AVAILABLE TO COMMON SHAREHOLDERS

$

(4,410

)

$

(12,554

)

$

(10,346

)

$

722

 

Net income (loss) per share – basic

$

(0.43

)

$

(0.99

)

$

(0.91

)

$

0.04

Net income (loss) per share – diluted

 

$

(0.43

)

$

(0.99

)

$

(0.91

)

$

0.04

Weighted-average number of
common shares outstanding
during the period – basic

 

 

10,354,383

 

 

12,678,747

 

 

11,271,719

 

 

16,359,496

 

Weighted-average number of
common shares outstanding
during the period – diluted

10,354,383

12,678,747

11,271,719

 

17,604,131

 

39

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

Years Ended November 30,

Six Months Ended May 31,

(in thousands)

2019

2020

2020

2021

Non-GAAP Figures:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

 

$

(3,033

)

$

(2,840

)

$

(1,664

)

$

3,745

 

Non-GAAP net income (loss)(1)

 

$

(3,501

)

$

(3,608

)

$

(1,975

)

$

3,308

 

Preferred stock dividend

$

$

$

$

(1,043

)

Non-GAAP net income (loss) available to common shareholders

$

(3,501

)

$

(3,608

)

$

(1,975

)

$

2,265

Non-GAAP net income (loss) per
share – basic
(1)

 

$

(0.34

)

$

(0.28

)

$

(0.18

)

$

0.14

 

Non-GAAP net income (loss) per
share – diluted
(1)

$

(0.34

)

$

(0.28

)

$

(0.18

)

$

0.13

Weighted-average number of
common shares outstanding during the period – basic
(1)

 

 

10,354,383

 

12,678,747

 

11,271,719

 

16,359,496

 

Weighted-average number of
common shares outstanding
during the period – diluted
(1)

10,354,383

12,678,747

11,271,719

17,604,131

  

(1)Adjusted EBITDA, Non-GAAP net income (loss), and Non-GAAP net income (loss) per share are non-GAAP financial measures. These non-GAAP financial measures do not replace the presentation of our GAAP financial results and should only be used as a supplement to, not as a substitute for, our financial results presented in accordance with GAAP. Please refer to “Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data – Non-GAAP financial measures” for a description of the use of such measure and reconciliations to comparable GAAP financial measures.

Consolidated Balance Sheets Data:

As of November 30,

As of May 31,

(in thousands)

2019

2020

2020

2021

Cash

 

$

1,081

 

$

3,175

 

$

2,718

 

$

4,391

 

Restricted cash

 

 

92

 

 

6,481