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Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration number 333-238243

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of Securities Offered   Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price(1)
  Amount of
Registration Fee(2)

4.750% Non-Step-Up Non-Cumulative Contingent Convertible Perpetual Preferred Tier 1 Securities

  $1,000,000,000   $109,100.00

4.125% Non-Step-Up Non-Cumulative Contingent Convertible Perpetual Preferred Tier 1 Securities

  $904,500,000   $98,680.95

Total

  $1,904,500,000   $207,780.95

 

 

 

(1)    $1,000,000,000 aggregate liquidation preference of 4.750% Non-Step-Up Non-Cumulative Contingent Convertible Perpetual Preferred Tier 1 Securities and €750,000,000 aggregate liquidation preference of 4.125% Non-Step-Up Non-Cumulative Contingent Convertible Perpetual Preferred Tier 1 Securities will be issued. The maximum aggregate offering price in respect of the 4.125% Non-Step-Up Non-Cumulative Contingent Convertible Perpetual Preferred Tier 1 Securities is calculated using the euro / U.S. dollar exchange rate of €1.00 = $1.2060, as reported by the European Central Bank on May 6, 2021.
(2)    Calculated in accordance with Rule 457(r) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. The amount of registration fee in respect of the 4.125% Non-Step-Up Non-Cumulative Contingent Convertible Perpetual Preferred Tier 1 Securities is calculated using the euro / U.S. dollar exchange rate of €1.00 = $1.2060, as reported by the European Central Bank on May 6, 2021.


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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(to prospectus dated May 14, 2020)

 

LOGO

$1,000,000,000 4.750% Non-Step-Up Non-Cumulative Contingent Convertible

Perpetual Preferred Tier 1 Securities

€750,000,000 4.125% Non-Step-Up Non-Cumulative Contingent Convertible

Perpetual Preferred Tier 1 Securities

The $1,000,000,000 4.750% Non-Step-Up Non-Cumulative Contingent Convertible Perpetual Preferred Tier 1 Securities of $200,000 liquidation preference each (the “Dollar Notes”) and the €750,000,000 4.125% Non-Step-Up Non-Cumulative Contingent Convertible Perpetual Preferred Tier 1 Securities of €200,000 liquidation preference each (the “Euro Notes” and, together with the Dollar Notes, the “Notes”) are being issued by Banco Santander, S.A. (“Banco Santander”) on May 12, 2021 (the “Closing Date”).

The Dollar Notes will accrue non-cumulative cash distributions (“Dollar Notes Distributions”) (i) in respect of the period from (and including) the Closing Date to (but excluding) May 12, 2027 (six years after the Closing Date) (the “Dollar Notes First Reset Date”) at the rate of 4.750% per annum, and (ii) in respect of each period from (and including) the Dollar Notes First Reset Date and every fifth anniversary thereof (each a “Dollar Notes Reset Date”) to (but excluding) the next succeeding Dollar Notes Reset Date (each such period, a “Dollar Notes Reset Period”), at the rate per annum equal to the aggregate of 3.753% per annum (the “Dollar Notes Initial Margin”) and the 5-year UST (as defined below) for the relevant Dollar Notes Reset Period, with such rate per annum converted to a quarterly rate in accordance with market convention. The Euro Notes will accrue non-cumulative cash distributions (“Euro Notes Distributions” and, together with the Dollar Notes Distributions, the “Distributions”) (i) in respect of the period from (and including) the Closing Date to (but excluding) May 12, 2028 (seven years after the Closing Date) (the “Euro Notes First Reset Date”) at the rate of 4.125% per annum, and (ii) in respect of each period from (and including) the Euro Notes First Reset Date and every fifth anniversary thereof (each a “Euro Notes Reset Date”) to (but excluding) the next succeeding Euro Notes Reset Date (each such period, a “Euro Notes Reset Period”), at the rate per annum equal to the aggregate of 4.311% per annum (the “Euro Notes Initial Margin”) and the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate (as defined below) for the relevant Euro Notes Reset Period, with such rate per annum converted to a quarterly rate in accordance with market convention. Such Distributions will be payable quarterly in arrears on February 12, May 12, August 12 and November 12 in each year (each a “Distribution Payment Date”), commencing on August 12, 2021. Banco Santander may elect in its sole and absolute discretion, to cancel the payment of any Distribution in whole or in part at any time that it deems necessary or desirable and for any reason. No such election to cancel the payment of any Distribution (or part thereof) will constitute an Enforcement Event (as defined below). There are no events of default under the Notes. In addition, under the terms of the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture (as defined below), neither the Trigger Conversion (as defined below) nor the exercise of the Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority (both as defined below) or any action in compliance therewith will be an Enforcement Event.

The Notes are perpetual. The Notes may be redeemed, in whole but not in part, at the option of Banco Santander (a) with respect to the Dollar Notes on (i) any calendar day during the six-month period commencing on (and including) November 12, 2026 to (and including) the Dollar Notes First Reset Date and (ii) any Distribution Payment Date thereafter and (b) with respect to the Euro Notes on (i) any calendar day during the six-month period commencing on (and including) November 12, 2027 to (and including) the Euro Notes First Reset Date and (ii) any Distribution Payment Date thereafter, in each case at the Redemption Price (as defined below), in accordance with Articles 77 and 78 of CRR (as defined below), Article 29 of the Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 241/2014 and/or any other Applicable Banking Regulations (as defined below) then in force. The Notes are also redeemable on or after the Closing Date at the option of Banco Santander in whole but not in part, at any time, at the Redemption Price, if there is a Capital Event or a Tax Event (each as defined below), in accordance with Articles 77 and 78 of CRR, Article 29 of the Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 241/2014 and/or any other Applicable Banking Regulations then in force.

In the event of the occurrence of the Trigger Event (as defined below), the Notes are mandatorily and irrevocably convertible into newly issued ordinary shares in the capital of Banco Santander (“Common Shares”) at the Conversion Price (as defined below).

The Dollar Notes will be issued in minimum denominations of $200,000 and integral multiples of $200,000 in excess thereof. The Euro Notes will be issued in minimum denominations of €200,000 and integral multiples of €200,000 in excess thereof. In the event of the liquidation of Banco Santander, prior to the occurrence of the Trigger Event, holders of the Notes will be entitled to receive (subject to the limitations described herein and in the accompanying prospectus), a liquidation preference of $200,000 per Dollar Note or of €200,000 per Euro Note (in each case, as applicable, the “Liquidation Preference”), plus any accrued and unpaid Distributions for the then current Distribution Period (as defined below) to (but excluding) the date of payment of such liquidation distribution (a “Liquidation Distribution”).

Unless previously converted into Common Shares as set forth in “Description of the Notes—Conversion Upon Trigger Event” below, the payment obligations of Banco Santander under the Notes constitute direct, unconditional, unsecured and subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander according to Article 281.1.2º of the restated text of the Insolvency Law (Ley Concursal) approved by the Royal Decree-Legislative 1/2020, of 5 May (the “Spanish Insolvency Law”) and, in accordance with Additional Provision 14.3º of Law 11/2015, but subject to any other ranking that may apply as a result of any mandatory provision of law (or otherwise), upon the insolvency of Banco Santander, for so long as the obligations of Banco Santander in respect of the Notes constitute Additional Tier 1 Instruments (as defined below), rank: (i) pari passu among themselves and with (a) all other claims in respect of any outstanding Additional Tier 1 Instruments and (b) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank pari passu with Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments; (ii) junior to (a) any unsubordinated obligations (créditos ordinarios) of Banco Santander, (b) any obligations of Banco Santander in respect of Tier 2 Instruments (as defined below) and (c) any other subordinated obligations


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(créditos subordinados) which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank senior to Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments; and (iii) senior to (a) any claims for the liquidation amount of the Common Shares and (b) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank junior to Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments.

By its acquisition of the Notes, each holder (which, for the purposes of this clause, includes each holder of a beneficial interest in the Notes) acknowledges, accepts, consents to and agrees to be bound by the terms of the Notes related to the exercise of the Bail-in Power set forth under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Agreement and Acknowledgement with Respect to the Exercise of the Bail-in Power” in the accompanying prospectus. See “Notice to Investors on page S-ii of this prospectus supplement for further information.

The Notes are not deposits or savings accounts and are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other governmental agency of the Kingdom of Spain, the United States or any other jurisdiction.

We intend to apply to list the Notes on the New York Stock Exchange in accordance with its rules.

Investing in the Notes involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-24 of this prospectus supplement, page 3 of the accompanying prospectus as well as those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the Group’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2020, which is incorporated by reference herein.

The Notes are not intended to be sold and should not be sold to retail clients (as defined in Directive 2014/65/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on markets in financial instruments (as amended, “MiFID II”) and Regulation (EU) No 2017/565 as it forms part of domestic law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act of 2018 (“EUWA”)). Prospective investors are referred to the section headed “Important Information” on page S-vi of this prospectus supplement.

Investors in Hong Kong should not purchase the Notes in the primary or secondary markets unless they are professional investors (as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571, Law of Hong Kong) and its subsidiary legislation, “Professional Investors”) only and understand the risks involved. The Notes are generally not suitable for retail investors.

MiFID II professionals/ECPs-only/No PRIIPs KID/FCA PI RESTRICTION—Manufacturer target market (MiFID II product governance) is eligible counterparties and professional clients only (all distribution channels). The target market assessment indicates that the Notes are incompatible with the needs, characteristics and objectives of retail clients and accordingly the Notes shall not be offered or sold to any retail client. No packaged retail and insurance-based investment products (“PRIIPs”) key information document (KID) has been prepared as the Notes are not available to retail investors in the EEA.

UK MiFIR professionals/ECPs-only/No PRIIPs KID/FCA PI RESTRICTION—Manufacturer target market (UK MiFIR product governance) is eligible counterparties and professional clients only (all distribution channels). The target market assessment indicates that the Notes are incompatible with the needs, characteristics and objectives of retail clients and accordingly the Notes shall not be offered or sold to any retail client. No PRIIPs key information document (KID) has been prepared as the Notes are not available to retail investors in the UK.

Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

     Price to Public     Underwriting
Discount
    Proceeds to us
(before expenses)
 

Per Dollar Note

     100.000     1.000     99.000
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Dollar Notes

   $ 1,000,000,000     $ 10,000,000     $ 990,000,000  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Per Euro Note

     100.000     1.000     99.000
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Euro Notes

   750,000,000     7,500,000     742,500,000  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The initial public offering price set forth above does not include accrued Distributions, if any. Distributions on the Notes will accrue from the expected Closing Date, which is May 12, 2021. See “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest).”

We expect that the Notes will be ready for delivery through, with respect to the Dollar Notes, the book-entry facilities of The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) and its direct and indirect participants, including Clearstream Banking, société anonyme (“Clearstream Luxembourg”) and Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V. (“Euroclear”) and, with respect to the Euro Notes, the book-entry delivery system of Clearstream and Euroclear, on or about May 12, 2021, which will be the fourth New York business day following the pricing of the Notes (such settlement period being referred to as “T+4”). Beneficial interests in the Notes will be shown on, and transfers thereof will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC and its participants.

Joint Bookrunners

 

Barclays  

BNP

PARIBAS

 

BofA

Securities

  Citigroup  

Deutsche Bank

Securities

  J.P. Morgan  

Morgan

Stanley

  Santander

Co-Leads

 

Banco Sabadell    Bradesco BBI    Danske Markets    IMI - Intesa Sanpaolo   

Standard

Chartered Bank AG

   Unicaja

Prospectus Supplement dated May 6, 2021


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Prospectus Supplement  
     Page  

Notice to Investors

     S-ii  

About this Prospectus Supplement

     S-iv  

Incorporation of Information by Reference

     S-v  

Forward-Looking Statements

     S-v  

Important Information

     S-vi  

Summary

     S-1  

Risk Factors

     S-24  

Use of Proceeds

     S-35  

Currency Conversion

     S-36  

Capitalization of the Group

     S-37  

Description of the Notes

     S-38  

Description of Ordinary Shares

     S-59  

Taxation

     S-60  

Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest)

     S-70  

Legal Opinions

     S-80  

Experts

     S-80  
Prospectus  

About this Prospectus

     1  

Use of Proceeds

     2  

Banco Santander, S.A.

     2  

Risk Factors

     3  

Description of Debt Securities

     43  

Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities

     71  

Description of Certain Provisions Relating to Debt Securities and Contingent Convertible Capital Securities

     119  

Description of Ordinary Shares

     125  

Description of American Depositary Shares

     126  

Taxation

     133  

Benefit Plan Investor Considerations

     161  

Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)

     163  

Legal Opinions

     165  

Experts

     165  

Enforcement of Civil Liabilities

     165  

Where You Can Find More Information

     166  

Incorporation of Documents by Reference

     166  

Cautionary Statement on Forward-Looking Statements

     167  

 

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NOTICE TO INVESTORS

Agreements and Acknowledgments of Investors, including Holders and Beneficial Owners

Notwithstanding any other term of the Notes or any other agreements, arrangements, or understandings between Banco Santander and any holder of the Notes, by its acquisition of the Notes, each holder (which includes each holder of a beneficial interest in the Notes) acknowledges, accepts, consents to and agrees:

(i) to be bound by effect of the exercise of the Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority, which may include and result in any of the following, or some combination thereof:

 

   

the reduction of all, or a portion, of the Amounts Due on a permanent basis;

 

   

the conversion of all, or a portion, of the Amounts Due into Common Equity Tier 1 instruments, other securities or other obligations of Banco Santander or another person (and the issue to the holder of such shares, securities or obligations), including by means of an amendment, modification or variation of the terms of the Notes, in which case the holder agrees to accept in lieu of its rights under the Notes any such Common Equity Tier 1 instruments, other securities or other obligations of Banco Santander or another person;

 

   

the cancellation of the Notes or Amounts Due;

 

   

the amendment or alteration of the maturity of the Notes or amendment of the Distribution payable on the Notes, or the date on which the Distribution becomes payable, including by suspending payment for a temporary period; and

(ii) that the terms of the Notes are subject to, and may be varied, if necessary, to give effect to, the exercise of the Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

For these purposes, “Amounts Due” are the Liquidation Preference, together with any accrued but unpaid Distributions, and Additional Amounts (as defined below), if any, due on the Notes. References to such amounts will include amounts that have become due and payable, but which have not been paid, prior to the exercise of the Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

For these purposes, a “Bail-in Power” means any power existing from time to time under, and exercised in compliance with, any laws, regulations, rules or requirements in effect in the Kingdom of Spain, relating to (i) the transposition of the BRRD, and in particular its article 59 (including but not limited to, Law 11/2015, RD 1012/2015 and any other implementing regulations), (ii) the SRM Regulation and (iii) the instruments, rules or standards created thereunder, pursuant to which any obligation of a Regulated Entity (or an affiliate of such Regulated Entity) can be reduced, cancelled, suspended, modified, or converted into shares, other securities, or other obligations of such Regulated Entity (or affiliate of such Regulated Entity).

“BRRD” means Directive 2014/59/EU of 15 May establishing the framework for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms or such other directive as may amend or come into effect in place thereof (including the BRRD II), as implemented into law by Law 11/2015 and RD 1012/2015, as amended or replaced from time to time and including any other relevant implementing regulatory provisions.

“BRRD II” means Directive (EU) 2019/879 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2019 amending Directive 2014/59/EU as regards the loss-absorbing and recapitalisation capacity of credit institutions and investment firms and Directive 98/26/EC.

 

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“Law 11/2015” means Law 11/2015 of 18 June, on recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms (Ley 11/2015, de 18 de junio, de recuperación y resolución de entidades de crédito y empresas de servicios de inversión) as amended or replaced from time to time.

“RD 1012/2015” means Royal Decree 1012/2015, of 6 November developing Law 11/2015, as amended or superseded from time to time.

“Regulated Entity” means any entity to which BRRD, as implemented in the Kingdom of Spain (including but not limited to, Law 11/2015, RD 1012/2015 and any other implementing regulations) or any other Spanish law relating to the Bail-in Power, applies, which includes, certain credit institutions, investment firms, and certain of their parent or holding companies.

A reference to the “Relevant Resolution Authority” is to the Spanish Fund for the Orderly Restructuring of Banks, the Bank of Spain, the European Single Resolution Board, as the case may be, according to Law 11/2015, and any other entity with the authority to exercise the Bail-in Power or any other resolution power from time to time.

“SRM Regulation” means Regulation (EU) No. 806/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 July 2014, establishing uniform rules and a uniform procedure for the resolution of credit institutions and certain investment firms in the framework of the Single Resolution Mechanism and the Single Resolution Fund and amending Regulation (EU) No. 1093/2010, as amended or replaced from time to time (including by the SRM Regulation II).

“SRM Regulation II” means Regulation (EU) 2019/877 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2019 amending Regulation (EU) No 806/2014 as regards the loss-absorbing and recapitalization capacity of credit institutions and investment firms.

For the avoidance of doubt, the potential write-down or cancellation of all or a portion of the Liquidation Preference of—or Distributions on—the Notes or the conversion of the Notes into Common Equity Tier 1 instruments, other security or other obligations in connection with the exercise of any Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority is separate and distinct from a conversion following a Trigger Event although these events may occur consecutively. Neither a reduction or cancellation, in part or in full of the Amounts Due on, the conversion thereof into another security or obligation of Banco Santander or another person, as a result of the exercise of the Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority with respect to Banco Santander, nor the exercise of the Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority with respect to the Notes will be an Enforcement Event.

By its acquisition of the Notes, each holder of the Notes (which, for the purposes of this clause, includes each holder of a beneficial interest in the Notes), to the extent permitted by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (“Trust Indenture Act”), will waive any and all claims, in law and/or in equity, against the Trustee (as defined below) for, agree not to initiate a suit against the Trustee in respect of, and agree that the Trustee will not be liable for, any action that the Trustee takes, or abstains from taking, in either case in accordance with the exercise of the Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority with respect to the Notes.

By purchasing the Notes, each holder (including each beneficial owner) of the Notes shall be deemed to have authorized, directed and requested Clearstream Luxembourg, Euroclear, DTC and any of their respective direct participants or other intermediary through which it holds the Notes to take any and all necessary action, if required, to implement the exercise of the Bail-in Power with respect to the Notes as it may be imposed, without any further action or direction on the part of such holder.

Banco Santander agrees with respect to the Notes and each holder of Notes, by his or her acquisition of a Note, will be deemed to have agreed to the subordination provisions described herein. Each such

 

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holder will be deemed to have irrevocably waived his or her rights of priority which would otherwise be accorded to him or her under the laws of Spain, to the extent necessary to effectuate the subordination provisions of the Notes. In addition, each holder of Notes by his or her acquisition of the Notes authorizes and directs the Trustee on his or her behalf to take such action as may be necessary or appropriate to effectuate the subordination of the Notes as provided in the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, and as summarized herein and appoints the Trustee his or her attorney-in-fact for any and all such purposes.

 

 

Neither Banco Santander nor the Underwriters (as defined in “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest)” in this prospectus supplement) have authorized anyone to provide you with information other than information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus (including any free writing prospectus issued or authorized by us). The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and the offering of the Notes in some jurisdictions may be restricted by law. If you possess this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, you should find out about and observe these restrictions. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are not an offer to sell the Notes and neither Banco Santander nor the Underwriters are soliciting an offer to buy the Notes in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted or where the person making the offer or sale is not qualified to do so or from any person to whom it is not permitted to make such offer or sale. We refer you to the information under “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest)” in this prospectus supplement. You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference is accurate only as of their respective dates.

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

In this prospectus supplement, we use the following terms:

 

   

“we,” “our” and “us” or “Banco Santander” means Banco Santander, S.A.;

 

   

“Group” means Banco Santander, S.A. and its consolidated subsidiaries;

 

   

“dollars” and “$” refer to the currency of the United States;

 

   

“euro” and “€” refer to the currency of the Member States of the European Union (“EU”) that have adopted the single currency in accordance with the treaty establishing the European Community, as amended; and

 

   

“SEC” refers to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

This document is not a prospectus for the purposes of Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2017 on the prospectus to be published when securities are offered to the public or admitted to trading on a regulated market, and repealing Directive 2003/71/EC (the “Prospectus Regulation”). This document has been prepared on the basis that all offers of the Notes offered hereby made to persons in the European Economic Area or the United Kingdom will be made pursuant to an exemption under the Prospectus Regulation from the requirement to produce a prospectus in connection with offers of such Notes.

The communication of this document and any other document or materials relating to the issue of the Notes offered hereby is not being made, and such documents and/or materials have not been approved, by an authorized person for the purposes of section 21 of the United Kingdom’s Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, as amended (“FSMA”). Accordingly, such documents and/or materials are not being distributed to, and must not be passed on to, the general public in the United Kingdom. The communication of such documents and/or materials as a financial promotion is only being made to and directed at persons outside the United Kingdom and those persons in the United Kingdom falling within the definition of investment professionals (as defined in Article 19(5) of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (Financial Promotion) Order 2005, as amended (the “Financial Promotion Order”)), or within Article 49(2)(a) to (d) of the Financial Promotion Order, or to any other

 

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persons to whom it may otherwise lawfully be made under the Financial Promotion Order (all such persons together being referred to as “relevant persons”). In the United Kingdom, the Notes offered hereby are only available to, and any investment or investment activity to which this document relates will be engaged in only with, relevant persons. Any person in the United Kingdom that is not a relevant person should not act or rely on this document or any of its contents.

INCORPORATION OF INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement on Form F-3 (File No. 333-238243) filed with the SEC under the Securities Act. This prospectus supplement omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information in and exhibits to the registration statement for further information on us and the Notes. Statements in this prospectus supplement concerning any document we filed or will file as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified in their entirety by reference to these filings. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information that we file with the SEC. This permits us to disclose important information to you by referring to these filed documents. Any information referred to in this way is considered part of this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus, and any information that we file with the SEC after the date of this prospectus supplement will automatically be deemed to update and supersede this information.

We incorporate by reference the (i)  Group’s Reports on Form 6-K filed with the SEC on May 5, 2021 and April 14, 2021 (the “Recast 6-K”), (ii) the Group’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on February 26, 2021 (except with respect to the audited financial statements included therein and superseded by the audited financial statements included in the Recast 6-K) and (iii) “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” in the Group’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 6, 2020.

We also incorporate by reference all subsequent annual reports of the Group filed on Form 20-F and any future filings made with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and certain reports on Form 6-K, if they state that they are incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement forms a part, that we furnish to the SEC after the date of this prospectus supplement and until the Underwriters sell all of the Notes.

Upon written or oral request, we will provide free of charge a copy of any or all of the documents that we incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement, other than exhibits which are not specifically incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. To obtain copies you should contact us at Investor Relations, Ciudad Grupo Santander, Avenida de Cantabria s/n, 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain (telephone: (011) 34-91-259-6520).

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

From time to time, we may make statements, both written and oral, regarding assumptions, projections, expectations, intentions or beliefs about future events. These statements constitute “forward-looking statements” for purposes of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. We caution that these statements may and often do vary materially from actual results. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that actual results will not differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. You should read the sections entitled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and “Forward-Looking Statements” in our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2020, which is incorporated by reference herein.

 

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Table of Contents

We do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, forward-looking events discussed in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any information incorporated by reference, might not occur.

IMPORTANT INFORMATION

Prohibition on marketing and sales to retail investors

The Notes are complex financial instruments and are not a suitable or appropriate investment for all investors. In some jurisdictions, regulatory authorities have adopted or published laws, regulations or guidance with respect to the offer or sale of securities such as the Notes to retail investors.

In particular, in June 2015, the UK Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”) published the Product Intervention (Contingent Convertible Instruments and Mutual Society Shares) Instrument 2015, which took effect from 1 October 2015 (the “PI Instrument”). In addition, (i) on 1 January 2018, the provisions of Regulation (EU) No. 1286/2014 on key information documents for packaged and retail and insurance-based investment products (the “PRIIPs Regulation”) became directly applicable in all European Economic Area (“EEA”) Member States and (ii) MiFID II was required to be implemented in EEA Member States by 3 January 2018.

The provisions of the PRIIPs Regulation as it forms part of the domestic law of the United Kingdom (the “UK”) by virtue of the EUWA are referred to herein as the “UK PRIIPs Regulation”; and the provisions of Regulation (EU) No 600/2014 as it forms part of the domestic law of the UK by virtue of the EUWA are referred to herein as “UK MiFIR.”

Together the PI Instrument, the PRIIPs Regulation, MiFID II, the UK PRIIPs Regulation and UK MiFIR are referred to as the “Regulations.”

The Regulations set out various obligations in relation to (i) the manufacturing and distribution of financial instruments and (ii) the offering, sale and distribution of packaged retail and insurance-based investment products and certain contingent write-down or convertible securities, such as the Notes.

In addition, in October 2018, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (the “HKMA”) issued guidance on enhanced investor protection measures on the sale and distribution of debt instruments with loss-absorption features and related products (the “HKMA Circular”). Under the HKMA Circular, debt instruments with loss absorption features, being subject to the risk of being written-down or converted to ordinary shares, and investment products that invest mainly in, or whose returns are closely linked to the performance of such instruments, are to be targeted in Hong Kong at Professional Investors only and are generally not suitable for retail investors in either the primary or secondary markets.

Investors in Hong Kong should not purchase the Notes in the primary or secondary markets unless they are Professional Investors only and understand the risks involved. The Notes are generally not suitable for retail investors.

Each of Banco Santander and the Joint Bookrunners and their affiliates are required to comply with some or all of the Regulations and/or the HKMA Circular. By purchasing, or making or accepting an offer to purchase, any Notes (or a beneficial interest in such Notes) from Banco Santander and/or any Joint Bookrunner, each prospective investor will be deemed to represent, warrant, agree with, and undertake to Banco Santander and each of the Joint Bookrunners that:

 

  (a)

it is not a retail client (as defined in MiFID II);

 

  (b)

it is not a retail client (as defined in Regulation (EU) No 2017/565 as it forms part of the domestic law of the UK by virtue of the EUWA);

 

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  (c)

whether or not it is subject to the Regulations or the HKMA Circular, it will not:

 

  (i)

sell or offer the Notes (or the beneficial interest in such securities) to retail clients (as defined in MiFID II or Regulation (EU) No 2017/565 as it forms part of the domestic law of the UK by virtue of the EUWA) or to retail investors in Hong Kong; or

 

  (ii)

communicate (including the distribution of this prospectus) or approve an invitation or inducement to participate in, acquire or underwrite the Notes (or any beneficial interests therein) where that invitation or inducement is addressed to or disseminated in such a way that it is likely to be received by a retail client (in each case within the meaning of the Regulations) or a client in Hong Kong who is not a Professional Investor.

In selling or offering the Notes or making or approving communications relating to the Notes, it may not rely on the limited exemptions set out in the PI Instrument;

 

  (d)

it will at all times comply with all applicable laws, regulations and regulatory guidance (whether inside or outside the EEA or the UK or Hong Kong) relating to the promotion, offering, distribution and/or sale of the Notes (or any beneficial interests therein), including (without limitation) MiFID II, UK MiFIR, the HKMA Circular and any other applicable laws, regulations and regulatory guidance relating to determining the appropriateness and/or suitability of an investment in the Notes (or any beneficial interests therein) by investors in any relevant jurisdiction; and

 

  (e)

if it is in Hong Kong, it is a Professional Investor.

Each prospective investor further acknowledges that:

 

  (a)

the identified target market for the Notes (for the purposes of the product governance obligations in MiFID II and the FCA Handbook Product Intervention and Product Governance Sourcebook) is eligible counterparties and professional clients only;

 

  (b)

the target market assessment indicates that the Notes are incompatible with the knowledge, experience, needs, characteristic and objectives of clients which are retail clients (as defined in MiFID II and Regulation (EU) No 2017/565 as it forms part of the domestic law of the UK by virtue of the EUWA) and accordingly the Notes shall not be offered or sold to any retail clients; and

 

  (c)

no key information document (KID) under the PRIIPs Regulation or the UK PRIIPs Regulation has been prepared and therefore offering or selling the Notes or otherwise making them available to any retail investor in the EEA or in the UK may be unlawful under the PRIIPs Regulation or the UK PRIIPs Regulation.

Each potential investor should inform itself of, and comply with, any applicable laws, regulations or regulatory guidance with respect to any resale of the Notes (or any beneficial interests therein), including the Regulations and the HKMA Circular.

Where acting as agent on behalf of a disclosed or undisclosed client when purchasing, or making or accepting an offer to purchase, any Notes (or any beneficial interests therein) from Banco Santander and/or the Joint Bookrunners (acting as Joint Bookrunners), the foregoing representations, warranties, agreements and undertakings will be given by and be binding upon both the agent and its underlying client.

Singapore SFA Product Classification—In connection with Section 309B of the Securities and Futures Act (Chapter 289) of Singapore (the “SFA”) and the Securities and Futures (Capital Markets Products) Regulations 2018 of Singapore (the “CMP Regulations 2018”), Banco Santander has determined, and hereby notifies all relevant persons (as defined in Section 309A(1) of the SFA), that the Notes are `prescribed capital markets products (as defined in the CMP Regulations 2018) and Excluded Investment Products (as defined in MAS Notice SFA 04-N12: Notice on the Sale of Investment Products and MAS Notice FAA-N16: Notice on Recommendations on Investment Products).

 

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PRIIPs Regulation/Prohibition of Sales to EEA Retail Investors—The Notes shall not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to and should not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to any retail investor in the EEA. For these purposes, a retail investor means a person who is one (or more) of: (i) a retail client as defined in point (11) of Article 4(1) of MiFID II; or (ii) a customer within the meaning of Directive (EU) 2016/97 (as amended, the “IDD”), where that customer would not qualify as a professional client as defined in point (10) of Article 4(1) of MiFID II. Consequently, no KID is required by the PRIIPs Regulation for offering or selling the Notes or otherwise making them available to retail investors in the EEA has been prepared and therefore offering or selling the Notes or otherwise making them available to any retail investor in the EEA may be unlawful under the PRIIPs Regulation.

UK PRIIPs Regulation/Prohibition of Sales to UK Retail Investors—The Notes shall not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to and should not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to any retail investor in the UK. For these purposes, a retail investor means a person who is one (or more) of: (i) a retail client as defined in point (8) of Article 2 of Regulation (EU) No 2017/565 as it forms part of domestic law by virtue of the EUWA; or (ii) a customer within the meaning of the provisions of the FSMA and any rules or regulations made under the FSMA to implement IDD, where that customer would not qualify as a professional client as defined in point (8) of Article 2(1) of Regulation (EU) No 600/2014 as it forms part of domestic law by virtue of the EUWA. Consequently, no KID is required by the UK PRIIPs Regulation for offering or selling the Notes or otherwise making them available to retail investors in the UK has been prepared and therefore offering or selling the Notes or otherwise making them available to any retail investor in the UK may be unlawful under the UK PRIIPs Regulation.

MIFID II product governance/Professional investors and eligible counterparties only target market – Solely for the purposes of each manufacturer’s product approval process, the target market assessment in respect of the Notes has led to the conclusion that: (i) the target market for the Notes is eligible counterparties and professional clients only, each as defined in MiFID II; and (ii) all channels for distribution of the Notes to eligible counterparties and professional clients are appropriate. The target market assessment indicates that the Notes are incompatible with the needs, characteristic and objectives of clients which are retail clients (as defined in MiFID II). Any person subsequently offering, selling or recommending the Notes (a “distributor”) should take into consideration the manufacturers’ target market assessment. However, a distributor subject to MiFID II is responsible for undertaking its own target market assessment in respect of the Notes (by either adopting or refining the manufacturers’ target market assessment) and determining appropriate distribution channels.

UK MiFIR product governance/Professional investors and eligible counterparties only target market—Solely for the purposes of each manufacturer’s product approval process, the target market assessment in respect of the Notes has led to the conclusion that: (i) the target market for the Notes is eligible counterparties, as defined in the FCA Handbook Conduct of Business Sourcebook (“COBS”), and professional clients only, as defined in the UK MiFIR; and (ii) all channels for distribution of the Notes to eligible counterparties and professional clients are appropriate. The target market assessment indicates that the Notes are incompatible with the needs, characteristic and objectives of clients which are retail clients (as defined in Regulation (EU) No 2017/565 as it forms part of the domestic law of the UK by virtue of the EUWA). Any person subsequently offering, selling or recommending the Notes (a “distributor”) should take into consideration the manufacturers’ target market assessment. However, a distributor subject to the FCA Handbook Product Intervention and Product Governance Sourcebook (the “UK MiFIR Product Governance Rules”) is responsible for undertaking its own target market assessment in respect of the Notes (by either adopting or refining the manufacturers’ target market assessment) and determining appropriate distribution channels.

 

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SUMMARY

The following is a summary of this prospectus supplement and should be read as an introduction to, and in conjunction with, the remainder of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference therein. You should base your investment decision on a consideration of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference therein as a whole. Words and expressions used in this summary and not defined herein shall have the meanings ascribed to them in “Description of the Notes” in this prospectus supplement and in “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities” in the accompanying prospectus.

The Issuer

Banco Santander is the parent bank of the Group. The Group operates principally in Spain, the United Kingdom and other European countries, Brazil and other Latin American countries and the United States, offering a wide range of financial products. In Latin America, the Group has majority shareholdings in banks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, Colombia and Uruguay.

Banco Santander was established on March 21, 1857, and incorporated in its present form by a public deed executed in Santander, Spain, on January 14, 1875. Banco Santander is incorporated under, and governed by, the laws of the Kingdom of Spain as a company with unlimited duration and with limited liability (sociedad anónima).

Banco Santander conducts business under the commercial name “Santander.” The Group’s principal corporate offices are located in Ciudad Grupo Santander, Avenida de Cantabria s/n, 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain, and its telephone number is (011) 34-91-259-6520.



 

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The Offering

 

Issuer

Banco Santander, S.A.

 

Notes

$1,000,000,000 aggregate Liquidation Preference of 4.750% Non-Step-Up Non-Cumulative Contingent Convertible Perpetual Preferred Tier 1 Securities (the “Dollar Notes”) and €750,000,000 aggregate Liquidation Preference of 4.125% Non-Step-Up Non-Cumulative Contingent Convertible Perpetual Preferred Tier 1 Securities (the “Euro Notes” and, together with the Dollar Notes, the “Notes”)

 

  Banco Santander intends that the Notes qualify as Additional Tier 1 Capital of Banco Santander and the Group pursuant to Applicable Banking Regulations.

 

  The Notes will be issued pursuant to an indenture to be dated as of the Closing Date (the “Base Indenture”) between Banco Santander as Issuer and The Bank of New York Mellon, London Branch, as trustee (the “Trustee”), as supplemented by a first supplemental indenture to be dated as of the Closing Date (the “First Supplemental Indenture”) between Banco Santander as Issuer and the Trustee.

 

  “Additional Tier 1 Capital” means at any time, with respect to Banco Santander or the Group, as the case may be, the additional Tier 1 capital of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, as calculated by Banco Santander in accordance with Chapter 3 (Additional Tier 1 Capital) of Title I (Elements of own funds) of Part Two (Own Funds and Eligible Liabilities) of the CRR and/or Applicable Banking Regulations at such time, including any applicable transitional, phasing in or similar provisions.

 

  “Applicable Banking Regulations” means at any time the laws, regulations, requirements, guidelines and policies relating to capital adequacy, resolution and/or solvency including, among others, those giving effect to the MREL and the TLAC or any equivalent or successor principles, then applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group including, without limitation to the generality of the foregoing, the CRD IV, the BRRD, the SRM Regulation and those regulations, requirements, guidelines and policies relating to capital adequacy, resolution and/or solvency of the relevant Regulator then applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group including, among others, those giving effect to the MREL and the TLAC or any equivalent or successor principles, in each case to the extent then in effect in the Kingdom of Spain (whether or not such regulations, requirements, guidelines or policies have the force of law and whether or not they are applied generally or specifically to Banco Santander and/or the Group).

 

  “CRD IV” means any, or any combination of, the CRD IV Directive, the CRR, and any CRD IV Implementing Measures.

 

 

“CRD IV Directive” means Directive 2013/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on access to the activity of credit institutions and the prudential supervision of credit



 

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institutions and investment firms, amending Directive 2002/87/EC and repealing Directives 2006/48/EC and 2006/49/EC or such other directive as may come into effect in place thereof, as amended or replaced from time to time (including by the CRD V Directive).

 

  “CRD IV Implementing Measures” means any regulatory capital rules implementing the CRD IV Directive or the CRR which may from time to time be introduced, including, but not limited to, delegated or implementing acts (regulatory technical standards) adopted by the European Commission, national laws and regulations, and regulations and guidelines issued by the relevant Regulator, the European Banking Authority or any other relevant authority, which are applicable to Banco Santander (on a stand alone basis) or the Group (on a consolidated basis) and which prescribe the requirements to be fulfilled by financial instruments for inclusion in the regulatory capital or the minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities, as the case may be, of Banco Santander (on a stand alone basis) or the Group (on a consolidated basis).

 

  “CRD V Directive” means Directive (EU) 2019/878 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2019 amending Directive 2013/36/EU as regards exempted entities, financial holding companies, mixed financial holding companies, remuneration, supervisory measures and powers and capital conservation measures.

 

  “CRR” means Regulation (EU) No. 575/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the prudential requirements for credit institutions and investment firms and amending Regulation (EU) No. 648/2012 or such other regulation as may come into effect in place thereof, as amended from time to time (including by CRR II).

 

  “CRR II” means Regulation (EU) 2019/876 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2019 amending Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 as regards the leverage ratio, the net stable funding ratio, requirements for own funds and eligible liabilities, counterparty credit risk, market risk, exposures to central counterparties, exposures to collective investment undertakings, large exposures, reporting and disclosure requirements, and Regulation (EU) No 648/2012.

 

  “MREL” means the “minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities” for credit institutions under the BRRD, set in accordance with Article 45 of the BRRD (as transposed in the Kingdom of Spain), Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/1450 of 23 May 2016, supplementing Directive 2014/59/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to regulatory technical standards specifying the criteria relating to the methodology for setting the minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities and any other Applicable Banking Regulations.

 

 

“Regulator” means the European Central Bank, the Bank of Spain, the Relevant Resolution Authority or such other or successor authority exercising primary bank supervisory authority or the role of primary



 

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bank resolution authority, in each case with respect to prudential matters in relation to Banco Santander and/or the Group.

 

  “TLAC” means the “total loss-absorbing capacity” requirement for global systemically important institutions under the CRR, set in accordance with Article 92a of the CRR and any other Applicable Banking Regulations.

 

Issue Date

May 12, 2021.

 

Perpetual Securities

The Notes are perpetual securities and have no stated maturity.

 

Liquidation Preference per Note

Dollar Notes: $200,000 per Dollar Note.

 

  Euro Notes: €200,000 per Euro Note.

 

Distributions

Dollar Notes Distributions will accrue (i) in respect of the period from (and including) the Closing Date to (but excluding) the Dollar Notes First Reset Date at the rate of 4.750% per annum, and (ii) in respect of each Dollar Notes Reset Period, at the rate per annum, converted to a quarterly rate in accordance with market convention, equal to the aggregate of the Dollar Notes Initial Margin (3.753% per annum) and the 5-year UST for such Dollar Notes Reset Period.

 

  Euro Notes Distributions will accrue (i) in respect of the period from (and including) the Closing Date to (but excluding) the Euro Notes First Reset Date at the rate of 4.125% per annum, and (ii) in respect of each Euro Notes Reset Period, at the rate per annum, converted to a quarterly rate in accordance with market convention, equal to the aggregate of the Euro Notes Initial Margin (4.311% per annum) and the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate for such Euro Notes Reset Period.

 

  Distributions will be payable quarterly in arrears on each Distribution Payment Date. See “Limitations on Distributions” below.

 

5-year UST

In relation to a Dollar Notes Reset Date and the Dollar Notes Reset Period commencing on that Dollar Notes Reset Date, an interest rate expressed as a percentage determined by the Calculation Agent to be the per annum rate equal to the yield to maturity for U.S. Treasury securities with a maturity of five years as published in the most recent H.15.

 

  “H.15” means the daily statistical release designated as such and published by the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve System under the caption “Treasury constant maturities,” or any successor or replacement publication, as determined by Banco Santander, that establishes yield on actively traded U.S. Treasury securities adjusted to constant maturity, and “most recent H.15” means, in respect of any Dollar Notes Reset Period, the H.15 which includes a yield to maturity for U.S. Treasury securities with a maturity of five years published closest in time but prior to the Reset Determination Date.


 

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5-year Mid-Swap Rate

In relation to a Euro Notes Reset Date and the Euro Notes Reset Period commencing on that Euro Notes Reset Date:

 

  (a)

the rate for the Euro Notes Reset Date of the annual mid-swap rate for euro swap transactions maturing on the last day of such Euro Notes Reset Period, expressed as a percentage, which appears on the Screen Page under the heading “EURIBOR BASIS—EUR” and above the caption “11AM FRANKFURT” as of 11.00 a.m. (CET) on the Reset Determination Date; or

 

  (b)

if such rate does not appear on the Screen Page at such time on such Reset Determination Date, the Reset Reference Bank Rate (as defined below) for such Euro Notes Reset Period unless a Benchmark Event (as defined below) has occurred, in which case the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate shall be determined as set forth in “Description of the Notes—Payments—Distributions—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate”.

 

  “Screen Page” means the display page on the relevant Reuters information service designated as (a) in the case of the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate, the “ICESWAP2” page or (b) in the case of EURIBOR (as defined below), the “EURIBOR01” page, or in each case such other page as may replace that page on that information service, or on such other equivalent information service as may be nominated by the person providing or sponsoring such information, for the purpose of displaying equivalent or comparable rates to the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate or EURIBOR, as applicable.

 

Reset Date

With respect to the Dollar Notes, May 12, 2027 (six years after the Closing Date) (the “Dollar Notes First Reset Date”) and every fifth anniversary thereof (each a “Dollar Notes Reset Date”). Each period from (and including) a Dollar Notes Reset Date to (but excluding) the next succeeding Dollar Notes Reset Date shall be a “Dollar Notes Reset Period.”

 

  With respect to the Euro Notes, May 12, 2028 (seven years after the Closing Date) (the “Euro Notes First Reset Date”) and every fifth anniversary thereof (each a “Euro Notes Reset Date”). Each period from (and including) a Euro Notes Reset Date to (but excluding) the next succeeding Euro Reset Date shall be a “Euro Notes Reset Period.”

 

Reset Determination Date

The “Reset Determination Date” shall mean, in relation to the Dollar Notes Reset Date or the Euro Notes Reset Date (each a “Reset Date”), the second Business Day immediately preceding such Reset Date.

 

  “Business Day” means any day, other than Saturday or Sunday, that is neither a legal holiday nor a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close in the City of New York, London, Madrid or any other place or places where the Liquidation Preference of, or any Distributions on, or any Additional Amounts with respect to the Notes are payable.


 

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Distribution Payment Dates

Distributions will be payable quarterly in arrears on February 12, May 12, August 12 and November 12 in each year (each a “Distribution Payment Date”), commencing on August 12, 2021.

 

Limitations on Distributions

Banco Santander may elect, in its sole and absolute discretion, to cancel the payment of any Distribution in whole or in part at any time that it deems necessary or desirable and for any reason.

 

  Payments of Distributions in any financial year of Banco Santander shall be made only out of Available Distributable Items. To the extent that (i) Banco Santander has insufficient Available Distributable Items to make Distributions on the Notes of a series scheduled for payment in the then current financial year and any equivalent payments scheduled to be made in the then current financial year in respect of any other Parity Securities or CET1 Capital securities then outstanding to the extent permitted by the Applicable Banking Regulations, in each case excluding any portion of such payments already accounted for in determining the Available Distributable Items, and/or (ii) the Regulator, in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations, requires Banco Santander to cancel the relevant Distribution in whole or in part; then Banco Santander will, without prejudice to the right above to cancel at its discretion the payment of any such Distributions on the Notes of the relevant series at any time, make partial or, as the case may be, no payment of the relevant Distribution on the Notes of the relevant series.

 

  No Distribution will be made on the Notes until the Maximum Distributable Amount (if required) is calculated and if and to the extent that such payment would cause the Maximum Distributable Amount (if any) then applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group to be exceeded. No payment will be made on the Notes (whether by way of a repayment of the Liquidation Preference, the payment of any Distribution or otherwise) if and to the extent that such payment would cause a breach of any regulatory restriction or prohibition on payments on Additional Tier 1 Instruments pursuant to Applicable Banking Regulations (including, without limitation, any such restriction or prohibition relating to any Maximum Distributable Amount applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group).

 

  Distributions on the Notes will be non-cumulative. Accordingly, if any Distribution (or part thereof) is not made on the relevant Distribution Payment Date in respect of the Notes of a series then the right of the holders of Notes of such series to receive the relevant Distribution (or part thereof) will be extinguished and Banco Santander will have no obligation to pay such Distribution (or part thereof), whether or not any future Distributions on the Notes of such series are paid.

 

 

If practicable, Banco Santander will provide notice of any cancellation or deemed cancellation of Distributions (in each case, in whole or in part) to the holders of the Notes of the relevant series through the relevant Clearing System (or, if the Notes of the relevant series are held in definitive form, to the holders of the Notes of such



 

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series directly at their addresses shown on the register for the Notes of such series) and to the Trustee directly on or prior to the relevant Distribution Payment Date. Failure to provide such notice will have no impact on the effectiveness of, or otherwise invalidate, any such cancellation or deemed cancellation of Distributions (and accordingly, such Distributions will not be due and payable), or give the holders of the Notes of the relevant series any rights as a result of such failure.

 

  “Additional Tier 1 Instrument” means any subordinated obligation (crédito subordinado) of Banco Santander according to Article 281.1.2º of the Spanish Insolvency Law, qualifying as an additional Tier 1 instrument (instrumento de capital adicional de nivel 1) under Additional Provision 14.3º(c) of Law 11/2015.

 

  “Available Distributable Items” means, in respect of the payment of a Distribution at any time, those profits and reserves (if any) of Banco Santander which are available, in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations for the payment of such Distribution.

 

  “CET1 Capital” means at any time, the Common Equity Tier 1 Capital of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, as calculated in accordance with Chapter 2 (Common Equity Tier 1 Capital) of Title I (Elements of own funds) of Part Two (Own Funds and Eligible Liabilities) of the CRR and/or Applicable Banking Regulations at such time, including any applicable transitional, phasing in or similar provisions.

 

  “Clearing System” means DTC or any of the European Clearing Systems, as applicable.

 

  “European Clearing System” means Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V. (“Euroclear Bank”), as operator of the Euroclear System (“Euroclear”) and/or Clearstream Banking, société anonyme (“Clearstream Luxembourg”).

 

  “Maximum Distributable Amount” means any maximum distributable amount applicable to Banco Santander or the Group required to be calculated in accordance with (a) Article 48 of Law 10/2014 and any provision implementing such article, each interpreted in light of Article 141 of the CRD IV Directive, (b) Article 16 bis of Law 11/2015 and any provision implementing such article, each interpreted in light of Article 16a of the BRRD II and/or (c) Applicable Banking Regulations.

 

 

“Parity Securities” means any preferred securities (participaciones preferentes) issued under Law 13/1985 and/or Royal Decree—Law 14/2013 of 29 November (“RD-L 14/2013”) and/or Law 10/2014 and/ or under the CRR from time to time by Banco Santander or by any Subsidiary and which are guaranteed by Banco Santander or any preferential participations, preferential shares or preference shares (acciones preferentes) ranking pari passu with any preferred securities (participaciones preferentes) issued from time to time by Banco Santander or by any Subsidiary and which are guaranteed by



 

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Banco Santander or any other instrument issued or guaranteed by Banco Santander ranking pari passu with the Notes of the relevant series.

 

  “Subsidiary” means any entity over which Banco Santander may have, directly or indirectly, control in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations.

Agreement to Distribution Cancellation

By acquiring Notes, holders and beneficial owners of the Notes acknowledge and agree that:

 

  (a)

Distributions are payable solely at Banco Santander’s discretion, and no amount of Distribution shall become or remain due and payable in respect of the relevant Distribution Period to the extent that it has been cancelled by Banco Santander at Banco Santander’s sole discretion and/or deemed cancelled as a result of our having insufficient Available Distributable Items or as a result of the relevant Regulator requiring Banco Santander to cancel the Distributions or as a result of exceeding the Maximum Distributable Amount (if any) then applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group; and

 

  (b)

a cancellation or deemed cancellation of Distributions (in each case, in whole or in part) in accordance with the terms of the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, and the Notes of the relevant series shall not constitute an Enforcement Event or other default under the terms of the Notes of the relevant series or the Base Indenture as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture.

 

  Distributions will only be due and payable on a Distribution Payment Date to the extent they are not cancelled or deemed cancelled previously or thereafter in accordance with the provisions described under “Description of the Notes—Payments—Distributions” and “—Conversion Upon Trigger Event” below and under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Liquidation Distribution” in the accompanying prospectus. Any Distributions cancelled or deemed cancelled (in each case, in whole or in part) in the circumstances described herein shall not be due and shall not accumulate or be payable at any time thereafter, and holders of the Notes of the relevant series shall have no rights thereto or to receive any additional Distributions or compensation as a result of such cancellation or deemed cancellation.

 

  “Distribution Period” means the period from and including one Distribution Payment Date (or, in the case of the first Distribution Period, the Closing Date) to but excluding the next Distribution Payment Date.

 

Ranking (Subordination)

Unless previously converted into Common Shares as set forth in “Description of the Notes—Conversion Upon Trigger Event” below,



 

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the payment obligations of Banco Santander under the Notes constitute direct, unconditional, unsecured and subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander according to Article 281.1.2º of the Spanish Insolvency Law and, in accordance with Additional Provision 14.3º of Law 11/2015, but subject to any other ranking that may apply as a result of any mandatory provision of law (or otherwise), upon the insolvency of Banco Santander, for so long as the obligations of Banco Santander in respect of the Notes constitute Additional Tier 1 Instruments, rank: (i) pari passu among themselves and with (a) all other claims in respect of any outstanding Additional Tier 1 Instruments and (b) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank pari passu with Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments; (ii) junior to (a) any unsubordinated obligations (créditos ordinarios) of Banco Santander, (b) any obligations of Banco Santander in respect of Tier 2 Instruments and (c) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank senior to Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments; and (iii) senior to (a) any claims for the liquidation amount of the Common Shares and (b) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank junior to Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments.

 

  Banco Santander agrees with respect to the Notes and each holder of Notes, by his or her acquisition of a Note, will be deemed to have agreed to the above described subordination. Each such holder will be deemed to have irrevocably waived his or her rights of priority which would otherwise be accorded to him or her under the laws of Spain, to the extent necessary to effectuate the subordination provisions of the Notes. In addition, each holder of Notes by his or her acquisition of the Notes authorizes and directs the Trustee on his or her behalf to take such action as may be necessary or appropriate to effectuate the subordination of the Notes as provided in the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, and as summarized herein and appoints the Trustee his or her attorney-in-fact for any and all such purposes.

 

  The obligations of Banco Santander under the Notes are subject to the Bail-in Power.

 

  “Tier 2 Instrument” means any subordinated obligation (crédito subordinado) of Banco Santander according to Article 281.1.2º of the Spanish Insolvency Law, qualifying as a tier 2 instrument (instrumento de capital de nivel 2) under Additional Provision 14.3º(b) of Law 11/2015.

 

 

As of March 31, 2021, Banco Santander had outstanding €43.6 billion of subordinated indebtedness, including €7.4 billion of Additional Tier 1 Instruments. Additionally, as of March 31, 2021, Banco Santander had outstanding €24.4 billion of secured indebtedness and



 

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€15.6 billion of unsubordinated indebtedness. Banco Santander subsidiaries had €89.6 billion indebtedness outstanding as of March 31, 2021.

 

  See “Description of the Notes—Status of the Notes.”

 

Optional Redemption

The Notes may be redeemed, in whole but not in part, at the option of Banco Santander (a) with respect to the Dollar Notes on (i) any calendar day during the six-month period commencing on (and including) November 12, 2026 to (and including) the Dollar Notes First Reset Date and (ii) any Distribution Payment Date thereafter and (b) with respect to the Euro Notes on (i) any calendar day during the six-month period commencing on (and including) November 12, 2027 to (and including) the Euro Notes First Reset Date and (ii) any Distribution Payment Date thereafter, in each case at the Redemption Price, as set forth under “Description of the Notes—Redemption and Purchase—Optional Redemption.”

 

  “Redemption Price” means, per Note of the series that is being redeemed, the relevant Liquidation Preference plus, if applicable, where not cancelled pursuant to, or otherwise subject to the limitations on payment set out in “—Limitations on Distributions,” an amount equal to accrued and unpaid Distributions for the then current Distribution Period to (but excluding) the date fixed for redemption of the Notes of such series.

 

  For further information, see “Description of the Notes—Redemption and Purchase.

 

Redemption Due to a Capital Event

Upon the occurrence of a Capital Event, the Notes of a series are also redeemable on or after the Closing Date at the option of Banco Santander, in whole but not in part, at any time, at the Redemption Price, as set forth under “Description of the Notes—Redemption and Purchase—Redemption Due to a Capital Event.”

 

  Redemption for a Capital Event is subject to the prior consent of the relevant Regulator if and as required under Applicable Banking Regulations and may only take place in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time.

 

  “Capital Event” means a change in Spanish law, Applicable Banking Regulations or any change in the application or official interpretation thereof that results or is likely to result in any outstanding aggregate Liquidation Preference of the Notes of the relevant series ceasing to be included in, or counting towards, the Group’s or Banco Santander’s Tier 1 Capital.

 

  “Tier 1 Capital” means at any time, with respect to Banco Santander or the Group, as the case may be, the Tier 1 capital of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, as calculated by Banco Santander in accordance with Chapters 1, 2 and 3 (Tier 1 Capital, Common Equity Tier 1 Capital and Additional Tier 1 Capital) of Title I (Elements of own funds) of Part Two (Own Funds and Eligible Liabilities) of the CRR and/or Applicable Banking Regulations at such time, including any applicable transitional, phasing in or similar provisions.


 

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  For further information, see “Description of the Notes—Redemption and Purchase.

 

Redemption Due to a Tax Event

Upon the occurrence of a Tax Event, the Notes of a series may be redeemed on or after the Closing Date at the option of Banco Santander, in whole but not in part, at any time, at the Redemption Price, as set forth under “Description of the Notes—Redemption and Purchase—Redemption Due to a Tax Event.

 

  Redemption for a Tax Event is subject to the prior consent of the relevant Regulator if and as required under Applicable Banking Regulations and may only take place in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time.

 

  “Tax Event” means that, as a result of any change in the laws or regulations of Spain or in either case of any political subdivision thereof or any authority or agency therein or thereof having power to tax or in the interpretation or administration of any such laws or regulations which becomes effective on or after the Closing Date, (a) Banco Santander would not be entitled to claim a deduction in computing taxation liabilities in Spain (as set forth in “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Additional Amounts” in the accompanying prospectus) in respect of any Distribution to be made on the next Distribution Payment Date or the value of such deduction to Banco Santander would be materially reduced, or (b) Banco Santander would be required to pay Additional Amounts, or (c) the applicable tax treatment of the Notes of the relevant series changes in a material way that was not reasonably foreseeable at the Closing Date.

 

  For further information, see “Description of the Notes—Redemption and Purchase.

 

Conversion

In the event of the occurrence of the Trigger Event, the Notes are mandatorily and irrevocably convertible into newly issued Common Shares at the Conversion Price.

 

Trigger Event

A “Trigger Event” shall occur if, at any time, the CET1 ratio of Banco Santander or the Group calculated in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations is less than 5.125%, as determined by Banco Santander or the Regulator.

 

  If the Trigger Event occurs at any time on or after the Closing Date, then Banco Santander will:

 

  (a)

not declare or pay any Distribution on the Notes, including any accrued and unpaid Distributions, which shall be cancelled by Banco Santander in accordance with “Description of the Notes—Payments—Distributions—Restrictions on Payments”; and

 

  (b)

irrevocably and mandatorily (and without any requirement for the consent or approval of the holders of Notes) convert all the Notes into Common Shares (the “Trigger Conversion”) to be delivered on the relevant Conversion Settlement Date. If the Trigger Event occurs, the Notes will



 

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  be converted in whole and not in part.

 

  Upon any Trigger Event, holders of the Notes shall have no claim against Banco Santander in respect of (i) any Liquidation Preference or (ii) any accrued and unpaid Distributions cancelled or otherwise unpaid in respect of the Notes and the Notes shall cease to represent any right other than the right to receive Common Shares, if elected, or ADSs from or on behalf of the Settlement Shares Depository.

 

  “CET1 ratio” means, at any time, with respect to Banco Santander or the Group, as the case may be, the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the aggregate amount (in euro or such other primary currency used in the presentation of the Group’s accounts from time to time) of the CET1 Capital of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, at such time divided by the Risk Weighted Assets Amount of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, at such time.

 

  “Conversion Settlement Date” means the date on which the relevant Common Shares are to be delivered following a Trigger Conversion, which shall be as soon as practicable and in any event not later than one month following (or such other period as Applicable Banking Regulations may require) the Trigger Event Notice Date (as defined under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities” in the accompanying prospectus) and notice of the expected Conversion Settlement Date and of the Conversion Price shall be given to holders of the Notes in accordance with “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Notices” in the accompanying prospectus not more than ten (10) Business Days following the Trigger Event Notice Date.

 

  “Risk Weighted Assets Amount” means at any time, with respect to Banco Santander or the Group, as the case may be, the aggregate amount (in euro or such other primary currency used in the presentation of the Group’s accounts from time to time) of the risk weighted assets of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, calculated in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations at such time.

 

  “Settlement Shares Depository” means a reputable independent financial institution, trust company or similar entity to be appointed by Banco Santander on or prior to any date when a function ascribed to the Settlement Shares Depository is required to be performed to perform such functions and who will hold Common Shares in Iberclear or any of its participating entities in a designated trust or custody account for the benefit of the holders of the Notes and otherwise on terms consistent with the terms of the Notes and the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture.

 

Conversion Price

If the Common Shares are (a) then admitted to trading on a Relevant Stock Exchange, the “Conversion Price” will be the higher of: (i) the Current Market Price (as defined under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities” in the accompanying prospectus) of a Common Share (converted into U.S. dollars at the Prevailing Rate, with respect to the Dollar Notes), (ii) the Floor Price and (iii) the



 

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nominal value of a Common Share (converted into U.S. dollars at the Prevailing Rate with respect to the Dollar Notes); in each case on the Trigger Event Notice Date, or (b) not then admitted to trading on a Relevant Stock Exchange, the “Conversion Price” will be the higher of (ii) and (iii) above. For the avoidance of doubt, the conversion into U.S. dollars at the Prevailing Rate described above with respect to the Dollar Notes shall in no circumstances imply that any Common Share will be issued at a price of less than its nominal value expressed in the Share Currency.

 

  “Floor Price” means (a) with respect to the Dollar Notes, $2.555 per Common Share and (b) with respect to the Euro Notes, €2.129 per Common Share, in each case subject to adjustment as set forth under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Conversion Upon Trigger Event—Conversion Price” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

  “Independent Financial Adviser” means an independent financial institution of international repute appointed by Banco Santander at its own expense.

 

  “Prevailing Rate” means, in respect of any currencies on any day, the spot rate of exchange between the relevant currencies prevailing as at 12 noon (CET) on that date as appearing on or derived from the Reference Page or, if such a rate cannot be determined at such time, the rate prevailing as at 12 noon (CET) on the immediately preceding day on which such rate can be so determined or, if such rate cannot be so determined by reference to the Reference Page, the rate determined in such other manner as an Independent Financial Adviser in good faith shall prescribe.

 

  “Reference Page” means the relevant page on Bloomberg or Reuters or such other information service provider that displays the relevant information chosen by Banco Santander at its own discretion.

 

  “Relevant Stock Exchange” means the Spanish Stock Exchanges or if at the relevant time the Common Shares are not at that time listed and admitted to trading on the Spanish Stock Exchanges, the principal stock exchange or securities market on which the Common Shares are then listed, admitted to trading or quoted or accepted for dealing.

 

  “Share Currency” means euro or such other currency in which the Common Shares are quoted or dealt in on the Relevant Stock Exchange at the relevant time or for the purposes of the relevant calculation or determination.

 

  “Spanish Stock Exchanges” means the Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia stock exchanges and the Automated Quotation System—Continuous Market (Sistema de Interconexión Bursátil—Mercado Continuo (SIBE)).

 

Agreement and Waiver with Respect to a Trigger Conversion

The Notes are not convertible into Common Shares at the option of holders of Notes at any time and are not redeemable in cash as a



 

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result of a Trigger Event. Notwithstanding any other provision herein, by its acquisition of the Notes, each holder and beneficial owner shall be deemed to have (i) agreed to all the terms and conditions of the Notes, including, without limitation, those related to (x) Trigger Conversion following a Trigger Event and (y) the appointment of the Settlement Shares Depository, the issuance of the Settlement Shares to the Settlement Shares Depository (or to the relevant recipient in accordance with the terms of the Notes), and acknowledged that such events in (x) and (y) may occur without any further action on the part of the holders of the Notes or the Trustee, (ii) agreed that effective upon, and following, the Trigger Conversion, no amount shall be due and payable to the holders of the Notes, and Banco Santander’s liability to pay any such amounts (including the Liquidation Preference of, or any Distribution in respect of, the Notes), except as noted under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Conversion Upon Trigger Event—Settlement Procedures” in the accompanying prospectus with respect to certain stamp and similar taxes, shall be automatically released, and the holders shall not have the right to give a direction to the Trustee with respect to the Trigger Event and any related Trigger Conversion, (iii) waived, to the extent permitted by the Trust Indenture Act, any claim against the Trustee arising out of its acceptance of its trusteeship under, and the performance of its duties, powers and rights in respect of, the Base Indenture and in connection with the Notes, including, without limitation, claims related to or arising out of or in connection with a Trigger Event and/or any Trigger Conversion and (iv) authorized, directed and requested DTC, the European Clearing Systems and any direct participant in DTC, the European Clearing Systems or other intermediary through which it holds such Notes to take any and all necessary action, if required, to implement the Trigger Conversion without any further action or direction on the part of such holder or beneficial owner of the Notes or the Trustee.

 

Liquidation Distribution

Subject as provided below, in the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation or winding-up of Banco Santander (a “Liquidation Event”), holders of the Notes (unless previously converted into Common Shares as set forth in “—Conversion,” above) shall be entitled to receive out of the assets of Banco Santander available for distribution to holders of such series, the Liquidation Distribution.

 

  If, before the occurrence of a Liquidation Event, the Trigger Event occurs but the relevant conversion of the Notes into Common Shares pursuant to “—Conversion,” above, is still to take place, holders of the Notes will be entitled to receive out of the relevant assets of Banco Santander a monetary amount equal to that which holders of the Notes would have received on any distribution of the assets of Banco Santander if such conversion had taken place immediately prior to such liquidation or winding-up or otherwise in accordance with applicable law at such time.


 

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  After payment of the relevant entitlement in respect of a Note as described in this section “—Liquidation Distribution,” such Note will confer no further right or claim to any of the remaining assets of Banco Santander.

 

Pre-emptive Rights

The Notes do not grant holders pre-emption rights in respect of any possible future issues of Parity Securities or any other securities by Banco Santander or any Subsidiary.

 

Regular Record Dates

Distributions will be paid to holders of record of the Notes in respect of the Liquidation Preference thereof outstanding as of the close of business 15 calendar days preceding the relevant Distribution Payment Date, whether or not a Business Day.

 

Business Day Convention

Following, unadjusted

 

Day Count Basis

With respect to the Dollar Notes, 30/360.

 

  With respect to the Euro Notes, Actual/Actual.

 

Agreement and Acknowledgement with Respect to the Exercise of Bail-in Power

Notwithstanding any other term of the Notes or any other agreements, arrangements, or understandings between Banco Santander and any holder of the Notes, by its acquisition of the Notes, each holder (which includes each holder of a beneficial interest in the Notes) acknowledges, accepts, consents to and agrees:

 

  (i)

to be bound by effect of the exercise of the Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority, which may include and result in any of the following, or some combination thereof:

 

   

the reduction of all, or a portion, of the Amounts Due on a permanent basis;

 

   

the conversion of all, or a portion, of the Amounts Due into Common Equity Tier 1 instruments, other securities or other obligations of Banco Santander or another person (and the issue to the holder of such shares, securities or obligations), including by means of an amendment, modification or variation of the terms of the Notes, in which case the holder agrees to accept in lieu of its rights under the Notes any such Common Equity Tier 1 instruments, other securities or other obligations of Banco Santander or another person;

 

   

the cancellation of the Notes or Amounts Due;

 

   

the amendment or alteration of the maturity of the Notes or amendment of the Distribution payable on the Notes, or the date on which the Distribution becomes payable, including by suspending payment for a temporary period; and

 

  (ii)

that the terms of the Notes are subject to, and may be varied, if necessary, to give effect to, the exercise of the Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority.



 

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  See “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Agreement and Acknowledgement with Respect to the Exercise of the Bail-in Power” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Repayment of Amounts Due After Exercise of Bail-in Power

For the avoidance of doubt, the potential write-down or cancellation of all or a portion of the Liquidation Preference of—or Distributions on—the relevant Notes or the conversion of the relevant Notes into Common Equity Tier 1 instruments, other security or other obligations in connection with the exercise of any Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority is separate and distinct from a conversion following a Trigger Event although these events may occur consecutively. Neither a reduction or cancellation, in part or in full of the Amounts Due on, the conversion thereof into another security or obligation of Banco Santander or another person, as a result of the exercise of the Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority with respect to Banco Santander, nor the exercise of the Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority with respect to the relevant Notes will be an Enforcement Event.

 

  No repayment or payment of Amounts Due, if any, on the relevant Notes, will be or become due and payable or be paid after the exercise of any Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority if and to the extent such amounts have been reduced, converted, cancelled, amended or altered as a result of such exercise.

 

Currency of Payment

With respect to the Dollar Notes, the Liquidation Preference, if any, and any Distributions and Additional Amounts will be payable in U.S. dollars.

 

  With respect to the Euro Notes, the Liquidation Preference, if any, and any Distributions and Additional Amounts will be payable in euro, except as described under “Currency Conversion” and “Description of the Notes—Payments.

 

Payment of Additional Amounts

All payments of Distributions and other amounts payable (excluding, for the avoidance of doubt, repayment of Liquidation Preference) in respect of the Notes by Banco Santander will be made free and clear of and without withholding or deduction for or on account of any present or future taxes, duties, assessments or governmental charges (collectively, the “Taxes”) of whatever nature imposed or levied by or on behalf of the Kingdom of Spain or any political subdivision thereof or any authority or agency therein or thereof having power to tax, unless the withholding or deduction of such Taxes, is required by law. In that event, Banco Santander shall pay, in respect of any withholding or deduction imposed on payments of Distributions only (and not Liquidation Preference) such additional amounts (“Additional Amounts”) as will result in holders of the Notes of such amounts as they would have received had no such withholding or deduction been required, provided that no payments of Additional Amounts will be made if and to the extent that Banco Santander has insufficient Available Distributable Items to pay such Additional



 

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Amounts, Distributions on the Notes scheduled for payment in the then current financial year and any equivalent payments scheduled to be made in the then current financial year in respect of any other Parity Securities and CET1 Capital securities then outstanding, in each case excluding any portion of such payments already accounted for in determining the Available Distributable Items, provided further that the foregoing shall be subject to certain exceptions, as described under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Additional Amounts” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Additional Issuances

Banco Santander may, without the consent of the holders of the Notes, issue additional notes of the same series as the Notes of the series that is being increased having the same ranking and same Distribution Rate, redemption terms and other terms as the Notes of the series that is being increased described in this prospectus supplement except for the price to the public, original Distribution accrual date, issue date and first Distribution Payment Date. Any such additional notes, together with the Notes of such series offered by this prospectus supplement, will constitute a single series of securities under the Base Indenture. There is no limitation on the amount of notes that Banco Santander may issue under the Base Indenture.

 

  Banco Santander may without the consent or sanction of the holders of the Notes: (i) take any action required to issue additional Parity Securities or authorize, create and issue one or more other series of Parity Securities ranking equally with the Notes of the relevant series, as to the participation in the profits and/or assets of Banco Santander, without limit as to the amount; or (ii) take any action required to authorize, create and issue one or more other classes or series of shares of Banco Santander or securities mandatorily convertible into Common Shares of Banco Santander ranking junior to the Notes of the relevant series, as to the participation in the profits and/or assets of Banco Santander.

 

  By acquiring a Note, each holder of Notes agrees to renounce any rights of seniority or preference that may be conferred upon it (if any) under applicable Spanish law over any holder of such other Parity Securities issued by Banco Santander from time to time.

 

  “Distribution Rate” means the rate at which the Notes of the relevant series accrue Distributions in accordance with “Description of the Notes—Payments—Distributions.

 

Waiver of Right of Set-off

Subject to applicable law, neither any holder or beneficial owner of the Notes nor the Trustee acting on behalf of the holders of the Notes may exercise, claim or plead any right of set-off, netting, compensation or retention in respect of any amount owed to it by Banco Santander in respect of, or arising under, or in connection with, the Notes or the Base Indenture, the First Supplemental Indenture and each holder and beneficial owner of the Notes, by virtue of its holding of any Notes or any interest therein, and the Trustee acting on behalf of such holders, shall be deemed to have waived all such rights of



 

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set-off, netting, compensation or retention. If, notwithstanding the above, any amounts due and payable to any holder or beneficial owner of a Note or any interest therein by Banco Santander in respect of, or arising under, the Notes are discharged by set-off, such holder or beneficial owner shall, subject to applicable law, immediately pay an amount equal to the amount of such discharge to Banco Santander (or, if a Liquidation Event shall have occurred, the liquidator or administrator of Banco Santander, as the case may be) and, until such time as payment is made, shall hold an amount equal to such amount in trust (where possible) or otherwise for Banco Santander (or the liquidator or administrator of Banco Santander, as the case may be) and, accordingly, any such discharge shall be deemed not to have taken place.

 

Substitution and Variation

If a Capital Event or a Tax Event occurs and is continuing, Banco Santander may substitute all (but not some) of a series of Notes or modify the terms of all (but not some) of such series of Notes, without any requirement for the consent or approval of the holders of such series of Notes, so that they are substituted for, or varied to, become, or remain, Qualifying Notes, subject to having given not less than 15 nor more than 30 days’ notice to the holders of such series of Notes in accordance with the terms described under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Notices” in the accompanying prospectus and to the Trustee (which notice shall be irrevocable and shall specify the date for substitution or, as applicable, variation), and subject to obtaining Regulator consent if and as required under Applicable Banking Regulations and in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations.

 

  The Notes of the relevant series shall cease to bear Distributions from (and including) the date of substitution thereof.

 

  Any holder or beneficial owner of the Notes of the relevant series shall, by virtue of its acquisition of such Notes or any beneficial interest therein, be deemed to accept the substitution or variation of the terms of the relevant Notes and to grant to Banco Santander full power and authority to take any action and/or to execute and deliver any document in the name and/or on behalf of such holder which is necessary or convenient to complete the substitution or variation of the terms of the relevant Notes.

 

  “Qualifying Notes” means, at any time, any securities issued directly by Banco Santander that have terms not otherwise materially less favorable to the holders of the relevant Notes than the terms of the relevant Notes, provided that such securities shall:

 

  (i)

contain terms which comply with the then current requirements for their inclusion in the Additional Tier 1 Capital of Banco Santander as embodied in the Applicable Banking Regulations;

 

  (ii)

carry the same rate of interest as the relevant Notes prior to the relevant substitution or variation pursuant to



 

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  Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Substitution and Variation” in the accompanying prospectus;

 

  (iii)

have the same denomination and aggregate outstanding Liquidation Preference as the relevant Notes prior to the relevant substitution or variation pursuant to “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Substitution and Variation” in the accompanying prospectus;

 

  (iv)

be perpetual and have the same dates for payment of interest as the relevant Notes prior to the relevant substitution or variation pursuant to “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Substitution and Variation” in the accompanying prospectus;

 

  (v)

have at least the same ranking as the relevant Notes;

 

  (vi)

not, immediately following such substitution or variation, be subject to a Capital Event and/or a Tax Event; and

 

  (vii)

be listed or admitted to trading on any stock exchange as selected by Banco Santander, if the relevant Notes were listed or admitted to trading on a stock exchange immediately prior to the relevant substitution or variation pursuant to “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Substitution and Variation” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

  See “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Substitution and Variation” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Enforcement Events and Remedies

There are no events of default under the Notes. In addition, under the terms of the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, neither the Trigger Conversion nor the exercise of the Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority or any action in compliance therewith will be an Enforcement Event.

 

  Each of the following events described in clauses (i), (ii) and (iii) is an “Enforcement Event” with respect to the Notes of a series:

 

  (i)

non-payment of Redemption Price when due as further described under “Description of the Notes—Redemption and Purchase—Non-payment of Redemption Price”;

 

  (ii)

the breach of any term, obligation or condition binding on Banco Santander under the relevant Notes or the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture (other than any of Banco Santander’s payment obligations under or arising from the relevant Notes or the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, including payment of any Liquidation Preference or Distributions, including any damages awarded for breach of any obligations) (a “Performance Obligation”); or

 

  (iii)

the occurrence of a Liquidation Event prior to the occurrence of a Trigger Event.



 

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  The sole remedies of the holders of relevant Notes and the Trustee under the relevant Notes or the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, upon the occurrence of an Enforcement Event shall be (1) to seek enforcement of Banco Santander’s obligation to pay the Redemption Price of the relevant Notes if not paid within 14 days of the date fixed for redemption (provided that the applicable conditions described under “Description of the Notes—Redemption and Purchase” shall have been satisfied), (2) to seek enforcement of a Performance Obligation, and (3) to enforce the entitlement described under “—Liquidation Distribution” above. The foregoing shall not prevent the holders of the relevant Notes or the Trustee from instituting proceedings for the bankruptcy of Banco Santander.

 

  For the avoidance of doubt, the breach by Banco Santander of any Performance Obligation shall not give the Trustee and/or the holders of the relevant Notes a claim for damages, and, in such circumstances, the sole and exclusive remedy that the Trustee and/or the holders of the relevant Notes may seek under the relevant Notes and the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, is specific performance under New York law. By its acquisition of the Notes, each holder of the Notes will acknowledge and agree that such holder will not seek, and will not direct the Trustee to seek, a claim for damages against Banco Santander in respect of a breach by Banco Santander of a Performance Obligation and that the sole and exclusive remedy that such holder and the Trustee may seek under the Notes and the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, for a breach by Banco Santander of a Performance Obligation is specific performance under New York law.

 

  Other than the limited remedies specified above, no remedy against Banco Santander shall be available to the Trustee (acting on behalf of the holders of Notes) or to the holders of the Notes, provided that (1) the Trustee shall have such powers as are required to be authorized to it under the Trust Indenture Act in respect of the rights of the holders under the provisions of the Base Indenture as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture and (2) nothing shall impair the rights of a holder of the Notes under the Trust Indenture Act, absent such holder’s consent, to sue for any payment due but unpaid in respect of the Notes, provided that, in the case of (1) and (2), any payments in respect of, or arising from, the Notes including any payments or amounts resulting or arising from the enforcement of any rights under the Trust Indenture Act in respect of the Notes shall be subject to the subordination provisions of the Base Indenture as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture. For the avoidance of doubt, such limitations shall not apply to Banco Santander’s obligations to pay the fees and expenses of, and to indemnify, the Trustee.


 

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  The Notes are perpetual securities in respect of which there is no fixed redemption date or maturity date. Holders of the Notes may not require any redemption of the Notes at any time.

 

  See “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Enforcement Events and Remedies” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

Purchases of the Notes

Banco Santander and any of its subsidiaries or any third party designated by any of them, may at any time purchase Notes of any series in the open market or otherwise and at any price, in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time and will be subject to the prior consent of the relevant Regulator if and as required.

 

  Subject to certain conditions and subject to compliance with the provisions of the Spanish Companies Act and/or with any Applicable Banking Regulations, Banco Santander or any member of the Group may exercise such rights as it may from time to time enjoy to purchase or redeem or buy back any shares of Banco Santander (including Conversion Shares) or any depositary or other receipts or certificates representing the same without the consent of the holders of the relevant Notes.

 

  “Conversion Shares” means the number of Common Shares to be issued on Trigger Conversion in respect of each Note to be converted.

 

Book-Entry Issuance, Settlement and Clearance

We will issue the Notes in fully registered form in denominations of (a) $200,000 and integral multiples of $200,000 in excess thereof, with respect to the Dollar Notes and (b) €200,000 and integral multiples of €200,000 in excess thereof, with respect to the Euro Notes. All payments on or in respect of the Dollar Notes will be made in U.S. dollars. All payments on or in respect of the Euro Notes will be made in euro.

 

  The Dollar Notes will be represented by one or more global securities deposited with a custodian for, and registered in the name of a nominee of, DTC. You will hold beneficial interests in the Dollar Notes through DTC and its direct and indirect participants, including Euroclear and Clearstream Luxembourg, and DTC and its direct and indirect participants will record your beneficial interest on their books. We will not issue definitive notes other than in the limited circumstances described in the accompanying prospectus. Settlement of the Dollar Notes will occur through DTC in same-day funds. For information on DTC’s book-entry system, see “Description of Certain Provisions Relating to Debt Securities and Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Form of Securities; Book-Entry System” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

 

The Euro Notes will be represented by one or more global notes deposited with a common depositary on behalf of Euroclear and Clearstream Luxembourg and registered in the name of the common depositary or its nominee and its direct and indirect participants will record your beneficial interest on their books. We will not issue



 

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definitive notes other than in the limited circumstances described in the accompanying prospectus. The Euro Notes will be credited to the securities custody accounts of Euroclear and Clearstream Luxembourg participants on the business day following the settlement date, for value on the settlement date. For information on Euroclear and Clearstream Luxembourg, see “Description of Certain Provisions Relating to Debt Securities and Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Form of Securities; Book-Entry System” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

CUSIP

Dollar Notes: 05971K AH2

 

  Euro Notes: 05971K AJ8

 

ISIN

Dollar Notes: US05971KAH23

 

  Euro Notes: XS2342620924

 

Listing

We intend to apply to list the Notes on the New York Stock Exchange in accordance with its rules.

 

Trustee, Paying and Conversion Agent, Calculation Agent and Principal Paying Agent

The Bank of New York Mellon, London Branch, a banking corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of New York, as Trustee, having its Corporate Trust Office at One Canada Square, London E14 5AL, United Kingdom, will act as the Trustee, Paying and Conversion Agent, Calculation Agent and Principal Paying Agent for the Notes.

 

Delivery and Settlement

We currently expect to deliver the (a) Dollar Notes to purchasers through DTC for credit to accounts of direct and indirect participants of DTC, including Clearstream Luxembourg and Euroclear and (b) Euro Notes to purchasers through Clearstream Luxembourg and Euroclear, in each case on or about May 12, 2021, which will be the fourth Business Day following the date of pricing of the Notes (such settlement cycle being referred to as “T+4”).

 

Use of Proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds of the offering for general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Conflict of Interest

Santander Investment Securities Inc. is a subsidiary of Banco Santander. Therefore, Santander Investment Securities Inc. is deemed to have a “conflict of interest” under FINRA Rule 5121 and, accordingly, the offering of the notes will comply with the applicable requirements of FINRA Rule 5121. For further information, see “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest).”

 

Governing Law

The Base Indenture, the First Supplemental Indenture and the Notes will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except that the authorization and execution by Banco Santander of the Base Indenture, the First Supplemental Indenture and the Notes, and certain provisions of the Notes, the Base Indenture and the First Supplemental Indenture related to the subordination of the Notes, as well as the price at which Notes can be



 

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issued, certain minimum requirements with respect to the conversion price and the legal regime applicable for the exclusion of the pre-emptive rights, shall be governed by and construed in accordance with Spanish law.

 

Risk Factors

You should carefully consider all of the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, which includes information incorporated by reference. In particular, you should evaluate the specific factors under “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-24 of this prospectus supplement, page 3 of the accompanying prospectus, as well as those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the Group’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2020, incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, for risks involved with an investment in the Notes.

 



 

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RISK FACTORS

Before purchasing the Notes, you should consider carefully the information under the heading “Risk Factors” in the Group’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2020, under the heading “Part 3. Supplemental Information—Item 4. Risk Factors”, and in the accompanying prospectus, and the following risk factors. The Notes are subject to the risks identified in the accompanying prospectus with respect to contingent convertible capital securities. You should also carefully consider the other information included in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and other information incorporated by reference herein and therein. Each of the risks described in these documents could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, or could result in a partial or complete loss of your investment. See “Where You Can Find More Information” in the accompanying prospectus.

Risks Relating to the Notes

The following discussion replaces the discussion under “Risk FactorsRisks Relating to the SecuritiesThe proposed financial transaction tax (“FTT”), “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Debt Securities—Law 11/2015 enables a range of actions to be taken in relation to credit institutions and investment firms considered to be at risk of failing. The taking of any action under Law 11/2015 could materially affect the value of any debt securities,Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—The obligations of Banco Santander under the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are subordinated to unsubordinated obligations and subordinated obligations senior in right of payment to the contingent convertible capital securities of any series and will be further subordinated upon conversion into Common Shares” and “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Banco Santander will be restricted from making payments of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities in certain circumstances, in which case Banco Santander will cancel such Distributions, and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series may not be able to anticipate whether or not Banco Santander will cancel such Distributions” in the accompanying prospectus.

The proposed European financial transaction tax (EU FTT)

The European Commission published in February 2013 a proposal (the “Commission’s Proposal”) for a Directive for a common financial transaction tax (the “EU FTT”) in Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia and Slovakia (excluding Estonia, the participating Member States). Estonia has since stated that it will not participate.

The Commission’s Proposal has very broad scope and could, if introduced, apply to certain dealings in financial instruments (including secondary market transactions) in certain circumstances. The issuance and subscription of financial instruments should, however, be exempt.

Under the Commission’s Proposal, the EU FTT could apply in certain circumstances to persons both within and outside of participating Member States. Generally, it would apply to certain dealings in financial instruments where at least one party is a financial institution, and at least one party is established in a participating Member State. A financial institution may be, or be deemed to be, “established” in a participating Member State in a broad range of circumstances, including (i) by transacting with a person established in a participating Member State or (ii) where the financial instrument which is subject to the dealings is issued in a participating Member State.

Under the Commission’s Proposal, the EU FTT involves a minimum 0.1% tax rate for transactions in all types of financial instruments, except for derivatives that would be subject to a minimum 0.01% tax rate.

On December 3, 2018, the finance ministers of France and Germany outlined a joint proposal for a limited FTT based on a system already in place in France. Under the new proposal, the tax obligation would apply only to transactions involving shares issued by domestic companies with a market capitalization of over €1 billion.

 

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However, the Commission’s Proposal remains subject to negotiation between the participating Member States and the scope of any such tax is uncertain. It may therefore be changed prior to any implementation, the timing of which remains unclear. Additional EU Member States may decide to participate and participating Members States may withdraw.

Prospective investors are advised to seek their own professional advice in relation to the EU FTT.

Notwithstanding the above, please bear in mind that Spain has implemented a Spanish tax on financial transactions which came into force on January 16, 2021. For more details see section “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—E. Spanish FTT” of this Prospectus Supplement.

Law 11/2015 enables a range of actions to be taken in relation to credit institutions and investment firms considered to be at risk of failing. The taking of any action under Law 11/2015 could materially affect the value of any debt securities.

The BRRD (which has been implemented in Spain through Law 11/2015 and RD 1012/2015) is designed to provide authorities with tools to intervene in unsound or failing credit institutions or investment firms (“institutions”) to ensure the continuity of the institution’s critical financial and economic functions, while minimizing the impact of an institution’s failure on the economy and financial system.

As provided in the BRRD, Law 11/2015 contains four resolution tools and powers which may be used alone or in combination where the Relevant Resolution Authority considers that (a) an institution is failing or likely to fail, (b) there is no reasonable prospect that any alternative private sector measures would prevent the failure of such institution within a reasonable timeframe, and (c) a resolution action is in the public interest. The four resolution tools are: (i) sale of business—which enables resolution authorities to direct the sale of the firm or the whole or part of its business on commercial terms; (ii) bridge institution—which enables resolution authorities to transfer all or part of the business of the firm to a “bridge institution” (an entity created for this purpose that is wholly or partially in public control); (iii) asset separation—which enables resolution authorities to transfer impaired or problem assets to one or more publicly owned asset management vehicles to allow them to be managed with a view to maximizing their value through eventual sale or orderly wind-down (this can be used together with another resolution tool only); and (iv) bail-in by which the Relevant Resolution Authority may exercise the Spanish Bail-in Power (as defined below). This includes the ability of the Relevant Resolution Authority to write down (including to zero) and/or to convert into equity or other securities or obligations (which equity, securities or obligations could also be subject to any future application of the Spanish Bail-in Power (as defined below)) certain unsecured debt claims (including senior preferred debt securities and senior non preferred debt securities) and subordinated obligations (including subordinated debt securities) irrespective of whether they qualify as capital instruments or not.

Law 11/2015 also provides for the resolution authority as a last resort, after having assessed and exploited the above resolution tools to the maximum extent possible while maintaining financial stability, to be able to provide extraordinary public financial support through additional financial stabilization tools. These consist of the public equity support and temporary public ownership tools. Any such extraordinary financial support must be provided in accordance with the EU state aid framework.

In accordance with Article 20 of Law 11/2015, an institution will be considered as failing or likely to fail in any of the following circumstances: (i) it is, or is likely in the near future to be, in significant breach of its solvency or any other requirements necessary for maintaining its authorization; (ii) its assets are, or are likely in the near future to be, less than its liabilities; (iii) it is, or is likely in the near future to be, unable to pay its debts as they fall due; or (iv) it requires extraordinary public financial support (except in limited circumstances). The determination that an institution is no longer viable may depend on a number of factors which may be outside of that institution’s control.

 

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In addition to the Spanish Bail-in Power, the Relevant Resolution Authority has the further power to permanently write-down (including to zero), or convert into equity, capital instruments such as the subordinated debt securities of any series at the point of non-viability of an institution or a group (“Non-Viability Loss Absorption”). In addition, pursuant to BRRD II and the SRM Regulation II eligible liabilities (including senior non preferred securities and senior preferred debt securities eligible to comply with TLAC/MREL Requirements) may be also subject to Non-Viability Loss Absorption. Any shares issued to holders of debt securities of such series upon any such conversion into equity may also be subject to any application of the Spanish Bail-in Power.

Any application of the Spanish Bail-in Power and Non-Viability Loss Absorption powers shall be in accordance with the hierarchy of claims in normal insolvency proceedings (unless otherwise provided by the Applicable Banking Regulations (as defined below). Accordingly, the impact of such application on holders will depend on the ranking of the relevant instrument.

In addition, in accordance with Article 64.1(i) of Law 11/2015, the Relevant Resolution Authority has the power to alter the amount of interest payable under debt instruments and other eligible liabilities subject to resolution proceedings and the date on which the interest becomes payable under the debt instrument (including the power to suspend payment for a temporary period).

The powers set out in the BRRD as implemented through Law 11/2015, RD 1012/2015 and the SRM Regulation will impact how credit institutions and investment firms are managed as well as, in certain circumstances, the rights of creditors. Holders of the debt securities of any series may be subject to write-down or conversion into equity on any application of the Spanish Bail-in Power and, in the case of the subordinated debt securities of any series, to Non-Viability Loss Absorption, which may result in such holders losing some or all of their investment. The exercise of any power under Law 11/2015 or any suggestion of such exercise could, therefore, materially adversely affect the rights of holders of the debt securities of any series and the price or value of their investment in any series of debt securities.

The obligations of Banco Santander under the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are subordinated to unsubordinated obligations and subordinated obligations senior in right of payment to the contingent convertible capital securities of any series and will be further subordinated upon conversion into Common Shares.

Unless previously converted into Common Shares, the payment obligations of Banco Santander under the contingent convertible capital securities are direct, unconditional, unsecured and subordinated obligations of Banco Santander and, in accordance with Additional Provision 14.3 of Law 11/2015 but, subject to any other ranking that may apply as a result of any mandatory provision of law (or otherwise), upon the insolvency of Banco Santander for so long as the obligations of Banco Santander in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities constitute Additional Tier 1 Instruments, rank (i) pari passu among themselves and with (a) all other claims in respect of any outstanding Additional Tier 1 Instruments and (b) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank pari passu with Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments; (ii) junior to (a) any unsubordinated obligations (créditos ordinarios) of Banco Santander, (b) any obligations of Banco Santander in respect of Tier 2 Instruments and (c) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank senior to Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments; and (iii) senior to (a) any claims for the liquidation amount of the Common Shares and (b) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank junior to Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments.

Subject to compliance with applicable regulatory requirements, Banco Santander expects from time to time to incur additional indebtedness or other obligations that will constitute senior and other subordinated indebtedness that will rank ahead of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series, and the contingent

 

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convertible capital securities of any series do not contain any provisions restricting Banco Santander’s ability or Banco Santander’s subsidiaries from incurring such senior or subordinated indebtedness. Although the contingent convertible capital securities of any series may pay a higher rate of interest than other comparable securities which are not as deeply subordinated, there is a risk that holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series will lose all or some of their investment should Banco Santander become insolvent since Banco Santander’s assets would be available to pay such amounts only after all of Banco Santander’s senior creditors have been paid in full.

In addition, if Banco Santander were wound up, dissolved or liquidated, Banco Santander’s liquidator would first apply the assets of Banco Santander to satisfy all claims of holders of unsubordinated obligations of Banco Santander and other creditors ranking ahead of holders of convertible capital securities of any series. If Banco Santander does not have sufficient assets to settle claims of prior ranking creditors in full, the claims of the holders of convertible capital securities of any series will not be satisfied. Holders of convertible capital securities of any series will share equally in any distribution of assets with the holders of any other Parity Securities if Banco Santander does not have sufficient funds to make full payment to all of them. In such a situation, convertible capital securities of such series could lose all or part of their investment.

Furthermore, if the Trigger Event occurs but the relevant conversion of the convertible capital securities of any series into Common Shares is still to take place before the dissolution, liquidation or winding-up of Banco Santander, the entitlement of holders of convertible capital securities of any series will be to receive out of the relevant assets of Banco Santander a monetary amount equal to that which holders of convertible capital securities of such series would have received on any distribution of the assets of Banco Santander if the Trigger Conversion had taken place immediately prior to such dissolution, liquidation or winding-up.

Therefore, if the Trigger Event occurs, each holder of convertible capital securities of any series will be effectively further subordinated from being the holder of a subordinated debt instrument to being the holder of Common Shares and there is an enhanced risk that holders of convertible capital securities of such series will lose all or some of their investment.

Royal Decree-law 7/2021, of 27 April, has partially implemented BRRD II in Spain by amending, Additional Provision 14 of Law 11/2015 and, consequently, the status of the subordinated obligations of credit institutions, such as the Notes. According to this new status, payment obligations in respect of the Notes have been further subordinated and will rank junior to any claims in respect of other subordinated obligations of Banco Santander under Article 281 of the Insolvency Law.

In addition, in accordance with the second paragraph of Article 48(7) of BRRD II it has been also clarified that if an instrument is only partly recognized as an own funds item, the whole instrument shall be treated in insolvency as a claim resulting from an own funds item and shall rank lower than any claim that does not result from an own funds item. Therefore, instruments which were fully disqualified as own funds items would cease to be treated as a claim resulting from an own funds item in insolvency and, consequently, improve their ranking with respect to any claim that results from an own funds item (such as the Notes). Consequently, if other Additional Tier 1 Instruments of Banco Santander were to be disqualified from own funds in the future, their status would improve vis-à-vis the Notes.

Banco Santander will be restricted from making payments of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities in certain circumstances, in which case Banco Santander will cancel such Distributions, and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series may not be able to anticipate whether or not Banco Santander will cancel such Distributions.

Under Article 141 of the CRD IV Directive, Member States of the European Union must require that institutions that fail to meet the “combined buffer requirement” (broadly, the combination of the capital conservation buffer, the institution-specific counter-cyclical buffer and the higher of (depending on the

 

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institution), the systemic risk buffer, the global systemically important institutions buffer and the other systemically important institution buffer, in each case as applicable to the institution) will be prohibited from paying any “discretionary payments” (which are defined broadly by the CRD IV Directive as payments relating to Common Equity Tier 1, variable remuneration and payments on Additional Tier 1 Instruments such as the contingent convertible capital securities of any series), until it calculates its applicable restrictions and communicates them to the Regulator and, once done, such institution will be subject to restricted “discretionary payments”. Under CRD V Directive, where an institution is subject to a systemic risk buffer, that buffer will be cumulative with the applicable global systemically important institutions buffer or other systemically important institution buffer.

The restrictions will be scaled according to the extent of the breach of the “combined buffer requirement” and calculated as a percentage of the sum of the interim and year-end profits of the institution not included in the CET1 capital net of any distribution of profits or “discretionary payment”. Such calculation will result in a “Maximum Distributable Amount” in each relevant period. As an example, the scaling is such that in the bottom quartile of the “combined buffer requirement”, no “discretionary distributions” will be permitted to be paid. As a consequence, in the event of breach of the combined buffer requirement it may be necessary to reduce discretionary payments, including potentially exercising Banco Santander’s discretion to cancel (in whole or in part) payments of Distributions in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series.

Articles 43 to 49 of Law 10/2014 and Chapter II of Title II of Royal Decree 84/2015 implement the above provisions in Spain. In particular Article 48 of Law 10/2014 and Articles 73 and 74 of Royal Decree 84/2014 deal with restrictions on distributions and Article 24 of Circular 2/2016 of the Bank of Spain.

There are a number of factors that make the determination and application of the Maximum Distributable Amount particularly complex, including the following:

 

   

the Maximum Distributable Amount applies when the “combined buffer requirement” is not maintained. The “combined buffer requirement” represents the amount of capital that a financial institution is required to maintain beyond the minimum Pillar 1 and (if applicable) Pillar 2 capital requirements. However, there are several different buffers, some of which are intended to encourage countercyclical behaviour (with extra capital retained when profits are robust) and others of which are intended to provide additional capital cushions for institutions whose failure would result in a significant systemic risk;

 

   

the institution-specific countercyclical buffer, the G-SII (a financial institution that is deemed to be a global systemically important institution) buffer and the systemic risk buffer may be applied and varied at any time upon decision of the relevant authorities. As a result, the potential impact of the Maximum Distributable Amount will change over time;

 

   

the Maximum Distributable Amount calculation could be different for Banco Santander on a consolidated and on an individual basis and different capital buffers could also apply. In addition, if a capital buffer is not respected, it is not completely clear the extent to which Banco Santander’s consolidated as compared to its individual net income may be taken into account in different circumstances. It is also possible that some discretionary payments will affect the Maximum Distributable Amount on a consolidated but not an individual basis for Banco Santander and vice versa; and

 

   

payments made earlier in the year will reduce the remaining Maximum Distributable Amount available for payments later in the year, and Banco Santander will have no obligation to preserve any portion of the Maximum Distributable Amount for payments scheduled to be made later in a given year. Even if Banco Santander attempts to do so, there can be no assurance that it will be successful, as the Maximum Distributable Amount at any time depends on the amount of net income earned during the course of the relevant year, which will necessarily be difficult to predict.

 

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These and other possible interpretation issues (including any changes which arise from the EU Banking Reforms) make it difficult to determine how the Maximum Distributable Amount will apply as a practical matter to limit Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities. This uncertainty and the resulting complexity may adversely impact the market price and liquidity of the contingent convertible capital securities.

Furthermore, pursuant to Article 16.a) of the BRRD II (transposed in Spain by article 16bis of Law 11/2015), if an institution meets the “combined buffer requirement” but fails to meet that “combined buffer requirement” when considered in addition to the TLAC/MREL Requirements, such failure shall be treated in a similar manner as a failure to meet the “combined buffer requirement” on top of its minimum regulatory capital requirements. In such case, the Relevant Resolution Authority will have the power to prohibit an entity from making discretionary payments above the Maximum Distributable Amount (calculated in accordance with paragraph (4) of such Article 16.a) of the BRRD II) but subject to a potential nine-month grace period in which the Relevant Resolution Authority will assess on a monthly basis whether to exercise such powers. If the Relevant Resolution Authority finds that the entity is still in breach of the “combined buffer requirement” when considered in addition to the TLAC/MREL Requirements after nine months it will be compelled to exercise its power to restrict discretionary payments (subject to certain limited exceptions).

In addition, pursuant to new Article 141b of the CRD V Directive (transposed in Spain by article 48 quater of Law 10/2014), global systemically important institutions, such as Banco Santander, shall be also obliged to determine their “Maximum Distributable Amount” and restrict discretionary payments where they do not meet at the same time the leverage ratio buffer under Article 92.1a of CRR and the “combined buffer requirement”.

Accordingly, any failure by Banco Santander and/or the Group to comply with its TLAC/MREL Requirement or its leverage ratio buffer may have a material adverse effect on Banco Santander’s business, financial conditions and results of operations and could result in the imposition of restrictions or prohibitions on discretionary payments by Banco Santander, including the payment of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities. See also “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Payments of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are payable in Banco Santander’s sole and absolute discretion and Banco Santander may (and in certain circumstances will have no choice but to) cancel any Distributions in whole or in part at any time. Unpaid Distributions are not cumulative or payable at any time thereafter and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series shall have no rights thereto” in the accompanying prospectus.

In addition, in accordance with Article 64.1.(i) of Law 11/2015, the Relevant Resolution Authority has the power to alter the amount of distributions or interest payable under debt instruments issued by banks subject to resolution proceedings and the date on which the distributions or interest becomes payable under the debt instrument (including the power to suspend payment for a temporary period). In addition, the European Central Bank also has the power under Article 68.2(i) of Law 10/2014 (implementing Article 104 of CRD IV Directive) to impose in certain circumstances requirements on Banco Santander, the effect of which will be to restrict or prohibit payments of Distributions by Banco Santander to holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series, which is most likely to materialize if at any time Banco Santander is failing, or is expected to fail, to meet its capital requirements.

Moreover, Banco Santander’s capital requirements, are, by their nature, calculated by reference to a number of factors any one of which or combination of which may not be easily observable or capable of calculation by investors. Investors may not be able to predict accurately the proximity of the risk of discretionary payments on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series being prohibited from time to time as a result of the operation of Article 48 of Law 10/2014. There can be no assurance that any of the capital requirements or capital buffer requirements applicable to Banco Santander will not be amended in the future to include new and more onerous capital requirements, which in turn may affect Banco Santander’s capacity to make payments of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series. See “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Payments of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital

 

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securities of any series are payable in Banco Santander’s sole and absolute discretion and Banco Santander may (and in certain circumstances will have no choice but to) cancel any Distributions in whole or in part at any time. Unpaid Distributions are not cumulative or payable at any time thereafter and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series shall have no rights thereto” in the accompanying prospectus.

The following discussion supplements the discussion under “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to the Contingent Convertible Capital Securities” in the accompanying prospectus.

Distributions will be reset on each Reset Date, which could have an adverse effect on the market value of the Notes.

The Notes will accrue Distributions at an initial fixed rate from the Closing Date to, but excluding, the Dollar Notes First Reset Date or the Euro Notes First Reset Date, as applicable (each a “First Reset Date”). From, and including, the First Reset Date, and on every Reset Date thereafter, Distributions will be reset as described in “Description of the NotesPaymentsDistributions”. Reset rates could be lower than the initial fixed rate and/or the rates that applied at prior Reset Determination Dates, which could have an adverse effect on the market value of the Notes and the overall amount of any Distributions.

Any regulation and reform of the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate or EURIBOR may adversely affect the value of the Euro Notes

The calculation of any Euro Notes Distributions from and including the Euro Notes First Reset Date are dependent upon the relevant 5-year Mid-Swap Rate and/or EURIBOR as determined at the relevant time (as specified in “Description of the Notes—Payments—Distributions—Euro Notes”). Certain interest rates and indices which are deemed to be “benchmarks” (including the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate and EURIBOR) have been the subject of recent national and international regulatory guidance and proposals for reform, such as the announcement made on July 27, 2017 by the Chief Executive of the FCA, which regulates LIBOR, that it does not intend to continue to persuade, or use its powers to compel, panel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR to the administrator of LIBOR after 2021. In a further speech on July 12, 2018, the FCA emphasized that market participants should not rely on the continued publication of LIBOR after the end of 2021, which indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. On March 5, 2021, the FCA announced that all LIBOR settings will either cease to be provided by and administrator or no longer be representative immediately after December 31, 2021 in the case of certain settings and immediately after June 30, 2023 in the case of the remaining US dollar settings not already discontinued. EONIA has modified its methodology and will be discontinued as from January 2022. Other interbank offered rates suffer from similar weaknesses to LIBOR and EONIA and as a result (although no deadline has been set for their discontinuation), they may be discontinued or be subject to changes in their administration. The FSB also made certain recommendations to reform major interest rate benchmarks, such as key interbank offered rates. It is not possible to predict whether, and to what extent, banks will continue to provide EURIBOR submissions to the administrator of EURIBOR going forwards. Some of these reforms are already effective whilst others are still to be implemented. Any such reforms may cause such “benchmarks” to perform differently than in the past, to disappear entirely, or have other consequences which cannot be predicted. Any such consequence could have a material adverse effect on the value or liquidity of, and return on, the Euro Notes.

The EU Benchmarks Regulation (as defined below) was published in the Official Journal of the EU on June 29, 2016 and applies from January 1, 2018. The EU Benchmarks Regulation applies to the provision of benchmarks, the contribution of input data to a benchmark and the use of a benchmark within the EU. It, among other things, (i) requires benchmark administrators to be authorized or registered (or, if non-EU-based, to be subject to an equivalent regime or otherwise recognized or endorsed) and (ii) prevents certain uses by EU supervised entities (such as Banco Santander) of “benchmarks” of administrators that are not authorized or registered (or, if non-EU based, not deemed equivalent or recognized or endorsed).

 

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The EU Benchmarks Regulation could have a material impact on the Euro Notes, in particular, if the methodology or other terms of any “benchmarks” such as the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate or EURIBOR are changed in order to comply with the requirements of the EU Benchmarks Regulation. Such changes could, among other things, have the effect of reducing, increasing or otherwise affecting the volatility of the published rate or level of the relevant “benchmark”.

More broadly, any of the international or national reforms (including those announced in relation to LIBOR and the application of any similar reforms to other “benchmarks” such as the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate and EURIBOR), or the general increased regulatory scrutiny of “benchmarks”, could increase the costs and risks of administering or otherwise participating in the setting of a “benchmark” and complying with any such regulations or requirements. Such factors may have the following effects on certain “benchmarks”: (i) discourage market participants from continuing to administer or contribute to the “benchmark”; (ii) trigger changes in the rules or methodologies used in the “benchmark”; or (iii) lead to the disappearance of the “benchmark”. Any of the above changes or any other consequential changes as a result of international or national reforms or other initiatives or investigations, could have a material adverse effect on the value of and return on the Euro Notes.

If at the time of determining the Distribution Rate a Benchmark Event (which, amongst other events, includes the permanent discontinuation of the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate or EURIBOR (in each case, the “Original Reference Rate”)) occurs or has occurred, then Banco Santander shall use its reasonable endeavours to appoint an Independent Financial Adviser. After consulting with the Independent Financial Adviser, Banco Santander shall endeavor to determine a Successor Rate or Alternative Rate (both as defined below) to be used in place of the Original Reference Rate. The use of any such Successor Rate or Alternative Rate to determine a Distribution Rate will result in the Euro Notes performing differently (which may include payment of a lower Distribution Rate) than they would do if the Original Reference Rate were to continue to apply.

Furthermore, if a Successor Rate or Alternative Rate for the Original Reference Rate is determined by Banco Santander, the terms of the Euro Notes set forth under “Description of the Notes” herein provide that Banco Santander may vary the terms of the Euro Notes, as necessary to ensure the proper operation of such Successor Rate or Alternative Rate, without any requirement for consent or approval of the holders of the Euro Notes, as permitted under the Base Indenture as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture.

If a Successor Rate or Alternative Rate is determined by Banco Santander, the terms of the Euro Notes also provide that an Adjustment Spread (as defined below) may be determined by Banco Santander and applied to such Successor Rate or Alternative Rate. The aim of the Adjustment Spread is to reduce or eliminate, to the extent reasonably practicable, any economic prejudice or benefit (as the case may be) to holders of the Euro Notes as a result of the replacement of the Original Reference Rate with the Successor Rate or the Alternative Rate. However, it may not be possible to determine or apply an Adjustment Spread and even if an Adjustment Spread is applied, such Adjustment Spread may not be effective to reduce or eliminate economic prejudice to holders of the Euro Notes. If no Adjustment Spread can be determined, a Successor Rate or Alternative Rate may nonetheless be used to determine the Distribution Rate. The use of any Successor Rate or Alternative Rate (including with the application of an Adjustment Spread) will still result in the Euro Notes performing differently (which may include payment of a lower Distribution Rate) than they would if the Original Reference Rate were to continue to apply in its current form.

Banco Santander may not be able to determine a Successor Rate or Alternative Rate in accordance with the terms and conditions of the Euro Notes.

Where Banco Santander is unable to appoint an Independent Financial Adviser in a timely manner, or is unable to determine a Successor Rate or Alternative Rate before the next Reset Determination Date, the Distribution Rate for the next succeeding Euro Notes Reset Period will be the Distribution Rate applicable as at the last preceding Reset Determination Date, before the occurrence of the Benchmark Event, or, where the Benchmark Event occurs before the first Reset Determination Date, the Distribution Rate will be 4.125% per annum.

 

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Where Banco Santander has been unable to appoint an Independent Financial Adviser or has failed to determine a Successor Rate or Alternative Rate in respect of any given Euro Notes Reset Period, as the case may be, it will continue to attempt to appoint an Independent Financial Adviser in a timely manner before the next succeeding Reset Determination Date, and/or to determine a Successor Rate or Alternative Rate to apply the next succeeding and any subsequent Euro Notes Reset Periods, as necessary.

Applying the initial Distribution Rate or the Distribution Rate applicable as at the last preceding Reset Determination Date before the occurrence of the Benchmark Event will result in the Euro Notes performing differently (which may include payment of a lower Distribution Rate) than they would do if the relevant benchmark were to continue to apply, or if a Successor Rate or Alternative Rate could be determined.

If Banco Santander is unable to appoint an Independent Financial Adviser or, fails to determine a Successor Rate or Alternative Rate for the life of the Euro Notes, the initial Distribution Rate, or the Distribution Rate applicable as at the last preceding Reset Determination Date before the occurrence of the Benchmark Event, will continue to apply to maturity. This will result in the Euro Notes, becoming, in effect, fixed rate securities.

No Successor Rate or Alternative Rate will be adopted, nor any Adjustment Spread applied, nor will any Benchmark Amendments be made, if and to the extent that, in the determination of Banco Santander, the same could reasonably be expected to prejudice the qualification of the Euro Notes as Additional Tier 1 Instruments for the purposes of the Applicable Banking Regulations.

Investors should consult their own independent advisers and make their own assessment about the potential risks imposed by the EU Benchmarks Regulation reforms in making any investment decision with respect to the Euro Notes.

Holders of the Euro Notes will receive payments in euros.

All payments of Distributions on, and the Liquidation Preference of, the Euro Notes and the Redemption Price and any Additional Amounts for such notes will be made in euros, subject to certain limited exceptions. We, the Underwriters, the Trustee, the Calculation Agent and the Paying and Conversion Agent with respect to the Euro Notes will not be obliged to convert, or to assist any registered owner or beneficial owner of such notes in converting, payments of Distributions, Liquidation Preference, the Redemption Price or Additional Amount in euros made with respect to such notes into U.S. dollars or any other currency.

An investment in the Euro Notes by a holder whose home currency is not euros entails significant risks.

The initial holders of the Euro Notes will be required to pay for the Euro Notes in euro. Neither we nor the Underwriters will be obligated to assist the initial holders in obtaining euro or in converting other currencies into euro to facilitate the payment of the purchase price for the Euro Notes.

An investment in the Euro Notes by a holder whose home currency is not euros entails significant risks. These risks include the possibility of significant changes in rates of exchange between the holder’s home currency and euros, the possibility of the imposition or subsequent modification of foreign exchange controls with respect to the euro or the holder’s home currency, and the possibility of tax consequences for the purchaser as a result of any foreign exchange gains or losses resulting from an investment in the Euro Notes.

These risks generally depend on factors over which we have no control, such as economic, financial and political events and the supply of and demand for the relevant currencies. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates between two currencies result from the interaction over time of many factors directly or indirectly affecting economic and political conditions in the countries issuing such currencies, and economic and political developments globally and in other relevant countries. Foreign currency exchange rates may be affected by, among other factors, existing and expected rates of inflation, existing and expected interest rate levels, the

 

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balance of payments between countries and the extent of governmental surpluses or deficits in various countries. All of these factors are, in turn, sensitive to the monetary, fiscal and trade policies pursued by the governments of various countries important to international trade and finance.

In the past, rates of exchange between the euro and certain currencies have been highly volatile, and each holder should be aware that volatility may occur in the future. Fluctuations in any particular exchange rate that have occurred in the past, however, are not necessarily indicative of fluctuations in the rate that may occur during the term of the Euro Notes. Depreciation of the euro against the holder’s home currency would result in a decrease in the effective yield of the Euro Notes below its coupon rate and, in certain circumstances, could result in a loss to the holder.

The European Union or one or more of its Member States may, in the future, impose exchange controls or modify any exchange controls imposed, which controls could affect exchange rates, as well as the availability of euro at the time of any payment with respect to the Euro Notes. In addition, if one or more Member States were to withdraw from the European Monetary Union and cease to use the euro as their currency, the value of the euro could be materially adversely affected.

This description of foreign currency risks does not describe all the risks of an investment in securities denominated in a currency other than the home currency. You should consult your own financial, tax and legal advisors as to the risks involved in an investment in the Euro Notes.

In a lawsuit for payment on the Euro Notes, an investor may bear currency exchange risk.

The Base Indenture, the First Supplemental Indenture and the Notes will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except that the authorization and execution by Banco Santander of the Base Indenture, the First Supplemental Indenture and the Notes, and certain provisions of the Notes, the Base Indenture and the First Supplemental Indenture related to the subordination of the Notes, as well as the price at which Notes can be issued, certain minimum requirements with respect to the conversion price and the legal regime applicable for the exclusion of the pre-emptive rights, shall be governed by and construed in accordance with Spanish law.

Under New York law, a New York state court rendering a judgment on the Euro Notes would be required to render the judgment in euros. However, the judgment would be converted into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate prevailing on the date of entry of the judgment. Consequently, in a lawsuit for payment on the Euro Notes, investors would bear currency exchange risk until a New York state court judgment is entered, which could be a significant amount of time. A federal court sitting in New York with diversity jurisdiction over a dispute arising in connection with the Euro Notes would apply New York law. In courts outside of New York, investors may not be able to obtain a judgment in a currency other than U.S. dollars. For example, a judgment for money in an action based on the Euro Notes in many other U.S. federal or state courts ordinarily would be enforced in the United States only in U.S. dollars. The date used to determine the rate of conversion of euro into U.S. dollars would depend upon various factors, including which court renders the judgment and when the judgment is rendered.

The Euro Notes permit us to make payments in U.S. dollars if we are unable to pay in euro, and market perceptions concerning the instability of the euro could adversely affect the value of the Euro Notes.

If, as described under “Currency Conversion,” the euro is unavailable to us due to circumstances beyond our control or if the euro is no longer being used by the then Member States of the European Monetary Union that have adopted the euro as their currency or for the settlement of transactions by public institutions of or within the international banking community, then all payments in respect of the Euro Notes will be made in U.S. dollars until the euro is again available to us and so used. In such circumstances, the amount payable on any date in euro will be calculated and converted into U.S. dollars on the basis of the then most recently available market

 

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exchange rate for euro, as determined by us in our sole discretion. Any payment in respect of the Euro Notes so made in U.S. dollars will not constitute an event of default or Enforcement Event under the Euro Notes or the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture. This exchange rate may be materially less favorable than the rate in effect at the time the Euro Notes were issued or as would be determined by applicable law. Such developments, or market perceptions concerning these and related issues, could materially adversely affect the value of the Euro Notes and you may lose a significant amount of your investment in the Euro Notes.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

The net proceeds from the sale of the Notes, less the underwriting discount stated on the cover of this prospectus supplement and expenses payable by us (estimated to be $1 million) are estimated to be $999.4 million with respect to the Dollar Notes and €749.6 million with respect to the Euro Notes. These proceeds will be used for general corporate purposes.

 

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CURRENCY CONVERSION

With respect to the Dollar Notes, the Liquidation Preference, if any, and any Distributions and Additional Amounts will be payable in U.S. dollars. With respect to the Euro Notes, the Liquidation Preference, if any, and any Distributions and Additional Amounts will be payable in euro. Investors will be subject to foreign exchange risks as to payments of Distributions, Liquidation Preference and any Additional Amounts in respect to the Euro Notes that may have important economic and tax consequences to them. See “Risk Factors.” You should consult your own financial and legal advisors as to the risks involved in an investment in the notes.

If the euro is unavailable to us due to circumstances beyond our control or if the euro is no longer being used by the then member states of the European Monetary Union that have adopted the euro as their currency or for the settlement of transactions by public institutions of or within the international banking community, then all payments in respect of the Euro Notes will be made in U.S. dollars until the euro is again available to us and so used. In such circumstances, the amount payable on any date in euro will be calculated and converted into U.S. dollars on the basis of the then most recently available market exchange rate for euro, as determined by us in our sole discretion. Any payment in respect of the Euro Notes so made in U.S. dollars will not constitute an event of default or Enforcement Event under the Euro Notes or the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture.

Investors will be subject to foreign exchange risks as to payments of principal and interest, including payments made upon any redemption of the notes, that may have important economic and tax consequences to them. See “Risk Factors.”

As of May 6, 2021, the euro/U.S. dollar rate of exchange as reported by the European Central Bank was €1.00/U.S.$1.2060.

 

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CAPITALIZATION OF THE GROUP

The following table sets forth the Group’s indebtedness and capitalization as of March 31, 2021, included in the Group’s unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial statements as of March 31, 2021, in accordance with IFRS-IASB on an actual basis and as adjusted to reflect the issuance of the Notes (converting the aggregate Liquidation Preference of the Dollar Notes into euros at the European Central Bank reference rate for euro at March 31, 2021, of $1.1725 per €1.00).

This table should be read in conjunction with the Group’s unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial statements as of March 31, 2021, the notes related thereto and the financial and operating data incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

 

     As of March 31, 2021  
     Actual      As Adjusted(1)  
     (in millions of euros)  

Outstanding indebtedness

     

Short-term indebtedness

     26,426        26,426  

Long-term indebtedness

     218,876        220,479  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total indebtedness(2)

     245,302        246,905  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Capitalization

     

Capital, stated value €0.50 each share

     8,670        8,670  

Own Shares

     (81      (81

Reserves(3)

     105,422        105,422  

Dividends

     0        0  

Other comprehensive income

     (33,153      (33,153

Non-controlling interests

     10,221        10,221  

Net income attributed to shareholders of the Parent

     1,608        1,608  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total equity

     92,687        92,687  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total capitalization and indebtedness

     337,989        339,592  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1)

As adjusted to reflect this offering.

(2)

Since March 31, 2021, there have not been any material changes to the capitalization and indebtedness of the Group other than the incurrence of €1.383 billon of additional debt.

(3)

Reserves include share premium, equity instruments issued other than capital, other equity, accumulated retained earnings and other reserves.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF THE NOTES

The following is a summary of certain terms of the Notes. It supplements the description of the general terms of the debt securities of any series we may issue contained in the accompanying prospectus under the heading “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities.” If there is any inconsistency between the following summary and the description in the accompanying prospectus, the following summary governs.

The Notes

Dollar Notes

The Dollar Notes will be issued in an initial aggregate Liquidation Preference (as defined below) of $1,000,000,000. The Dollar Notes will accrue non-cumulative cash distributions (“Dollar Notes Distributions”) (i) in respect of the period from (and including) May 12, 2021 (the “Closing Date”) to (but excluding) May 12, 2027 (six years after the Closing Date) (the “Dollar Notes First Reset Date”) at the rate of 4.750% per annum, and (ii) in respect of each period from (and including) the Dollar Notes First Reset Date and every fifth anniversary thereof (each a “Dollar Notes Reset Date”) to (but excluding) the next succeeding Dollar Notes Reset Date (each such period, a “Dollar Notes Reset Period”), at the rate per annum equal to the aggregate of 3.753% per annum (the “Dollar Notes Initial Margin”) and the 5-year UST for the relevant Dollar Notes Reset Period, with such rate per annum converted to a quarterly rate in accordance with market convention. Book-entry interests in the Dollar Notes will be issued in denominations of $200,000 and integral multiples of $200,000 in excess thereof.

Euro Notes

The Euro Notes will be issued in an initial aggregate Liquidation Preference of €750,000,000. The Euro Notes will accrue non-cumulative cash distributions (“Euro Notes Distributions” and, together with the Dollar Notes Distributions, the “Distributions”) (i) in respect of the period from (and including) the Closing Date to (but excluding) May 12, 2028 (seven years after the Closing Date) (the “Euro Notes First Reset Date”) at the rate of 4.125% per annum, and (ii) in respect of each period from (and including) the Euro Notes First Reset Date and every fifth anniversary thereof (each a “Euro Notes Reset Date”) to (but excluding) the next succeeding Euro Notes Reset Date (each such period, a “Euro Notes Reset Period”), at the rate per annum equal to the aggregate of 4.311% per annum (the “Euro Notes Initial Margin”) and the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate for the relevant Euro Notes Reset Period, with such rate per annum converted to a quarterly rate in accordance with market convention. Book-entry interests in the Euro Notes will be issued in denominations of €200,000 and integral multiples of €200,000 in excess thereof.

General

Distributions will be payable quarterly in arrears on February 12, May 12, August 12 and November 12 in each year (each a “Distribution Payment Date”), commencing on August 12, 2021. Distributions will be paid to holders of record of the relevant Notes in respect of the Liquidation Preference thereof outstanding as of the close of business 15 calendar days preceding the relevant Distribution Payment Date, whether or not a Business Day.

Distributions on the Dollar Notes will be calculated on the basis of a 360-day year consisting of twelve 30-day months and, in the case of an incomplete month, on the basis of the actual number of days elapsed in such month. Distributions on the Euro Notes will be calculated on the basis of the actual number of days elapsed and the actual number of days in the year. If any scheduled Distribution Payment Date is not a Business Day, we will pay Distributions on the next Business Day, but Distributions on that payment will not accrue during the period from and after the scheduled Distribution Payment Date. If the date of redemption or repayment is not a Business Day, we may pay Distributions and the Liquidation Preference on the next succeeding Business Day, but Distributions on that payment will not accrue during the period from and after the date of redemption or repayment.

The Notes will constitute separate series of contingent convertible preferred securities issued under an indenture to be dated as of the Closing Date (the “Base Indenture”) between us as Issuer and The Bank of New

 

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York Mellon, London Branch, as trustee (the “Trustee”), as supplemented by a first supplemental indenture with respect to the Dollar Notes to be dated as of the Closing Date (the “First Supplemental Indenture”) between Banco Santander as Issuer and the Trustee.

As the Notes are perpetual and have no fixed maturity or fixed redemption date, unless the Notes are redeemed, a holder may not receive any payments with respect to the Notes as Banco Santander is not required to pay the Liquidation Preference of the Notes at any time prior to any voluntary or involuntary liquidation of Banco Santander (a “Liquidation Event”) and Banco Santander will have the sole and absolute discretion at all times and for any reason to cancel in whole or in part any Distribution.

Banco Santander intends that the Notes qualify as Additional Tier 1 Capital of Banco Santander and the Group pursuant to Applicable Banking Regulations.

With respect to the Notes, the term “Business Day” means any day, other than Saturday or Sunday, that is neither a legal holiday nor a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close in the City of New York, London, Madrid or any other place or places where the Liquidation Preference of, or any Distributions on, or any Additional Amounts with respect to the Notes are payable.

The principal corporate trust office of the Trustee in London, United Kingdom, is designated as the principal paying agent. We may at any time designate additional paying agents or rescind the designation of paying agents or approve a change in the office through which any paying agent acts.

We will issue the Notes in fully registered form.

The Dollar Notes will be represented by one or more global securities deposited with a custodian for, and registered in the name of a nominee of, the book-entry facilities of The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”). You may hold beneficial interests in the Dollar Notes through DTC and its direct and indirect participants, including Clearstream Banking, société anonyme (“Clearstream Luxembourg”) and Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V. (“Euroclear”). The Euro Notes will be represented by one or more global notes deposited with a common depositary on behalf of Euroclear and Clearstream Luxembourg. The Underwriters expect to deliver the (a) Dollar Notes to purchasers through DTC for credit to accounts of direct and indirect participants of DTC, including Clearstream Luxembourg and Euroclear and (b) Euro Notes to purchasers through Clearstream Luxembourg and Euroclear, in each case on or about May 12, 2021. For a more detailed summary of the form of the Notes and settlement and clearance arrangements, you should read “Description of Certain Provisions Relating to the Debt Securities and Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Form of Securities; Book-Entry System” in the accompanying prospectus.

Definitive securities will only be issued in limited circumstances described under “Description of Certain Provisions Relating to the Debt Securities and Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Form of Securities; Book-Entry System” in the accompanying prospectus.

Payment of the Liquidation Preference of and Distributions on the Notes, so long as the Notes are represented by global securities, will be made in immediately available funds. Beneficial interests in the Dollar Notes will trade in the same-day funds settlement system of DTC, and secondary market trading activity in such interests will therefore settle in same-day funds. The Euro Notes will be credited to the securities custody accounts of Euroclear and Clearstream Luxembourg participants on the business day following the settlement date, for value on the settlement date. Secondary market trading for the Euro Notes will be settled using procedures applicable to conventional Eurobonds in registered form for securities. See “Description of Certain Provisions Relating to the Debt Securities and Contingent Convertible Capital Securities” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

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“Additional Tier 1 Capital” means at any time, with respect to Banco Santander or the Group, as the case may be, the additional Tier 1 capital of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, as calculated by Banco Santander in accordance with Chapter 3 (Additional Tier 1 Capital) of Title I (Elements of own funds) of Part Two (Own Funds and Eligible Liabilities) of the CRR and/or Applicable Banking Regulations at such time, including any applicable transitional, phasing in or similar provisions.

“Additional Tier 1 Instrument” means any subordinated obligation (crédito subordinado) of Banco Santander according to Article 281.1.2º of the Spanish Insolvency Law, qualifying as an additional tier 1 instrument (instrumento de capital adicional de nivel 1) under Additional Provision 14.3º(c) of Law 11/2015.

“Applicable Banking Regulations” means at any time the laws, regulations, requirements, guidelines and policies relating to capital adequacy, resolution and/or solvency including, among others, those giving effect to the MREL and the TLAC or any equivalent or successor principles, then applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group including, without limitation to the generality of the foregoing, the CRD IV, the BRRD, the SRM Regulation and those regulations, requirements, guidelines and policies relating to capital adequacy, resolution and/or solvency of the relevant Regulator then applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group including, among others, those giving effect to the MREL and the TLAC or any equivalent or successor principles, in each case to the extent then in effect in the Kingdom of Spain (whether or not such regulations requirements, guidelines or policies have the force of law and whether or not they are applied generally or specifically to Banco Santander and/or the Group).

“BRRD” means Directive 2014/59/EU of 15 May establishing the framework for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms or such other directive as may amend or come into effect in place thereof (including the BRRD II), as implemented into law by Law 11/2015 and RD 1012/2015, as amended or replaced from time to time and including any other relevant implementing regulatory provisions.

“BRRD II” means Directive (EU) 2019/879 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2019 amending Directive 2014/59/EU as regards the loss-absorbing and recapitalisation capacity of credit institutions and investment firms and Directive 98/26/EC.

“CRD IV” means any, or any combination of, the CRD IV Directive, the CRR, and any CRD IV Implementing Measures.

“CRD IV Directive” means Directive 2013/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on access to the activity of credit institutions and the prudential supervision of credit institutions and investment firms, amending Directive 2002/87/EC and repealing Directives 2006/48/EC and 2006/49/EC or such other directive as may come into effect in place thereof, as amended or replaced from time to time (including by the CRD V Directive).

“CRD IV Implementing Measures” means any regulatory capital rules implementing the CRD IV Directive or the CRR which may from time to time be introduced, including, but not limited to, delegated or implementing acts (regulatory technical standards) adopted by the European Commission, national laws and regulations, and regulations and guidelines issued by the relevant Regulator, the European Banking Authority or any other relevant authority, which are applicable to Banco Santander (on a stand alone basis) or the Group (on a consolidated basis) and which prescribe the requirements to be fulfilled by financial instruments for inclusion in the regulatory capital or the minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities, as the case may be, of Banco Santander (on a stand alone basis) or the Group (on a consolidated basis).

“CRD V Directive” means Directive (EU) 2019/878 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2019 amending Directive 2013/36/EU as regards exempted entities, financial holding companies, mixed financial holding companies, remuneration, supervisory measures and powers and capital conservation measures.

 

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“CRR” means Regulation (EU) No. 575/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the prudential requirements for credit institutions and investment firms and amending Regulation (EU) No. 648/2012 or such other regulation as may come into effect in place thereof, as amended from time to time (including by CRR II).

“CRR II” means Regulation (EU) 2019/876 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2019 amending Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 as regards the leverage ratio, the net stable funding ratio, requirements for own funds and eligible liabilities, counterparty credit risk, market risk, exposures to central counterparties, exposures to collective investment undertakings, large exposures, reporting and disclosure requirements, and Regulation (EU) No 648/2012.

“Law 11/2015” means Law 11/2015 of 18 June, on recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms (Ley 11/2015, de 18 de junio, de recuperación y resolución de entidades de crédito y empresas de servicios de inversión) as amended or replaced from time to time.

“MREL” means the “minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities” for credit institutions under the BRRD, set in accordance with Article 45 of the BRRD (as transposed in the Kingdom of Spain), Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/1450 of 23 May 2016, supplementing Directive 2014/59/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to regulatory technical standards specifying the criteria relating to the methodology for setting the minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities and any other Applicable Banking Regulations.

“Regulator” means the European Central Bank, the Bank of Spain, the Relevant Resolution Authority or such other or successor authority exercising primary bank supervisory authority or the role of primary bank resolution authority, in each case with respect to prudential matters in relation to Banco Santander and/or the Group.

“RD 1012/2015” means Royal Decree 1012/2015, of 6 November developing Law 11/2015, as amended or superseded from time to time.

“Spanish Insolvency Law” means the restated text of the Spanish Insolvency Law (Ley Concursal) approved by the Royal Decree-Legislative 1/2020, of 5 May, as amended from time to time.

“SRM Regulation” means Regulation (EU) No. 806/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 July 2014, establishing uniform rules and a uniform procedure for the resolution of credit institutions and certain investment firms in the framework of the Single Resolution Mechanism and the Single Resolution Fund and amending Regulation (EU) No. 1093/2010, as amended or replaced from time to time (including by the SRM Regulation II).

“SRM Regulation II” means Regulation (EU) 2019/877 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2019 amending Regulation (EU) No 806/2014 as regards the loss-absorbing and recapitalization capacity of credit institutions and investment firms.

“TLAC” means the “total loss-absorbing capacity” requirement for global systemically important institutions under the CRR, set in accordance with Article 92a of the CRR and any other Applicable Banking Regulations.

Payments

All payments in respect of the Notes will be subject in all cases to any fiscal or other laws and regulations applicable thereto in the place of payment (including FATCA, as defined in the accompanying prospectus, any regulations or agreements thereunder, any official interpretation thereof, any intergovernmental agreements with

 

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respect thereto, or any law implementing an intergovernmental agreement or any regulations or official interpretations relating thereto), but without prejudice to the provisions of “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Additional Amounts” in the accompanying prospectus.

Initial holders will be required to pay for the Euro Notes in euro, and all payments in respect of the Euro Notes, will be payable in euro. If, on or after the issuance of the Euro Notes, the euro is unavailable to us due to circumstances beyond our control or if the euro is no longer being used by the then member states of the European Monetary Union that have adopted the euro as their currency or for the settlement of transactions by public institutions of or within the international banking community, then all payments in respect of the Euro Notes will be made in U.S. dollars until the euro is again available to us and so used. In such circumstances, the amount payable on any date in euro will be calculated and converted into U.S. dollars on the basis of the then most recently available market exchange rate for euro, as determined by us in our sole discretion. Any payment in respect of the Euro Notes so made in U.S. dollars will not constitute an event of default or Enforcement Event under the Euro Notes or the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture. Neither the Trustee, the Principal Paying Agent, the other Paying and Conversion Agents nor the Calculation Agent shall have any responsibility for any calculation or conversion in connection with the foregoing. Holders of Euro Notes with a home currency other than euro will be subject to foreign exchange risks as to payments in respect of the Euro Notes that may have important economic and tax consequences to them. See “Risk Factors.”

Distributions

Dollar Notes

Dollar Notes Distributions will accrue:

 

  (a)

in respect of the period from (and including) the Closing Date to (but excluding) the Dollar Notes First Reset Date at the rate of 4.750% per annum; and

 

  (b)

in respect of each Dollar Notes Reset Period, at the rate per annum equal to the aggregate of the Dollar Notes Initial Margin and the 5-year UST (expressed as an annual rate) for such Dollar Notes Reset Period, such aggregate converted to a quarterly rate in accordance with market convention (rounded to four decimal places, with 0.00005 rounded down), all as determined by the Calculation Agent on the relevant Reset Determination Date.

Euro Notes

Euro Notes Distributions will accrue:

 

  (a)

in respect of the period from (and including) the Closing Date to (but excluding) the Euro Notes First Reset Date at the rate of 4.125% per annum; and

 

  (b)

in respect of each Euro Notes Reset Period, at the rate per annum equal to the aggregate of the Euro Notes Initial Margin and the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate (expressed as an annual rate) for such Euro Notes Reset Period, such aggregate converted to a quarterly rate in accordance with market convention (rounded to four decimal places, with 0.00005 rounded down), all as determined by the Calculation Agent on the relevant Reset Determination Date.

The “Reset Determination Date” shall mean, in relation to the Dollar Notes Reset Date or the Euro Notes Reset Date (each a “Reset Date”), the second Business Day immediately preceding such Reset Date.

General

Subject as provided below, Distributions will be payable quarterly in arrears on each Distribution Payment Date.

 

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If a Distribution is required to be paid in respect of a Note on any other date, it shall be calculated by the Calculation Agent by applying the Distribution Rate to the Liquidation Preference in respect of each Note, multiplying the product by (i) the actual number of days in the period from (and including) the date from which Distributions began to accrue (the “Accrual Date”) to (but excluding) the date on which Distributions fall due divided by (ii) the actual number of days from (and including) the Accrual Date to (but excluding) the next following Distribution Payment Date multiplied by four, and rounding the resulting figure to the nearest cent (half a cent being rounded upwards).

The Calculation Agent will at or as soon as practicable after the relevant time on each Reset Determination Date at which the Distribution Rate is to be determined, determine the Distribution Rate for the relevant Reset Period. The Calculation Agent will cause the Distribution Rate for each Reset Period to be notified to Banco Santander in accordance with “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Notices” in the accompanying prospectus as soon as possible after its determination but in no event later than the fourth (4th) Business Day thereafter.

For the avoidance of doubt, the Calculation Agent shall not be responsible to Banco Santander, holders of the Notes or any third party as a result of the Calculation Agent having relied upon any quotation, ratio or other information provided to it by any person for the purposes of making any determination hereunder, which subsequently may be found to be incorrect or inaccurate in any way or for any losses arising by virtue thereof.

All certificates, communications, opinions, determinations, calculations, quotations and decisions given, expressed, made or obtained for the purposes of the provisions of this section by the Calculation Agent, shall (in the absence of willful default, bad faith or manifest error) be binding on Banco Santander, the Principal Paying Agent, the Trustee, the other Paying and Conversion Agents and all holders of Notes, and (in the absence of willful default, bad faith or manifest error) no liability to Banco Santander or the holders of the Notes shall attach to the Calculation Agent in connection with the exercise or non-exercise by it of its powers, duties and discretion pursuant to such provisions.

“5-year Mid-Swap Rate Quotations” means the arithmetic mean of the bid and offered rates for the annual fixed leg (calculated on a 30/360 day count basis) of a fixed-for-floating euro interest rate swap transaction which (a) has a term of 5 years commencing on the relevant Euro Notes Reset Date; and (b) is in an amount that is representative for a single transaction in the relevant market at the relevant time with an acknowledged dealer of good credit in the swap market; where the floating leg (calculated on an Actual/360 day count basis) is equivalent to six-month EURIBOR.

“5-year Mid-Swap Rate” means, in relation to a Euro Notes Reset Date and the Euro Notes Reset Period commencing on that Euro Notes Reset Date, (a) the rate for the Euro Notes Reset Date of the annual mid-swap rate for euro swap transactions maturing on the last day of such Euro Notes Reset Period, expressed as a percentage, which appears on the Screen Page under the heading “EURIBOR BASIS—EUR” and above the caption “11AM FRANKFURT” as of 11.00 a.m. (CET) on the Reset Determination Date; or (b) if such rate does not appear on the Screen Page at such time on such Reset Determination Date, the Reset Reference Bank Rate for such Euro Notes Reset Period unless a Benchmark Event has occurred, in which case the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate shall be determined as set forth in “Description of the Notes—Payments—Distributions—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate”.

“5-year UST” means, in relation to a Dollar Notes Reset Date and the Dollar Notes Reset Period commencing on that Dollar Notes Reset Date, an interest rate expressed as a percentage determined by the Calculation Agent to be the per annum rate equal to the yield to maturity for U.S. Treasury securities with a maturity of five years as published in the most recent H.15.

“Benchmark Event” means, as determined by Banco Santander, (i) the Original Reference Rate ceasing to exist or ceasing to be published for a period of at least 5 Business Days; or (ii) a public statement by the

 

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administrator of the Original Reference Rate that it has ceased or will cease publishing the Original Reference Rate permanently or indefinitely (in circumstances where no successor administrator has been appointed that will continue publication of the Original Reference Rate); or (iii) a public statement by the supervisor of the administrator of the Original Reference Rate, that the Original Reference Rate has been or will be permanently or indefinitely discontinued; or (iv) a public statement by the supervisor of the administrator of the Original Reference Rate as a consequence of which the Original Reference Rate will be prohibited from being used either generally, or in respect of the Euro Notes; or (v) it has become unlawful for any Calculation Agent, Paying and Conversion Agent, Banco Santander or other party to calculate any payments due to be made to any holder of Euro Notes using the Original Reference Rate; provided that in the case of sub-paragraphs (ii), (iii) and (iv), the Benchmark Event shall occur on the date of the cessation of publication of the Original Reference Rate, the discontinuation of the Original Reference Rate, or the prohibition of use of the Original Reference Rate, as the case may be, and not the date of the relevant public statement.

“Calculation Agent” means the Trustee or such other person authorized by Banco Santander as the party responsible for calculating the Distributions and/or such other amount(s) from time to time in relation to the Notes. The Trustee will initially act as the Calculation Agent in respect of the Notes.

“Distribution Rate” means the rate at which the Notes accrue Distributions in accordance with this section “—Distributions.

“EU Benchmarks Regulation” means Article 36 of Regulation (EU) No. 2016/1011.

“EURIBOR” means (a) the euro inter-bank offered rate administered by the Banking Federation of the European Union (or any other person which takes over the administration of that rate) for the relevant period which is published on the relevant Screen Page as of 11.00 a.m. (CET) on the Reset Determination Date for the relevant Euro Notes Reset Date, or (b) (if no such rate is available) the arithmetic mean (rounded if necessary to the fifth decimal place with 0.000005 being rounded upwards) of the quotations offered for euro deposits of the relevant maturity by four major banks in the Euro-zone inter-bank market selected by Banco Santander.

“H.15” means the daily statistical release designated as such and published by the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve System under the caption “Treasury constant maturities,” or any successor or replacement publication, as determined by Banco Santander, that establishes yield on actively traded U.S. Treasury securities adjusted to constant maturity, and “most recent H.15” means, in respect of any Reset Period, the H.15 which includes a yield to maturity for U.S. Treasury securities with a maturity of five years published closest in time but prior to the Reset Determination Date.

“Original Reference Rate” means the originally-specified benchmark or screen rate (as applicable) used to determine the Distribution Rate (or any component part thereof) on the Euro Notes.

“Paying and Conversion Agent” means the Principal Paying Agent and any other paying and conversion agent appointed in accordance with the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, and includes any successors thereto appointed from time to time in accordance with the Base Indenture or the First Supplemental Indenture. The Trustee will initially act as the Paying and Conversion Agent in respect of the Notes.

“Principal Paying Agent” means any Person (which may include Banco Santander) authorized by Banco Santander to pay the Liquidation Preference of, or Distributions on, or any Additional Amounts with respect to, the Notes on behalf of Banco Santander. The Trustee will initially act as the Principal Paying Agent in respect of the Notes.

“Reference Banks” means 5 leading swap dealers in the London interbank market as selected by Banco Santander.

 

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“Reset Reference Bank Rate” means, in relation to a Euro Notes Reset Date and the Euro Notes Reset Period commencing on that Euro Notes Reset Date, the percentage determined on the basis of the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate Quotations provided by the Reference Banks at approximately 11.00 a.m. (CET) on the Reset Determination Date for such Euro Notes Reset Date. If three or more quotations are provided, the Reset Reference Bank Rate for such Euro Notes Reset Period will be the percentage reflecting the arithmetic mean of the quotations, eliminating the highest quotation (or, in the event of equality, one of the highest) and the lowest quotation (or, in the event of equality, one of the lowest). If only two quotations are provided, it will be the arithmetic mean of the quotations provided. If only one quotation is provided, it will be the quotation provided. If no quotations are provided, the Reset Reference Bank Rate for the Euro Notes Reset Period will be (i) in the case of each Euro Notes Reset Period other than the Euro Notes Reset Period commencing on the Euro Notes First Reset Date, the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate in respect of the immediately preceding Euro Notes Reset Period or (ii) in the case of the Euro Notes Reset Period commencing on the Euro Notes First Reset Date, -0.283% per annum.

“Screen Page” means the display page on the relevant Reuters information service designated as (a) in the case of the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate, the “ICESWAP2” page or (b) in the case of EURIBOR, the “EURIBOR01” page, or in each case such other page as may replace that page on that information service, or on such other equivalent information service as may be nominated by the person providing or sponsoring such information, for the purpose of displaying equivalent or comparable rates to the 5-year Mid-Swap Rate or EURIBOR, as applicable.

Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate

If at the time of determining the Distribution Rate with respect to the Euro Notes, a Benchmark Event occurs or has occurred, then Banco Santander shall use its reasonable endeavors to appoint an Independent Financial Adviser, as soon as reasonably practicable, with a view to Banco Santander determining a Successor Rate, failing which an Alternative Rate and, in either case, an Adjustment Spread, if any, and any Benchmark Amendments.

An Independent Financial Adviser appointed pursuant to this section “—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate” shall act in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner as an expert. In the absence of bad faith or fraud, the Independent Financial Adviser shall have no liability whatsoever to Banco Santander, the Calculation Agent, the Paying and Conversion Agent, or the holders of the Euro Notes for any advice given to Banco Santander in connection with any determination made by Banco Santander, pursuant to this section “—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate.”

If (i) Banco Santander is unable to appoint an Independent Financial Adviser; and/or (ii) Banco Santander fails to determine a Successor Rate or, failing which, an Alternative Rate in accordance with this section “—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate” prior to the relevant Reset Determination Date, the Distribution Rate applicable to the next succeeding Euro Notes Reset Period shall be equal to the Distribution Rate last determined in relation to the Euro Notes in respect of the immediately preceding Euro Notes Reset Period. If Banco Santander fails to make such a determination prior to the first Reset Determination Date, the Distribution Rate shall be 4.125% per annum. For the avoidance of doubt, the contents of this section “—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate” shall apply to the relevant next succeeding Euro Notes Reset Period only and any subsequent Euro Notes Reset Periods are subject to the subsequent operation of, and to adjustment as provided in, this section “—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate.”

If Banco Santander, following consultation with the Independent Financial Adviser and acting in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner, determines that:

 

  (i)

there is a Successor Rate, then such Successor Rate and the applicable Adjustment Spread shall subsequently be used in place of the Original Reference Rate to determine the Distribution Rate (or the relevant component part thereof), as applicable, for all future Distributions with respect to the Euro Notes (subject to the operation of this section “—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate”); or

 

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  (ii)

there is no Successor Rate but that there is an Alternative Rate, then such Alternative Rate and the applicable Adjustment Spread shall subsequently be used in place of the Original Reference Rate to determine the Distribution Rate (or the relevant component part thereof), as applicable, for all future Distributions with respect to the Euro Notes (subject to the operation of this section “—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate”).

If Banco Santander, following consultation with the Independent Financial Adviser and acting in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner, determines (i) that an Adjustment Spread is required to be applied to the Successor Rate or the Alternative Rate (as the case may be) and (ii) the quantum of, or a formula or methodology for determining, such Adjustment Spread, then such Adjustment Spread shall be applied to the Successor Rate or the Alternative Rate (as the case may be). If Banco Santander, following consultation with the Independent Financial Adviser and acting in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner, is unable to determine the quantum of, or a formula or methodology for determining, such Adjustment Spread, then the Successor Rate or Alternative Rate (as applicable) will apply without an Adjustment Spread.

If any Successor Rate, Alternative Rate or Adjustment Spread is determined in accordance with this section “—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate” and Banco Santander, following consultation with the Independent Financial Adviser and acting in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner, determines (i) that amendments to the terms of the Euro Notes are necessary to ensure the proper operation of such Successor Rate, Alternative Rate and/or Adjustment Spread (such amendments, the “Benchmark Amendments”) and (ii) the terms of the Benchmark Amendments, then Banco Santander shall, as permitted under the Base Indenture as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture and subject to giving notice thereof as provided below, without any requirement for the consent or approval of holders of the Euro Notes, vary the terms of the Euro Notes to give effect to such Benchmark Amendments with effect from the date specified in such notice.

In connection with any such variation in accordance with this section “—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate,” Banco Santander shall comply with the rules of any stock exchange on which the Euro Notes are for the time being listed or admitted to trading.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section “—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate,” no Successor Rate or Alternative Rate will be adopted, nor any Adjustment Spread applied, nor will any Benchmark Amendments be made, if and to the extent that, in the determination of Banco Santander, the same could reasonably be expected to prejudice the qualification of the Euro Notes as Tier 1 Capital.

Any Successor Rate, Alternative Rate, Adjustment Spread and the specific terms of any Benchmark Amendments, determined under this section “—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate” will be notified promptly by Banco Santander to the Trustee, the Calculation Agent, the Paying and Conversion Agent and to holders of Euro Notes in accordance with “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Notices” in the accompanying prospectus. Such notice shall be irrevocable and shall specify the effective date of the Benchmark Amendments, if any.

Without prejudice to the obligations of Banco Santander under this section “—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate,” the Original Reference Rate and the fallback provisions otherwise provided for herein will continue to apply unless and until a Benchmark Event has occurred.

“Adjustment Spread” means either (a) a spread (which may be positive, negative or zero), or (b) the formula or methodology for calculating a spread, in each case to be applied to the Successor Rate or the Alternative Rate (as the case may be) and is the spread, formula or methodology which:

 

  (i)

in the case of a Successor Rate, is formally recommended in relation to the replacement of the Original Reference Rate with the Successor Rate by any Relevant Nominating Body; or

 

  (ii)

if no such recommendation in item (i) above has been made, or in the case of an Alternative Rate, Banco Santander, following consultation with the Independent Adviser and acting in good faith and in

 

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  a commercially reasonable manner, determines, is customarily applied to the relevant Successor Rate or the Alternative Rate (as the case may be) in international debt capital markets transactions to produce an industry-accepted replacement rate for the Original Reference Rate; or

 

  (iii)

if Banco Santander determines that no such spread in item (ii) above is customarily applied, Banco Santander, following consultation with the Independent Financial Adviser and acting in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner, determines, is recognized or acknowledged as being the industry standard for over-the-counter derivative transactions which reference the Original Reference Rate, where such rate has been replaced by the Successor Rate or the Alternative Rate (as the case may be); or

 

  (iv)

if Banco Santander determines that no such industry standard in item (iii) above is recognized or acknowledged, Banco Santander, in its discretion, following consultation with the Independent Financial Adviser and acting in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner, determines to be appropriate having regard to the objective, so far as reasonably practicable in the circumstances and solely for the purposes of this sub-paragraph (iv), of reducing any economic prejudice or benefit (as the case may be) to holders of Euro Notes as a result of the replacement of the Original Reference Rate.

“Alternative Rate” means an alternative benchmark or screen rate which Banco Santander following consultation with the Independent Financial Adviser and acting in good faith and in a commercially reasonable manner, determines in accordance with this section “—Euro Notes Successor Rate and Alternative Rate” is customary in market usage in the international debt capital markets for the purposes of determining rates of interest (or the relevant component part thereof) in euro.

“Relevant Nominating Body” means, in respect of a benchmark or screen rate (as applicable), (i) the central bank for the currency to which the benchmark or screen rate (as applicable) relates, or any central bank or other supervisory authority which is responsible for supervising the administrator of the benchmark or screen rate (as applicable); or (ii) any working group or committee sponsored by, chaired or co-chaired by or constituted at the request of (a) the central bank for the currency to which the benchmark or screen rate (as applicable) relates, (b) any central bank or other supervisory authority which is responsible for supervising the administrator of the benchmark or screen rate (as applicable), (c) a group of the aforementioned central banks or other supervisory authorities or (d) the Financial Stability Board or any part thereof.

“Successor Rate” means a successor to or replacement of the Original Reference Rate which is formally recommended by any Relevant Nominating Body.

Distributions Discretionary

Banco Santander may elect, in its sole and absolute discretion, to cancel the payment of any Distribution in whole or in part at any time that it deems necessary or desirable, and for any reason.

Distributions on the Notes will be non-cumulative. Accordingly, if any Distribution (or part thereof) is not paid in respect of the Notes of a series as a result of any election of Banco Santander to cancel such Distribution pursuant this section “—Distributions Discretionary” or the limitations on payment set out in “—Restrictions on Payments” below then the right of the holders of the relevant Notes to receive the relevant Distribution (or part thereof) in respect of the relevant Distribution Period will be extinguished and Banco Santander will have no obligation to pay such Distribution (or part thereof) accrued for such Distribution Period or to pay any interest thereon, whether or not Distributions on the relevant Notes are paid in respect of any future Distribution Period.

No such election to cancel the payment of any Distribution (or part thereof) or non-payment of any Distribution (or part thereof) as a result of the limitations on payment set out in “—Restrictions on Payments” below will constitute an event of default, any breach of any obligation of Banco Santander under the Notes of the relevant series or an Enforcement Event or the occurrence of any event related to the insolvency of Banco

 

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Santander or entitle holders to take any action to cause such Distribution to be paid or the dissolution, liquidation or winding-up of Banco Santander or in any way limit or restrict Banco Santander from making any distribution or equivalent payment in connection with any instrument ranking junior to the Notes (including, without limitation, any CET1 Capital of Banco Santander or the Group) or in respect of any other Parity Security or other security, except to the extent Applicable Banking Regulations otherwise provide.

“CET1 Capital” means at any time, the Common Equity Tier 1 Capital of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, as calculated in accordance with Chapter 2 (Common Equity Tier 1 Capital) of Title I (Elements of own funds) of Part Two (Own Funds and Eligible Liabilities) of the CRR and/or Applicable Banking Regulations at such time, including any applicable transitional, phasing in or similar provisions.

“CET1 ratio” means, at any time, with respect to Banco Santander or the Group, as the case may be, the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the aggregate amount (in euro or such other primary currency used in the presentation of the Group’s accounts from time to time) of the CET1 Capital of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, at such time divided by the Risk Weighted Assets Amount of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, at such time.

“Distribution Period” means the period from and including one Distribution Payment Date (or, in the case of the first Distribution Period, the Closing Date) to but excluding the next Distribution Payment Date.

Each of the following events described in clauses (i), (ii) and (iii) is an “Enforcement Event” with respect to the Notes of a series:

 

  (i)

non-payment of Redemption Price when due as further described under “—Redemption and Purchase—Non-payment of Redemption Price”;

 

  (ii)

the breach of any term, obligation or condition binding on Banco Santander under the relevant Notes or the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture (other than any of Banco Santander’s payment obligations under or arising from the relevant Notes or the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, including payment of any Liquidation Preference or Distributions, including any damages awarded for breach of any obligations) (a “Performance Obligation”); or

 

  (iii)

the occurrence of a Liquidation Event prior to the occurrence of a Trigger Event.

“Parity Securities” means any preferred securities (participaciones preferentes) issued under Law 13/1985 and/or Royal Decree—Law 14/2013 of 29 November (“RD-L 14/2013”) and/or Law 10/2014 and/or under the CRR from time to time by Banco Santander or by any Subsidiary and which are guaranteed by Banco Santander or any preferential participations, preferential shares or preference shares (acciones preferentes) ranking pari passu with any preferred securities (participaciones preferentes) issued from time to time by Banco Santander or by any Subsidiary and which are guaranteed by Banco Santander or any other instrument issued or guaranteed by Banco Santander ranking pari passu with the Notes of the relevant series.

“Risk Weighted Assets Amount” means at any time, with respect to Banco Santander or the Group, as the case may be, the aggregate amount (in euro or such other primary currency used in the presentation of the Group’s accounts from time to time) of the risk weighted assets of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, calculated in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations at such time.

“Subsidiary” means any entity over which Banco Santander may have, directly or indirectly, control in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations.

A “Trigger Event” shall occur if, at any time, the CET1 ratio of Banco Santander or the Group calculated in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations is less than 5.125%, as determined by Banco Santander or the Regulator.

 

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Restrictions on Payments

Payments of Distributions in any financial year of Banco Santander shall be made only out of Available Distributable Items. To the extent that (i) Banco Santander has insufficient Available Distributable Items to make Distributions on the Notes of a series scheduled for payment in the then current financial year and any equivalent payments scheduled to be made in the then current financial year in respect of any other Parity Securities or CET1 Capital securities then outstanding to the extent permitted by the Applicable Banking Regulations, in each case excluding any portion of such payments already accounted for in determining the Available Distributable Items, and/or (ii) the relevant Regulator in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations, requires Banco Santander to cancel the relevant Distribution in whole or in part; then Banco Santander will, without prejudice to the right above to cancel at its discretion the payment of any such Distributions on the Notes of the relevant series at any time, make partial or, as the case may be, no payment of the relevant Distribution on the Notes of the relevant series.

No Distribution will be made on the Notes until the Maximum Distributable Amount (if required) is calculated and if and to the extent that such payment would cause the Maximum Distributable Amount (if any) then applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group to be exceeded. No payment will be made on the Notes (whether by way of a repayment of the Liquidation Preference, the payment of any Distribution or otherwise) if and to the extent that such payment would cause a breach of any regulatory restriction or prohibition on payments on Additional Tier 1 Instruments pursuant to Applicable Banking Regulations (including, without limitation, any such restriction or prohibition relating to any Maximum Distributable Amount applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group).

“Available Distributable Items” means, in respect of the payment of a Distribution at any time, those profits and reserves (if any) of Banco Santander which are available, in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations for the payment of such Distribution.

“Maximum Distributable Amount” means any maximum distributable amount applicable to Banco Santander or the Group required to be calculated in accordance with (a) Article 48 of Law 10/2014 and any provision implementing such article, each interpreted in light of Article 141 of the CRD IV Directive, (b) Article 16 bis of Law 11/2015 and any provision implementing such article, each interpreted in light of Article 16a of the BRRD II and/or (c) Applicable Banking Regulations.

Agreement to Distribution Cancellation

By acquiring Notes, holders and beneficial owners of the Notes acknowledge and agree that:

(a) Distributions are payable solely at Banco Santander’s discretion, and no amount of Distribution shall become or remain due and payable in respect of the relevant Distribution Period to the extent that it has been cancelled by Banco Santander at Banco Santander’s sole discretion and/or deemed cancelled as a result of our having insufficient Available Distributable Items or as a result of the relevant Regulator requiring Banco Santander to cancel the Distributions or as a result of exceeding the Maximum Distributable Amount (if any) then applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group; and

(b) a cancellation or deemed cancellation of Distributions (in each case, in whole or in part) in accordance with the terms of the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, and the Notes of the relevant series shall not constitute an Enforcement Event or other default under the terms of the Notes of the relevant series or the Base Indenture as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture.

Distributions will only be due and payable on a Distribution Payment Date to the extent they are not cancelled or deemed cancelled previously or thereafter in accordance with the provisions described under this section “—Distributions” and “—Conversion Upon Trigger Event” below and under “Description of Contingent

 

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Convertible Capital Securities—Liquidation Distribution” in the accompanying prospectus. Any Distributions cancelled or deemed cancelled (in each case, in whole or in part) in the circumstances described herein shall not be due and shall not accumulate or be payable at any time thereafter, and holders of the Notes of the relevant series shall have no rights thereto or to receive any additional Distributions or compensation as a result of such cancellation or deemed cancellation.

Notice of Distribution Cancellation

If practicable, Banco Santander will provide notice of any cancellation or deemed cancellation of Distributions (in each case, in whole or in part) to the holders of the Notes of the relevant series through the relevant Clearing System (or, if the Notes of the relevant series are held in definitive form, to the holders of the Notes of such series directly at their addresses shown on the register for the Notes of such series) and to the Trustee directly on or prior to the relevant Distribution Payment Date. Failure to provide such notice will have no impact on the effectiveness of, or otherwise invalidate, any such cancellation or deemed cancellation of Distributions (and accordingly, such Distributions will not be due and payable), or give the holders of the Notes of the relevant series any rights as a result of such failure.

“Clearing System” means DTC or any of the European Clearing Systems, as applicable.

“European Clearing System” means Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V. (“Euroclear Bank”), as operator of the Euroclear System (“Euroclear”) and/or Clearstream Banking, société anonyme (“Clearstream Luxembourg”).

Redemption and Purchase

The Notes are perpetual and may only be purchased or redeemable in accordance with the following provisions of the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, described in this section “—Redemption and Purchase.”

Optional Redemption

Subject to certain exceptions described further below, the Notes may be redeemed at Banco Santander’s option, in whole but not in part, (a) with respect to the Dollar Notes on (i) any calendar day during the six-month period commencing on (and including) November 12, 2026 to (and including) the Dollar Notes First Reset Date and (ii) any Distribution Payment Date thereafter and (b) with respect to the Euro Notes on (i) any calendar day during the six-month period commencing on (and including) November 12, 2027 to (and including) the Euro Notes First Reset Date and (ii) any Distribution Payment Date thereafter, in each case at the Redemption Price and subject to (a) the prior consent of the Regulator if and as required under Applicable Banking Regulations and (b) compliance with Articles 77 and 78 of CRR, Article 29 of the Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 241/2014 and/or any other Applicable Banking Regulations then in force, and in accordance with the final paragraph of “Redemption Procedures” below (and otherwise in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations then in force).

“Liquidation Preference” means (a) with respect to the Dollar Notes, $200,000 per Dollar Note and (b) with respect to the Euro Notes, €200,000 per Euro Note.

“Redemption Price” means, per Note of the series that is being redeemed, the relevant Liquidation Preference plus, if applicable, where not cancelled pursuant to, or otherwise subject to the limitations on payment set out in “—Distributions,” an amount equal to accrued and unpaid Distributions for the then current Distribution Period to (but excluding) the date fixed for redemption of the Notes of such series.

 

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Pre-Conditions to Redemptions and Purchases

Article 78(1) of the CRR provides that the relevant Regulator will give its consent to a redemption or purchase of the Notes of the series that is being redeemed provided that either of the following conditions is met:

 

  (a)

on or before such redemption of the relevant Notes, Banco Santander replaces the relevant Notes with instruments qualifying as Tier 1 Capital of an equal or higher quality on terms that are sustainable for the income capacity of Banco Santander; or

 

  (b)

Banco Santander has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the relevant Regulator that its Tier 1 Capital and Tier 2 Capital and its eligible liabilities would, following such redemption, exceed the requirements laid down in the CRD IV and BRRD by a margin that the relevant Regulator considers necessary.

“Tier 2 Capital” means at any time, with respect to Banco Santander or the Group, as the case may be, the Tier 2 capital of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, as calculated by Banco Santander in accordance with Chapter 4 (Tier 2 capital) of Title I (Elements of own funds) of Part Two (Own Funds and Eligible Liabilities) of the CRR and/or applicable Banking Regulations at such time, including any applicable transitional, phasing in or similar provisions.

Redemption Due to a Capital Event

If, on or after the Closing Date, there is a Capital Event, the Notes of a series may be redeemed, in whole but not in part, at the option of Banco Santander, subject to the prior consent of the relevant Regulator if and as required under Applicable Banking Regulations and may only take place in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations then in force, at any time, at the Redemption Price.

“Capital Event” means a change in Spanish law, Applicable Banking Regulations or any change in the application or official interpretation thereof that results or is likely to result in any outstanding aggregate Liquidation Preference of the Notes of the relevant series ceasing to be included in, or counting towards, the Group’s or Banco Santander’s Tier 1 Capital.

“Tier 1 Capital” means at any time, with respect to Banco Santander or the Group, as the case may be, the Tier 1 capital of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, as calculated by Banco Santander in accordance with Chapters 1, 2 and 3 (Tier 1 Capital, Common Equity Tier 1 Capital and Additional Tier 1 Capital) of Title I (Elements of own funds) of Part Two (Own Funds and Eligible Liabilities) of the CRR and/or Applicable Banking Regulations at such time, including any applicable transitional, phasing in or similar provisions.

Redemption Due to a Tax Event

If, on or after the Closing Date, there is a Tax Event, the Notes of a series may be redeemed, in whole but not in part, at the option of Banco Santander, subject to the prior consent of the relevant Regulator if and as required under Applicable Banking Regulations and may only take place in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations then in force, at any time, at the Redemption Price.

“Tax Event” means that, as a result of any change in the laws or regulations of Spain or in either case of any political subdivision thereof or any authority or agency therein or thereof having power to tax or in the interpretation or administration of any such laws or regulations which becomes effective on or after the Closing Date, (a) Banco Santander would not be entitled to claim a deduction in computing taxation liabilities in Spain (as set forth in “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Additional Amounts” in the accompanying prospectus) in respect of any Distribution to be made on the next Distribution Payment Date or the value of such deduction to Banco Santander would be materially reduced, or (b) Banco Santander would be required to pay Additional Amounts, or (c) the applicable tax treatment of the Notes of the relevant series changes in a material way that was not reasonably foreseeable at the Closing Date.

 

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Redemption Procedures

The decision to redeem the Notes of a series must be irrevocably notified by Banco Santander to holders of the relevant Notes upon not less than 15 nor more than 30 days’ notice prior to the relevant redemption date (i) through the filing of an inside information/other relevant information (información privilegiada/otra información relevante) announcement with the CNMV and its publication in accordance with the rules and regulations of any applicable stock exchange or other relevant authority and (ii) in accordance with “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Notices” in the accompanying prospectus, and to the Trustee (with a copy of the Regulator’s consent to the redemption) at least five (5) Business Days prior to such date, unless a shorter notice period shall be satisfactory to the Trustee.

Any notice of redemption will state: the redemption date; that on the redemption date the Redemption Price will, subject to the satisfaction of the conditions set forth in the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, become due and payable upon each Note being redeemed and that, subject to certain exceptions, Distributions will cease to accrue on or after that date; the place or places where the relevant Notes are to be surrendered for payment of the Redemption Price; and the CUSIP, Common Code and/or ISIN number or numbers, if any, with respect to the relevant Notes.

If Banco Santander gives notice of redemption of the relevant Notes, then by 11:00 a.m. (CET) on the relevant redemption date, Banco Santander will:

 

  (a)

irrevocably deposit with the Principal Paying Agent funds sufficient to pay the Redemption Price; and

 

  (b)

give the Principal Paying Agent irrevocable instructions and authority to pay the Redemption Price to the holders of the relevant Notes.

If the notice of redemption has been given on relevant Notes, and the funds deposited and instructions and authority to pay given as required above, then on the date of such deposit:

 

  (a)

Distributions on the relevant Notes shall cease to accrue;

 

  (b)

the relevant Notes will no longer be considered outstanding; and

 

  (c)

the holders of the relevant Notes will no longer have any rights as holders except the right to receive the Redemption Price.

Non-payment of Redemption Price

If in connection with the Notes of the relevant series either the notice of redemption has been given and the funds are not deposited as required on the date of such deposit or if Banco Santander improperly withholds or refuses to pay the Redemption Price of the relevant Notes, Distributions will continue to accrue, subject as provided in “—Distributions” above, at the rate specified from the redemption date to (but excluding) the date of actual payment of the Redemption Price.

Banco Santander may not give a notice of redemption pursuant to this section “—Redemption and Purchase” if a Trigger Event Notice (as defined under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities” in the accompanying prospectus) has been given. If a Trigger Event Notice is given after a notice of redemption shall have been given by Banco Santander but before the redemption has occurred, such notice of redemption shall automatically be revoked and be null and void and the relevant redemption shall not be made.

Purchases of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities

Banco Santander and any of its subsidiaries or any third party designated by any of them, may at any time purchase Notes of any series in the open market or otherwise at any price, in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time and will be subject to the prior consent of the relevant Regulator if and as required.

 

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Notwithstanding any other provision of “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Conversion Upon Trigger Event—Settlement Procedures” in the accompanying prospectus and subject to compliance with the provisions of the Spanish Companies Act and/or with any Applicable Banking Regulations, Banco Santander or any member of the Group may exercise such rights as it may from time to time enjoy to purchase or redeem or buy back any shares of Banco Santander (including Conversion Shares) or any depositary or other receipts or certificates representing the same without the consent of the holders of the relevant Notes.

“Conversion Shares” means the number of Common Shares to be issued on Trigger Conversion in respect of each Note to be converted.

Conversion Upon Trigger Event

If the Trigger Event occurs at any time on or after the Closing Date, then Banco Santander will:

 

  (a)

not declare or pay any Distribution on the Notes, including any accrued and unpaid Distributions, which shall be cancelled by Banco Santander in accordance with “—Distributions—Restrictions on Payments” above; and

 

  (b)

irrevocably and mandatorily (and without any requirement for the consent or approval of the holders of Notes) convert all the Notes into Common Shares (the “Trigger Conversion”) to be delivered on the relevant Conversion Settlement Date. If the Trigger Event occurs, the Notes will be converted in whole and not in part.

For the purposes of Banco Santander determining whether the Trigger Event has occurred, it will (A) calculate the CET1 ratio based on information (whether or not published) available to management of Banco Santander, including information internally reported within Banco Santander pursuant to its procedures for ensuring effective ongoing monitoring of the capital ratios of Banco Santander and the Group and (B) calculate and publish the CET1 ratio on at least a quarterly basis. Banco Santander’s or the Regulator’s calculation shall be binding on the Trustee and the holders of the Notes.

Except as provided below with respect to fractions, the number of Conversion Shares shall be determined by dividing the Liquidation Preference of such Note by the relevant Conversion Price in effect on the relevant Trigger Event Notice Date. Fractions of Common Shares will not be issued on Trigger Conversion and no cash payment or other adjustment will be made in lieu thereof. Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, if one or more Delivery Notices and the related Notes are received by or on behalf of the Paying and Conversion Agent such that the Conversion Shares or related ADSs to be delivered by or on behalf of the Settlement Shares Depository are to be registered in the same name or delivered to the same Clearing Agency participant account, the number of such Conversion Shares to be delivered in respect thereof shall be calculated on the basis of the aggregate Liquidation Preference of the Notes and rounded down to the nearest whole number of Common Shares or related ADSs, as applicable.

Upon any Trigger Event of the Notes, holders shall have no claim against Banco Santander in respect of (i) any Liquidation Preference of the Notes or (ii) any accrued and unpaid Distributions cancelled or otherwise unpaid in respect of the Notes and the Notes shall cease to represent any right other than the right to receive Common Shares, if elected, or ADSs from or on behalf of the Settlement Shares Depository.

On the Conversion Settlement Date, Banco Santander shall deliver to the Settlement Shares Depository such number of Common Shares as is required to satisfy in full Banco Santander’s obligation to deliver Common Shares in respect of the Trigger Conversion of the aggregate Liquidation Preference of the Notes outstanding on the Trigger Event Notice Date.

The obligation of Banco Santander to issue and deliver Conversion Shares to a holder of Notes on the relevant Conversion Settlement Date shall be satisfied by the delivery of such Conversion Shares to the Settlement Shares Depository. Receipt of the relevant Conversion Shares by the Settlement Shares Depository shall discharge Banco Santander’s obligations in respect of such Notes.

 

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Holders of any series of Notes shall have recourse to Banco Santander only for the issue and delivery of the relevant Conversion Shares to the Settlement Shares Depository. After such delivery, holders of any series of Notes shall have recourse to the Settlement Shares Depository only for the delivery to them of such Conversion Shares or related ADSs, in the circumstances described in “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Conversion Upon Trigger Event—Settlement Procedures” in the accompanying prospectus.

“Conversion Settlement Date” means the date on which the relevant Common Shares are to be delivered following a Trigger Conversion, which shall be as soon as practicable and in any event not later than one month following (or such other period as Applicable Banking Regulations may require) the Trigger Event Notice Date (as defined under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities” in the accompanying prospectus) and notice of the expected Conversion Settlement Date and of the Conversion Price shall be given to holders of Notes in accordance with “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Notices” in the accompanying prospectus not more than ten (10) Business Days following the Trigger Event Notice Date.

“Delivery Notice” means a notice in the form for the time being currently available from the specified office of any Paying and Conversion Agent or in such form as may be acceptable to DTC from time to time, which contains the relevant account and related details for the delivery of any ADSs or Common Shares and all relevant certifications and/or representations as may be required by applicable law and regulations (or is deemed to constitute the confirmation thereof), and which are required to be delivered in connection with a conversion of the Notes and the delivery of the ADSs or Common Shares.

“Settlement Shares Depository” means a reputable independent financial institution, trust company or similar entity to be appointed by Banco Santander on or prior to any date when a function ascribed to the Settlement Shares Depository is required to be performed to perform such functions and who will hold Common Shares in Iberclear or any of its participating entities in a designated trust or custody account for the benefit of the holders of the Notes and otherwise on terms consistent with the terms of the Notes and the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture.

Conversion Price

“Conversion Price” means, on the Trigger Event Notice Date, if the Common Shares are:

 

  (a)

then admitted to trading on a Relevant Stock Exchange, the higher of:

 

  (i)

the Current Market Price (as defined under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities” in the accompanying prospectus) of a Common Share (converted into U.S. dollars at the Prevailing Rate, with respect to the Dollar Notes);

 

  (ii)

the Floor Price; and

 

  (iii)

the nominal value of a Common Share (converted into U.S. dollars at the Prevailing Rate, with respect to the Dollar Notes);

in each case on the Trigger Event Notice Date; or

 

  (b)

not then admitted to trading on a Relevant Stock Exchange, the higher of (ii) and (iii) above.

For the avoidance of doubt, the conversion into U.S. dollars at the Prevailing Rate described above with respect to the Dollar Notes shall in no circumstances imply that any Common Share will be issued at a price of less than its nominal value expressed in the Share Currency.

“Floor Price” means (a) with respect to the Dollar Notes, $2.555 per Common Share and (b) with respect to the Euro Notes, €2.129 per Common Share, in each case subject to adjustment as set forth under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Conversion Upon Trigger Event—Conversion Price” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

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“Independent Financial Adviser” means an independent financial institution of international repute appointed by Banco Santander at its own expense.

“Prevailing Rate” means, in respect of any currencies on any day, the spot rate of exchange between the relevant currencies prevailing as at 12 noon (CET) on that date as appearing on or derived from the Reference Page or, if such a rate cannot be determined at such time, the rate prevailing as at 12 noon (CET) on the immediately preceding day on which such rate can be so determined or, if such rate cannot be so determined by reference to the Reference Page, the rate determined in such other manner as an Independent Financial Adviser in good faith shall prescribe.

“Reference Page” means the relevant page on Bloomberg or Reuters or such other information service provider that displays the relevant information chosen by Banco Santander at its own discretion.

“Relevant Stock Exchange” means the Spanish Stock Exchanges or if at the relevant time the Common Shares are not at that time listed and admitted to trading on the Spanish Stock Exchanges, the principal stock exchange or securities market on which the Common Shares are then listed, admitted to trading or quoted or accepted for dealing.

“Share Currency” means euro or such other currency in which the Common Shares are quoted or dealt in on the Relevant Stock Exchange at the relevant time or for the purposes of the relevant calculation or determination.

“Spanish Stock Exchanges” means the Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia stock exchanges and the Automated Quotation System—Continuous Market (Sistema de Interconexión Bursátil—Mercado Continuo (SIBE)).

For further information, see “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Conversion Upon Trigger Event—Conversion Price—Anti-Dilution Adjustment of the Floor Price,” “—Conversion Procedures,” “—Settlement Procedures,” “—Certain Taxes” and “—Status of the Conversion Shares” in the accompanying prospectus.

Agreement and Waiver with Respect to a Trigger Conversion

The Notes are not convertible into Common Shares at the option of holders of Notes at any time and are not redeemable in cash as a result of a Trigger Event. Notwithstanding any other provision herein, by its acquisition of the Notes, each holder and beneficial owner shall be deemed to have (i) agreed to all the terms and conditions of the Notes, including, without limitation, those related to (x) Trigger Conversion following a Trigger Event and (y) the appointment of the Settlement Shares Depository, the issuance of the Settlement Shares to the Settlement Shares Depository (or to the relevant recipient in accordance with the terms of the Notes), and acknowledged that such events in (x) and (y) may occur without any further action on the part of the holders of the Notes or the Trustee, (ii) agreed that effective upon, and following, the Trigger Conversion, no amount shall be due and payable to the holders of the Notes, and Banco Santander’s liability to pay any such amounts (including the Liquidation Preference of, or any Distribution in respect of, the Notes), except as noted under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Conversion Upon Trigger Event—Settlement Procedures” in the accompanying prospectus with respect to certain stamp and similar taxes, shall be automatically released, and the holders shall not have the right to give a direction to the Trustee with respect to the Trigger Event and any related Trigger Conversion, (iii) waived, to the extent permitted by the Trust Indenture Act, any claim against the Trustee arising out of its acceptance of its trusteeship under, and the performance of its duties, powers and rights in respect of, the Base Indenture and in connection with the Notes, including, without limitation, claims related to or arising out of or in connection with a Trigger Event and/or any Trigger Conversion and (iv) authorized, directed and requested DTC, the European Clearing Systems and any direct participant in DTC, the European Clearing Systems or other intermediary through which it holds such Notes to take any and all necessary action, if required, to implement the Trigger Conversion without any further action or direction on the part of such holder or beneficial owner of the Notes or the Trustee.

 

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Status of the Notes

Unless previously converted into Common Shares as set forth in “—Conversion Upon Trigger Event,” the payment obligations of Banco Santander under the Notes constitute direct, unconditional, unsecured and subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander according to Article 281.1.2º of the restated text of the Insolvency Law (Ley Concursal) approved by the Royal Decree-Legislative 1/2020, of 5 May (the “Spanish Insolvency Law”) and, in accordance with Additional Provision 14.3º of Law 11/2015, but subject to any other ranking that may apply as a result of any mandatory provision of law (or otherwise), upon the insolvency of Banco Santander, for so long as the obligations of Banco Santander in respect of the Notes constitute Additional Tier 1 Instruments, rank: (i) pari passu among themselves and with (a) all other claims in respect of any outstanding Additional Tier 1 Instruments and (b) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank pari passu with Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments; (ii) junior to (a) any unsubordinated obligations (créditos ordinarios) of Banco Santander, (b) any obligations of Banco Santander in respect of Tier 2 Instruments and (c) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank senior to Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments; and (iii) senior to (a) any claims for the liquidation amount of the Common Shares and (b) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank junior to Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments.

Banco Santander agrees with respect to the Notes and each holder of Notes, by his or her acquisition of a Note, will be deemed to have agreed to the above described subordination. Each such holder will be deemed to have irrevocably waived his or her rights of priority which would otherwise be accorded to him or her under the laws of Spain, to the extent necessary to effectuate the subordination provisions of the Notes. In addition, each holder of Notes by his or her acquisition of the Notes authorizes and directs the Trustee on his or her behalf to take such action as may be necessary or appropriate to effectuate the subordination of the Notes as provided in the Base Indenture, as supplemented by the First Supplemental Indenture, and as summarized herein and appoints the Trustee his or her attorney-in-fact for any and all such purposes.

The obligations of Banco Santander under the Notes are subject to the Bail-in Power.

As of March 31, 2021, Banco Santander had outstanding €43.6 billion of subordinated indebtedness, including €7.4 billion of Additional Tier 1 Instruments. Additionally, as of March 31, 2021, Banco Santander had outstanding €24.4 billion of secured indebtedness and €15.6 billion of unsubordinated indebtedness. Banco Santander subsidiaries had €89.6 billion indebtedness outstanding as of March 31, 2021.

“Bail-in Power” means any power existing from time to time under, and exercised in compliance with, any laws, regulations, rules or requirements in effect in the Kingdom of Spain, relating to (i) the transposition of the BRRD, and in particular its article 59 (including but not limited to, Law 11/2015, RD 1012/2015 and any other implementing regulations), (ii) the SRM Regulation and (iii) the instruments, rules or standards created thereunder, pursuant to which any obligation of a Regulated Entity (or an affiliate of such Regulated Entity) can be reduced, cancelled, suspended, modified, or converted into shares, other securities, or other obligations of such Regulated Entity (or affiliate of such Regulated Entity).

“Regulated Entity” means any entity to which BRRD, as implemented in the Kingdom of Spain (including but not limited to, Law 11/2015, RD 1012/2015 and any other implementing regulations) or any other Spanish law relating to the Bail-in Power, applies, which includes, certain credit institutions, investment firms, and certain of their parent or holding companies.

“Tier 2 Instrument” means any subordinated obligation (crédito subordinado) of Banco Santander according to Article 281.1.2º of the Spanish Insolvency Law, qualifying as a tier 2 instrument (instrumento de capital de nivel 2) under Additional Provision 14.3º(b) of Law 11/2015.

 

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Substitution and Variation

If a Capital Event or a Tax Event occurs and is continuing, Banco Santander may substitute all (but not some) of a series of Notes or modify the terms of all (but not some) of such series of Notes, without any requirement for the consent or approval of the holders of such series of Notes, so that they are substituted for, or varied to, become, or remain, Qualifying Notes, subject to having given not less than 15 nor more than 30 days’ notice to the holders of such series of Notes in accordance with the terms described under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Notices” in the accompanying prospectus and to the Trustee (which notice shall be irrevocable and shall specify the date for substitution or, as applicable, variation), and subject to obtaining Regulator consent if and as required under Applicable Banking Regulations and in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations.

Any such notice shall specify the relevant details of the manner in which such substitution or variation shall take effect and where the holders of the relevant Notes can inspect or obtain copies of the new terms and conditions of the relevant Notes. Such substitution or variation will be effected without any cost or charge to such holders.

The Notes of the relevant series shall cease to bear Distributions from (and including) the date of substitution thereof.

Any holder or beneficial owner of the Notes of the relevant series shall, by virtue of its acquisition of such Notes or any beneficial interest therein, be deemed to accept the substitution or variation of the terms of the relevant Notes and to grant to Banco Santander full power and authority to take any action and/or to execute and deliver any document in the name and/or on behalf of such holder which is necessary or convenient to complete the substitution or variation of the terms of the relevant Notes.

“Qualifying Notes” means, at any time, any securities issued directly by Banco Santander that have terms not otherwise materially less favorable to the holders of the relevant Notes than the terms of the relevant Notes, provided that such securities shall:

 

  (i)

contain terms which comply with the then current requirements for their inclusion in the Additional Tier 1 Capital of Banco Santander as embodied in the Applicable Banking Regulations;

 

  (ii)

carry the same rate of interest as the relevant Notes prior to the relevant substitution or variation pursuant to “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Substitution and Variation” in the accompanying prospectus;

 

  (iii)

have the same denomination and aggregate outstanding Liquidation Preference as the relevant Notes prior to the relevant substitution or variation pursuant to “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Substitution and Variation” in the accompanying prospectus;

 

  (iv)

be perpetual and have the same dates for payment of interest as the relevant Notes prior to the relevant substitution or variation pursuant to “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Substitution and Variation” in the accompanying prospectus;

 

  (v)

have at least the same ranking as the relevant Notes;

 

  (vi)

not, immediately following such substitution or variation, be subject to a Capital Event and/or a Tax Event; and

 

  (vii)

be listed or admitted to trading on any stock exchange as selected by Banco Santander, if the relevant Notes were listed or admitted to trading on a stock exchange immediately prior to the relevant substitution or variation pursuant to “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Substitution and Variation” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

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Listing

We intend to apply for the listing of the Notes on the New York Stock Exchange in accordance with its rules.

Governing Law

The Base Indenture, the First Supplemental Indenture and the Notes will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except that the authorization and execution by Banco Santander of the Base Indenture, the First Supplemental Indenture and the Notes, and certain provisions of the Notes, the Base Indenture and the First Supplemental Indenture related to the subordination of the Notes, as well as the price at which Notes can be issued, certain minimum requirements with respect to the conversion price and the legal regime applicable for the exclusion of the pre-emptive rights, shall be governed by and construed in accordance with Spanish law.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF ORDINARY SHARES

See “Item 10. Additional Information—B. Memorandum and articles of association” in Banco Santander’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2020 for a summary of the material terms of Banco Santander’s By-laws and applicable Spanish corporate law in effect as of the date of this prospectus regarding Banco Santander’s ordinary shares and the holders thereof. Such summary describes Banco Santander’s By-laws which were approved at the shareholders’ meeting held on June 21, 2008, filed with the office of the Commercial Registry of Santander on August 11, 2008 and became effective immediately thereafter. Subsequently, several articles have been amended and sub-subsections 1 and 2 of Article 5 of Banco Santander’s Bylaws have been updated several times to show the current share capital and the number of shares outstanding. The most recent of such amendments corresponds to the one required by the share capital increase carried out on December 3, 2020 and filed with the office of the Mercantile Registry on the following day. This summary may not contain all of the information that is important to prospective investors. To understand them fully, prospective investors should read Banco Santander’s By-laws, a copy of which has been included in Exhibit 1.1 and Exhibit 1.2 of Banco Santander’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2020.

As of March 31, 2021, Banco Santander’s paid in share capital was €8,670,320,651 represented by a single class of 17,340,641,302 ordinary shares having a par value of fifty euro cents (€0.50) each, represented by means of book entries.

 

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TAXATION

Spanish Taxation

The following discussion supplements the description of material Spanish tax considerations contained in the accompanying prospectus under the heading “Taxation” that are relevant to the Notes (in particular, sections “B. Taxation in Spain of contingent convertible capital securities,” “C. Taxation in Spain of the conversion of the contingent convertible capital securities into ordinary shares,” “D. Taxation in Spain on ownership and transfer of ordinary shares” and “E. Spanish FTT”). If there is any inconsistency between the following discussion and the description in the accompanying prospectus, the following discussion governs.

The following is a general description of material Spanish tax considerations relating to the holders who are the beneficial owners of the securities (theholders,” theinvestors,” thepurchasersor theshareholders,as the case may be). It does not purport to be a complete analysis of all tax considerations relating to these securities.

Prospective purchasers of securities should consult their own tax advisors as to the consequences under the tax laws of the country of which they are resident for tax purposes and the tax laws of Spain of acquiring, holding and disposing of securities and receiving any payments under the securities. The information contained within this section is based upon the law as in effect on the date of this document and is subject to any change in law that may take effect after such date (which may have retroactive effects). Investors should consider the legislative changes which could occur in the future.

This analysis is a general description of the tax treatment under the currently in force Spanish legislation applicable in the common territory of Spain and, hence, it does not describe the regional tax regimes in the Historical Territories of the Basque Country and the Community of Navarre or the provisions passed by Autonomous Communities which may apply to investors for certain taxes.

In addition, investors should note that the appointment by an investor in securities or any person through which an investor holds securities, of a custodian, collection agent or similar person in relation to such securities in any jurisdiction may have tax implications. Investors should consult their own tax advisors in relation to the tax consequences for them of any such appointment.

Introduction

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—Introduction” in the accompanying prospectus.

B. TAXATION IN SPAIN OF CONTINGENT CONVERTIBLE CAPITAL SECURITIES

1. Individuals with Tax Residency in Spain

 

  1.1

Individual Income Tax (Impuesto sobre la Renta de las Personas Físicas)

Both interest payments periodically received and income derived from the transfer, redemption or repayments of the contingent convertible capital securities constitute a return on investment obtained from the transfer of a person’s own capital to third parties in accordance with the provisions of Section 25 of the IIT Law, and therefore must be included in the investor’s IIT savings taxable base pursuant to the provisions of the aforementioned law and as from 2021 be generally taxed at a flat rate of 19% on the first EUR 6,000; 21% from EUR 6,000.01 up to EUR 50,000; 23% from EUR 50,000.01 up to EUR 200,000 or 26% for any amount in excess of EUR 200,000.

 

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Income from the transfer of the contingent convertible capital securities must be computed as the difference between the amounts obtained in the transfer, redemption or reimbursement of the contingent convertible capital securities and their acquisition or subscription value. Costs and expenses effectively borne on the acquisition and/or disposal of the contingent convertible capital securities must be taken into account, insofar as adequately evidenced, in calculating the income. When calculating the net income, expenses related to the management and deposit of the contingent convertible capital securities will be deductible, excluding those pertaining to discretionary or individual portfolio management.

According to Section 44.5 of Royal Decree 1065/2007, Banco Santander will pay interest without withholding to individual holders who are resident for tax purposes in Spain provided that the information about the contingent convertible capital securities required by Exhibit 99.1 to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement forms a part is submitted by the relevant paying agent, notwithstanding the information obligations of Banco Santander under general provisions of Spanish tax legislation. In addition, income obtained upon redemption, repayment or conversion by Banco Santander of the contingent convertible capital securities may also be paid without withholding on account of IIT under the same conditions.

If those requirements are not met, such interest and income derived from any transfer of the contingent convertible capital securities may be subject to withholding on account of IIT at the then-applicable rate (currently set at 19%).

Furthermore, in the case of contingent convertible capital securities held by Spanish resident individuals and deposited with a Spanish resident entity acting as depositary or custodian, payments of interest or income obtained upon redemption, repayment or conversion by Banco Santander of the contingent convertible capital securities may be subject to withholding tax at the then-applicable general rate (currently set at 19%) which will be made by the depositary or custodian. Any amounts withheld on account of IIT may be credited against the final IIT liability for the relevant tax year and may be refundable pursuant to Section 103 of the IIT Law.

 

  1.2

Net Wealth Tax (Impuesto sobre el Patrimonio)

Individuals with tax residency in Spain are subject to Net Wealth Tax to the extent that their net worth exceeds EUR 700,000. Therefore, they should take into account the value of the contingent convertible capital securities which they hold as at each 31 December. The applicable rates currently ranging between 0.2% and 3.5%, although the final tax rates may vary depending on the provisions that the Autonomous Communities may have, and some reductions may apply.

 

  1.3

Inheritance and Gift Tax (Impuesto sobre Sucesiones y Donaciones)

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—B. Taxation in Spain of contingent convertible capital securities—1.3. Inheritance and Gift Tax (Impuesto sobre Sucesiones y Donaciones)” in the accompanying prospectus.

2. Legal Entities with Tax Residency in Spain

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—B. Taxation in Spain of contingent convertible capital securities—2. Legal Entities with Tax Residency in Spain” in the accompanying prospectus.

3. Individuals and Legal Entities with no tax residency in Spain

This section analyzes the tax treatment applicable to holders who are non-resident for tax purposes in Spanish territory and are beneficial owners of the contingent convertible capital securities. Non-resident holders are individuals who are not IIT taxpayers and entities non-resident in Spanish territory, pursuant to Article 6 of the NRIT Law.

 

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The tax regime described herein is general in nature, and the specific circumstances of each taxpayer should be considered in the light of the applicable DTT.

 

  3.1

Non-resident Income Tax (Impuesto sobre la renta de No Residentes)

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—B. Taxation in Spain of contingent convertible capital securities—3.1 Non-resident Income Tax (Impuesto sobre la renta de No Residentes)” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

  3.2

Net Wealth Tax (Impuesto sobre el Patrimonio)

Individuals resident in a country with which Spain has entered into a double tax treaty in relation to Wealth Tax would generally not be subject to such tax. The Treaty does not address Net Wealth Tax. Otherwise, non-Spanish resident individuals whose properties and rights located in Spain, or that can be exercised within the Spanish territory exceed EUR700,000 on the last day of any given year would be subject to Net Wealth Tax. The applicable rates currently range between 0.2% and 3.5%. Individuals who are non-resident in Spain for tax purposes but are resident in an EU or EEA Member State may apply the rules approved by the autonomous region where the assets and rights with more value are situated. All such prospective investors should consult their tax advisors.

However, non-Spanish resident individuals will be exempt from Net Wealth Tax in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities to the extent that the income deriving from the contingent convertible capital securities is exempt from NRIT as described above.

Non-Spanish resident legal entities are not subject to Net Wealth Tax.

 

  3.3

Inheritance and Gift Tax (Impuesto sobre Sucesiones y Donaciones)

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—B. Taxation in Spain of contingent convertible capital securities—3.3. Inheritance and Gift Tax (Impuesto sobre Sucesiones y Donaciones)” in the accompanying prospectus.

4. Tax Rules for contingent convertible capital securities not Listed on a regulated market, a multilateral trading facility or an organized market

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—B. Taxation in Spain of contingent convertible capital securities—4. Tax Rules for contingent convertible capital securities not Listed on a regulated market, a multilateral trading facility or an organized market” in the accompanying prospectus.

5. Information about the contingent convertible capital securities in connection with payments

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—B. Taxation in Spain of contingent convertible capital securities—5 Information about the contingent convertible capital securities in connection with payments” in the accompanying prospectus.

6. Indirect taxation

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—B. Taxation in Spain of contingent convertible capital securities—6 Indirect taxation” in the accompanying prospectus.

C. TAXATION IN SPAIN OF THE CONVERSION OF THE CONTINGENT CONVERTIBLE CAPITAL SECURITIES INTO ORDINARY SHARES

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—C. Taxation in Spain of the conversion of the contingent convertible capital securities into ordinary shares” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

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D. TAXATION IN SPAIN ON OWNERSHIP AND TRANSFER OF ORDINARY SHARES

1. Individuals with Tax Residency in Spain

 

  1.1

Individual Income Tax (Impuesto sobre la Renta de las Personas Físicas)

a) Taxation of dividends

According to the Spanish IIT Law the following, amongst others, must be treated as gross capital income: income received by a Spanish shareholder in the form of dividends, shares in profits, consideration paid for attendance at shareholders’ meetings, income from the creation or assignment of rights of use or enjoyment of the shares and any other income received in his position as shareholder.

Gross capital income is reduced by any administration and custody expenses (but not by those incurred in individualized portfolio management); the net amount is included in the relevant Spanish shareholder’s savings taxable base and currently taxed at a flat rate of 19% on the first EUR 6,000; 21% from EUR 6,000.01 up to EUR 50,000; 23% from EUR 50,000.01 up to EUR 200,000 and 26% for any amount in excess of EUR 200,000.

Gross capital income will be reduced by any administration and custody expenses (but not by those incurred in individualized portfolio management) and the net amount must be included in the relevant Spanish shareholder savings taxable base.

The payment to Spanish shareholders of dividends or any other distribution will be generally subject to a withholding tax at the then-applicable rate (currently set at 19%). Such withholding tax is creditable from the IIT payable (cuota líquida); if the amount of tax withheld is greater than the amount of the net IIT payable, the taxpayer is entitled to a refund of the excess withheld in accordance with Section 103 of the IIT Law.

b) Taxation of capital gains

Gains or losses recorded by a shareholder subject to IIT as a result of the transfer of ordinary shares qualify for the purposes of the IIT Law as capital gains or losses and are subject to taxation according to the general rules applicable to capital gains. The amount of capital gains or losses is equal to the difference between the shares’ acquisition value (plus any fees or taxes incurred) and the transfer value, which is the listed value of the shares as of the transfer date or, if higher, the agreed transfer price, less any fees or taxes incurred.

Where the taxpayer owns other shares of the same kind, the acquisition price of the transferred shares is based on the principle that those acquired first are sold first (FIFO).

Capital gains or losses arising from the transfer of shares held by a Spanish shareholder are included in such Spanish savings taxable base and currently taxed at a flat rate of 19% on the first EUR 6,000; 21% from EUR 6,000.01 up to EUR 50,000; 23% from EUR 50,000.01 up to EUR 200,000 and 26% for any amount in excess of EUR 200,000.

Capital gains arising from the transfer of shares are not subject to withholding tax on account of IIT. Losses arising from the transfer of ordinary shares admitted to trading on certain official stock exchanges will not be treated as capital losses if ordinary shares of the same kind have been acquired during the period between two months before and two months after the date of the transfer which originated the loss. In these cases, the capital losses are included in the taxable base upon the transfer of the remaining ordinary shares by the taxpayer.

 

  1.2

Net Wealth Tax (Impuesto sobre el Patrimonio)

Individuals with tax residency in Spain are subject to Net Wealth Tax to the extent that their net worth exceeds EUR 700,000. Therefore, they should take into account the value of the ordinary shares which they hold on the last day of any given year. The applicable rates currently range between 0.2% and 3.5%, although the final tax rates may vary depending on the provisions that the Autonomous Communities may have, and some reductions may apply.

 

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  1.3

Inheritance and Gift Tax (Impuesto sobre Sucesiones y Donaciones)

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—D. Taxation in Spain on ownership and transfer of ordinary shares—1.3. Inheritance and Gift Tax (Impuesto sobre Sucesiones y Donaciones)” in the accompanying prospectus.

2. Legal entities with Tax Residency in Spain

 

  2.1

Corporate Income Tax (Impuesto sobre Sociedades)

a) Taxation of dividends

Dividends from Banco Santander received by corporate Spanish shareholders, less any expenses inherent to holding the ordinary shares, must be included in the CIT taxable base. The general CIT tax rate is currently 25%. This general rate will not be applicable to all CIT taxpayers and, for instance, it will not apply to banking institutions (which will be taxed at the rate of 30%). Special rates apply in respect of certain types of entities (such as qualifying collective investment institutions).

As a general rule, dividends in respect of the shares obtained by the shareholders that (i) hold, directly or indirectly, at least 5% in the issuer’s stock; and (ii) hold such participation continuously for at least one year prior to the relevant distribution date or commits to hold the participation for the time needed to complete such one-year holding period, may be exempt from CIT on that dividend as a general rule.

As from 2021, the CIT exemption for dividends and interests in profits of a company is reduced from the full exemption (100%) to a 95% exemption in most cases. In practice, this means that dividends and interests in profits of a company obtained by CIT taxpayers will be taxed at an effective 1.25% rate (general 25% CIT rate on the 5% of the registered dividends and interests in profits of a company).

Additionally, as from 2021, the 95% exemption will only apply when the shareholder has at least a direct or indirect stake of 5% and therefore shareholders which have an acquisition value of their participation which exceeds €20 million will not be entitled to the exemption (without prejudice to the application of a grandfathering regime under specific conditions).

In case Banco Santander obtains dividends, profit distributions or income derived from transfer of shares in entities in an amount higher than 70% of Banco Santander’s revenues, the application of the 95% participation exemption may be subject to particularly complex requirements, substantially requiring that the shareholder holds an indirect participation of at least 5% in the share capital of Banco Santander’s subsidiaries. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors in order to determine whether those requirements are complied with by the relevant shareholders.

In case the conditions to apply this 95% exemption applies to the relevant shareholder, and provided that the minimum one year holding period requirement is complied with on the distribution date in respect of the ordinary shares, the amount of dividends exempt will not be subject to withholding tax. Otherwise, dividends will be taxed at the applicable CIT tax rate of the taxpayer and a withholding will apply (currently set at 19%). This CIT withholding will be credited against the taxpayer’s annual CIT due, and if the amount of tax withheld is greater than the amount of the annual CIT due, the taxpayer will be entitled to a refund of the excess withheld, in accordance with article 127 of the CIT Law.

b) Taxation of capital gains

Gains or losses arising from the sale of the ordinary shares by a shareholder that is a Spanish CIT taxpayer must be included in its taxable base. The general CIT tax rate is currently 25%. This general rate will not be applicable to all CIT taxpayers and, for instance, it will not apply to banking institutions (which will be taxed at the rate of 30%). Special rates apply in respect of certain types of entities (such as qualifying collective investment institutions). Gains arising from the sale of the ordinary shares will not be subject to withholding tax on account of CIT.

 

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As a general rule, for CIT payers that (i) hold, directly or indirectly, at least 5% in the issuer’s stock; and (ii) hold such participation for at least one year prior to the relevant transfer, capital gains will be exempt from CIT as a general rule. Otherwise, capital gains will be taxed at the CIT rate applicable to the relevant taxpayer.

As from 2021, the CIT exemption for capital gains is reduced from the full exemption (100%) to a 95% exemption in most cases. In practice, this means that capital gains obtained by CIT taxpayers would be taxed at an effective 1.25% rate (general 25% CIT rate on the 5% of the capital gains).

Additionally, as from 2021, the 95% exemption will only apply when the shareholder has at least a direct or indirect stake of 5% and therefore, shareholders which have an acquisition value of their participation that exceeds €20 million will not be entitled to the exemption (without prejudice to the application of a grandfathering regime under specific conditions).

In case Banco Santander obtains dividends, profit distributions or income derived from transfer of shares in entities in an amount higher than 70% of Banco Santander’s revenues, the application of the 95% participation exemption may be subject to particularly complex requirements, substantially requiring that the shareholder holds an indirect participation of at least 5% in the share capital of Banco Santander’s subsidiaries. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors in order to determine whether those requirements are complied with by the relevant shareholders.

Finally, losses arising on the transfer of the ordinary shares may be tax deductible under certain circumstances. Accordingly, shareholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the CIT deductibility of losses arising on the transfer of ordinary shares.

 

  2.2

Net Wealth Tax (Impuesto sobre el Patrimonio)

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—D. Taxation in Spain on ownership and transfer of ordinary shares—2.2 Net Wealth Tax (Impuesto sobre el Patrimonio)” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

  2.3

Inheritance and Gift Tax (Impuesto sobre Sucesiones y Donaciones)

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—D. Taxation in Spain on ownership and transfer of ordinary shares—2.3 Inheritance and Gift Tax (Impuesto sobre Sucesiones y Donaciones)” in the accompanying prospectus.

3. Individuals and legal entities with no tax residency in Spain

 

  3.1

Non-Residents Income Tax (Impuesto sobre la Renta de No Residentes)

a) Non-Spanish tax resident investors acting through a permanent establishment in Spain

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—D. Taxation in Spain on ownership and transfer of ordinary shares—3.1.a) Non-Spanish tax resident investors acting through a permanent establishment in Spain” in the accompanying prospectus.

b) Non-Spanish tax resident investors not operating through a permanent establishment in Spain

Taxation of dividends

According to the NRIT Law, dividends paid by a Spanish resident company to a non-Spanish tax resident shareholder not holding the ordinary shares through a permanent establishment located in Spain are subject to NRIT, withheld at the source on the gross amount of dividends, at the applicable rate (currently set at 19%).

This taxation can be eliminated as per the application of the NRIT exemption implementing the EU Council Directive 2011/96/EU of 30 November 2011, on the common system of taxation applicable to parent companies

 

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and subsidiaries of different Member States (the “EU Parent-Subsidiary Directive”). Under the EU Parent-Subsidiary Directive exemption, no Spanish withholding taxes should be levied on the dividends distributed by a Spanish subsidiary to its EU parent company, to the extent that the following requirements are met:

 

   

the EU parent company is the beneficial owner of the income;

 

   

the EU parent company maintains a direct or indirect holding in the capital of the Spanish subsidiary of at least 5%. The holding must have been maintained uninterruptedly during the year prior to the date on which the distributed profit is due or, failing that, be maintained for the time required to complete such period (in the latter case, the withholding tax must be levied, although the EU parent company may request its refund from the Spanish Tax Authorities once the one-year period has been completed);

 

   

the EU parent company is incorporated under the laws of a EU Member State, under one of the corporate forms listed in Annex I, Part A, of the EU Parent-Subsidiary Directive, and is subject to a Member State Corporate Income Tax (as listed in Annex I, Part B, of the EU Parent-Subsidiary Directive), without the possibility of being exempt; and

 

   

the dividends distributed do not derive from the subsidiary’s liquidation.

As from 2021, the EU Parent Subsidiary exemption will only apply when the shareholder has at least a direct or indirect stake of 5% and therefore, shareholders which have an acquisition value of their participation that exceeds €20 million will not be entitled to the exemption (without prejudice to the application of a grandfathering regime under specific conditions).

The EU Parent Subsidiary exemption will be applicable, subject to the compliance of certain requirements (similar to those indicated above), to dividends distributed by a Spanish subsidiary to its EEA parent company provided that there is an effective exchange of tax information with such EEA parent company’s country.

However, this exemption contains specific anti-abuse rules (whereby this exemption might not be applicable if the shareholder is located in a tax haven or when the majority of the voting rights of the EU parent company are held, directly or indirectly, by an individual or legal entity not resident in the EU or in a member country of the EEA with which there is an effective exchange of information in the terms described in the Spanish Law 36/2006 of 29 November, to prevent tax fraud, except in the latter case if the shareholder has been incorporated and operates for valid economic reasons and substantive business reasons) that need to be analyzed on a case-by-case basis and procedural formalities, such as the supply of a tax authorities-issued tax residence certificate.

In addition, shareholders resident in certain countries may be entitled to the benefits of a DTT, in effect between Spain and their country of tax residence providing for a reduced tax rate or an exemption on dividends, subject to the satisfaction of any conditions specified in the relevant treaty, including providing evidence of the tax residence of the shareholder by means of a certificate of tax residence duly issued by the tax authorities of its country of tax residence (the U.S. IRS for U.S. shareholders) indicating that the relevant investor is a resident therein within the meaning of the relevant DTT (or equivalent specific form or wording required under an applicable DTT or administrative practice). From a Spanish tax perspective, tax residence certificates issued by a foreign tax authority (or equivalent DTT forms) are generally deemed to be valid only for one year as from their date of issuance and if they refer to a specific period, they will only be valid for that period.

In accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Finance and Taxation of 13 April 2000, upon distribution of a dividend, Banco Santander or its paying agent will withhold an amount equal to the NRIT amount required to be withheld according to the general rules set forth above, transferring the resulting net amount to the financial institution acting as a depositary of the ordinary shares held by such shareholder. If the applicable depositary is resident, domiciled or represented in Spain and it provides timely evidence (including a valid certificate of tax residence for purposes of the exemption of reduction of withholding tax being claimed, or equivalent form under the applicable DTT), the depositary will immediately receive the amount withheld, which will be credited to the

 

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relevant shareholder (the “Quick Refund Procedure”). For these purposes, the relevant certificate of residence (or equivalent DTT form) must be provided before the tenth day following the end of the month in which the dividends were paid. If such certificate of tax residence or, as the case may be, the equivalent DTT form referred to above, is not provided to us by the relevant depositary within the mentioned time frame the relevant NRIT withheld will be paid to the Spanish tax authorities, and a shareholder entitled to an exemption or reduction of NRIT pursuant to the NRIT Law or pursuant to an applicable DTT may subsequently request a refund of the amounts withheld in excess from the Spanish tax authorities, following the standard refund procedure described below under “—Spanish refund procedure”.

Spanish refund procedure

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—D. Taxation in Spain on ownership and transfer of ordinary shares—3.1.b) Non-Spanish tax resident investors acting through a permanent establishment in Spain: Spanish refund procedure” in the accompanying prospectus.

Taxation of capital gains

Capital gains derived from the transfer or sale of the ordinary shares will be deemed to be income arising in Spain, and, therefore, subject to NRIT, at the applicable rate (currently set at 19%). Gains arising from the sale of the ordinary shares are not currently subject to withholding tax on account of NRIT.

As a general rule, capital gains and losses will be calculated separately for each transaction and it is not possible to offset losses derived from a given transfer of shares against capital gains obtained upon another transfer of shares.

However, capital gains derived from the transfer of ordinary shares will be exempt from NRIT in Spain in any of the three following cases:

 

   

Capital gains derived from a transfer of the ordinary shares carried out on an official Spanish secondary stock market (the Spanish Stock Exchanges), by any shareholder who is tax resident in a country that has entered into a DTT with Spain containing an “exchange of tax information” clause are exempt from NRIT (DTT which is applicable to such shareholder). This exemption is not applicable to capital gains obtained by a shareholder through a country or territory that is classified as a tax haven under the Spanish tax regulations (currently defined by Royal Decree 1080/1991, of 5 July, as amended), nor by a shareholder holding the ordinary shares through a permanent establishment located in Spain.

 

   

Capital gains obtained directly by any shareholder resident of another EU Member State (other than Spain) or indirectly through a permanent establishment of such shareholder in a EU Member State (other than Spain), provided that the gain is not obtained through a country or territory defined as a tax haven under the applicable Spanish tax regulations or through a permanent establishment in Spain, shall be exempt from taxation in Spain if the issuer’s assets do not mainly consist of, directly or indirectly, real estate property located in Spain and:

 

  i.

in the case of a non-resident individual, the shareholder has not held a direct or indirect interest of at least 25% in the issuer’s capital or net equity during the twelve months preceding the transfer; or

 

  ii.

in the case of non-resident entities, the transfer fulfils the requirements set out in Article 21 of the CIT Law (see paragraph 2.1 (b)).

This exemption shall also apply to capital gains which have not been obtained through a permanent establishment in Spain by individuals and entities resident for tax purposes in Member States of the EEA (other than Spain), or permanent establishments of these resident in other Member States of the EEA (other than Spain), provided that the requirements set forth in the NRIT Law are met.

 

   

Capital gains realized by a shareholder who benefit from a DTT entered into between their country of tax residence and Spain that provides for taxation of capital gains derived from the transfer of the

 

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ordinary shares only in the country of tax residence of such ordinary shares shareholder. As a result, capital gains realized by a U.S. investor entitled to the benefits of the Treaty will generally not be subject to Spanish taxation.

According to the Order dated December 17, 2010, shareholders, as the case may be, will be obliged to submit a Spanish tax form (currently tax form 210) within:

 

   

the first 20 calendar days of April, July, October and January, in respect of capital gains accrued in the preceding quarter, if there is a tax payment to be made; or

 

   

the first 20 calendar days of January of the year following that in which the relevant capital gain is accrued, if no tax is due (i.e., if qualifying for a tax exemption).

In order for the exemptions mentioned above to apply, a shareholder must timely file the applicable NRIT tax return before the Spanish tax authorities, and attach to it a certificate of tax residence issued by the tax authority of its country of residence (which, if applicable, must state that the shareholder of ordinary shares is a resident of such country within the meaning of the relevant DTT) or, as the case may be, an equivalent DTT form. U.S. investors should attach to the NRIT tax return an IRS certificate stating that to the knowledge of the IRS the U.S. investor is a resident of the United States within the meaning of the Treaty. As mentioned above, certificates of tax residence (or equivalent DTT forms) will be generally valid only for a period of one year after their date of issuance and if they refer to a specific period, they will only be valid for that period.

Prospective shareholders should consult their own tax advisors to obtain detailed information regarding NRIT filings they may be required to make before the Spanish Tax Authorities.

 

  3.2

Net Wealth Tax (Impuesto sobre el Patrimonio)

Non-Spanish tax resident individuals are subject to the Spanish Wealth Tax on the assets located in Spain or that can be executed within the Spanish territory (including the ordinary shares) as of 31 December each year, unless an applicable DTT provides otherwise. The Treaty does not address Net Wealth Tax.

Unless the DTT provides otherwise, Spanish Wealth Tax Law provides that the first EUR 700,000 of assets owned in Spain by Spanish non-resident tax individuals on the last day of any given year will be exempt from taxation, while the rest of the wealth will be taxed at a rate currently ranging between 0.2% and 3.5% although some reductions may apply. Individuals who are non-resident in Spain for tax purposes but are resident in an EU or EEA Member State may apply the rules approved by the autonomous region where the assets and rights with more value are situated. All such prospective investors should consult their tax advisors.

However, non-Spanish resident individuals will be exempt from Net Wealth Tax in respect of the ordinary shares to the extent that income deriving from the ordinary shares is exempt from NRIT as described above.

Non-Spanish tax resident entities are not subject to Wealth Tax.

 

  3.3

Inheritance and Gift Tax (Impuesto sobre Sucesiones y Donaciones)

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—D. Taxation in Spain on ownership and transfer of ordinary shares—3.3 Inheritance and Gift Tax (Impuesto sobre Sucesiones y Donaciones)” in the accompanying prospectus.

4. Indirect taxation

See “Taxation—Spanish Taxation—D. Taxation in Spain on ownership and transfer of ordinary shares—4 Indirect taxation” in the accompanying prospectus.

 

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E. SPANISH FTT

The Spanish law which implements the Spanish tax on financial transactions (the “Spanish FTT”) was approved on October 7, 2020 (the “FTT Law”) and the FTT Law was published in the Spanish Official Gazette (Boletín Oficial del Estado) on October 16, 2020. The Spanish FTT came into force on January 16, 2021 (three months after the publication of the FTT Law in the Spanish Official Gazette).

Spanish FTT charges a 0.2% rate on specific onerous acquisitions of listed shares issued by Spanish companies admitted to trading on a Spanish or other EU-regulated market, or on an equivalent market of a non-EU country, with a market capitalization that exceeds €1 billion on December 1 of the year prior to the acquisition, regardless of the jurisdiction of residence of the parties involved in the transaction.

The taxpayers (contribuyentes) are the acquirers of the shares on which the Spanish FTT is levied. However, the taxable persons (sujetos pasivos) are those investment services firms or credit institutions acquiring the shares on their own account. Furthermore, the financial intermediaries taking part in the transaction are the substitute taxpayers (sustitutos del contribuyente). In principle, the tax base of the Spanish FTT will be determined by the consideration paid, excluding transaction costs, or, when the amount of the consideration is not known, the market value of the shares. The Spanish FTT will accrue on the date when the shares are registered in the acquirer’s name.

Recently the Spanish tax authorities published on their website the list of the Spanish companies with a market capitalization exceeding €1 billion at December 16, 2020 and Banco Santander was included in such list. Therefore, onerous acquisitions of Banco Santander’s shares carried out during 2021 would fall within the scope of the Spanish FTT.

According to the criterion of the Spanish tax authorities, the Spanish FTT would not apply in relation to the acquisition of the contingent convertible capital securities. Additionally, the conversion of the contingent convertible capital securities into ordinary shares fall within the Spanish FTT although it may be exempt of such tax if it consists in a primary market transaction. However, the Spanish FTT would apply (at a fixed rate of 0.2%) to other financial transactions involving Banco Santander’s shares, regardless of the jurisdiction of residence of the parties involved in the transaction.

Prospective investors are advised to seek their own professional advice in relation to the Spanish FTT.

U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

See “Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Taxation of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities” in the accompanying prospectus for certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations to the U.S. Holders described therein of the ownership and disposition of the Notes. The following discussion with respect to the Euro Notes supplements the descriptions contained therein and assumes that payments on the Euro Notes will be made in euros and that we are not a “passive foreign investment company” for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year, as described in the accompanying prospectus.

The amount of any Euro Notes Distribution includible in income by a U.S. Holder will be a U.S. dollar amount calculated by reference to the exchange rate in effect on the date of actual or constructive receipt by the U.S. Holder, regardless of whether the euros are in fact converted into U.S. dollars on the date of receipt. If the payment of a Euro Notes Distribution is converted into U.S. dollars on the date of receipt, the U.S. Holder generally should not be required to recognize foreign currency gain or loss in respect of the Euro Note Distribution. If the payment is converted to U.S. dollars after the date of receipt, the U.S. Holder may have foreign currency gain or loss, which will be taxed as U.S.-source ordinary income or loss.

Upon a sale or other taxable disposition of a Euro Note by a U.S. Holder, the amount realized and the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the Euro Note disposed of will each be determined in U.S. dollars. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers regarding the exchange rates that should be used to determine such U.S. dollar amounts, and whether any U.S.-source foreign currency gain or loss may be required to be recognized as a result of the sale or disposition of a Euro Note.

 

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UNDERWRITING (CONFLICTS OF INTEREST)

Dollar Notes

We and Barclays Capital Inc., BNP Paribas Securities Corp., BofA Securities, Inc., Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and Santander Investment Securities Inc. (the “Dollar Note Representatives”), acting on behalf of the underwriters for the dollar denominated offering named below (the “Dollar Note Underwriters”) have entered into an underwriting agreement with respect to the Dollar Notes. Subject to certain terms and conditions, we have agreed to sell to the Dollar Note Underwriters (other than Santander Investment Securities Inc.) and each of the Dollar Note Underwriters (other than Santander Investment Securities Inc.) has severally, and not jointly, agreed to purchase the respective Liquidation Preference of the Dollar Notes indicated opposite such Dollar Note Underwriter’s name in the following table. Santander Investment Securities Inc. has agreed to use its best efforts to procure purchasers for up to the aggregate Liquidation Preference of the Dollar Notes set forth opposite its name in the following table. Subject to certain terms and conditions, each of the Dollar Note Underwriters (other than Santander Investment Securities Inc.) has severally, and not jointly, agreed to purchase their pro rata portion (based upon the aggregate Liquidation Preference of Dollar Notes set forth opposite their name in the following table) of the aggregate Liquidation Preference of the Dollar Notes not purchased by purchasers procured by Santander Investment Securities Inc.

 

Dollar Note Underwriters

   Liquidation
Preference of
Dollar Notes
 

Barclays Capital Inc.

   $ 117,600,000  

BNP Paribas Securities Corp.

     117,600,000  

BofA Securities, Inc.

     117,600,000  

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

     117,600,000  

Deutsche Bank Securities Inc.

     117,400,000  

J.P. Morgan Securities LLC

     117,400,000  

Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC

     117,400,000  

Santander Investment Securities Inc.(1)

     117,400,000  

Banco Bradesco BBI S.A.

     10,000,000  

Banco de Sabadell, S.A.

     10,000,000  

Danske Markets Inc.

     10,000,000  

Intesa Sanpaolo S.p.A.

     10,000,000  

Standard Chartered Bank AG

     10,000,000  

UNICAJA BANCO, S.A.

     10,000,000  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ 1,000,000,000  
  

 

 

 

 

(1)

Santander Investment Securities Inc. has agreed to use its reasonable best efforts to procure eligible purchasers for the aggregate Liquidation Preference of Dollar Notes set forth opposite its name.

 

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Euro Notes

We and Barclays Bank Ireland PLC, BNP Paribas, BofA Securities Europe SA, Citigroup Global Markets Europe AG, Deutsche Bank Aktiengesellschaft, J.P. Morgan AG, Morgan Stanley Europe SE and Banco Santander, S.A., acting as underwriter (the “Euro Note Representatives” and together with the Dollar Note Representatives, the “Representatives”), acting on behalf of the underwriters for the euro denominated offering named below (the “Euro Note Underwriters” and together with the Dollar Note Underwriters, the “Underwriters”) have entered into an underwriting agreement with respect to the Euro Notes. Subject to certain terms and conditions, we have agreed to sell to the Euro Note Underwriters (other than Banco Santander, S.A.) and each of the Euro Note Underwriters (other than Banco Santander, S.A.) has severally, and not jointly, agreed to purchase the respective Liquidation Preference of the Euro Notes indicated opposite such Euro Note Underwriter’s name in the following table. Banco Santander, S.A. has agreed to use its best efforts to procure purchasers for up to the aggregate Liquidation Preference of the Euro Notes set forth opposite its name in the following table. Subject to certain terms and conditions, each of the Euro Notes Underwriters (other than Banco Santander, S.A.) has severally, and not jointly, agreed to purchase their pro rata portion (based upon the aggregate Liquidation Preference of Euro Notes set forth opposite their name in the following table) of the aggregate Liquidation Preference of the Euro Notes not purchased by purchasers procured by Banco Santander, S.A.

 

Euro Note Underwriters

   Liquidation
Preference of
Euro Notes
 

Banco Santander, S.A.(1)

   88,200,000  

Barclays Bank Ireland PLC

     88,200,000  

BNP Paribas.

     88,200,000  

BofA Securities Europe SA

     88,200,000  

Citigroup Global Markets Europe AG

     88,200,000  

Deutsche Bank Aktiengesellschaft

     88,200,000  

J.P. Morgan AG

     88,200,000  

Morgan Stanley Europe SE

     88,200,000  

Banco Bradesco BBI S.A.

     7,400,000  

Banco de Sabadell, S.A.

     7,400,000  

Danske Markets Inc.

     7,400,000  

Intesa Sanpaolo S.p.A.

     7,400,000  

Standard Chartered Bank AG

     7,400,000  

UNICAJA BANCO, S.A.

     7,400,000  
  

 

 

 

Total

   750,000,000  
  

 

 

 

 

(1)

Banco Santander, S.A., acting as underwriter, has agreed to use its reasonable best efforts to procure eligible purchasers for the aggregate Liquidation Preference of Euro Notes set forth opposite its name.

The Dollar Note Underwriters (other than Santander Investment Securities Inc.) and the Euro Note Underwriters (other than Banco Santander, S.A.) have agreed, severally and not jointly, to purchase all of the Notes sold under their respective underwriting agreements if any are purchased and that the obligations of the Underwriters are subject to approval of legal matters by their counsel, including the validity of the Notes, and certain conditions precedent such as the receipt by the Underwriters of officer’s certificates and legal opinions. The offering of the Notes by the Underwriters is subject to receipt and acceptance and the Underwriters have the right to reject any order in whole or in part.

We have agreed to indemnify the several Underwriters and their controlling persons against certain liabilities in connection with this offering, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments the Underwriters may be required to make in respect of those liabilities.

 

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Certain of the Underwriters are not broker-dealers registered with the SEC, and therefore may not make sales of any notes in the United States or to U.S. persons except in compliance with applicable U.S. laws and regulations. To the extent any Underwriter that is not a U.S. registered broker-dealer intends to effect sales of notes in the United States, it will do so through one or more U.S. registered broker-dealers or otherwise in accordance with the applicable U.S. securities laws and regulations.

Commissions and Discounts

The Underwriters propose to offer the Notes directly to the public at the public offering price set forth on the cover page of this prospectus supplement. We estimate that the expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding the underwriting discount, will be approximately $0.6 million in the case of the Dollar Notes and €0.4 million in the case of the Euro Notes. The Underwriters have agreed to reimburse us for certain out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with this offering.

Matters Relating to the Initial Offering and Market-Making Resales

After the initial offering, the public offering price or any other term of the offering may be changed.

The Notes will be offered in the United States through those Underwriters who are registered to offer the Notes for sale in the United States either directly or indirectly through their U.S. broker-dealer affiliates, or such other registered dealers as may be designated by the Underwriters. We intend to apply for the listing of the Notes on the New York Stock Exchange in accordance with its rules. The Notes are a new issue of securities with no established trading market. We have been advised by the Underwriters that the Underwriters, with the exception of Santander Investment Securities Inc., intend to make a market in the Notes, but they are not obligated to do so and may discontinue market-making at any time without notice. No assurance can be given as to the liquidity of the trading market for the Notes. If an active trading market for the Notes does not develop, the market price and liquidity of the Notes may be adversely affected. If the Notes are traded, they may trade at a discount from their initial offering price, depending on prevailing interest rates, the market for similar securities, Banco Santander’s operating performance and financial condition, general economic conditions and other factors.

In this prospectus supplement, the term “the offering” means the initial offering of the Notes made in connection with their original issuance and not any subsequent resales of Notes in market-making transactions.

Settlement

The Dollar Notes will settle through the facilities of DTC and its direct and indirect participants (including Euroclear and Clearstream Luxembourg). The Euro Notes will settle through the facilities of Clearstream and Euroclear. The initial CUSIP number for the Dollar Notes is 05971K AH2 and the ISIN is US05971KAH23 and the initial CUSIP for the Euro Notes is 05971K AJ8 and the ISIN is XS2342620924.

It is expected that delivery of the Notes will be made against payment on or about May 12, 2021, which will be the fourth New York Business Day following the date of pricing of the Notes (such settlement cycle being referred to as “T+4”). Trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two Business Days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade Notes more than two (2) Business Days before May 12, 2021 will be required, by virtue of the fact that the Notes initially will settle in T+4, to specify an alternate settlement cycle at the time of any such trade to prevent a failed settlement. Such purchasers should consult their own advisors.

No Sales of Similar Securities

From the date of this prospectus supplement, and continuing to and including May 12, 2021, we have agreed that we will not, without the prior written consent of the Underwriters, offer, sell, contract to sell or otherwise dispose of, in the United States, any material amount of dollar-denominated contingent convertible perpetual securities issued or guaranteed by us and which are substantially similar to the Notes.

 

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Stabilization Transactions and Short Sales

In connection with the offering, the Underwriters, with the exception of Santander Investment Securities Inc., may purchase and sell Notes in the open market. These transactions may include short sales, stabilizing transactions and purchases to cover positions created by short sales. Short sales involve the sale by the Underwriters of a greater aggregate Liquidation Preference of Notes than they are required to purchase from us in the offering. Stabilizing transactions consist of certain bids or purchases made for the purpose of preventing or retarding a decline in the market price of the Notes while the offering is in progress.

The Underwriters may also impose a penalty bid. This occurs when a particular Underwriter repays to the Underwriters a portion of the underwriting discount received by it because the Underwriters have repurchased Notes sold by or for the account of such Underwriter in stabilizing or short-covering transactions.

These activities by the Underwriters may stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the Notes. As a result, the price of the Notes may be higher than the price that otherwise might exist in the open market. If these activities are commenced, they may be discontinued by the Underwriters at any time.

Other Relationships

The Underwriters and their respective affiliates are full service financial institutions engaged in various activities, which may include securities trading, commercial and investment banking, financial advisory, investment management, investment research, principal investment, hedging, financing and brokerage activities. In the ordinary course of business, the Underwriters and their affiliates may have engaged in and may in the future engage in investment, financial, banking, hedging and advisory services with us or our affiliates, for which customary fees may apply.

In the ordinary course of their various business activities, the Underwriters (with the exception of Santander Investment Securities Inc.) and their respective affiliates may make or hold a broad array of investments and actively trade debt and equity securities (or related derivative securities) and financial instruments (including bank loans) for their own account and for the accounts of their customers, and such investment and securities activities may involve securities and/or instruments of Banco Santander. Certain of the Underwriters or their affiliates that have a lending relationship with us routinely hedge their credit exposure to us consistent with their customary risk management policies. Typically, such Underwriters and their affiliates would hedge such exposure by entering into transactions which consist of either the purchase of credit default swaps or the creation of short positions in our securities, including potentially the Notes offered hereby. Any such credit default swaps or short positions could adversely affect future trading prices of the Notes offered hereby. The Underwriters and their respective affiliates may also make investment recommendations and/or publish or express independent research views in respect of such securities or instruments and may at any time hold, or recommend to clients that they acquire, long and/or short positions in such securities and instruments.

Certain of the Underwriters may resell notes outside of the United States to or through one or more of their affiliates.

Conflicts of Interest

Santander Investment Securities Inc. is a subsidiary of Banco Santander. Therefore, Santander Investment Securities Inc. is deemed to have a “conflict of interest” under FINRA Rule 5121 and, accordingly, the offering of the notes will comply with the applicable requirements of FINRA Rule 5121.

Pursuant to FINRA Rule 5121, a qualified independent underwriter is not required in connection with this offering because the notes to be offered are rated in one of the four highest generic rating categories by one of the nationally recognized statistical rating organizations. Santander Investment Securities Inc. will not confirm sales of the notes to any account over which it exercises discretionary authority without the specific written approval of the account holder.

 

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Selling Restrictions

PRIIPs Regulation / Prohibition of Sales to EEA Retail Investors

The Notes which are the subject of the offering contemplated by this prospectus supplement are not offered, sold or otherwise made available to and will not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to any retail investor in the EEA. For the purposes of this provision

 

  (a)

the expression “retail investor” means a person who is one (or more) of the following:

 

  (i)

a retail client as defined in point (11) of Article 4(1) of MiFID II;

 

  (ii)

a customer within the meaning of the IDD, where that customer would not qualify as a professional client as defined in point (10) of Article 4(1) of MiFID II; or

 

  (iii)

not a qualified investor as defined in the Prospectus Regulation; and

 

  (b)

the expression “offer” includes the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the Notes to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe to the Notes.

Prohibition of Sales to UK Retail Investors

The Notes which are the subject of the offering contemplated by this prospectus supplement are not offered, sold or otherwise made available to and will not be offered, sold or otherwise made available to any retail investor in the UK. For the purposes of this provision

 

  (a)

the expression “retail investor” means a person who is one (or more) of the following:

 

  (i)

a retail client, as defined in point (8) of Article 2 of Regulation (EU) No 2017/565 as it forms part of domestic law by virtue of the EUWA; or

 

  (ii)

a customer within the meaning of the provisions of the FSMA and any rules or regulations made under the FSMA to implement Directive (EU) 2016/97, where that customer would not qualify as a professional client, as defined in point (8) of Article 2(1) of Regulation (EU) No 600/2014 as it forms part of domestic law by virtue of the EUWA; or

 

  (iii)

not a qualified investor as defined in Article 2 of Regulation (EU) 2017/1129 as it forms part of domestic law by virtue of the EUWA; and

 

  (b)

the expression “offer” includes the communication in any form and by any means of sufficient information on the terms of the offer and the Notes to be offered so as to enable an investor to decide to purchase or subscribe to the Notes.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Spain

The Notes must not be offered, distributed or sold neither in Spain nor to Spanish Residents. No publicity of any kind shall be made in Spain. For the purposes of the selling restriction included in this section “Selling Restrictions”, “Spanish Resident” means a tax resident of Spain for the purposes of the Spanish tax legislation and any tax treaty signed by Spain for the avoidance of double taxation, including (i) any corporation, or other entity taxable as a corporation, incorporated under Spanish law, whose registered office is located in Spain or whose effective management is performed in Spain, and (ii) any non-residential entity for tax purposes in Spain acting in respect of the Notes through a permanent establishment in Spain, and (iii) any individual who is physically present in the Spanish territory for more than 183 days in the calendar year or whose main centre or base of activities or economic interests is in Spain.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Canada

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus constitute an “exempt offering document” as defined in and for the purposes of applicable Canadian securities laws. No prospectus has been filed with any

 

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securities commission or similar regulatory authority in Canada in connection with the offer and sale of the Notes. No securities commission or similar regulatory authority in Canada has reviewed or in any way passed upon this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or on the merits of the Notes and any representation to the contrary is an offense.

The Notes may be sold only to purchasers in the provinces of British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta, Québec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Saskatchewan and Manitoba purchasing, or deemed to be purchasing, as principal that are accredited investors, as defined in National Instrument 45-106 Prospectus Exemptions (“NI 45-106”) that were not created or used solely to purchase or hold securities as an accredited investor described in paragraph (m) or the definition of “accredited investor” in section 1.1 of No 45-106 or subsection 73.3(1) of the Securities Act (Ontario), and are permitted clients, as defined in National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations. Any resale of the Notes must be made in accordance with an exemption from, or in a transaction not subject to, the prospectus requirements of applicable securities laws.

Securities legislation in certain provinces or territories of Canada may provide a purchaser with remedies for rescission or damages if this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus (including any amendment thereto) contains a misrepresentation, provided that the remedies for rescission or damages are exercised by the purchaser within the time limit prescribed by the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory. The purchaser should refer to any applicable provisions of the securities legislation of the purchaser’s province or territory for particulars of these rights or consult with a legal advisor.

We are relying on an exemption based on U.S. disclosure under section 3A.3 of National Instrument 33-105 Underwriting Conflicts from the requirement to provide disclosure with respect to “related issuer” or “connected issuer” relationships. Canadian investors should refer to the section entitled “Underwriting (Conflicts of Interest)” for further information.

The issuer is not a member institution of the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation. The liability incurred by the issuer through the issuance and sale of the notes is not a deposit. The issuer is not regulated as a financial institution in Canada.

Upon receipt of this document, each Canadian investor hereby confirms that it has expressly requested that all documents evidencing or relating in any way to the sale of the securities described herein (including for greater certainty any purchase confirmation or any notice) be drawn up in the English language only. Par la re´ception de ce document, chaque investisseur canadien confirme par les pre´sentes qu’il a expresse´ment exige´ que tous les documents faisant foi ou se rapportant de quelque manie`re que ce soit a` la vente des valeurs mobilie`res de´crites aux pre´sentes (incluant, pour plus de certitude, toute confirmation d’achat ou tout avis) soient re´dige´s en anglais seulement.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the United Kingdom

Each Underwriter (a) has only communicated or caused to be communicated and will only communicate or cause to be communicated an invitation or inducement to engage in investment activity (within the meaning of Section 21 of the FSMA) received by it in connection with the issue or sale of the Notes in circumstances in which Section 21(1) of the FSMA does not or would not, if it was not an authorised person, apply to Banco Santander; and (b) has complied and will comply with all applicable provisions of the FSMA with respect to anything done by it in relation to the Notes in, from or otherwise involving the United Kingdom.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Hong Kong

(a) The Notes have not been offered or sold and will not be offered or sold in the Hong Kong by means of any document, any Notes other than (i) to “professional investors” as defined in the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap. 571) of the laws of Hong Kong (the “SFO”) and any rules made under the SFO; or (ii) in other

 

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circumstances which do not result in the document being a “prospectus” as defined in the Companies (Winding Up and Miscellaneous Provisions) Ordinance (Cap. 32) of Hong Kong (the “C(WUMP)O””) or which do not constitute an offer to the public within the meaning of the C(WUMP)O; and (b) no advertisement, invitation or document relating to the Notes, which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public of Hong Kong (except if permitted to do so under the securities laws of Hong Kong) has been or will be issued or has been or will be possessed for the purposes of the issue, whether in Hong Kong or elsewhere, other than with respect to the Notes which are or are intended to be disposed of only to persons outside Hong Kong or only to “professional investors” as defined in the SFO and any rules made under the SFO.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Italy

The offering of the Notes has not been registered with the Commissione Nazionale per le Società e la Borsa (“CONSOB”) pursuant to Italian securities legislation and, accordingly, no Notes may be offered, sold or delivered, nor may copies of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any other document relating to the Notes be distributed in the Republic of Italy, except in accordance with any Italian securities, tax and other applicable laws and regulations:

Each Underwriter has represented and agreed that it has not offered, sold or delivered, and will not offer, sell or deliver any Notes or distribute any copy of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any other document relating to the Notes in Italy except:

 

  (a)

to qualified investors (investitori qualificati), as defined pursuant to Article 2 of the Prospectus Regulation and any applicable provision of Legislative Decree No. 58 of 24 February 1998, as amended (the “Financial Services Act”) and Italian CONSOB Regulation; or

 

  (b)

in other circumstances which are exempted from the rules on public offerings pursuant to Article 1 of the Prospectus Regulation, Article 34-ter of CONSOB Regulation No. 11971 of 14 May 1999, as amended from time to time, and the applicable Italian laws.

Any such offer, sale or delivery of the Notes or distribution of copies of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any other document relating to the Notes in the Republic of Italy under (a) or (b) above must be:

 

  (i)

made by an investment firm, bank or financial intermediary permitted to conduct such activities in the Republic of Italy in accordance with the Financial Services Act, CONSOB Regulation No. 20307 of 15 February 2018 (as amended from time to time) and Legislative Decree No. 385 of 1 September 1993 (the “Banking Act”), all as amended from time to time; and

 

  (ii)

in compliance with Article 129 of the Banking Act, as amended from time to time, and the implementing guidelines of the Bank of Italy, as amended from time to time; and

 

  (iii)

in compliance with any other applicable laws and regulations or requirement imposed by CONSOB or any other Italian authority.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Japan

The Notes have not been and will not be registered for a public offering in Japan pursuant to Article 4, Paragraph 1 of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act of Japan (Act No. 25 of 1948, as amended (the “FIEA”). Accordingly, the Notes may not be offered or sold directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the benefit of, any resident of Japan (which term as used herein means any person resident in Japan, including any corporation or other entity organized under the laws of Japan), or to others for re-offering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Japan or to, or for the benefit of, a resident of Japan, except pursuant to an exemption from the registration requirements of, and otherwise in compliance with, the FIEA and any other applicable laws, regulations and ministerial guidelines of Japan in effect at the relevant time.

 

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Notice to Prospective Investors in the People’s Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan)

The Notes are not being offered or sold and may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, in the People’s Republic of China, or the “PRC” (for such purposes, not including the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions or Taiwan), except as permitted by all relevant laws and regulations of the PRC. The Notes are not an offer of securities within the meaning of the Securities Law of PRC or other pertinent laws and regulations of the PRC.

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus (i) have not been filed with or approved by the PRC authorities and (ii) do not constitute an offer to sell, or the solicitation of an offer to buy, any Notes in the PRC to any person to whom it is unlawful to make the offer of solicitation in the PRC.

The Notes may not be offered, sold or delivered to any person for reoffering or resale or redelivery, in any such case directly or indirectly (i) by means of any advertisement, invitation, document or activity which is directed at, or the contents of which are likely to be accessed or read by, the public in the PRC, or (ii) to any person within the PRC, other than in full compliance with all relevant laws and regulations of the PRC. Investors in the PRC are responsible for obtaining all relevant government regulatory approvals/licenses, verification and/or registrations themselves, including, but not limited to, those which may be required by the China Securities Regulatory Commission, the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, the People’s Bank of China and/or the China Banking Regulatory Commission, and complying with all relevant PRC laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, all relevant foreign exchange regulations and/or securities investment regulations.

Notice to Prospective Investors in the Republic of Korea

The Notes have not been and will not be registered under the Financial Investment Services and Capital Markets Act and the decrees and regulations thereunder (the “FSCMA”) and the Notes have been and will be offered in Korea as a private placement under the FSCMA. None of the Notes may be offered, sold and delivered, directly or indirectly, or offered or sold to any person for re-offering or resale, directly or indirectly, in Korea or to any resident of Korea except as otherwise permitted under the applicable laws and regulations of Korea, including the FSCMA and the Foreign Exchange Transaction Law of Korea and the decrees and regulations thereunder (the “FETL”). For a period of one year from the issue date of the Notes, any acquirer of the Notes who was solicited to buy the Notes in Korea is prohibited from transferring any of the Notes to another person in any way other than as a whole to one transferee. Furthermore, the purchaser of the Notes shall comply with all applicable regulatory requirements (including but not limited to requirements under the FETL) in connection with the purchase of the Notes.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Taiwan

The Notes have not been and will not be registered with the Financial Supervisory Commission of Taiwan, pursuant to relevant securities laws and regulations and may not be offered or sold directly or indirectly in Taiwan, or to, or for the account or benefit of, any person in Taiwan unless otherwise in compliance with the applicable laws and regulations of Taiwan. No person or entity in Taiwan has been authorized to offer, sell, give advice regarding or otherwise intermediate the offering and sale of the Notes in Taiwan.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Singapore

This prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus have not been registered as a prospectus with the Monetary Authority of Singapore. Accordingly, this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus and any other document or material in connection with the offer or sale, or invitation for subscription or purchase, of the Notes may not be circulated or distributed, nor may the Notes be offered or sold, or be made the subject of an invitation for subscription or purchase, nor may the Notes be circulated or distributed, whether directly or indirectly, to any person in Singapore other than (a) to an institutional investor (as defined in Section 4A of the

 

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Securities and Futures Act (Chapter 289) of Singapore, as modified or amended from time to time (the “SFA”)) pursuant to Section 274 of the SFA, (b) to a relevant person (as defined in Section 275(2) of the SFA) pursuant to Section 275(1) of the SFA, or any person pursuant to Section 275(1A) of the SFA, and in accordance with the conditions specified in Section 275 of the SFA or (c) otherwise pursuant to, and in accordance with the conditions of, any other applicable provision of the SFA.

Where the Notes are subscribed or purchased under Section 275 of the SFA by a relevant person which is:

 

  (a)

a corporation (which is not an accredited investor (as defined in Section 4A of the SFA)) the sole business of which is to hold investments and the entire share capital of which is owned by one or more individuals, each of whom is an accredited investor; or

 

  (b)

a trust (where the trustee is not an accredited investor) whose sole purpose is to hold investments and each beneficiary of the trust is an individual who is an accredited investor,

securities or securities-based derivatives contracts (each term as defined in Section 2(1) of the SFA) of that corporation or the beneficiaries’ rights and interest (howsoever described) in that trust shall not be transferred within 6 months after that corporation or that trust has acquired the Notes pursuant to an offer made under Section 275 of the SFA except:

 

  (1)

to an institutional investor or to a relevant person, or to any person arising from an offer referred to in Section 275(1A) or Section 276(4)(i)(B) of the SFA;

 

  (2)

where no consideration is or will be given for the transfer;

 

  (3)

where the transfer is by operation of law;

 

  (4)

as specified in Section 276(7) of the SFA; or

 

  (5)

as specified in Regulation 37A of the Securities and Futures (Offers of Investments) (Securities and Securities-based Derivatives Contracts) Regulations 2018.

Singapore SFA Product Classification—In connection with Section 309B of the SFA and the CMP Regulations 2018, the Issuer has determined, and hereby notifies all relevant persons (as defined in Section 309A(1) of the SFA), that the Notes are ‘prescribed capital markets products’ (as defined in the CMP Regulations 2018) and Excluded Investment Products (as defined in MAS Notice SFA 04-N12: Notice on the Sale of Investment Products and MAS Notice FAA-N16: Notice on Recommendations on Investment Products).

Notice to Prospective Investors in Switzerland

This prospectus supplement is not intended to constitute an offer or solicitation to purchase or invest in the Notes.

The Notes may not be publicly offered, directly or indirectly, in Switzerland within the meaning of the Swiss Financial Services Act (“FinSA”) and no application has or will be made to admit the Notes to trading on any trading venue (exchange or multilateral trading facility) in Switzerland. Neither this prospectus supplement nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the Notes constitutes a prospectus pursuant to the FinSA, and neither this prospectus supplement nor any other offering or marketing material relating to the Notes may be publicly distributed or otherwise made publicly available in Switzerland.

Notice to Prospective Investors in Australia

This prospectus supplement does not constitute a prospectus, a disclosure document or a product disclosure statement for the purposes of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) (“Corporations Act”) and does not purport to include all the information required for a prospectus, a disclosure document or a product disclosure statement under the Corporations Act. No prospectus, product disclosure statement or other disclosure document under Australian law has been lodged with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission in relation to the offering of the Notes.

 

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The provision of this prospectus supplement to any person does not constitute an offer of, or an invitation to apply for, the Notes in Australia. Any offer in Australia of the Notes may only be made to persons who are “sophisticated investors” or “professional investors” within the meaning of sections 708(8) and (11) of the Corporations Act, respectively and who are a “wholesale client” within the meaning of section 761G of the Corporations Act. This prospectus supplement is not intended to be distributed or passed on, directly or indirectly, to any other class of persons in Australia.

Any person to whom the Notes are issued or sold must not offer for sale in Australia in the period of 12 months after the date of issue of the Notes except where disclosure to investors is not required under the Corporations Act or where the offer is made pursuant to a prospectus, disclosure document or product disclosure statement that complies with the Corporations Act. Any person acquiring the Notes must observe such Australian on-sale restrictions.

This prospectus supplement contains general information only and does not take into account the investment objectives, financial situation or particular needs of any particular person. It does not contain any securities recommendations or financial product advice. Before acting on the information contained in this prospectus supplement, investors should consider its appropriateness having regard to their investment objectives, financial situations and needs, and, if necessary, seek expert advice.

 

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LEGAL OPINIONS

Our U.S. counsel, Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, will pass upon certain U.S. federal and New York legal matters relating to the validity of the Notes. Our Spanish counsel, Uría Menéndez Abogados, S.L.P., will pass upon certain Spanish legal matters for the Underwriters. Linklaters LLP will pass upon certain U.S. federal, New York and Spanish legal matters for the Underwriters.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference to the Recast 6-K and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting (which is included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting) incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference to the Annual Report on Form 20-F of Banco Santander, S.A. for the year ended December 31, 2020, have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers Auditores, S.L., an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting

 

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PROSPECTUS

Banco Santander, S.A.

By this prospectus we may offer —

DEBT SECURITIES

CONTINGENT CONVERTIBLE CAPITAL SECURITIES

ORDINARY SHARES

 

 

Banco Santander, S.A. may use this prospectus to offer from time to time senior preferred debt securities, senior non preferred debt securities, subordinated debt securities, contingent convertible capital securities and, solely in connection with the issuance of contingent convertible capital securities, ordinary shares (including in the form of American Depositary Shares). Banco Santander, S.A.’s American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, each representing the right to receive one share of capital stock of Banco Santander, S.A., are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “SAN”. In addition, Banco Santander, S.A.’s ordinary shares are listed on the Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia stock exchanges (the “Spanish Stock Exchanges”) and quoted on the Automated Quotation System of the Spanish Stock Exchanges (the “Automated Quotation System”). Banco Santander, S.A.’s ordinary shares are also listed on the London (in the form of CREST Depository Interests), Warsaw and Mexico (on the Sistema Internacional de Cotizaciones of the Mexican Stock Exchange) stock exchanges.

This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which we will offer these securities. We will provide the specific terms of any series of these securities, and the manner in which they will be offered, in one or more supplements to this prospectus. Any supplement may also add, update or change information contained, or incorporated by reference, into this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement carefully before you invest in our securities.

You should read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Documents by Reference”, before investing in any of the securities described in the prospectus. The amount and price of the offered securities will be determined at the time of the offering.

Investing in our securities involves risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 3.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined that this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

This prospectus may not be used to offer or sell any securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

The date of this prospectus is May 14, 2020.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

About this Prospectus

     1  

Use of Proceeds

     2  

Banco Santander, S.A.

     2  

Risk Factors

     3  

Description of Debt Securities

     43  

Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities

     71  

Description of Certain Provisions Relating to Debt Securities and Contingent Convertible Capital Securities

     119  

Description of Ordinary Shares

     125  

Description of American Depositary Shares

     126  

Taxation

     133  

Benefit Plan Investor Considerations

     161  

Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)

     163  

Legal Opinions

     165  

Experts

     165  

Enforcement of Civil Liabilities

     165  

Where You Can Find More Information

     166  

Incorporation of Documents by Reference

     166  

Cautionary Statement on Forward-Looking Statements

     167  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form F-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) using a “shelf” registration or continuous offering process. Under this shelf process, we may sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings of an unspecified amount in one or more foreign currencies or currency units.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the debt securities and contingent convertible capital securities (convertible into ordinary shares upon a trigger event) we may offer, which we will refer to collectively as the “securities”. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement will provide information regarding certain tax consequences of the purchase, ownership and disposition of the offered securities. The prospectus supplement may also add to, update or change information contained in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in that prospectus supplement. We will file each prospectus supplement with the SEC. You should read both this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related issuer free writing prospectus, together with the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Documents by Reference”.

The registration statement containing this prospectus, including exhibits to the registration statement, provides additional information about us and the securities offered under this prospectus. Statements contained in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement about the provisions or content of any agreement or other document are only summaries. If SEC rules require that any agreement or document be filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, you should refer to that agreement or document for its complete contents. The registration statement can be read at the SEC’s offices or obtained from the SEC’s website mentioned under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information”.

Certain Terms

In this prospectus, the following terms will have the meanings set forth below, unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires

 

   

“Banco Santander” means Banco Santander, S.A. and the term “Group” means Banco Santander, S.A. and its consolidated subsidiaries;

 

   

“debt securities” refers to the senior preferred debt securities, senior non preferred debt securities and subordinated debt securities;

 

   

“senior preferred debt securities” refers to the senior preferred unsubordinated debt securities issued by Banco Santander;

 

   

“senior non preferred debt securities” refers to the senior non preferred unsubordinated debt securities issued by Banco Santander;

 

   

“securities” refers to the debt securities and the contingent convertible capital securities;

 

   

“subordinated debt securities” refers to the subordinated debt securities issued by Banco Santander;

 

   

“we”, “our” and “us” refers to Banco Santander as issuer;

 

   

“$”, “US$”, “U.S. dollars” and “dollars” refer to United States dollars; and

 

   

“€” and “euro” refer to euro.


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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless we have disclosed a specific plan in the accompanying prospectus supplement, we will use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus for general corporate purposes. The Group has raised capital in various markets from time to time and we expect to continue to raise capital in appropriate markets as and when required.

BANCO SANTANDER, S.A.

Banco Santander, S.A. is the parent bank of the Group. The Group operates principally in Spain, the United Kingdom, other European countries, Brazil and other Latin American countries and the United States, offering a wide range of financial products. In Latin America, the Group has majority shareholdings in banks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, Colombia and Uruguay.

Banco Santander, S.A. was established on March 21, 1857 and incorporated in its present form by a public deed executed in Santander, Spain, on January 14, 1875. Banco Santander, S.A. is incorporated under, and governed by, the laws of the Kingdom of Spain as a company with unlimited duration and with limited liability (sociedad anónima).

Banco Santander, S.A. conducts business under the commercial name “Santander”. The Group’s principal corporate offices are located in Ciudad Grupo Santander, Avenida de Cantabria s/n, 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain, and its telephone number is (011) 34-91-259-6520.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Prospective investors should consider carefully the risk factors incorporated by reference into this prospectus and as set out below as well as the other information set out elsewhere in this prospectus (including any other documents incorporated by reference herein) and reach their own views prior to making any investment decision with respect to any of the securities described in this prospectus.

Set out below and incorporated by reference herein are certain risk factors which could have a material adverse effect on Banco Santander’s and the Group’s business, operations, financial condition or prospects and cause future results to be materially different from expected results. Banco Santander’s results could also be affected by competition and other factors. These factors should not be regarded as a complete and comprehensive statement of all potential risks and uncertainties that Banco Santander and the Group face. Described are only those risks relating to Banco Santander’s and the Group’s operations or an investment in the securities that Banco Santander considers to be material. There may be additional risks that Banco Santander currently considers not to be material or of which they are not currently aware, and any of these risks could have the effects set forth below. All of these factors are contingencies which may or may not occur and Banco Santander is not in a position to express a view on the likelihood of any such contingency occurring. Investors should note that they bear Banco Santander’s and the Group’s solvency risk. Each of the risks highlighted below could have a material adverse effect on the amount of principal, interest, liquidation preference and distributions which investors will receive in respect of the securities. In addition, each of the highlighted risks could adversely affect the trading price of the securities or the rights of investors under the securities and, as a result, investors could lose some or all of their investment. Holders of contingent convertible capital securities or debt securities should consult their own financial, tax and legal advisers regarding the risks of an investment in the securities.

Capitalized terms and certain other terms used in this sectionRisk Factors, unless otherwise defined in this section, have the meanings assigned to them inDescription of Debt SecuritiesandDescription of Contingent Convertible Capital Securitiesbelow.

Risks relating to Banco Santander and the Group

For a description of the risks associated with Banco Santander and the Group, see the section entitled “Risk Factors” of Banco Santander’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019, which is incorporated by reference herein.

Risks Relating to the Securities

Holders of any series of securities may experience a loss in their investment in the event Banco Santander becomes subject to a resolution process under Law 11/2015 (or in the event that loss absorption is required by the SRB to avoid a resolution process).

Chapter VI of Law 11/2015, of June 18, for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms, as amended or superseded from time to time (“Law 11/2015”), regulates a set of measures targeted at ensuring that shareholders, subordinated creditors (including holders of securities) and certain senior creditors bear losses through a burden sharing mechanism within the framework of resolution processes. These measures could include the discharge of any indebtedness and a stay of payment in respect of any indebtedness imposed by the Single Resolution Board (the “SRB”), the Fondo de Reestructuración Ordenada Bancaria (the “FROB”) or any other entity with the authority to exercise the relevant tools and powers from time to time under Law 11/2015 (each, a “Relevant Resolution Authority”), even against the will or without the consent of those holding the relevant securities. Measures include repurchases of the debt securities at a certain price determined by the FROB, write-downs of the nominal value of contingent convertible capital and debt securities or their exchange for other securities. Potential investors in the securities of any series should consider the risk that a holder may lose all or part of its investment if Banco Santander became the subject of a resolution process (or, in the case of

 

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investors in the subordinated debt securities or contingent convertible capital securities of any series, in the event that loss absorption were required by the SRB to avoid a resolution process of Banco Santander; and additionally, pursuant to BRRD II and the SRM Regulation II (as defined below), senior non preferred securities and senior preferred securities eligible to comply with TLAC/MREL Requirements, may be also subject to Non-Viability Loss Absorption (as defined below)) and a loss absorption measure was taken with respect to the securities of such series in accordance with Chapter VI of Law 11/2015.

There is no active trading market for the securities.

Securities issued pursuant to this prospectus (other than Banco Santander’s ordinary shares) will be new securities which may not be widely distributed and for which there is currently no active trading market and no active trading market may develop. If securities of any series are traded after their initial issuance, they may trade at a discount to their initial offering price, depending on a number of factors, including: prevailing interest rates, the number of holders of such series of securities, the market for similar securities, general economic conditions and the financial condition of Banco Santander and Banco Santander’s credit ratings published by credit rating agencies, the interest of securities dealers in making a market for such series of securities and the introduction of any financial transaction tax. Although Banco Santander may submit applications to list any series of securities on recognized stock exchanges, there is no assurance that such applications will be accepted, that any particular series of securities will be so admitted or that an active trading market will develop, or if developed, that it will continue. If an active trading market does not develop or is not maintained in respect of a particular series of securities, the market price and liquidity of the securities of such series, as applicable, may be adversely affected. In that case, holders of the securities of such series may not be able to sell the securities of such series at a particular time or may not be able to sell securities of such series at a favorable price.

The securities of any series are subject to the subordination provisions of the Spanish Insolvency Law.

Law 22/2003 (Ley Concursal) dated 9 July 2003 (“Law 22/2003” or the “Spanish Insolvency Law”), which became effective on September 1, 2004 supersedes all pre-existing Spanish provisions which regulated Banco Santander’s bankruptcy, insolvency (including suspension of payments) and any process affecting creditors’ rights generally, including the ranking of its credits.

Law 11/2015 established the ranking of claims under Article 92.2° of the Spanish Insolvency Law for Spanish banking insolvency proceedings. According to Law 11/2015: (a) principal of subordinated debt securities qualifying as Tier 2 Instruments will rank (i) pari passu among themselves and with the principal of any other contractually subordinated obligations of the relevant debtor qualifying as Tier 2 Instruments, (ii) senior to any principal of contractually subordinated obligations of the relevant debtor qualifying as Additional Tier 1 Instruments and (iii) junior to any principal of contractually subordinated obligations of the relevant debtor not qualifying as Additional Tier 1 Instruments or Tier 2 Instruments, and (b) principal of contingent convertible capital securities qualifying as Additional Tier 1 will rank (i) pari passu among themselves and with the principal of any other contractually subordinated obligations of the relevant debtor qualifying as Additional Tier 1, and (ii) junior to any principal of contractually subordinated obligations of the relevant debtor not qualifying as Additional Tier 1.

Law 22/2003 provides, among other things, that interest (other than interest accruing under secured liabilities up to an amount equal to the value of the asset subject to the security) shall cease to accrue as from the date of the declaration of insolvency and any amount of interest accrued up to such date (other than any interest accruing under secured liabilities up to an amount equal to the value of the asset subject to the security) or Distributions in respect of contingent convertible capital securities, will be subject to the subordination provisions of Article 92.3° of the Spanish Insolvency Law.

The Spanish Insolvency Law, in certain instances, also has the effect of modifying or impairing creditors’ rights even if the creditor, either secured or unsecured, does not consent to the amendment. Secured and

 

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unsecured dissenting creditors may be written down not only once the insolvency has been declared by the judge as a result of the approval of a creditors’ agreement, but also as a result of an out-of-court restructuring agreement without insolvency proceedings having been previously opened (e.g., refinancing agreements which satisfy certain requirements and are validated by the judge), in both scenarios (i) to the extent that certain qualified majorities are achieved and unless (ii) some exceptions in relation to the kind of claim or creditor apply (which would not be the case for the securities).

The majorities legal regime envisaged for these purposes also hinges on (i) the type of the specific restructuring measure which is intended to be imposed (e.g., extensions, debt reductions, debt for equity swaps, etc.) as well as (ii) on the part of claims to be written-down (i.e. secured or unsecured, depending on the value of the collateral as calculated pursuant to the rules established in the Spanish Insolvency Law).

In no case shall subordinated creditors be entitled to vote upon a creditors’ agreement during the insolvency proceedings, and accordingly, shall be always subject to the measures contained therein, if passed.

Under the terms of the securities of any series, holders of such securities shall have agreed to be bound by and consent to the exercise of any resolution tool by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

Notwithstanding any other term of the securities of any series or any other agreements, arrangements, or understandings between Banco Santander and any holder of the securities of any series, by its acquisition of the securities of any series, each holder (which, for the purposes of this risk, includes each holder of a beneficial interest in the securities of any series) acknowledges, accepts, consents and agrees to be bound by the effect of the exercise of any resolution tools (including the sale of business tool, the bridge institution tool, and the asset separation tool) by the Relevant Resolution Authority in compliance with any laws, regulations, rules or requirements in effect in the Kingdom of Spain, relating to (i) the transposition of Directive 2014/59/EU establishing a framework for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms, as may be amended or superseded from time to time or come into effect in place thereof (including the BRRD II) (the “Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive” or “BRRD”), including but not limited to Law 11/2015, and Royal Decree 1012/2015, of 6 November developing Law 11/2015, as amended or superseded from time to time (“RD 1012/2015”), (ii) the Regulation (EU) No. 806/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 July 2014, establishing uniform rules and a uniform procedure for the resolution of credit institutions and certain investment firms in the framework of the Single Resolution Mechanism and the Single Resolution Fund and amending Regulation (EU) No. 1093/2010, as amended or superseded from time to time (including SRM Regulation II) (the “SRM Regulation”) and (iii) the instruments, rules and standards created thereunder.

The potential impact of any resolution tool may include the total loss of value of the securities of any series, and under certain circumstances, the inability of Banco Santander to perform its obligations under its securities.

See “—Law 11/2015 enables a range of actions to be taken in relation to credit institutions and investment firms considered to be at risk of failing. The taking of any action under Law 11/2015 could materially affect the value of any debt securitiesand—Law 11/2015 enables a range of actions to be taken in relation to credit institutions and investment firms considered to be at risk of failing. The taking of any action under Law 11/2015 could materially affect the value of any contingent convertible capital securities” below for a further description of the range of actions which may be taken.

Because global securities will be held by or on behalf of DTC, investors will have to rely on their procedures for transfer, payment and communication with Banco Santander.

The securities of any series issued may be represented by one or more global securities. Such global securities will be registered with Cede & Co. as a nominee of the Depository Trust Company (“DTC”), and may be held through a DTC participant, including Euroclear and Clearstream. Except in the circumstances described in the relevant global security, investors will not be entitled to receive definitive securities. DTC will maintain

 

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records of the beneficial interests in the global securities. While the securities are represented by one or more global securities, investors will be able to trade their beneficial interests only through DTC (or any other clearing system that is a direct or indirect participant in DTC).

While the securities of any series are represented by one or more global securities, Banco Santander will discharge their payment obligations under the securities of such series by making payments to the common depositary or Principal Paying Agent for DTC for distribution to their account holders. A holder of a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of DTC, or if such interest is held through a DTC participant, the procedures of such DTC participant, to receive payments under the relevant series of securities. Banco Santander has no responsibility or liability for the records relating to, or payments made in respect of, beneficial interests in the global securities.

Holders of beneficial interests in the global securities will not have a direct right to vote in respect of the relevant series of securities. Instead, such holders will be permitted to act only to the extent that they are enabled by DTC to appoint appropriate proxies. Similarly, holders of beneficial interests in the global securities will not have a direct right under the global securities to take enforcement action against Banco Santander in the event of a default under the relevant series of securities but will have to rely upon their rights under the relevant indenture.

If Banco Santander does not receive timely certain information related to securities of any series from the Principal Paying Agent (in order to provide such information to the Spanish tax authorities), payments on the securities will become subject to Spanish withholding tax and no additional amounts will be paid with respect thereto.

Article 44 of Royal Decree 1065/2007, as amended (“Royal Decree 1065/2007”) sets out the reporting obligations applicable to preferred securities (participaciones preferentes), such as the contingent convertible capital securities of any series, and debt instruments (such as the debt securities), in each case, issued under Law 10/2014. The procedures apply to income derived from preferred securities and debt instruments to which Law 10/2014 refers, including debt instruments issued at a discount for a period equal to or less than twelve months.

According to Article 44.5 of Royal Decree 1065/2007, income derived from preferred securities or debt instruments issued under Law 10/2014 and which have been originally registered with entities that manage clearing systems located outside Spain (provided that these entities are recognized by Spanish law or by the law of another Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”) country such as DTC, Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg), will be paid free of Spanish withholding tax provided that the Principal Paying Agent appointed by Banco Santander submits, in a timely manner, a statement to Banco Santander, with the following information:

(i) identification of the securities;

(ii) income payment date (or refund if the securities are issued at discount or are segregated);

(iii) total amount of income (or total amount to be refunded if the securities are issued at discount or are segregated); and

(iv) total amount of the income corresponding to each clearing system located outside Spain.

For these purposes, “income” means interest and the difference, if any, between the aggregate amount payable on the redemption of the securities of any series and the issue price of the securities of such series.

In accordance with Article 44 of Royal Decree 1065/2007, the Principal Paying Agent should provide Banco Santander with the statement reflecting the relevant position at the close of business on the business day immediately prior to each interest payment date. In the event that on such date, an entity obliged to provide the

 

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declaration fails to do so, Banco Santander or the Principal Paying Agent on its behalf will make a withholding at the then applicable general rate (currently set at 19%) on the total amount of the return on the relevant debt securities or contingent convertible capital securities otherwise payable to their holders.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the event that withholding tax were required by law due to the failure of the Principal Paying Agent to submit in a timely manner a duly executed and completed certificate pursuant to Law 10/2014 and Royal Decree 1065/2007 and any implementing legislation or regulation, Banco Santander will not pay any additional amounts with respect to any such withholding, as provided in “Description of Debt Securities—Additional Amounts” and “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Additional Amounts” below.

In the event that the currently applicable procedures are modified, amended or supplemented by, among other things, any Spanish law, regulation, interpretation or ruling of the Spanish tax authorities, Banco Santander will notify the holders of the relevant series of securities, as applicable, of such information procedures and their implications, as Banco Santander may be required to apply withholding tax on interest payments or Distributions, as applicable, in respect of the relevant series of securities if the holders of such series of securities do not comply with such information procedures.

Potential FATCA Withholding

Under certain provisions of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, commonly referred to as “FATCA,” and Treasury regulations promulgated hereunder, certain payments made in respect of the debt securities, contingent convertible capital securities, ADSs or Conversion Shares may be subject to withholding at a rate of 30%, to the extent that such payments are considered to be “foreign passthru payments.” Banco Santander (or its paying agent or other financial intermediaries) may be required to withhold under FATCA on payments made to (i) non-U.S. financial institutions (including intermediaries) that have not entered into agreements with the Internal Revenue Service pursuant to FATCA or otherwise established an exemption from FATCA, and (ii) other holders that fail to provide sufficient identifying information to the relevant payor. The United States has entered into intergovernmental agreements for the implementation of FATCA with many jurisdictions (including Spain), which may modify these requirements. Under current guidance it is not clear whether and to what extent payments on the debt securities, contingent convertible capital securities, ADSs or Conversion Shares will be considered foreign passthru payments subject to withholding under FATCA, or whether and to what extent withholding on foreign passthru payments may be required under intergovernmental agreements and their implementing rules. Under proposed Treasury regulations, (the preamble to which specifies that taxpayers may rely on them pending finalization) FATCA withholding on foreign passthru payments will not be required prior to the date that is two years after the date on which final Treasury regulations defining the term foreign passthru payments are published in the U.S. Federal Register. In addition, FATCA withholding on foreign passthru payments will not be required with respect to securities treated as debt for U.S. federal income tax purposes that are issued on or before the date that is six months after the date on which final Treasury regulations defining the term foreign passthru payments are published in the U.S. Federal Register (provided that such debt securities are not materially modified thereafter, including, in certain circumstances, by reason of a substitution or variation by Banco Santander). Investors should consult their tax advisors as to whether and how these rules may apply to payments they receive on the debt securities, contingent convertible capital securities, ADSs or Conversion Shares.

The proposed financial transaction tax (FTT)

On February 14, 2013, the European Commission published a proposal (the “Commission’s Proposal”) for a Directive for a common FTT in Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Austria, Portugal, Slovenia and Slovakia (although Estonia has since stated that it will not participate) (the “participating Member States”).

 

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The Commission’s proposal has very broad scope and could, if introduced, apply to certain dealings in the securities (including secondary market transactions) under certain circumstances. The issuance and subscription for the securities should, however, be exempt.

Under the Commission’s Proposal, the FTT could apply in certain circumstances to persons both within and outside of the participating Member States. Generally, it would apply to certain dealings in the securities where at least one party is a financial institution, and at least one party is established in a participating Member State. A financial institution may be, or be deemed to be, “established” in a participating Member State in a broad range of circumstances, including (a) by transacting with a person established in a participating Member State or (b) where the financial instrument which is subject to the dealings is issued in a participating Member State.

The FTT may give rise to tax liabilities for Banco Santander with respect to certain transactions if it is adopted based on the Commission’s Proposal. Examples of such transactions are the conclusion of a derivative contract in the context of Banco Santander’s hedging arrangements or the purchase or sale of securities. It should also be noted that the FTT could be payable in relation to relevant transactions by investors in respect of the securities (including secondary market transactions) if conditions for a charge to arise are satisfied and the FTT is adopted based on the Commission’s Proposal. Primary market transactions referred to in Article 5(c) of Regulation EC No 1287/2006 are expected to be exempt.

The Commission’s Proposal remains subject to negotiation by the participating Member States and the scope of any such tax is uncertain. Similarly, the timing of the enactment of the Commission’s Proposal, if at all, as well as the number of Member States who may elect to participate, is uncertain as of the date of this prospectus. Additional Member States of the European Union may decide to participate.

On 30 April 2019, the interim government submitted to the European Commission the “Update of the Stability Programme 2019-2022” (Actualización del Programa de Estabilidad 2019-2022). This report is not equivalent to a draft law, but it includes the economic projections for 2019-2022 and confirms the intention of the new government to approve the Spanish FTT, stating that “the creation of the Tax on Financial Transactions will be relaunched”.

In this vein, on 18 February 2020 the Spanish government passed a draft law for introducing the FTT in Spain which was submitted for discussions to the Spanish Parliament on 28 February 2020. In principle, the FTT should not affect transactions involving bonds or debt or analogous instruments, such as debt securities and contingent convertible capital securities. Nevertheless, it would likely tax the acquisition of listed shares (including the transfer or conversion) of Spanish companies with a market capitalisation of more than €1 billion, at a fixed tax rate of 0.2%, regardless of the jurisdiction of residence of the parties involved in the transaction. Should the acquisition of listed shares arise from the conversion of contingent convertible capital securities or other convertible bonds, special rules for the assessment of the taxable base would apply. The obligation to withhold, self-assess and pay the FTT falls on the financial intermediaries involved in the acquisition of the shares, whether acting in its name or on behalf of investors, regardless of whether or not the financial intermediaries are established in Spain.

If approved by the Spanish Parliament, the FTT would enter into force three months after its publication in the Official State Gazette (Boletín Oficial del Estado) and would potentially affect credit entities and investment companies whether acting in its name or as financial intermediaries (on behalf of investors).

As the draft law has been sent to the Spanish Parliament for debate and approval, some of the proposed measures could be substantially modified (or even abandoned) during the legislative process.

If introduced, certain dealings in the securities may be subject to the FTT, in which case neither Banco Santander nor the Principal Paying Agent nor any other person would be obliged to pay additional amounts with respect to any security as a result of imposition of such tax. Any discrepancies between the FTT regimes

 

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implemented by EU Member States, along with the increase in transactions costs, would likely create distortions in financial markets, potential double taxation and affect both the volume of trades and liquidity.

Prospective investors are advised to seek their own professional advice in relation to FTT.

The market value of the securities is likely to be limited by early redemption features

Early redemption features are likely to limit the market value of the securities. During any period when Banco Santander may redeem the securities, the market value of those instruments generally will not rise substantially above the price at which they can be redeemed. Banco Santander may be expected to redeem the securities when its cost of borrowing is lower than the interest rate on the securities. At those times, an investor generally would not be able to reinvest the redemption proceeds at an effective interest rate as high as the interest rate on the securities being redeemed and may only be able to do so at a significantly lower rate. Potential investors should consider reinvestment risk in light of other investments available at that time.

Risks Relating to the Debt Securities

Law 11/2015 enables a range of actions to be taken in relation to credit institutions and investment firms considered to be at risk of failing. The taking of any action under Law 11/2015 could materially affect the value of any debt securities.

The BRRD (which has been implemented in Spain through Law 11/2015 and RD 1012/2015) is designed to provide authorities with tools to intervene in unsound or failing credit institutions or investment firms (“institutions”) to ensure the continuity of the institution’s critical financial and economic functions, while minimizing the impact of an institution’s failure on the economy and financial system.

As provided in the BRRD, Law 11/2015 contains four resolution tools and powers which may be used alone or in combination where the Relevant Resolution Authority considers that (a) an institution is failing or likely to fail, (b) there is no reasonable prospect that any alternative private sector measures would prevent the failure of such institution within a reasonable timeframe, and (c) a resolution action is in the public interest. The four resolution tools are: (i) sale of business—which enables resolution authorities to direct the sale of the firm or the whole or part of its business on commercial terms; (ii) bridge institution—which enables resolution authorities to transfer all or part of the business of the firm to a “bridge institution” (an entity created for this purpose that is wholly or partially in public control); (iii) asset separation—which enables resolution authorities to transfer impaired or problem assets to one or more publicly owned asset management vehicles to allow them to be managed with a view to maximizing their value through eventual sale or orderly wind-down (this can be used together with another resolution tool only); and (iv) bail-in by which the Relevant Resolution Authority may exercise the Spanish Bail-in Power (as defined below). This includes the ability of the Relevant Resolution Authority to write down (including to zero) and/or to convert into equity or other securities or obligations (which equity, securities or obligations could also be subject to any future application of the Spanish Bail-in Power (as defined below)) certain unsecured debt claims (including senior preferred debt securities and senior non preferred debt securities) and subordinated obligations (including subordinated debt securities).

Law 11/2015 also provides for the resolution authority as a last resort, after having assessed and exploited the above resolution tools to the maximum extent possible while maintaining financial stability, to be able to provide extraordinary public financial support through additional financial stabilization tools. These consist of the public equity support and temporary public ownership tools. Any such extraordinary financial support must be provided in accordance with the EU state aid framework.

In accordance with Article 20 of Law 11/2015, an institution will be considered as failing or likely to fail in any of the following circumstances: (i) it is, or is likely in the near future to be, in significant breach of its solvency or any other requirements necessary for maintaining its authorization; (ii) its assets are, or are likely in

 

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the near future to be, less than its liabilities; (iii) it is, or is likely in the near future to be, unable to pay its debts as they fall due; or (iv) it requires extraordinary public financial support (except in limited circumstances). The determination that an institution is no longer viable may depend on a number of factors which may be outside of that institution’s control.

In addition to the Spanish Bail-in Power, the Relevant Resolution Authority has the further power to permanently write-down (including to zero), or convert into equity, capital instruments such as the subordinated debt securities of any series at the point of non-viability of an institution or a group (“Non-Viability Loss Absorption”). In addition, pursuant to BRRD II and the SRM Regulation II eligible liabilities (including senior non preferred securities and senior preferred debt securities eligible to comply with TLAC/MREL Requirements) may be also subject to Non-Viability Loss Absorption. Any shares issued to holders of debt securities of such series upon any such conversion into equity may also be subject to any application of the Spanish Bail-in Power.

Any application of the Spanish Bail-in Power and Non-Viability Loss Absorption powers shall be in accordance with the hierarchy of claims in normal insolvency proceedings (unless otherwise provided by the Applicable Banking Regulations (as defined below). Accordingly, the impact of such application on holders will depend on the ranking of the relevant instrument.

In addition, in accordance with Article 64.1(i) of Law 11/2015, the Relevant Resolution Authority has the power to alter the amount of interest payable under debt instruments and other eligible liabilities subject to resolution proceedings and the date on which the interest becomes payable under the debt instrument (including the power to suspend payment for a temporary period).

The powers set out in the BRRD as implemented through Law 11/2015, RD 1012/2015 and the SRM Regulation will impact how credit institutions and investment firms are managed as well as, in certain circumstances, the rights of creditors. Holders of the debt securities of any series may be subject to write-down or conversion into equity on any application of the Spanish Bail-in Power and, in the case of the subordinated debt securities of any series, to Non-Viability Loss Absorption, which may result in such holders losing some or all of their investment. The exercise of any power under Law 11/2015 or any suggestion of such exercise could, therefore, materially adversely affect the rights of holders of the debt securities of any series and the price or value of their investment in any series of debt securities.

Under the terms of the debt securities of any series, holders of such securities shall have agreed to be bound by and consent to the exercise of any Spanish Bail-in Power and Non-Viability Loss Absorption by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

Pursuant to Article 46 of Law 11/2015, which implements Article 55 of the BRRD, subject to limited exceptions, unsecured liabilities of an institution governed by the laws of a third country (which include the debt securities of any series) must contain a contractual acknowledgment whereby the holders recognize that such liability may be subject to the Spanish Bail-in Power (as defined herein) and Non-Viability Loss Absorption and agree to be bound by the exercise of those powers by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

Notwithstanding any other term of the debt securities of any series or any other agreements, arrangements, or understandings between Banco Santander and any holder of the debt securities of any series, by its acquisition of the debt securities of any series, each holder (which, for the purposes of this clause, includes each holder of a beneficial interest in the debt securities of any series) acknowledges, accepts, consents to and agrees to be bound by the exercise of any Spanish Bail-in Power, and in the case of subordinated debt securities and, pursuant to BRRD II and the SRM II, senior preferred debt securities eligible to comply with TLAC/MREL Requirements and senior non preferred debt securities, Non-Viability Loss Absorption by the Relevant Resolution Authority that may result in the write-down or cancellation of all or a portion of the Amounts Due on the debt securities and/or the conversion of all or a portion of the Amounts Due on the debt securities into shares or other securities or other obligations of Banco Santander or another person, including by means of a variation to the terms of the

 

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debt securities to give effect to the exercise by the Relevant Resolution Authority of such powers. Each holder of the debt securities further acknowledges and agrees that the rights of the holders of the debt securities are subject to—and will be varied, if necessary, so as to give effect to—the exercise of any Spanish Bail-in Power, and in the case of subordinated debt securities and, pursuant to BRRD II and the SRM II, senior preferred debt securities eligible to comply with TLAC/MREL Requirements and senior non preferred debt securities, Non-Viability Loss Absorption by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

For these purposes, the “Amounts Due” are the principal amount of, premium, if any, together with any accrued but unpaid interest, and Additional Amounts, if any, due on the debt securities of any series. References to such amounts will include amounts that have become due and payable, but which have not been paid, prior to the exercise of the Spanish Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

For these purposes, “Spanish Bail-in Power” is any write-down, conversion, transfer, modification, or suspension power existing from time to time under, and exercised in compliance with any laws, regulations, rules or requirements in effect in Spain, relating to the transposition of the BRRD (including BRRD II), as amended from time to time, including, but not limited to (i) Law 11/2015, as amended from time to time, (ii) RD 1012/2015, as amended from time to time, (iii) the SRM Regulation, as amended from time to time (including SRM II), and (iv) any other instruments, rules or standards made in connection with either (i), (ii) or (iii), pursuant to which any obligations of an institution can be reduced, cancelled, modified, or converted into shares, other securities, or other obligations of such institution or any other person (or suspended for a temporary period).

In addition to the Spanish Bail-in Power, the BRRD, Law 11/2015 and the SRM Regulation provide for resolution authorities to have the further power to permanently write-down (including to zero) or convert into equity capital instruments such as the subordinated debt securities of any series at the point of non-viability of an institution or a group. The point of non-viability of an institution is the point at which the Relevant Resolution Authority determines that the institution meets the conditions for resolution, or that it will no longer be viable unless the relevant capital instruments are written down or converted into equity, or that extraordinary public support is to be provided and without such support the Relevant Resolution Authority determines that the institution would no longer be viable. The point of non-viability of a group is the point at which the group infringes or there are objective elements to support a determination that the group, in the near future, will infringe its consolidated solvency requirements in a way that would justify action by the Relevant Resolution Authority in accordance with Article 38.3 of Law 11/2015. Non-Viability Loss Absorption may be imposed prior to or in combination with any exercise of the Spanish Bail-in Power or any other resolution tool or power (where the conditions for resolution referred to above are met). In addition, pursuant to BRRD II and the SRM Regulation II, eligible liabilities (including the senior non preferred debt securities and certain senior preferred securities) may be subject to any non-viability loss absorption measure.

Any Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption may be exercised in such a manner as to result in holders of debt securities of the relevant series losing the value of all or a part of their investment in the securities of such series or receiving a different security from the securities of such series, which may be worth significantly less than the securities of such series and which have significantly fewer protections than those typically afforded to those kinds of securities. Moreover, the Relevant Resolution Authority may exercise its authority to implement the Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption without providing any advance notice to the holders of the debt securities of such series. For more information, see “Description of Debt Securities—Agreement and Acknowledgement with Respect to the Exercise of the Bail-in Power.”

Holders of the debt securities of any series are likely to have limited rights to challenge the exercise of the Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

Law 11/2015 contains certain safeguards for creditors in respect of the application of the capital instruments write-down and conversion power and the bail-in tool.

 

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With respect to the capital instruments write-down and conversion power, the Relevant Resolution Authority will exercise such power in accordance with the priority of claims under normal insolvency proceedings such that Common Equity Tier 1 items will be written down before Additional Tier 1 and Tier 2 Instruments, successively, are written down or converted into Common Equity Tier 1 instruments. In addition, pursuant to BRRD II and the SRM Regulation II, eligible liabilities (including the senior non preferred debt securities) may be subject to Non-Viability Loss Absorption.

In accordance with Article 48 of Law 11/2015 (and subject to any exclusions that may be applied by the Relevant Resolution Authority under Article 43 of Law 11/2015), in the case of any application of the Spanish Bail-in Power, the sequence of any resulting write-down or conversion by the Relevant Resolution Authority shall be as follows: (i) Common Equity Tier 1 instruments; (ii) the principal amount of Additional Tier 1 Instruments, (iii) the principal amount of Tier 2 Instruments; (iv) the principal amount of other subordinated claims that do not qualify as Additional Tier 1 capital instruments or Tier 2 capital instruments; and (v) the principal or outstanding amount of the eligible liabilities (pasivos admisibles) prescribed in Article 41 of Law 11/2015. Any application of the Spanish Bail-in Power under the BRRD shall be in accordance with the hierarchy of claims in normal insolvency proceedings (unless otherwise provided by applicable banking regulations).

Notwithstanding the above, there may be limited protections, if any, that will be available to holders of securities subject to the Spanish Bail-in Power (including the debt securities of any series) or to Non-Viability Loss Absorption and to the broader resolution powers of the Relevant Resolution Authority. Accordingly, holders of debt securities of any series may have limited or circumscribed rights to challenge any decision of the Relevant Resolution Authority to exercise its Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption.

The circumstances under which the Relevant Resolution Authority would exercise its Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption are currently uncertain.

There remains uncertainty as to how or when the Spanish Bail-in Power and/or, in case of subordinated debt, and pursuant to BRRD II and the SRM II, senior preferred debt securities and senior non preferred debt securities eligible to comply with the TLAC/MREL Requirements, Non-Viability Loss Absorption may be exercised and how it would affect the Group and the holders of debt securities of any series. The determination that all or part of the principal amount of the debt securities of any series will be subject to loss absorption is likely to be inherently unpredictable and may depend on a number of factors which may be outside of Banco Santander’s control. Although there are proposed pre-conditions for the exercise of the Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption, there remains uncertainty regarding the specific factors which the Relevant Resolution Authority would consider in deciding whether to exercise the Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption with respect to the financial institution and/or securities issued or guaranteed by that institution. In addition, as the Relevant Resolution Authority will retain an element of discretion, holders of debt securities of any series may not be able to refer to publicly available criteria in order to anticipate a potential exercise of any such Spanish Bail-in Power and/or, in case of subordinated debt, and pursuant to BRRD II and the SRM II, senior preferred debt securities and senior non preferred debt securities eligible to comply with the TLAC/MREL Requirements, Non-Viability Loss Absorption. Because of this inherent uncertainty, it will be difficult to predict when, if at all, the exercise of any such powers, may occur which would result in a principal amount write off or conversion to equity. The uncertainty may adversely affect the value of holders’ investments in the debt securities of any series and the price and trading behavior of the debt securities may be affected by the threat of a possible exercise of any power under Law 11/2015 (including any early intervention measure before any resolution) or any suggestion of such exercise, even if the likelihood of such exercise is remote. Moreover, the Relevant Resolution Authority may exercise any such power without providing any advance notice to the holders of debt securities.

 

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Changes in law may adversely affect holders’ rights under the debt securities of any series or may adversely affect the Group’s business, financial performance and capital plans.

Changes in law after the date hereof may affect holders’ rights under the debt securities of any series as well as the market value of the debt securities of such series. Such changes in law may include changes in statutory, tax and regulatory regimes during the life of the debt securities of any series, or changes that could have a significant impact on the future legal entity structure, business mix (including a potential exit of certain business activities) and management of the Group, and use of capital and requirements for loss-absorbing capacity within the Group, which may have an adverse effect on an investment in the debt securities of such series.

Any change in law or regulation that would cause the senior non preferred debt securities or the senior preferred of any series to fail to fully qualify as TLAC/MREL Eligible Instruments or subordinated debt securities of any series to be fully excluded (or likely to be fully excluded) from Tier 2 Capital would trigger a TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event or Capital Disqualification Event, respectively, entitles Banco Santander to redeem the senior non preferred debt securities, senior preferred debt securities (to the extent specified in the applicable prospectus supplement) or subordinated debt securities of such series, as applicable, in whole (but not in part) as more particularly described under “Description of Debt Securities—Redemption and Repurchase—Early Redemption of Senior Debt Securities for a TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event” and “Description of Debt Securities—Redemption and Repurchase—Redemption of Subordinated Debt Securities for a Capital Disqualification Event”. In addition, any change in law or regulation that results in Banco Santander having to pay additional amounts to holders of debt securities of any series, or results in certain other tax consequences including (but not limited to) Banco Santander not being entitled to claim a deduction for Spanish tax purposes in respect of interest payments (or the value of such deduction to us being materially reduced), could trigger a tax event, which may entitle Banco Santander to redeem the debt securities of such series, in whole (but not in part) as more particularly described under “Description of Debt Securities—Redemption and Repurchase—Early Redemption for Taxation Reasons”.

It is not possible to predict whether or not a change in the laws or regulations of Spain, Applicable Banking Regulations or the application or official interpretation thereof, will occur and so lead to the circumstances in which Banco Santander is able to elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, and if so whether or not Banco Santander will elect to exercise such option to redeem the debt securities of such series. There can be no assurances that, in the event of any early redemption, holders of debt securities of any series will be able to reinvest the proceeds at a rate that is equal to the return on the debt securities of such series.

Any legislative and regulatory uncertainty could also affect holders’ ability to accurately value the debt securities of any series and therefore affect the trading price of the debt securities of such series given the extent and impact on the debt securities of such series that one or more regulatory or legislative changes, including those described under “—The circumstances under which the Relevant Resolution Authority would exercise its Spanish Bail-in Power are currently uncertain” and “—Holders of the debt securities of any series are likely to have limited rights to challenge the exercise of the Spanish Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority”, could have on the debt securities of such series.

Changes in law may adversely affect Banco Santander’s future effective tax rates.

There are a number of factors that may adversely impact Banco Santander’s future effective tax rates, such as: (i) the jurisdictions in which our profits are determined to be earned and taxed; (ii) changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities; (iii) adjustments to provisional taxes upon finalization of various tax returns; (iv) adjustments to the interpretation of transfer pricing standards; (v) changes in available tax credits; (vi) changes in IFRS; (vii) changes in tax laws or the interpretation of tax laws (e.g., in connection with fundamental United States international tax reform). In particular, the Spanish government announced in 2019 specific tax measures that may include a minimum 15% tax rate (18% for, e.g., credit entities) for Spanish corporate income tax and limitations on the Spanish participation exemption in connection with dividends and

 

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capital gains under specific conditions. Should these measures be finally passed, they would affect Banco Santander’ corporate-income-taxation position as well as that of the Group. In addition, it cannot be ruled out that, as part of the Spanish government’s efforts to address the COVID-19 situation, these tax measurements or new ones are introduced in 2020 to mitigate the economic consequences of the pandemic.

Credit ratings may not reflect all risks of an investment in the debt securities, and a downgrade in credit ratings, including as a result of changes in rating agencies’ views of the level of implicit sovereign support for European banks, could adversely affect the trading prices of the debt securities.

Banco Santander’s credit ratings may not reflect the potential impact of all risks relating to the market values of the debt securities of any series. However, real or anticipated changes in Banco Santander’s credit ratings will generally affect the market values of the debt securities of such series. Credit rating agencies continually revise their ratings for companies that they follow, including Banco Santander, and as such, the credit rating of Banco Santander may be revised, suspended or withdrawn at any time by the assigning rating organization at their sole discretion. In addition, one or more independent credit rating agencies may assign credit ratings to the debt securities of any series.

Any ratings downgrade could adversely affect the trading prices of the debt securities of any series or the trading markets for the debt securities of any series to the extent trading markets for the debt securities of such series develop, and any ratings improvement will not necessarily increase the value of the debt securities of such series and will not reduce market risk and other investment risks related to the debt securities of such series.

Credit ratings may not reflect the potential impact of all risks related to structure and market of the debt securities of any series, and do not address the price, if any, at which the debt securities of any series may be resold prior to maturity (which may be substantially less than the original offering price of the debt securities of such series), and other factors that may affect the value of the debt securities of such series. A credit rating is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold the debt securities of any series and may be revised or withdrawn by the rating agency at any time.

In general, European regulated investors are restricted under Regulation (EC) No. 1060/2009 (as amended) (the “CRA Regulation”) from using credit ratings for regulatory purposes, unless such ratings are issued by a credit rating agency established in the EU and registered under the CRA Regulation (and such registration has not been withdrawn or suspended). Such general restriction will also apply in the case of credit ratings issued by non-EU credit rating agencies, unless the relevant credit ratings are endorsed by an EU-registered credit rating agency or the relevant non-EU rating agency is certified in accordance with the CRA Regulation (and such endorsement action or certification, as the case may be, has not been withdrawn or suspended). Certain information with respect to the credit rating agencies and ratings will be disclosed in the relevant prospectus supplement.

The debt securities may not be a suitable investment for investors.

A prospective investor should determine whether an investment in any series of debt securities is appropriate in his or her particular circumstances after carefully considering, in conjunction with his or her legal, business and tax advisors, the consequences of an investment in the debt securities of such series and the other information set out in this prospectus and the relevant prospectus supplement, to arrive at his or her own evaluation of the investment. Banco Santander does not make any recommendation as to whether any series of debt securities are a suitable investment for any person.

The debt securities of any series may be redeemed by Banco Santander prior to maturity.

The debt securities of any series may be redeemable at Banco Santander’s option in certain circumstances as described in this prospectus and the relevant prospectus supplement. Banco Santander may choose to redeem the

 

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debt securities of such series at times when prevailing interest rates may be relatively low. In such circumstances, an investor may not be able to reinvest the redemption proceeds in a comparable security at an effective interest rate as high as that of the relevant debt securities.

In addition, the ability to redeem the debt securities of any series is likely to limit the market value of the debt securities of such series. During any period when Banco Santander may elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, the market value of the debt securities of such series generally will not rise substantially above the price at which they can be redeemed. This also may be true prior to any redemption period. See “Description of Debt Securities—Redemption and Repurchase” for more information on the circumstances under which Banco Santander may redeem the debt securities of any series.

The debt securities of any series are not bank deposits and are not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Deposit Insurance Fund, or any other government agency.

The debt securities of any series are Banco Santander’s obligations but are not bank deposits. In the event of Banco Santander’s insolvency, the debt securities of any series will rank equally with Banco Santander’s other unsecured obligations and will not have the benefit of any insurance or guarantee of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Deposit Insurance Fund, or any other government agency.

There is no restriction under the relevant indentures on the amount or type of further securities or indebtedness which Banco Santander may incur.

There is no restriction under the relevant indentures on the amount or type of further securities or indebtedness which Banco Santander may issue or incur which ranks senior to, or pari passu with, the debt securities of any series. The incurrence of any such further indebtedness may reduce the amount recoverable by holders of debt securities of any series on a liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of Banco Santander in respect of the debt securities of such series and may limit the ability of Banco Santander to meet its obligations in respect of the debt securities of such series, and result in a holder of the debt securities of such series losing all or some of its investment in the debt securities of such series.

The terms of the debt securities contain a waiver of set-off rights.

No holder of the senior preferred debt securities where the TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event has been specified as applicable in the relevant prospectus supplement, senior non preferred debt securities of any series or the subordinated debt securities of any series may at any time exercise or claim any right, of or claim for, deduction, set-off, netting, compensation, retention or counterclaim arising directly or indirectly under or in connection with the relevant securities against any right, claim or liability of Banco Santander or that Banco Santander may have or acquire against such holder, directly or indirectly and howsoever arising (and including all such rights, claims and liabilities arising under or in relation to any and all agreements or other instruments of any kind, whether or not relating to such debt securities).

The terms and conditions of the senior preferred debt securities where the TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event has been specified as applicable in the relevant prospectus supplement, senior non preferred debt securities of any series and the subordinated debt securities of any series provide that holders shall be deemed to have waived all rights, of or claims for, deduction, set-off, netting, compensation, retention or counterclaim arising directly or indirectly under or in connection with the relevant securities to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law in relation to all such actual and potential rights, claims and liabilities. As a result, holders will not at any time be entitled to set-off Banco Santander’s obligations under the relevant securities against obligations owed by them to Banco Santander.

 

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Risks Related to the Senior Preferred Debt Securities

The senior preferred debt securities of any series are unsecured and are effectively subordinated to Banco Santander’s secured indebtedness.

The senior preferred debt securities of any series are unsecured, will be effectively subordinated to all secured indebtedness Banco Santander may incur, to the extent of the assets securing such indebtedness. The relevant indenture relating to Banco Santander’s senior preferred debt securities does not restrict Banco Santander’s ability to incur secured indebtedness in the future. In the event of Banco Santander’s insolvency, bankruptcy, liquidation, reorganization, dissolution or winding up, to the extent Banco Santander has granted security over Banco Santander’s assets, the assets securing such indebtedness will be used to satisfy the obligations under such indebtedness before Banco Santander can make payments on the senior preferred debt securities of any series. There may only be limited assets available to make payments on the senior preferred debt securities of any series in the event of an acceleration of the senior preferred debt securities of such series and Banco Santander may not have sufficient assets to pay amounts due on any or all of Banco Santander’s senior preferred debt securities of such series then outstanding.

In the event that the senior preferred debt securities of any series are subject to redemption, such senior preferred debt securities may be subject to substitution and/or variation without a holder’s consent

Subject as provided herein, in particular under “Description of Debt Securities—Substitution and Variation”, if the applicable prospectus supplement for a series of senior preferred debt securities specifies that such senior preferred debt securities are subject to redemption and a TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event or a tax event that would entitle Banco Santander to redeem the senior preferred debt securities as set forth under “Description of Debt Securities—Redemption and Repurchase—Early Redemption for Taxation Reasons” occurs, Banco Santander may, at its option, and without the consent or approval of the holders of the senior preferred debt securities of such series, elect either (i) to substitute all (but not only some) of the senior preferred debt securities of such series or (ii) to modify the terms of all (but not only some) of the senior preferred debt securities of such series, in each case so that they are substituted for, or varied to, become, or remain, Qualifying Notes. While Qualifying Notes generally must contain terms that are materially no less favorable to holders of the senior preferred debt securities of such series as the original terms of the senior preferred debt securities of such series, there can be no assurance that the terms of any Qualifying Notes will be viewed by the market as equally favorable, or that the Qualifying Notes will trade at prices that are equal to the prices at which the senior preferred debt securities of such series would have traded on the basis of their original terms.

Further, prior to the making of any such substitution or variation, Banco Santander, shall not be obliged to have regard to the tax position of individual holders of the senior preferred debt securities of such series or to the tax consequences of any such substitution or variation for any such individual holder. No holder of the senior preferred debt securities of such series shall be entitled to claim, whether from the Trustee, Banco Santander, or any other person, any indemnification or payment in respect of any tax consequence of any such substitution or variation upon an individual holder of the senior preferred debt securities of such series.

Certain senior preferred debt securities may be redeemed prior to maturity upon the occurrence of a TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event

When so specified in the prospectus supplement, Banco Santander may, at its option, redeem all, but not some only, of the senior preferred debt securities, at any time at their early redemption amount, together with accrued but unpaid interest up to (but excluding) the date of redemption, upon or following the occurrence of a TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event.

The early redemption of the senior preferred debt securities may be subject to the prior consent of the Relevant Resolution Authority if and as required under Applicable Banking Regulations and may only take place in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time.

 

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Risks Related to the Senior Non Preferred Debt Securities

Banco Santander’s obligations under the senior non preferred debt securities of any series are junior to certain obligations.

Banco Santander’s obligations under the senior non preferred debt securities of any series will be direct, unconditional, unsubordinated and unsecured senior non preferred obligations (créditos ordinarios no preferentes) of Banco Santander in accordance with Additional Provision 14.2º of Law 11/2015. Upon the insolvency of Banco Santander, the payment obligations of Banco Santander under the senior non preferred debt securities on account of principal rank, subject to any other ranking that may apply as a result of any mandatory provision of law (or otherwise) (and unless they qualify as subordinated claims (créditos subordinados) pursuant to Article 92 of the Spanish Insolvency Law), (a) pari passu among themselves and with any Senior Non Preferred Liabilities (as defined below), (b) junior to the Senior Higher Priority Liabilities (as defined below) (and, accordingly, upon the insolvency of Banco Santander the claims in respect of the senior non preferred debt securities of any series will be met after payment in full of the Senior Higher Priority Liabilities) and (c) senior to any present and future subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander in accordance with Article 92 of the Spanish Insolvency Law.

Banco Santander’s Senior Higher Priority Liabilities would include, among other liabilities, its deposit obligations (other than the deposit obligations qualifying as preferred liabilities (créditos con privilegio general) under Additional Provision 14.1º of Law 11/2015, which will rank senior to the senior non preferred debt securities of any series), its obligations in respect of derivatives and other financial contracts and its unsubordinated and unsecured debt securities other than the Senior Non Preferred Liabilities. If Banco Santander were wound up or liquidated, Banco Santander expects that a liquidator would apply the assets which are available to satisfy all claims in respect of its unsubordinated and unsecured liabilities, first to satisfy claims of all other creditors ranking ahead of holders, including holders of Senior Higher Priority Liabilities, and then to satisfy claims in respect of the senior non preferred debt securities of any series (and other Senior Non Preferred Liabilities). If Banco Santander does not have sufficient assets to settle the claims of higher ranking creditors in full, the claims of the holders under the senior non preferred debt securities of any series will not be satisfied. Holders will share equally in any distribution of assets available to satisfy all claims in respect of its unsubordinated and unsecured liabilities with the creditors under any other Senior Non Preferred Liabilities if Banco Santander does not have sufficient funds to make full payment to all of them.

In addition, if Banco Santander enters into resolution, its eligible liabilities (including the senior non preferred debt securities) may be subject to bail-in, meaning potential write-down or conversion into equity securities or other instruments, and additionally, pursuant to BRRD II and the SRM Regulation II, may be subject to any Non-Viability Loss Absorption. The sequence of any resulting write-down or conversion of eligible instruments under Article 48 of the BRRD and Article 48 of Law 11/2015 provides for claims to be written down or converted into equity in accordance with the hierarchy of claims provided in the applicable insolvency legislation. Because the senior non preferred debt securities of any series are senior non preferred obligations (créditos ordinarios no preferentes), Banco Santander expects them to be written down or converted in full after any subordinated obligations of Banco Santander under Article 92 of the Spanish Insolvency Law and before any of Banco Santander’s Senior Higher Priority Liabilities are written down or converted. Banco Santander expects that upon insolvency, the payment obligations in respect of principal under the senior non preferred debt securities of any series would rank pari passu with any obligations in respect of principal of any senior non preferred debt securities or any other securities with the same ranking issued by Banco Santander.

As a consequence, holders of the senior non preferred debt securities of any series bear significantly more risk than holders of Banco Santander’s Senior Higher Priority Liabilities and could lose all or a significant part of their investment if Banco Santander were to become (i) subject to resolution under the BRRD (as implemented through Law 11/2015 and RD 1012/2015) and the senior non preferred debt securities of any series become subject to the application of the bail-in or (ii) insolvent.

 

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The senior non preferred debt securities provide for limited events of default.

Holders have no ability to accelerate the maturity of their senior non preferred debt securities. The terms and conditions of the senior non preferred debt securities do not provide for any events of default, except in the case that an order is made by any competent court commencing insolvency proceedings against Banco Santander or for its winding up, dissolution or liquidation. Accordingly, in the event that any payment on the senior non preferred debt securities of any series is not made when due, each holder of such series will have a claim only for amounts then due and payable on their senior non preferred debt securities.

The senior non preferred debt securities of any series may be subject to substitution and/or variation without a holder’s consent

Subject as provided herein, in particular under “Description of Debt Securities—Substitution and Variation”, if a TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event or a tax event that would entitle Banco Santander to redeem the debt securities as set forth under “Description of Debt Securities—Redemption and Repurchase—Early Redemption for Taxation Reasons” occurs, Banco Santander may, at its option, and without the consent or approval of the holders of the senior non preferred debt securities of such series, elect either (i) to substitute all (but not some only) of the senior non preferred debt securities of such series or (ii) to modify the terms of all (but not some only) of the senior non preferred debt securities of such series, in each case so that they are substituted for, or varied to, become, or remain, Qualifying Notes. While Qualifying Notes generally must contain terms that are materially no less favorable to holders of the senior non preferred debt securities of such series as the original terms of the senior non preferred debt securities of such series, there can be no assurance that the terms of any Qualifying Notes will be viewed by the market as equally favorable, or that the Qualifying Notes will trade at prices that are equal to the prices at which the senior non preferred debt securities of such series would have traded on the basis of their original terms.

Further, prior to the making of any such substitution or variation, Banco Santander, shall not be obliged to have regard to the tax position of individual holders of the senior non preferred debt securities of such series or to the tax consequences of any such substitution or variation for any such individual holder. No holder of the senior non preferred debt securities of such series shall be entitled to claim, whether from the Trustee, Banco Santander, or any other person, any indemnification or payment in respect of any tax consequence of any such substitution or variation upon an individual holder of the senior non preferred debt securities of such series.

The senior non preferred debt securities may be redeemed prior to maturity upon the occurrence of a TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event

Banco Santander may, at its option, redeem all, but not some only, of the senior non preferred debt securities, at any time at their early redemption amount, together with accrued but unpaid interest up to (but excluding) the date of redemption, upon or following the occurrence of a TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event.

The early redemption of the senior non preferred debt securities may be subject to the prior consent of the Relevant Resolution Authority if and as required under Applicable Banking Regulations and may only take place in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time.

The EU Banking Reforms provide that the redemption of eligible liabilities prior to the date of their contractual maturity is subject to the prior permission of the resolution authority. According to the EU Banking Reforms, such consent will be given only if one of the following conditions is met:

 

  i.

earlier than or at the same time of such redemption, the institution replaces the eligible liabilities instruments with own funds or eligible liabilities instruments of equal or higher quality at terms that are sustainable for the income capacity of the institution; or

 

  ii.

the institution has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the resolution authority that the own funds and eligible liabilities of the institution would, following such redemption, exceed the requirements laid

 

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  down in the CRD IV (as defined below) and the BRRD by a margin that the resolution authority in agreement with the competent authority considers necessary; or

 

  iii.

the institution has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the resolution authority that the partial or full replacement of eligible liabilities with own funds instruments is necessary to ensure compliance with the own funds requirements laid down in the CRD IV for continuing authorization.

It is not possible to predict whether any further change in the laws or regulations of Spain, Applicable Banking Regulations or in the application or official interpretation thereof will occur and so lead to the circumstances in which Banco Santander is able to elect to redeem the senior non preferred debt securities, and if so whether or not Banco Santander will elect to exercise such option to redeem the senior non preferred debt securities or any prior consent of the Relevant Resolution Authority, if required, will be given.

Risks Related to the Subordinated Debt Securities

Banco Santander’s obligations under the subordinated debt securities of any series are subordinated to existing and future senior indebtedness.

Banco Santander’s obligations under the subordinated debt securities of any series will be unsecured and subordinated and will rank junior in priority of payment to all unsubordinated obligations of Banco Santander and to all subordinated obligations of Banco Santander not qualifying as Tier 1 or Tier 2 Capital. Although subordinated debt securities may pay a higher rate of interest than comparable debt securities which are not subordinated, there is a greater risk that holders of the subordinated debt securities of any series will lose all or some of their investment should Banco Santander become (i) subject to resolution under the BRRD (as implemented through Law 11/2015 and RD 1012/2015) and the subordinated debt securities of any series become subject to the application of the Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption or (ii) insolvent.

The subordinated debt securities provide for limited events of default.

Holders have no ability to accelerate the maturity of their subordinated debt securities. The terms and conditions of the subordinated debt securities do not provide for any events of default, except in the case that an order is made by any competent court commencing insolvency proceedings against Banco Santander or for its winding up, dissolution or liquidation. Accordingly, in the event that any payment on the subordinated debt securities of any series is not made when due, each holder of such series will have a claim only for amounts then due and payable on their subordinated debt securities.

The subordinated debt securities of any series may be subject to substitution and/or variation without a holder’s consent

Subject as provided herein, in particular under “Description of Debt Securities—Substitution and Variation”, if a Capital Disqualification Event or a tax event that would entitle Banco Santander to redeem the debt securities as set forth under “Description of Debt Securities—Redemption and Repurchase—Early Redemption for Taxation Reasons” occurs, Banco Santander may, at its option, and without the consent or approval of the holders of the subordinated debt securities of such series, elect either (i) to substitute all (but not some only) of the subordinated debt securities of such series or (ii) to modify the terms of all (but not some only) of the subordinated debt securities of such series, in each case so that they are substituted for, or varied to, become, or remain, Qualifying Notes. While Qualifying Notes generally must contain terms that are materially no less favorable to holders of the subordinated debt securities of such series as the original terms of the subordinated debt securities of such series, there can be no assurance that the terms of any Qualifying Notes will be viewed by the market as equally favorable, or that the Qualifying Notes will trade at prices that are equal to the prices at which the subordinated debt securities of such series would have traded on the basis of their original terms.

 

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Further, prior to the making of any such substitution or variation, Banco Santander, shall not be obliged to have regard to the tax position of individual holders of the subordinated debt securities of such series or to the tax consequences of any such substitution or variation for any such individual holder. No holder of the subordinated debt securities of such series shall be entitled to claim, whether from the Trustee, Banco Santander, or any other person, any indemnification or payment in respect of any tax consequence of any such substitution or variation upon an individual holder of the subordinated debt securities of such series.

Risks Relating to the Contingent Convertible Capital Securities

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series are subject to certain provisions of the laws of the Kingdom of Spain and their official interpretation, which may change and have a material adverse effect on the terms and market value of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series.

Changes in the laws of Spain or their official interpretation by regulatory authorities such as the Bank of Spain or the European Central Bank after the date hereof may affect the rights and effective remedies of holders of any series of contingent convertible capital securities as well as the market value of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series.

Such changes in law may include changes in statutory, tax and regulatory regimes during the life of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, which may have an adverse effect on investment in the contingent convertible capital securities of such series.

Any such changes (including those which may result from the publication of the technical standards which interpret CRR) could impact the calculation of the CET1 ratio or the CET1 Capital of Banco Santander or the Group or the Risk Weighted Assets Amount. Furthermore, because the occurrence of the Trigger Event and restrictions on Distributions where the Maximum Distributable Amount depends, in part, on the calculation of these ratios and capital measures, any change in Spanish law or their official interpretation by regulatory authorities that could affect the calculation of such ratios and measures could also affect the determination of whether the Trigger Event has actually occurred and/or whether Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities are subject to restrictions.

Such calculations may also be affected by changes in applicable accounting rules, the accounting policies of Banco Santander and the Group and the application by Banco Santander and the Group of these policies. Any such changes, including changes over which Banco Santander or the Group has a discretion, may have a material adverse impact on the reported financial position of Banco Santander or the Group and accordingly may give rise to the occurrence of the Trigger Event in circumstances where such Trigger Event may not otherwise have occurred, notwithstanding the adverse impact this will have for holders of any series of contingent convertible capital securities.

Furthermore, any change in the laws or regulations of Spain, Applicable Banking Regulations or any change in the application or official interpretation thereof may in certain circumstances result in Banco Santander having the option to redeem the contingent convertible capital securities of any series in whole but not in part. In any such case, the contingent convertible capital securities of such series would cease to be outstanding, which could materially and adversely affect investors and frustrate investment strategies and goals.

Such legislative and regulatory uncertainty could affect an investor’s ability to value the contingent convertible capital securities accurately and therefore affect the market price of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series given the extent and impact on the contingent convertible capital securities of such series of one or more regulatory or legislative changes.

 

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Banco Santander will be restricted from making payments of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities in certain circumstances, in which case Banco Santander will cancel such Distributions, and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series may not be able to anticipate whether or not Banco Santander will cancel such Distributions.

Under Article 141 of the CRD IV Directive, Member States of the European Union must require that institutions that fail to meet the “combined buffer requirement” (broadly, the combination of the capital conservation buffer, the institution-specific counter-cyclical buffer and the higher of (depending on the institution), the systemic risk buffer, the global systemically important institutions buffer and the other systemically important institution buffer, in each case as applicable to the institution) will be prohibited from paying any “discretionary payments” (which are defined broadly by the CRD IV Directive as payments relating to Common Equity Tier 1, variable remuneration and payments on Additional Tier 1 Instruments such as the contingent convertible capital securities of any series), until it calculates its applicable restrictions and communicates them to the Regulator and, once done, such institution will be subject to restricted “discretionary payments”.

The restrictions will be scaled according to the extent of the breach of the “combined buffer requirement” and calculated as a percentage of the profits of the institution since the last distribution of profits or “discretionary payment”. Such calculation will result in a “Maximum Distributable Amount” in each relevant period. As an example, the scaling is such that in the bottom quartile of the “combined buffer requirement”, no “discretionary distributions” will be permitted to be paid. As a consequence, in the event of breach of the combined buffer requirement it may be necessary to reduce discretionary payments, including potentially exercising Banco Santander’s discretion to cancel (in whole or in part) payments of Distributions in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series.

Articles 43 to 49 of Law 10/2014 and Chapter II of Title II of Royal Decree 84/2015 implement the above provisions in Spain. In particular Article 48 of Law 10/2014 and Articles 73 and 74 of Royal Decree 84/2014 deal with restrictions on distributions and Article 24 of Circular 2/2016 of the Bank of Spain.

There are a number of factors that make the determination and application of the Maximum Distributable Amount particularly complex, including the following:

 

   

the Maximum Distributable Amount applies when the “combined buffer requirement” is not maintained. The “combined buffer requirement” represents the amount of capital that a financial institution is required to maintain beyond the minimum Pillar 1 and (if applicable) Pillar 2 capital requirements. However, there are several different buffers, some of which are intended to encourage countercyclical behaviour (with extra capital retained when profits are robust) and others of which are intended to provide additional capital cushions for institutions whose failure would result in a significant systemic risk;

 

   

the institution-specific countercyclical buffer, the G-SII (a financial institution that is deemed to be a global systemically important institution) buffer and the systemic risk buffer may be applied and varied at any time upon decision of the relevant authorities. As a result, the potential impact of the Maximum Distributable Amount will change over time;

 

   

the Maximum Distributable Amount calculation could be different for Banco Santander on a consolidated and on an individual basis and different capital buffers could also apply. In addition, if a capital buffer is not respected, it is not completely clear the extent to which Banco Santander’s consolidated as compared to its individual net income may be taken into account in different circumstances. It is also possible that some discretionary payments will affect the Maximum Distributable Amount on a consolidated but not an individual basis for Banco Santander and vice versa; and

 

   

payments made earlier in the year will reduce the remaining Maximum Distributable Amount available for payments later in the year, and Banco Santander will have no obligation to preserve any portion of

 

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the Maximum Distributable Amount for payments scheduled to be made later in a given year. Even if Banco Santander attempts to do so, there can be no assurance that it will be successful, as the Maximum Distributable Amount at any time depends on the amount of net income earned during the course of the relevant year, which will necessarily be difficult to predict.

These and other possible interpretation issues (including any changes which arise from the EU Banking Reforms) make it difficult to determine how the Maximum Distributable Amount will apply as a practical matter to limit Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities. This uncertainty and the resulting complexity may adversely impact the market price and liquidity of the contingent convertible capital securities.

Furthermore, the BRRD and the Regulation (EU) No. 2016/1450 did not provide details on the implications of a failure by an institution to comply with its MREL requirement. However, pursuant to the EU Banking Reforms, and in line with the FSB standard on TLAC, any failure by an institution to meet the “combined buffer requirement” in excess of the applicable minimum TLAC/MREL Requirements is intended to be treated in a similar manner as a failure to meet the “combined buffer requirement” on top of its minimum regulatory capital requirements (i.e. the imposition of restrictions or prohibitions on discretionary payments by the Bank, but subject to a potential nine months grace period). Accordingly, any failure by the Bank and/or the Group to comply with its TLAC/MREL Requirement may have a material adverse effect on the Bank’s business, financial conditions and results of operations and could result in the imposition of restrictions or prohibitions on discretionary payments by the Bank, including the payment of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities. See also Risk Factor “Payments of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are payable in Banco Santander’s sole and absolute discretion and Banco Santander may (and in certain circumstances will have no choice but to) cancel any Distributions in whole or in part at any time. Unpaid Distributions are not cumulative or payable at any time thereafter and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series shall have no rights thereto”.

In addition, in accordance with Article 64.1.(i) of Law 11/2015, the Relevant Resolution Authority has the power to alter the amount of distributions or interest payable under debt instruments issued by banks subject to resolution proceedings and the date on which the distributions or interest becomes payable under the debt instrument (including the power to suspend payment for a temporary period). In addition, the European Central Bank also has the power under Article 68.2(i) of Law 10/2014 (implementing Article 104 of CRD IV Directive) to impose in certain circumstances requirements on Banco Santander, the effect of which will be to restrict or prohibit payments of Distributions by Banco Santander to holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series, which is most likely to materialize if at any time Banco Santander is failing, or is expected to fail, to meet its capital requirements.

Moreover, Banco Santander’s capital requirements, are, by their nature, calculated by reference to a number of factors any one of which or combination of which may not be easily observable or capable of calculation by investors. Investors may not be able to predict accurately the proximity of the risk of discretionary payments on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series being prohibited from time to time as a result of the operation of Article 48 of Law 10/2014. There can be no assurance that any of the capital requirements or capital buffer requirements applicable to Banco Santander will not be amended in the future to include new and more onerous capital requirements, which in turn may affect Banco Santander’s capacity to make payments of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series. See “—Payments of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are payable in Banco Santander’s sole and absolute discretion and Banco Santander may (and in certain circumstances will have no choice but to) cancel any Distributions in whole or in part at any time. Unpaid Distributions are not cumulative or payable at any time thereafter and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series shall have no rights thereto.

 

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Law 11/2015 enables a range of actions to be taken in relation to credit institutions and investment firms considered to be at risk of failing. The taking of any action under Law 11/2015 could materially affect the value of any contingent convertible capital securities.

The BRRD (which has been implemented in Spain through Law 11/2015 and RD 1012/2015) is designed to provide authorities with tools to intervene in institutions to ensure the continuity of the institution’s critical financial and economic functions, while minimizing the impact of an institution’s failure on the economy and financial system.

Law 11/2015 contains four resolution tools and powers which may be used alone or in combination where the Relevant Resolution Authority considers that (a) an institution is failing or likely to fail, (b) there is no reasonable prospect that any alternative private sector measures would prevent the failure of such institution within a reasonable timeframe, and (c) a resolution action is in the public interest. The four resolution tools are: (i) sale of business—which enables resolution authorities to direct the sale of the firm or the whole or part of its business on commercial terms; (ii) bridge institution—which enables resolution authorities to transfer all or part of the business of the firm to a “bridge institution” (an entity created for this purpose that is wholly or partially in public control); (iii) asset separation—which enables resolution authorities to transfer impaired or problem assets to one or more publicly owned asset management vehicles to allow them to be managed with a view to maximizing their value through eventual sale or orderly wind-down (this can be used together with another resolution tool only); and (iv) bail-in by which the Relevant Resolution Authority may exercise the Spanish Bail-in Power. This includes the ability of the Relevant Resolution authority to write down (including to zero) and/or to convert into equity or other securities or obligations (which equity, securities or obligations could also be subject to any future application of the Spanish Bail-in Power) certain unsecured debt claims and subordinated obligations (including contingent convertible capital securities).

Law 11/2015 also provides for the resolution authority as a last resort, after having assessed and exploited the above resolution tools to the maximum extent possible while maintaining financial stability, to be able to provide extraordinary public financial support through additional financial stabilization tools. These consist of the public equity support and temporary public ownership tools. Any such extraordinary financial support must be provided in accordance with the EU state aid framework.

In accordance with Article 20 of Law 11/2015, an institution will be considered as failing or likely to fail in any of the following circumstances: (i) it is, or is likely in the near future to be, in significant breach of its solvency or any other requirements necessary for maintaining its authorization; (ii) its assets are, or are likely in the near future to be, less than its liabilities; (iii) it is, or is likely in the near future to be, unable to pay its debts as they fall due; or (iv) it requires extraordinary public financial support (except in limited circumstances). The determination that an institution is no longer viable may depend on a number of factors which may be outside of that institution’s control.

In addition to the Spanish Bail-in Power, the Relevant Resolution Authority has the further power to permanently write-down (including to zero) or convert into equity, capital instruments such as the contingent convertible capital securities of any series at the point of non-viability of an institution or a group (Non-Viability Loss Absorption). Any shares issued to holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series upon any such conversion into equity may also be subject to any application of the Spanish Bail-in Power.

The powers set out in Law 11/2015 and the SRM Regulation will impact how credit institutions and investment firms are managed as well as, in certain circumstances, the rights of creditors. Holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series may be subject to write-down or conversion into equity on any application of the Spanish Bail-in Power and to Non-Viability Loss Absorption, which may result in such holders losing some or all of their investment. The exercise of any power under Law 11/2015 or any suggestion of such exercise could, therefore, materially adversely affect the rights of holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series and the price or value of their investment in any series of contingent convertible capital securities.

 

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Under the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series, holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series shall have agreed to be bound by the exercise of any Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

Pursuant to Article 46 of Law 11/2015, which implements Article 55 of the BRRD, subject to limited exceptions, unsecured liabilities of an institution governed by the laws of a third-country (which include the contingent convertible capital securities of any series) must contain a contractual acknowledgment whereby the holders recognize that such liability may be subject to the Spanish Bail-in Power and Non-Viability Loss Absorption and agree to be bound by the exercise of those powers by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

Notwithstanding any other term of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series or any other agreements, arrangements, or understandings between Banco Santander and any holder of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series, by its acquisition of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series, each holder (which, for the purposes of this clause, includes each holder of a beneficial interest in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series) acknowledges, accepts, consents to and agrees to be bound by the exercise of any Spanish Bail-in Power or any Non-Viability Loss Absorption by the Relevant Resolution Authority that may result in the write-down or cancellation of all or a portion of the Amounts Due on the contingent convertible capital securities and/or the conversion of all or a portion of the Amounts Due on the contingent convertible capital securities into shares or other securities or other obligations of Banco Santander or another person, including by means of a variation to the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities to give effect to the exercise by the Relevant Resolution Authority of such powers. Each holder of the contingent convertible capital securities further acknowledges and agrees that the rights of the holders of the contingent convertible capital securities are subject to—, and will be varied, if necessary, so as to give effect to—, the exercise of any Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

For these purposes, the “Amounts Due” are the Liquidation Preference, together with any accrued but unpaid Distributions, if any, and Additional Amounts, if any, due on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series. References to such amounts will include amounts that have become due and payable, but which have not been paid, prior to the exercise of the Spanish Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

For these purposes, “Spanish Bail-in Power” is any write-down, conversion, transfer, modification, or suspension power existing from time to time under, and exercised in compliance with any laws, regulations, rules or requirements in effect in Spain, relating to the transposition of the BRRD (including BRRD II), as amended from time to time, including, but not limited to (i) Law 11/2015, as amended from time to time, (ii) RD 1012/2015, as amended from time to time, (iii) the SRM Regulation, as amended from time to time (including SRM II), and (iv) any other instruments, rules or standards made in connection with either (i), (ii) or (iii), pursuant to which any obligations of an institution can be reduced, cancelled, modified, or converted into shares, other securities, or other obligations of such institution or any other person (or suspended for a temporary period).

In addition to the Spanish Bail-in Power, the BRRD, Law 11/2015 and the SRM Regulation provide for resolution authorities to have the further power to permanently write-down (including to zero) or convert into equity capital instruments such as the contingent convertible capital securities of any series at the point of non-viability of an institution or a group. The point of non-viability of an institution is the point at which the Relevant Resolution Authority determines that the institution meets the conditions for resolution, or that it will no longer be viable unless the relevant capital instruments are written down or converted into equity, or that extraordinary public support is to be provided and without such support the Relevant Resolution Authority determines that the institution would no longer be viable. The point of non-viability of a group is the point at which the group infringes or there are objective elements to support a determination that the group, in the near future, will infringe its consolidated solvency requirements in a way that would justify action by the Relevant Resolution Authority in accordance with Article 38.3 of Law 11/2015. Non-Viability Loss Absorption may be imposed prior to or in combination with any exercise of the Spanish Bail-in Power or any other resolution tool or power (where the conditions for resolution referred to above are met).

 

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Any Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption may be exercised in such a manner as to result in holders of contingent convertible capital securities of the relevant series losing the value of all or a part of their investment in the contingent convertible capital securities of such series or receiving a different security from the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, which may be worth significantly less than the contingent convertible capital securities of such series and which have significantly fewer protections than those typically afforded to debt securities. Moreover, the Relevant Resolution Authority may exercise its authority to implement the Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption without providing any advance notice to the holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series. For more information, see “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Agreement and Acknowledgement with Respect to the Exercise of the Bail-in Power”.

Holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series are likely to have limited rights to challenge the exercise of the Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

Law 11/2015 contains certain safeguards for creditors in respect of the application of the capital instruments write-down and conversion power and the bail-in tool.

With respect to the capital instruments write-down and conversion power, the Relevant Resolution Authority will exercise such power in accordance with the priority of claims under normal insolvency proceedings such that Common Equity Tier 1 items will be written down before Additional Tier 1 and Tier 2 Instruments, successively, are written down or converted into Common Equity Tier 1 instruments.

In accordance with Article 48 of Law 11/2015 (and subject to any exclusions that may be applied by the Relevant Resolution Authority under Article 43 of Law 11/2015), in the case of any application of the Spanish Bail-in Power, the sequence of any resulting write-down or conversion by the Relevant Resolution Authority shall be as follows: (i) Common Equity Tier 1 instruments; (ii) the principal amount of Additional Tier 1 Instruments, (iii) the principal amount of Tier 2 Instruments; (iv) the principal amount of other subordinated claims that do not qualify as Additional Tier 1 capital instruments or Tier 2 capital instruments; and (v) the principal or outstanding amount of the eligible liabilities (pasivos admisibles) prescribed in Article 41 of Law 11/2015. Any application of the Spanish Bail-in Power under the BRRD shall be in accordance with the hierarchy of claims in normal insolvency proceedings (unless otherwise provided by applicable banking regulations).

Notwithstanding the above, there may be limited protections, if any, that will be available to holders of securities subject to the Spanish Bail-in Power (including the contingent convertible capital securities of any series) or to Non-Viability Loss Absorption and to the broader resolution powers of the Relevant Resolution Authority. Accordingly, holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series may have limited or circumscribed rights to challenge any decision of the Relevant Resolution Authority to exercise its Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption.

The circumstances under which the Relevant Resolution Authority would exercise its Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption are currently uncertain.

There remains uncertainty as to how or when the Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption may be exercised and how it would affect the Group and the holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series. The determination that all or part of the Liquidation Preference of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series will be subject to loss absorption is likely to be inherently unpredictable and may depend on a number of factors which may be outside of Banco Santander’s control. Although there are proposed pre-conditions for the exercise of the Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption, there remains uncertainty regarding the specific factors which the Relevant Resolution Authority would consider in deciding whether to exercise the Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption with respect to the financial

 

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institution and/or securities issued or guaranteed by that institution. In addition, as the Relevant Resolution Authority will retain an element of discretion, holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series may not be able to refer to publicly available criteria in order to anticipate a potential exercise of any such Spanish Bail-in Power or Non-Viability Loss Absorption. Because of this inherent uncertainty, it will be difficult to predict when, if at all, the exercise of any such powers, may occur which would result in a Liquidation Preference write off or conversion to equity. The uncertainty may adversely affect the value of holders’ investments in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series and the price and trading behavior of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series. may be affected by the threat of a possible exercise of any power under Law 11/2015 (including any early intervention measure before any resolution) or any suggestion of such exercise, even if the likelihood of such exercise is remote. Moreover, the Relevant Resolution Authority may exercise any such power without providing any advance notice to the holders of debt securities.

The contingent convertible capital securities are irrevocably and mandatorily convertible into newly issued Common Shares in certain prescribed circumstances, and as a result, holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series could lose all or part of their investment in the contingent convertible capital securities of such series.

Upon the occurrence of the Trigger Event, the contingent convertible capital securities of any series will be irrevocably and mandatorily (and without any requirement for the consent or approval of holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series) converted into newly issued Common Shares. Because the Trigger Event will occur when the CET1 ratio of Banco Santander and/or the Group, as applicable, will have deteriorated significantly, the resulting Trigger Event will likely be accompanied by a prior deterioration in the market price of the Common Shares, which may be expected to continue after announcement of the Trigger Event.

Therefore, in the event of the occurrence of the Trigger Event, the Current Market Price of a Common Share may be below the Floor Price, and investors could receive Common Shares at a time when the market price of the Common Shares is considerably less than the Conversion Price. In addition, there may be a delay in a holder of contingent convertible capital securities receiving its Common Shares following the Trigger Event, during which time the market price of the Common Shares may fall further. As a result, the value of the Common Shares received on conversion following the Trigger Event could be substantially lower than the price paid for the contingent convertible capital securities at the time of their purchase.

Accordingly, an investor in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series faces almost the same risk of loss as an investor in the Common Shares in the event of the Trigger Event. See also “—Holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series will bear the risk of fluctuations in the price of the Common Shares and/or movements in any ratio that could give rise to the occurrence of a Trigger Event. Holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series will also bear the risk of changes in the U.S. dollar and euro exchange rate. ” below.

A capital reduction may take place in accordance with the Spanish Companies Act.

In accordance with Article 418.3 of the Spanish Companies Act, in the event that Banco Santander intends to approve a capital reduction by reimbursement of contributions (restitución de aportaciones) to shareholders, holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will be entitled to convert the contingent convertible capital securities of such series into Common Shares at the applicable Conversion Price prior to the execution of such capital reduction. A resolution of capital reduction for the redemption of any Common Shares previously repurchased by Banco Santander will not be considered a capital reduction for these purposes.

 

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The circumstances that may give rise to the Trigger Event are inherently unpredictable and may be caused by factors outside of Banco Santander’s control. Banco Santander has no obligation to operate its business in such a way, or take any mitigating actions, to maintain or restore its CET1 ratio to avoid a Trigger Event and any actions Banco Santander may take now or in the future could result in its CET1 ratio failing.

The occurrence of the Trigger Event is inherently unpredictable and depends on a number of factors, many of which are outside of Banco Santander’s control. For example, the occurrence of one or more of the risks described under “Risk Factors” in Banco Santander’s Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2019, or the deterioration of the circumstances described therein, could substantially increase the likelihood of the occurrence of the Trigger Event. Furthermore, the occurrence of the Trigger Event depends, in part, on the calculation of the CET1 ratio, which can be affected, among other things, by the growth of the business and future earnings of Banco Santander and/or the Group, as applicable; expected payments by Banco Santander in respect of dividends and Distributions and other equivalent payments in respect of instruments ranking junior to the contingent convertible capital securities of any series as well as other Parity Securities; regulatory changes (including possible changes in regulatory capital definitions, calculations and risk weighted assets), Banco Santander’s ability to actively manage the risk weighted assets of Banco Santander and the Group and changes in applicable accounting rules, or any changes to regulatory adjustments which modify the regulatory capital impact of accounting rules. In addition, since the Regulator may require Banco Santander to calculate the CET1 ratio at any time, the Trigger Event could occur at any time.

Due to the inherent uncertainty in determining whether the Trigger Event may exist, it will be difficult to predict when, if at all, the contingent convertible capital securities of any series will be converted into Common Shares. Accordingly, trading behavior in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series is not necessarily expected to follow trading behavior associated with other types of convertible or exchangeable securities. Any indication that Banco Santander and/or the Group, as applicable, is trending towards the Trigger Event can be expected to have an adverse effect on the market price and liquidity of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series and on the price of the Common Shares. Under such circumstances, investors may experience difficulty selling or may not be able to sell the contingent convertible capital securities of such series or at prices comparable to other similar yielding instruments. In addition, the risk of Trigger Conversion could drive down the price of Banco Santander’s Common Shares and therefore have a material adverse effect on the market value of any Common Shares received upon Trigger Conversion.

Holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series will bear the risk of fluctuations in the price of the Common Shares and/or movements in any ratio that could give rise to the occurrence of the Trigger Event. Holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series will also bear the risk of changes in the U.S. dollar and euro exchange rate.

The market price of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series is expected to be affected by fluctuations in the market price of the Common Shares, in particular if at any time there is a significant deterioration in any of the ratios by reference to which the determination of any occurrence of the Trigger Event is made, and it is impossible to predict whether the price of the Common Shares will rise or fall. Market prices of the Common Shares will be influenced by, among other things, the financial position of the Group, the results of operations and political, economic, financial and other factors. Any decline in the market price of the Common Shares or any indication that a ratio is trending towards occurrence of the Trigger Event may have an adverse effect on the market price of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series. The level of each ratio specified in the definition of Trigger Event may also significantly affect the market price of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series and/or the Common Shares.

Fluctuations in the market price of the Common Shares between the Trigger Event Notice Date and the Conversion Settlement Date may also further affect the value to a holder of any Common Shares delivered to that holder on the Conversion Settlement Date.

 

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In addition, as Banco Santander’s Common Shares are denominated and trade in euros, the market price of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series may also be affected by fluctuations in the U.S. dollar and euro exchange rate due to the contingent convertible capital securities of such being denominated in U.S. dollars. Upon a Trigger Conversion, the contingent convertible capital securities of such series will convert into Common Shares, or if the holder elects, ADSs, at the Conversion Price. Because the Trigger Conversion will occur when the CET1 ratio of Banco Santander will have deteriorated significantly, the resulting Trigger Conversion will likely be accompanied by a prior deterioration in the market price of the Common Shares, which may be expected to continue after announcement of the Trigger Conversion. Therefore, in the event of the occurrence of the Trigger Event, the Current Market Price of a Common Share, translated into U.S. dollars at the Prevailing Rate, may be below the Floor Price, and investors could receive Common Shares at a time when the market price of the Common Shares is considerably less than the Conversion Price. Fluctuations in the U.S. dollar and euro exchange rate could therefore also affect the realizable value of the Common Shares.

Furthermore, there may be a delay in holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series receiving their Common Shares or ADSs, as applicable, following a Trigger Event, during which time the market price of the Common Shares and/or ADSs (as the case may be) or the exchange rate of euro against the U.S. dollar may further decline. No interest or other compensation is payable in the event of a loss by holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series due to foreign currency conversions.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series have no scheduled maturity and no fixed redemption date and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series do not have the right to cause the contingent convertible capital securities of such series to be redeemed or otherwise accelerate the repayment of the Liquidation Preference of the contingent convertible capital securities except in very limited circumstances.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series are perpetual securities and have no fixed maturity date or fixed redemption date. Banco Santander is under no obligation to redeem the contingent convertible capital securities of any series at any time and the holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series have no right to call for their redemption at any time. Although under certain circumstances as described under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Redemption and Repurchase” Banco Santander may redeem the contingent convertible capital securities of any series, Banco Santander is under no obligation to do so and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series have no right to call for their redemption.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series may be redeemable at the option of Banco Santander.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series may be redeemable at the option of Banco Santander, in whole but not in part, subject to the prior consent of the Regulator, on the dates to be specified in the relevant prospectus supplement, at the Redemption Price per contingent convertible capital security and otherwise in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations then in effect. Under the CRR, the Regulator will give its consent to a redemption of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series in such circumstances provided that either of the following conditions is met:

(i) on or before such redemption of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, Banco Santander replaces the contingent convertible capital securities of such series with instruments qualifying as Tier 1 Capital of an equal or higher quality on terms that are sustainable for the income capacity of Banco Santander; or

(ii) Banco Santander has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Regulator that its Tier 1 Capital and Tier 2 Capital and its eligible liabilities would, following such redemption, exceed the requirements laid down in CRD IV and BRRD by a margin that the Regulator considers necessary.

 

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The contingent convertible capital securities of any series are also redeemable on or after the relevant issue date at the option of Banco Santander in whole but not in part, at any time, at the Redemption Price (subject to the prior consent of the Regulator and otherwise in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations then in force) if there is a Capital Event or a Tax Event.

It is not possible to predict whether or not a change in the laws or regulations of Spain, Applicable Banking Regulations or the application or official interpretation thereof, will occur and so lead to the circumstances in which Banco Santander is able to elect to redeem the contingent convertible capital securities of any series, and if so whether or not Banco Santander will elect to exercise such option to redeem the contingent convertible capital securities of such series. There can be no assurances that, in the event of any such early redemption, holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will be able to reinvest the proceeds at a rate that is equal to the return on the contingent convertible capital securities of such series.

In the case of any early redemption of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series at the option of Banco Santander, Banco Santander may exercise this option when its funding costs are lower than the Distribution Rate at which Distributions are then payable in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series. In these circumstances, the rate at which holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series are able to reinvest the proceeds of such redemption is unlikely to be as high as, and may be significantly lower than, that Distribution Rate.

In addition, the redemption feature of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series may affect their market value. During any period when Banco Santander has the right to elect to redeem the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, the market value of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series is unlikely to rise substantially above the price at which they can be redeemed. This may also be true prior to such period.

Payments of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are payable in Banco Santander’s sole and absolute discretion and Banco Santander may (and in certain circumstances will have no choice but to) cancel any Distributions in whole or in part at any time. Unpaid Distributions are not cumulative or payable at any time thereafter and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series shall have no rights thereto.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series accrue Distributions as further described “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Distributions”, but Banco Santander may elect, in its sole and absolute discretion, to cancel the payment of any Distribution in whole or in part at any time that it deems necessary or desirable, and for any reason and without any restriction on it thereafter. Payments of Distributions in any financial year of Banco Santander shall be made only out of Available Distributable Items. To the extent that:

(i) Banco Santander has insufficient Available Distributable Items to make Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series scheduled for payment in the then current financial year and any equivalent payments scheduled to be made in the then current financial year in respect of any other Parity Securities then outstanding, in each case excluding any portion of such payments already accounted for in determining the Available Distributable Items; and/or

(ii) the Regulator, in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations, requires Banco Santander to cancel the relevant Distribution in whole or in part,

then Banco Santander will, without prejudice to the right above to cancel the payment of all such Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, make partial or, as the case may be, no payment of the relevant Distribution on the contingent convertible capital securities of such series.

 

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No Distribution will be made on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series (whether by way of a repayment of the Liquidation Preference, the payment of any Distribution or otherwise) if and to the extent that such payment would cause the Maximum Distributable Amount (if any) then applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group to be exceeded. See Risk Factor “CRD IV introduces capital requirements that are in addition to the minimum capital ratio. These additional capital requirements will restrict Banco Santander from making payments of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities in certain circumstances, in which case Banco Santander will cancel such Distributions, and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series may not be able to anticipate whether or not Banco Santander will cancel such Distributions”.

There can, therefore, be no assurances that a holder of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will receive payments of Distributions in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series. Unpaid Distributions are not cumulative or payable at any time thereafter and, accordingly, if any Distribution (or part thereof) is not made in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series as a result of any requirement for, or election of, Banco Santander to cancel such Distributions then the right of the holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series to receive the relevant Distribution (or part thereof) in respect of the relevant Distribution Period will be extinguished and Banco Santander will have no obligation to pay such Distribution (or part thereof) or to pay any interest thereon, whether or not Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are paid in respect of any future Distribution Period.

No such election to cancel the payment of any Distribution (or part thereof) or non-payment of any Distribution (or part thereof) will constitute an event of default or the occurrence of any event related to the insolvency of Banco Santander or entitle holders to take any action to cause the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of Banco Santander.

If, as a result of any of the conditions set out above being applicable, only part of the Distributions under the contingent convertible capital securities of any series may be paid, Banco Santander may proceed, in its sole discretion, to make such partial Distributions under the contingent convertible capital securities of such series.

Notwithstanding the applicability of any one or more of the conditions set out above resulting in Distributions under the contingent convertible capital securities of any series not being paid or being paid only in part, Banco Santander will not be in any way limited or restricted from making any distribution or equivalent payment in connection with any instrument ranking junior to the contingent convertible capital securities of any series (including, without limitation, any CET1 Capital of Banco Santander or the Group) or in respect of any other Parity Security.

Furthermore, upon the occurrence of the Trigger Event, no further Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series will be made, including any accrued and unpaid Distributions, which will be cancelled.

As a holding company, the level of Banco Santander’s Distributable Items is affected by a number of factors, and insufficient Distributable Items may restrict Banco Santander’s ability to make Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series.

As a holding company of other operating companies, the level of Banco Santander’s Distributable Items is affected in part by a number of factors, including Banco Santander’s ability to receive funds, directly or indirectly, from Banco Santander’s operating subsidiaries in a manner which creates Distributable Items. Consequently, Banco Santander’s future Distributable Items, and therefore Banco Santander’s ability to make payments of Distributions, are a function of Banco Santander’s existing Distributable Items, Banco Santander’s future profitability and performance and the ability of Banco Santander’s operating subsidiaries to distribute or dividend profits up the Group structure to Banco Santander. In addition, Banco Santander’s Distributable Items will also be reduced by the redemption of equity instruments and the servicing of other debt and equity instruments and there are no restrictions on Banco Santander’s ability to make payments on, or redemptions of,

 

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Parity Securities or junior securities even if that results in Banco Santander’s Distributable Items not being sufficient to make a scheduled Distribution on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series.

The ability of Banco Santander’s subsidiaries to pay dividends and Banco Santander’s ability to receive Distributions and other payments from Banco Santander’s investments in other entities is subject to applicable local laws and other restrictions, including their respective regulatory, capital and leverage requirements, statutory reserves, financial and operating performance and applicable tax laws, and any changes thereto. These laws and restrictions could limit the payment of dividends, Distributions and other payments to Banco Santander by Banco Santander’s subsidiaries, which could in time restrict Banco Santander’s ability to fund other operations or to maintain or increase Banco Santander’s Distributable Items. The level of Banco Santander’s Distributable Items may be further affected by changes to regulations or the requirements and expectations of applicable regulatory authorities. In particular, local capital or ring-fencing requirements outside Spain could adversely affect Banco Santander’s Distributable Items in the future.

Further, Banco Santander’s Distributable Items may be adversely affected by the performance of Banco Santander’s business in general, changes in its organizational structure, factors affecting its financial position (including capital and leverage), the economic environment in which it operates and other factors outside of its control. Banco Santander shall not make a payment of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series on any Distribution Payment Date (and such Distribution shall therefore be deemed to have been cancelled and thus shall not be due and payable on such Distribution Payment Date) if the level of Distributable Items is insufficient to fund that payment. Distributions that are deemed cancelled shall not be due and shall not accumulate or be payable at any time thereafter and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series shall have no right thereto. See “—Payments of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are payable in Banco Santander’s sole and absolute discretion and Banco Santander may (and in certain circumstances will have no choice but to) cancel any Distributions in whole or in part at any time. Unpaid Distributions are not cumulative or payable at any time thereafter and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series shall have no rights thereto.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series do not contain events of default and the remedies available to holders under the convertible capital securities of any series are limited.

Holders of convertible capital securities of any series have no ability to require Banco Santander to redeem the convertible capital securities of such series. The terms of the convertible capital securities of any series do not provide for any events of default. Banco Santander is entitled to cancel the payment of any Distribution in whole or in part at any time (see “—Payments of Distributions on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are payable in Banco Santander’s sole and absolute discretion and Banco Santander may (and in certain circumstances will have no choice but to) cancel any Distributions in whole or in part at any time. Unpaid Distributions are not cumulative or payable at any time thereafter and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series shall have no rights thereto”) and such cancellation will not constitute any event of default or similar event or entitle holders of convertible capital securities of such series to take any related action against Banco Santander. If Common Shares are not issued and delivered following the Trigger Event, then on a liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of Banco Santander the claim of a holder of convertible capital securities of any series will not be in respect of the Liquidation Preference of its contingent convertible capital securities of such series but will be an entitlement to receive out of the relevant assets a monetary amount equal to that which holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series would have received on any distribution of the assets of Banco Santander if such Trigger Conversion had taken place immediately prior to such liquidation, dissolution or winding-up.

Holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series only have a limited ability to cash in their investment in the contingent convertible capital securities of such series.

Banco Santander has the option to redeem the convertible capital securities of any series in certain circumstances (see “—The contingent convertible capital securities of any series may be redeemable at the

 

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option of Banco Santander” above). The ability of Banco Santander to redeem or repurchase the contingent convertible capital securities of any series is subject to Banco Santander satisfying certain conditions as described under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Redemptions and Purchases”. There can be no assurance that holders of convertible capital securities of any series will be able to reinvest the amount received upon redemption and/or repurchase at a rate that will provide the same rate of return as their investment in the convertible capital securities of such series.

Therefore, holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series have no ability to cash in their investment, except:

(i) if Banco Santander exercises its rights to redeem or repurchase the contingent convertible capital securities of such series in accordance with “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Redemption and Repurchase”; or

(ii) by selling the contingent convertible capital securities of such series or, following the occurrence of the Trigger Event and the issue and delivery of Common Shares or, if the holder elects, ADSs, in accordance with “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Conversion Upon Trigger Event”, their Common Shares or ADSs, provided a secondary market exists at the relevant time for the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, the Common Shares or the ADSs.

Holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series have limited anti-dilution protection.

The number of Common Shares to be issued and delivered on Trigger Conversion in respect of each contingent convertible capital security of any series shall be determined by dividing the Liquidation Preference of such contingent convertible capital security by the Conversion Price in effect on the Trigger Event Notice Date. The Conversion Price will be, if the Common Shares are then admitted to trading on a Relevant Stock Exchange, the higher of: (a) the Current Market Price of a Common Share, translated into U.S. dollars at the Prevailing Rate, (b) the Floor Price and (c) the nominal value of a Common Share at the time of conversion, translated into U.S. dollars at the Prevailing Rate, or, if the Common Shares are not then admitted to trading on a Relevant Stock Exchange, the higher of (b) and (c) above. See “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Conversion Price” regarding the Conversion Price.

The Floor Price will be adjusted in the event that there is a consolidation, reclassification/redesignation or subdivision affecting the Common Shares, the payment of any Extraordinary Dividends or Non-Cash Dividends, rights issues or grant of other subscription rights or certain other events which affect the Common Shares, but only in the situations and to the extent provided in “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Anti-Dilution Adjustment of the Floor Price”. There is no requirement that there should be an adjustment for every corporate or other event that may affect the value of the Common Shares or that, if a holder of contingent convertible capital securities of any series were to have held the Common Shares at the time of such adjustment, the holder of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series would not have benefited to a greater extent.

Furthermore, the relevant indenture does not provide for certain undertakings from Banco Santander which are sometimes included in securities that convert into the ordinary shares of an issuer to protect investors in situations where the relevant conversion price adjustment provisions do not operate to neutralize the dilutive effect of certain corporate events or actions on the economic value of the Conversion Price. For example, the relevant indenture contains neither an undertaking restricting the modification of rights attaching to the Common Shares nor an undertaking restricting issues of new share capital with preferential rights relative to the contingent convertible capital securities of any series.

Further, if Banco Santander issues any Common Shares credited as fully paid to Shareholders by way of capitalization of profits or reserves (including any share premium account or capital redemption reserve), where

 

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the Shareholders may elect to receive a Dividend in cash in lieu of such Common Shares and such Dividend does not constitute an Extraordinary Dividend, no conversion price adjustment shall be applicable in accordance with sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) of “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Anti-Dilution Adjustment of the Floor Price”, and therefore holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will not be protected by anti-dilution measures.

Accordingly, corporate events or actions in respect of which no adjustment to the Floor Price is made may adversely affect the value of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series.

In order to comply with increasing regulatory capital requirements imposed by applicable regulations, Banco Santander may need to raise additional capital. Further capital raisings by Banco Santander could result in the dilution of the interests of the holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series subject only to the limited anti-dilution protections referred to above.

The obligations of Banco Santander under the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are subordinated to unsubordinated obligations and subordinated obligations senior in right of payment to the contingent convertible capital securities of any series and will be further subordinated upon conversion into Common Shares.

Unless previously converted into Common Shares, the payment obligations of Banco Santander under the contingent convertible capital securities are direct, unconditional, unsecured and subordinated obligations of Banco Santander and, in accordance with Additional Provision 14.3 of Law 11/2015 but, subject to any other ranking that may apply as a result of any mandatory provision of law (or otherwise), upon the insolvency of Banco Santander for so long as the obligations of Banco Santander in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities constitute Additional Tier 1 Instruments, rank (a) pari passu among themselves and with (i) all other claims in respect of any liquidation preference or otherwise for principal in respect of any outstanding Additional Tier 1 Instruments and (ii) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank pari passu with Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments; (b) junior to (i) any unsubordinated obligations of Banco Santander, (ii) any subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander which become subordinated pursuant to Article 92.1º of the Insolvency Law and (iii) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank senior to Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments; and (c) senior to (i) any claims for the liquidation amount of the Common Shares and (ii) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank junior to Banco Santander’s obligations under Additional Tier 1 Instruments.

Subject to compliance with applicable regulatory requirements, Banco Santander expects from time to time to incur additional indebtedness or other obligations that will constitute senior and other subordinated indebtedness that will rank ahead of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series, and the contingent convertible capital securities of any series do not contain any provisions restricting Banco Santander’s ability or Banco Santander’s subsidiaries from incurring such senior or subordinated indebtedness. Although the contingent convertible capital securities of any series may pay a higher rate of interest than other comparable securities which are not as deeply subordinated, there is a risk that holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series will lose all or some of their investment should Banco Santander become insolvent since Banco Santander’s assets would be available to pay such amounts only after all of Banco Santander’s senior creditors have been paid in full.

In addition, if Banco Santander were wound up, dissolved or liquidated, Banco Santander’s liquidator would first apply the assets of Banco Santander to satisfy all claims of holders of unsubordinated obligations of Banco Santander and other creditors ranking ahead of holders of convertible capital securities of any series. If Banco Santander does not have sufficient assets to settle claims of prior ranking creditors in full, the claims of the

 

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holders of convertible capital securities of any series will not be satisfied. Holders of convertible capital securities of any series will share equally in any distribution of assets with the holders of any other Parity Securities if Banco Santander does not have sufficient funds to make full payment to all of them. In such a situation, convertible capital securities of such series could lose all or part of their investment.

Furthermore, if the Trigger Event occurs but the relevant conversion of the convertible capital securities of any series into Common Shares is still to take place before the dissolution, liquidation or winding-up of Banco Santander, the entitlement of holders of convertible capital securities of any series will be to receive out of the relevant assets of Banco Santander a monetary amount equal to that which holders of convertible capital securities of such series would have received on any distribution of the assets of Banco Santander if the Trigger Conversion had taken place immediately prior to such dissolution, liquidation or winding-up.

Therefore, if the Trigger Event occurs, each holder of convertible capital securities of any series will be effectively further subordinated from being the holder of a subordinated debt instrument to being the holder of Common Shares and there is an enhanced risk that holders of convertible capital securities of such series will lose all or some of their investment.

Holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will have limited rights after the Trigger Conversion and the issuance of the Common Shares to the Settlement Shares Depository (or to the relevant recipient in accordance with terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of the relevant series) will constitute an irrevocable and automatic release of all of Banco Santander’s obligations in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series.

Following a Trigger Conversion, Banco Santander will be obligated to issue the Common Shares to the Settlement Shares Depository (or to the relevant recipient in accordance with the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of the relevant series), which will hold the Common Shares on behalf of holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series. Once the Common Shares are delivered to the Settlement Shares Depository (or to the relevant recipient in accordance with the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of the relevant series), all of Banco Santander’s obligations under the contingent convertible capital securities of such series will be irrevocably and automatically released in consideration of such issuance to the Settlement Shares Depository (or to the relevant recipient in accordance with the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series), and under no circumstances will such released obligations be reinstated and holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series will not be entitled to any form of compensation in the event of Banco Santander’s potential recovery or change in Banco Santander’s CET1 ratio after the Conversion Settlement Date. With effect from the Conversion Settlement Date, holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will have recourse only to the Settlement Shares Depository for the delivery to them of Common Shares.

If Banco Santander does not deliver the Common Shares to the Settlement Shares Depository (or to the relevant recipient in accordance with the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of the relevant series) following a Trigger Event, the only claim holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will have against Banco Santander will be for specific performance to have such Common Shares issued and delivered. Moreover, holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will not have any rights against Banco Santander with respect to repayment of the Liquidation Preference of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series or payment of Distributions or any other amount on, or in respect of, the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, in each case that is not due and payable, which liabilities will be automatically released. Accordingly, the Liquidation Preference of the contingent convertible capital securities will equal zero at all times from and after the Trigger Conversion and any Distributions will be cancelled or deemed to have been cancelled at all times thereafter and will not be due and payable, including any interest in respect of an interest period ending on any Distribution Payment Date falling between the date of a Trigger Event and the Trigger Conversion.

 

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In addition, Banco Santander has not yet appointed a Settlement Shares Depository and may not be able to appoint a Settlement Shares Depository if a Trigger Conversion occurs. In such case, Banco Santander will effect, by means Banco Santander deems reasonable under the circumstances (including, without limitation, issuance of the Common Shares to another nominee or to holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series directly) the issuance and/or delivery of the Settlement Shares, or, if holders of contingent convertible capital securities elect, ADSs, as applicable, to such holders. Such arrangements may be disadvantageous to, and more restrictive on, holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series, such as involving a longer period of time before they receive ADSs or Common Shares than would be the case under the arrangements expected to be entered into with a Settlement Shares Depository or the inability to deliver ADSs. Nevertheless, such issuance also will irrevocably and automatically release all of Banco Santander’s obligations under the contingent convertible capital securities of such series as if the Common Shares had been issued to the Settlement Shares Depository.

The terms of the contingent convertible capital securities contain a waiver of set-off rights.

No holder of the contingent convertible capital securities may at any time exercise or claim any right, of or claim for, deduction, set-off, netting, compensation, retention or counterclaim arising directly or indirectly under or in connection with the contingent convertible capital securities against any right, claim or liability of Banco Santander or that Banco Santander may have or acquire against such holder, directly or indirectly and howsoever arising (and including all such rights, claims and liabilities arising under or in relation to any and all agreements or other instruments of any kind, whether or not relating to such contingent convertible capital securities).

The terms and conditions of the contingent convertible capital securities provide that holders shall be deemed to have waived all rights, of or claims for, deduction, set-off, netting, compensation, retention or counterclaim arising directly or indirectly under or in connection with the contingent convertible capital securities to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law in relation to all such actual and potential rights, claims and liabilities. As a result, holders will not at any time be entitled to set-off Banco Santander’s obligations under the contingent convertible capital securities against obligations owed by them to Banco Santander.

If a Delivery Notice is not duly delivered by a holder of contingent convertible capital securities of any series, that holder will bear the risk of fluctuations in the price of the Common Shares, and Banco Santander may, in its sole and absolute discretion, cause the sale of any Common Shares underlying the contingent convertible capital securities of such series.

In order to obtain delivery of the relevant Common Shares, or, if the holder elects, ADSs, upon conversion, the relevant holder must deliver a duly completed Delivery Notice in accordance with the provisions set out under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Settlement Procedures”. If a duly completed Delivery Notice is not so delivered, then such holder will bear the risk of fluctuations in the price of the Common Shares that may further affect the value to that holders of any Common Shares subsequently delivered. In addition, Banco Santander may, on the Notice Cut-off Date, in its sole and absolute discretion, elect to appoint a person (the “Selling Agent”) to (save as provided below) procure that all Common Shares held by the Settlement Shares Depository in respect of which no duly completed Delivery Notice has been delivered on or before the Notice Cut-off Date as aforesaid shall be sold by or on behalf of the Selling Agent as soon as reasonably practicable.

Due to the fact that, in the event of the Trigger Event, investors are likely to receive Common Shares at a time when the market price of the Common Shares may be low, the cash value of the Common Shares received upon any such sale could be substantially lower than the price paid for the contingent convertible capital securities of such series at the time of their purchase. In addition, the proceeds of such sale may be further reduced as a result of the number of Common Shares offered for sale at the same time being much greater than may be the case in the event of sales by individual holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series.

 

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Holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series may be obliged to make a takeover bid in case of the Trigger Event if they take delivery of Common Shares.

Upon the occurrence of the Trigger Event, a holder of contingent convertible capital securities of any series receiving Common Shares may have to make a takeover bid addressed to the shareholders of Banco Santander pursuant to the consolidated text of the Securities Market Act approved by Royal Legislative Decree 4/2015 of 23 October, as amended, and Royal Decree 1066/2007 of 27 July 2007, as amended, on the legal regime of takeover bids, implementing Directive 2004/25/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004, if its aggregate holding in Banco Santander exceeds 30% of the available voting rights or if its aggregate holding in Banco Santander is less than 30% of such voting rights, but within 24 months of the date on which it acquired that lower percentage, it nominates a number of directors that, when taken together with any directors it has previously nominated, represent more than half of the members of Banco Santander’s management body, in each case as a result of the conversion of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series into Common Shares.

Holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series may be subject to disclosure obligations and/or may need approval by Banco Santander’s Regulators and other authorities under certain circumstances.

As the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are convertible into Common Shares in certain circumstances, an investment in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series may result in holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, upon conversion of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series into Common Shares, having to comply with certain approval and/or disclosure requirements pursuant to Spanish and other laws and regulations. Non-compliance with such approval and/or disclosure requirements may lead to the incurrence by holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series of substantial fines and/or suspension of voting rights associated with the Common Shares. Accordingly, each potential investor should consult its legal advisers as to the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series, in respect of its existing shareholding and the level of holding it would have if it receives Common Shares following a Trigger Event.

There is no restriction under the contingent convertible capital securities indenture on the amount or type of further securities or indebtedness which Banco Santander may incur.

Except as provided under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Subordination”, there is no restriction under the contingent convertible capital securities indenture on the amount or type of further securities or indebtedness which Banco Santander may issue or incur which ranks senior to, or pari passu with, the contingent convertible capital securities of any series. The incurrence of any such further indebtedness may reduce the amount recoverable by holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series on a dissolution, liquidation or winding-up of Banco Santander in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series and may limit the ability of Banco Santander to meet its obligations in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, and result in a holder of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series losing all or some of its investment in the contingent convertible capital securities of such series. In addition, the contingent convertible capital securities of any series do not contain any restriction on Banco Santander issuing securities that may have preferential rights to the Common Shares or securities ranking pari passu with the contingent convertible capital securities of such series and having similar or preferential terms to the contingent convertible capital securities of such series.

 

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Prior to the issue and registration of the Common Shares to be delivered following the occurrence of the Trigger Event, holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will not be entitled to any rights with respect to such Common Shares, but will be subject to all changes made with respect to the Common Shares.

Any pecuniary rights with respect to the Common Shares, in particular the entitlement to dividends, shall only arise, and the exercise of voting rights and rights related thereto with respect to any Common Shares is only possible, after the date on which, following Trigger Conversion, as a matter of Spanish law the relevant Common Shares are issued and the person entitled to the Common Shares is registered as a shareholder in Iberclear and its participating entities in accordance with the provisions of, and subject to the limitations provided in, the articles of association of Banco Santander. Therefore, any failure by Banco Santander to issue, or effect the registration of, the Common Shares after the occurrence of the Trigger Event would result in the holders of contingent convertible capital securities of the relevant series not receiving any benefits related to the holding of the Common Shares and, on a dissolution, liquidation or winding-up of Banco Santander, the entitlement of any such holders will be an entitlement to receive out of the relevant assets of Banco Santander a monetary amount equal to that which holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series would have received on any distribution of the assets of Banco Santander if such conversion had taken place immediately prior to such dissolution, liquidation or winding-up, as described in “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Liquidation Distribution”.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series are Banco Santander’s exclusive obligations.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series are Banco Santander’s exclusive obligations. Banco Santander is a holding company and conducts a substantial portion of its operations through its subsidiaries. Banco Santander’s subsidiaries are separate and distinct legal entities, and have no obligations to pay any amounts due on the contingent convertible capital securities of any series or to provide Banco Santander with funds to meet any of its payment obligations. Banco Santander’s rights to participate in the assets of any subsidiary if it is liquidated will be subject to the prior claims of the subsidiary’s creditors.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series may not be a suitable investment for all investors.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series are novel and complex financial instruments that involve a high degree of risk. As a result, an investment in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series and the Common Shares issuable following a Trigger Event will involve certain increased risks. Each potential investor in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series must determine the suitability of that investment in light of its own circumstances. In particular, each potential investor may wish to consider, either on its own or with the help of its financial and other professional advisers, whether it:

(i) has sufficient knowledge and experience to make a meaningful evaluation of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, the merits and risks of investing in the contingent convertible capital securities of such series and the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, taking into account that the contingent convertible capital securities of such series may only be a suitable investment for professional or institutional investors;

(ii) has access to, and knowledge of, appropriate analytical tools to evaluate, in the context of its particular financial situation, an investment in the contingent convertible capital securities of such series and the impact the contingent convertible capital securities of such series will have on its overall investment portfolio;

(iii) has sufficient financial resources and liquidity to bear all of the risks of an investment in the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, including where the currency for payments in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series is different from the potential investor’s currency and the possibility that the entire Liquidation Preference of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series could be lost, including following the exercise by the Relevant Resolution Authority of any Spanish Bail-in Power;

 

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(iv) understands thoroughly the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, including the provisions relating to the payment and cancellation of Distributions and the Trigger Conversion of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series into Common Shares, and is familiar with the behavior of financial markets, including the possibility that the contingent convertible capital securities of any series may become subject to write down or conversion if the Spanish Bail-in Power is exercised; and

(v) is able to evaluate possible scenarios for economic, interest rate and other factors that may affect its investment and its ability to bear the applicable risks.

Sophisticated investors generally do not purchase complex financial instruments that bear a high degree of risk as stand-alone investments. They purchase such financial instruments as a way to enhance yield with an understood, measured, appropriate addition of risk to their overall portfolios. A potential investor should not invest in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series unless it has the knowledge and expertise (either alone or with a financial advisor) to evaluate how the contingent convertible capital securities of such series will perform under changing conditions, the resulting effects on the likelihood of the Trigger Conversion into Common Shares and the value of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, and the impact this investment will have on the potential investor’s overall investment portfolio. Prior to making an investment decision, potential investors should consider carefully, in light of their own financial circumstances and investment objectives, all the information contained in this prospectus and the prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference herein.

The market value of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series may be influenced by unpredictable factors.

Certain factors, many of which are beyond Banco Santander’s control, will influence the value of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series and the price, if any, at which securities dealers may be willing to purchase or sell the contingent convertible capital securities of such series in the secondary market, including:

 

   

Banco Santander’s creditworthiness from time to time;

 

   

supply and demand for the contingent convertible capital securities of such series;

 

   

economic, financial, political or regulatory events or judicial decisions that affect Banco Santander, the Group or the financial markets generally, including the introduction of any financial transactions tax; and

 

   

the trading price of Banco Santander’s ordinary shares and/or ADSs.

Accordingly, if holders sell their contingent convertible capital securities of any series in the secondary market, they may not be able to obtain a price equal to the Liquidation Preference of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series or a price equal to the price that they paid for the contingent convertible capital securities of such series.

The contingent convertible capital securities are not investment grade and are subject to the risks associated with non-investment grade securities.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series, upon issuance, will not be considered to be investment grade securities, and as such will be subject to a higher risk of price volatility than higher-rated securities. Furthermore, deteriorating outlooks for Banco Santander or the Group, or volatile markets, could lead to a significant deterioration in market prices of below-investment grade rated securities such as the contingent convertible capital securities of any series.

 

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Credit ratings may not reflect all risks associated with an investment in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series.

Ratings may not reflect the potential impact of all risks related to structure, market, additional factors discussed above, and other factors that may affect the value of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series.

Similar ratings assigned to different types of securities do not necessarily mean the same thing and any rating assigned to the contingent convertible capital securities of any series does not address the likelihood that Distributions or any other payments in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series will be made on any particular date or at all. Credit ratings also do not address the marketability or market price of securities.

Any change in the credit ratings assigned to the contingent convertible capital securities of any series may affect the market value of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series. Such change may, among other factors, be due to a change in the methodology applied by a rating agency to rating securities with similar structures to the contingent convertible capital securities of any series, as opposed to any revaluation of Banco Santander’s financial strength or other factors such as conditions affecting the financial services industry generally.

A credit rating is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities and may be revised or withdrawn by the rating agency at any time. Potential investors should not rely on any rating of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series and should make their investment decision on the basis of considerations such as those outlined under “The contingent convertible capital securities of any series may not be a suitable investment for all investors”.

In general, European regulated investors are restricted under the CRA Regulation from using credit ratings for regulatory purposes, unless such ratings are issued by a credit rating agency established in the EU and registered under the CRA Regulation (and such registration has not been withdrawn or suspended), subject to transitional provisions that apply in certain circumstances whilst the registration application is pending. Such general restriction will also apply in the case of credit ratings issued by non-EU credit rating agencies, unless the relevant credit ratings are endorsed by an EU-registered credit rating agency or the relevant non-EU rating agency is certified in accordance with the CRA Regulation (and such endorsement action or certification, as the case may be, has not been withdrawn or suspended). Certain information with respect to the credit rating agencies and ratings will be disclosed in the relevant prospectus supplement.

Legal investment considerations may restrict certain investments.

The investment activities of certain investors may be subject to law or review or regulation by certain authorities. Each potential investor should determine for itself, on the basis of professional advice where appropriate, whether and to what extent (i) the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are lawful investments for it, (ii) the contingent convertible capital securities of such series can be used as collateral for various types of borrowing and (iii) other restrictions apply to its purchase or pledge of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series. Financial institutions should consult their legal advisers or the appropriate regulators to determine the appropriate treatment of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series under any applicable risk-based capital or similar rules.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series may trade with accrued Distributions, but under certain circumstances described above, such Distributions may be cancelled and not paid on the relevant Distribution Payment Date.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series may trade, and/or the prices for the contingent convertible capital securities of any series may appear in the relevant trading systems with accrued Distributions.

 

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If this occurs, purchasers of contingent convertible capital securities of any series in the secondary market will pay a price that reflects such accrued Distributions upon purchase of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series. However, if a payment of Distributions on any Distribution Payment Date is cancelled or deemed cancelled (either in whole or in part) as described herein and thus is not due and payable, purchasers of such contingent convertible capital securities of such series will not be entitled to that Distribution (or cancelled portion thereof) on the relevant Distribution Payment Date. This may affect the value of holders’ investment in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series.

Following a Trigger Conversion, the contingent convertible capital securities of any series will remain in existence until the applicable Conversion Settlement Date for the sole purpose of evidencing a holder’s rights to receive Common Shares or, if they elect, ADSs, as applicable, from the Settlement Shares Depository (or the relevant recipient in accordance with the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series), and the rights of holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will be limited accordingly.

Following a Trigger Conversion, the contingent convertible capital securities of any series will remain in existence until the applicable Conversion Settlement Date (at which point the contingent convertible capital securities of any series will be cancelled) for the sole purpose of evidencing the right of holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series to receive Common Shares, or, if they elect, ADSs, as applicable, from the Settlement Shares Depository (or the relevant recipient in accordance with the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series). If Banco Santander has been unable to appoint a Settlement Shares Depository, Banco Santander will effect, by means Banco Santander deems reasonable under the circumstances (including, without limitation, issuance of the Settlement Shares to another nominee or to the holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series directly), the issuance and/or delivery of the Settlement Shares, or, if they elect, ADSs, as applicable, to them. See also “—Holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will have limited rights after the Trigger Conversion and the issuance of the Common Shares to the Settlement Shares Depository (or to the relevant recipient in accordance with terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of the relevant series) will constitute an irrevocable and automatic release of all of Banco Santander’s obligations in respect of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series”.

Although Banco Santander currently expects that beneficial interests in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series will be transferable between the Trigger Conversion and the Suspension Date and that any trades in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series would clear and settle through DTC in such period, there is no guarantee that this will be the case. Even if the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are transferable following the Trigger Conversion, there is no guarantee that an active trading market will exist for the contingent convertible capital securities of any series following the Trigger Conversion. Accordingly, the price received for the sale of any beneficial interest in any contingent convertible capital securities of any series during this period may not reflect the market price of such contingent convertible capital securities or the Common Shares. Furthermore, transfers of beneficial interests in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series may be restricted following the Trigger Conversion. For example, if the clearance and settlement of transactions in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series is suspended by DTC at an earlier time than currently expected, it may not be possible to transfer beneficial interests in the contingent convertible capital securities of such series in DTC and trading in the contingent convertible capital securities of such series may cease. The contingent convertible capital securities of any series may also cease to be admitted to the relevant stock exchange before or after the Suspension Date.

In addition, Banco Santander has been advised by DTC that it will suspend all clearance and settlement of transactions in the contingent convertible capital securities of any series on the Suspension Date. As a result, holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will not be able to settle the transfer of any contingent convertible capital securities of such series through DTC following the Suspension Date, and any sale or other transfer of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series that holders may have initiated prior

 

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to the Suspension Date that is scheduled to settle after the Suspension Date will be rejected by DTC and will not be settled through DTC.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series may cease to be admitted to trading on any stock exchange on which the contingent convertible capital securities of any series are then listed or admitted to trading after the Suspension Date.

Moreover, although holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will have a right to obtain their pro rata share of Settlement Shares upon the issuance of such Settlement Shares to the Settlement Shares Depository (or the relevant recipient in accordance with the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series), the Settlement Shares will be registered in the name of the Settlement Shares Depository (or the relevant recipient in accordance with the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series), and holders will not be able to sell or otherwise transfer any Settlement Shares until such time as they are delivered to them and registered in their name or to the account they specify.

Holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series will be responsible for any taxes following a Trigger Conversion.

Neither Banco Santander nor any member of the Group will be liable for any taxes or duties (including, without limitation, any stamp duty, stamp duty reserve tax or any other capital, issue, transfer, registration, financial transaction or documentary tax or duty) arising on conversion or that may arise or be paid in connection with the issue and delivery of Common Shares following a Trigger Conversion. Holders of contingent convertible capital securities of any series must pay any taxes and duties (including, without limitation, any stamp duty, stamp duty reserve tax or any other capital, issue, transfer, registration, financial transaction or documentary tax or duty) arising on conversion in connection with the issue and delivery of Common Shares to the Settlement Shares Depository on their behalf.

Limitations on gross-up obligation under the contingent convertible capital securities of any series

Banco Santander’s obligation to pay additional amounts in respect of any withholding or deduction in respect of taxes under the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series applies only to payments of distributions due and paid under the contingent convertible capital securities of any series and not to payments of Liquidation Preference. As such, Banco Santander would not be required to pay any additional amounts under the terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series to the extent any withholding or deduction applied to payments of Liquidation Preference. Accordingly, if any such withholding or deduction were to apply to any payments of Liquidation Preference under the contingent convertible capital securities of any series, holders of contingent convertible capital securities of such series may receive less than the full amount due under the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, and the market value of the contingent convertible capital securities of any series may be adversely affected. In any case, increased payments to comply with gross-up obligations will only be made if and to the extent that they do not exceed Distributable Items.

The contingent convertible capital securities of any series may be subject to substitution and/or variation without a holder’s consent

Subject as provided herein, in particular under “Description of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities—Substitution and Variation”, if a Capital Event or a Tax Event occurs, Banco Santander may, at its option, and without the consent or approval of the holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, elect either (i) to substitute all (but not some only) of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series or (ii) to modify the terms of all (but not some only) of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, in each case so that they are substituted for, or varied to, become, or remain, Qualifying Notes. While Qualifying Notes generally must contain terms that are materially no less favorable to holders of the contingent convertible

 

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capital securities of such series as the original terms of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series, there can be no assurance that the terms of any Qualifying Notes will be viewed by the market as equally favorable, or that the Qualifying Notes will trade at prices that are equal to the prices at which the contingent convertible capital securities of such series would have traded on the basis of their original terms.

Further, prior to the making of any such substitution or variation, Banco Santander, shall not be obliged to have regard to the tax position of individual holders of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series or to the tax consequences of any such substitution or variation for any such individual holder. No holder of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series shall be entitled to claim, whether from the Trustee, Banco Santander, or any other person, any indemnification or payment in respect of any tax consequence of any such substitution or variation upon an individual holder of the contingent convertible capital securities of such series.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The following is a summary of the general terms that will apply to any debt securities that may be offered by Banco Santander. The termdebt securitiesdoes not include thecontingent convertible capital securitiesdescribed underDescription of Contingent Convertible Capital Securities.

Each time that Banco Santander issues debt securities, Banco Santander will file a prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus with the SEC, which you should read carefully. The prospectus supplement and/or free writing prospectus will summarize specific financial terms of an investor’s security and may contain additional or different terms of those debt securities to those described in this prospectus. All references in this prospectus to a prospectus supplement in respect of any series of securities include references to a free writing prospectus if a free writing prospectus is filed to set forth any terms of such series. The terms presented here, together with the terms contained in the prospectus supplement, will be a description of the material terms of the debt securities, but if there is any inconsistency between the terms presented here and those in the prospectus supplement, those in the prospectus supplement will apply and will replace those presented here. Therefore, the statements made below in this section may not apply to each investor’s debt security. Investors should also read the indentures under which Banco Santander will issue the debt securities, which have been filed with the SEC as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

In this description of debt securities, the following expressions have the following meanings:

“Additional Tier 1 Instrument” means any contractually subordinated obligation (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander according to Article 92.2º of the Spanish Insolvency Law, ranking as an additional tier 1 instrument (instrumentos de capital adicional de nivel 1) under Additional Provision 14.3º(c) of Law 11/2015.

“Amounts Due” means the principal amount of, premium, if any, together with any accrued but unpaid interest, and Additional Amounts, if any, due on the debt securities of any series. References to such amounts will include amounts that have become due and payable, but which have not been paid, prior to the exercise of the Bail-in Power by the Relevant Resolution Authority.

“Applicable Banking Regulations” means at any time the laws, regulations, requirements, guidelines and policies relating to capital adequacy, resolution and/or solvency including, among others, those giving effect to the MREL and the TLAC or any equivalent or successor principles, then applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group including, without limitation to the generality of the foregoing, the CRD IV, the BRRD, the SRM Regulation and those regulations, requirements, guidelines and policies relating to capital adequacy, resolution and/or solvency of the Regulator and/or the Relevant Resolution Authority then applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group including, among others, those giving effect to the MREL and the TLAC or any equivalent or successor principles, in each case to the extent then in effect in the Kingdom of Spain (whether or not such regulations, requirements, guidelines or policies have the force of law and whether or not they are applied generally or specifically to Banco Santander and/or the Group).

“Bail-in Power” means any power existing from time to time under, and exercised in compliance with, any laws, regulations, rules or requirements in effect in the Kingdom of Spain, relating to (i) the transposition of the BRRD (including but not limited to, Law 11/2015, RD 1012/2015 and any other implementing regulations), as amended or superseded from time to time, (ii) the SRM Regulation and (iii) the instruments, rules or standards created thereunder, pursuant to which any obligation of a Regulated Entity (or an affiliate of such Regulated Entity) can be reduced, cancelled, suspended, modified, or converted into shares, other securities, or other obligations of such Regulated Entity (or affiliate of such Regulated Entity).

“BRRD” means Directive 2014/59/EU of 15 May establishing the framework for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms or such other directive as may amend or come into effect in place thereof (including the BRRD II), as implemented into law by Law 11/2015 and RD 1012/2015, as amended or replaced from time to time and including any other relevant implementing regulatory provisions.

 

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“BRRD II” means Directive (EU) 2019/879 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2019 amending Directive 2014/59/EU as regards the loss-absorbing and recapitalisation capacity of credit institutions and investment firms and Directive 98/26/EC.

“Business Day” means, unless otherwise provided for in the applicable prospectus supplement, any day, other than Saturday or Sunday, that is neither a legal holiday nor a day on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close in the City of New York, London, Madrid or any other place or places where the principal of, or any premium or interest on, or any Additional Amounts with respect to the debt securities of that series are payable.

“Calculation Agent” means the Trustee or such other person authorized by Banco Santander as the party responsible for calculating the rate(s) of interest and interest amount(s) and/or such other amount(s) from time to time in relation to any series of debt securities as may be specified in the relevant prospectus supplement.

“Capital Disqualification Event” means a change in Spanish law, Applicable Banking Regulations or any change in the application or official interpretation thereof that results or is likely to result in the entire outstanding aggregate principal amount of subordinated debt securities of any series ceasing to be included in, or counting towards, Banco Santander and/or the Group’s Tier 2 Capital.

“CRD IV” means any or any combination of the CRD IV Directive, the CRR, and any CRD IV Implementing Measures.

“CRD IV Directive” means Directive 2013/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on access to the activity of credit institutions and the prudential supervision of credit institutions and investment firms, amending Directive 2002/87/EC and repealing Directives 2006/48/EC and 2006/49/EC or such other directive as may come into effect in place thereof, as amended or replaced from time to time (including by the CRD V Directive).

“CRD IV Implementing Measures” means any regulatory capital rules implementing the CRD IV Directive or the CRR which may from time to time be introduced, including, but not limited to, delegated or implementing acts (regulatory technical standards) adopted by the European Commission, national laws and regulations, and regulations and guidelines issued by the Regulator, the European Banking Authority or any other relevant authority, which are applicable to Banco Santander (on a stand alone basis) or the Group (on a consolidated basis) and which prescribe the requirements to be fulfilled by financial instruments for inclusion in the regulatory capital or the minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities, as the case may be, of Banco Santander (on a stand alone basis) or the Group (on a consolidated basis).

“CRD V Directive” means Directive (EU) 2019/878 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2019 amending Directive 2013/36/EU as regards exempted entities, financial holding companies, mixed financial holding companies, remuneration, supervisory measures and powers and capital conservation measures.

“CRR” means Regulation (EU) No. 575/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the prudential requirements for credit institutions and investment firms and amending Regulation (EU) No. 648/2012 or such other regulation as may come into effect in place thereof, as amended from time to time (including by CRR II).

“CRR II” means Regulation (EU) 2019/876 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2019 amending Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 as regards the leverage ratio, the net stable funding ratio, requirements for own funds and eligible liabilities, counterparty credit risk, market risk, exposures to central counterparties, exposures to collective investment undertakings, large exposures, reporting and disclosure requirements, and Regulation (EU) No 648/2012.

“EU Banking Reforms” means the CRD V Directive, BRRD II, CRR II and the SRM Regulation II.

 

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“FSB TLAC Term Sheet” means the Total Loss-absorbing Capacity (TLAC) term sheet set forth in the document dated 9 November 2015 published by the Financial Stability Board, entitled “Principles on Loss-absorbing and Recapitalization Capacity of G-SIBs in Resolution,” as amended from time to time.

“Law 11/2015” means Law 11/2015 of 18 June, on recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms (Ley 11/2015, de 18 de junio, de recuperación y resolución de entidades de crédito y empresas de servicios de inversión) as amended or replaced from time to time.

“MREL” means the “minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities” for credit institutions under the BRRD, set in accordance with Article 45 of the BRRD (as transposed in the Kingdom of Spain), Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/1450 of 23 May 2016, supplementing Directive 2014/59/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to regulatory technical standards specifying the criteria relating to the methodology for setting the minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities and any other Applicable Banking Regulations.

“Principal Paying Agent” means any Person (which may include Banco Santander) authorized by Banco Santander to pay the principal of, or any premium or interest on, or any Additional Amounts with respect to, the debt securities of any series on behalf of Banco Santander. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, The Bank of New York Mellon, London Branch will act as the Principal Paying Agent in respect of the debt securities of any series.

“Person” means any individual, company, corporation, firm, partnership, joint venture, association, organization, state or agency of a state or other entity, whether or not having separate legal personality.

“Qualifying Notes” means, with respect to each applicable series of senior preferred debt securities, each series of senior non preferred debt securities and each series of subordinated debt securities, at any time, any securities issued directly by Banco Santander that have terms not otherwise materially less favorable to the holders of the senior preferred debt securities of such series, senior non preferred debt securities of such series or subordinated debt securities of such series than the terms of the senior preferred debt securities of such series, senior non preferred debt securities of such series or subordinated debt securities of such series, as applicable, provided that Banco Santander shall have delivered a certificate signed by two directors of Banco Santander to that effect to the Trustee not less than five Business Days prior to (x) in the case of a substitution of the senior preferred debt securities of the applicable series, the senior non preferred debt securities of any series or the subordinated debt securities of any series, as applicable, pursuant to “—Substitution and Variation”, the issue date of the relevant securities or (y) in the case of a variation of the senior preferred debt securities of the applicable series, the senior non preferred debt securities of any series or the subordinated debt securities of any series, as applicable, pursuant to “—Substitution and Variation”, the date such variation becomes effective, provided that such securities shall:

(i) (a) in the case of applicable senior preferred debt securities and senior non preferred debt securities, contain terms which comply with the then current requirements for TLAC/MREL Eligible Instruments as embodied in the Applicable Banking Regulations, and (b) in the case of subordinated debt securities, contain terms which comply with the then current requirements for their inclusion in the Tier 2 Capital of Banco Santander; and

(ii) carry the same rate of interest as the senior preferred debt securities of such series, senior non preferred debt securities of such series or the subordinated debt securities of such series, as applicable, prior to the relevant substitution or variation pursuant to “—Substitution and Variation”; and

(iii) have the same denomination and aggregate outstanding principal amount as the senior preferred debt securities of such series, the senior non preferred debt securities of such series, or the subordinated debt securities

 

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of such series, as applicable, prior to the relevant substitution or variation pursuant to “—Substitution and Variation”; and

(iv) have the same date of maturity and the same dates for payment of interest as the senior preferred debt securities of such series, the senior non preferred debt securities of such series or the subordinated debt securities of such series, as applicable, prior to the relevant substitution or variation pursuant to “—Substitution and Variation”; and

(v) have at least the same ranking as the senior preferred debt securities of such series, the senior non preferred debt securities of such series, or the subordinated debt securities of such series, as applicable; and

(vi) not, immediately following such substitution or variation, (a) in the case of applicable senior preferred debt securities and senior non preferred debt securities, be subject to a TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event and/or a tax event that would entitle Banco Santander to redeem the debt securities as set forth under “—Redemption and Repurchase—Early Redemption for Taxation Reasons”; and (b) in the case of subordinated debt securities, be subject to a Capital Disqualification Event and/or a tax event that would entitle Banco Santander to redeem the debt securities as set forth under “—Redemption and Repurchase—Early Redemption for Taxation Reasons”; and

(vii) be listed or admitted to trading on any stock exchange as selected by Banco Santander, if the senior preferred debt securities of such series, the senior non preferred debt securities of such series, or the subordinated debt securities of such series, as applicable, were listed or admitted to trading on a stock exchange immediately prior to the relevant substitution or variation pursuant to “—Substitution and Variation.”

“Regulator” means the European Central Bank, the Bank of Spain or such other or successor authority exercising primary bank supervisory authority, in each case with respect to prudential matters in relation to Banco Santander and/or the Group.

“Regulated Entity” means any entity to which BRRD, as implemented in the Kingdom of Spain (including but not limited to, Law 11/2015, RD 1012/2015 and any other implementing regulations) and as amended or superseded from time to time, or any other Spanish law relating to the Bail-in Power, applies, which includes, certain credit institutions, investment firms, and certain of their parent or holding companies.

“Relevant Resolution Authority” means the Spanish Fund for the Orderly Restructuring of Banks, the Bank of Spain, the European Single Resolution Mechanism, as the case may be, according to Law 11/2015, and any other entity with the authority to exercise the Bail-in Power or any other resolution power from time to time.

“SRM Regulation” means Regulation (EU) No. 806/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 July 2014, establishing uniform rules and a uniform procedure for the resolution of credit institutions and certain investment firms in the framework of the Single Resolution Mechanism and the Single Resolution Fund and amending Regulation (EU) No. 1093/2010, as amended or replaced from time to time (including by the SRM Regulation II).

“SRM Regulation II” means Regulation (EU) 2019/877 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 May 2019 amending Regulation (EU) No 806/2014 as regards the loss-absorbing and recapitalization capacity of credit institutions and investment firms.

“Supervisory Permission” means, in relation to any action, such supervisory permission (or, as appropriate, waiver) from the Regulator and/or the Relevant Resolution Authority as is required therefor under Applicable Banking Regulations.

“Tier 2 Capital” means at any time, with respect to Banco Santander or the Group, as the case may be, the Tier 2 capital of Banco Santander or the Group, respectively, as calculated by Banco Santander in accordance

 

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with Chapter 4 (Tier 2 capital) of Title I (Elements of own funds) of Part Two (Own Funds) of the CRR and/or Applicable Banking Regulations at such time, including any applicable transitional, phasing in or similar provisions.

“Tier 2 Instrument” means any contractually subordinated obligation (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander according to Article 92.2º of the Spanish Insolvency Law, ranking as a tier 2 instrument (instrumentos de capital de nivel 2) under Additional Provision 14.3º(b) of Law 11/2015.

“TLAC” means the “total loss-absorbing capacity” requirement for global systemically important institutions under the CRR, set in accordance with Article 92a of the CRR and any other Applicable Banking Regulations.

A “TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event” shall have occurred at any time that all or part of the outstanding nominal amount of a series of senior non preferred debt securities or senior preferred debt securities where the TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event has been specified as applicable in the relevant prospectus supplement does not fully qualify as TLAC/MREL Eligible Instruments of Banco Santander and/or the Group, except where such non-qualification (i) is due solely to the remaining maturity of the relevant securities (as applicable) being less than any period prescribed for TLAC/MREL Eligible Instruments by the Applicable Banking Regulations as at the issue date of the relevant securities or (ii) is as a result of the relevant securities (as applicable) being bought back by or on behalf of Banco Santander or a buy back of the relevant securities which is funded by or on behalf of Banco Santander or (iii) in the case of senior preferred debt securities where the TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event has been specified as applicable in the relevant prospectus supplement, is due to the relevant securities not meeting any requirement in connection to their ranking upon insolvency of the Bank or any limitation on the amount of such Instruments that may be eligible for the inclusion in the amount of TLAC/MREL Eligible Instruments of the Bank and/or the Group.

A TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event shall, without limitation, be deemed to include where such non-qualification arises as a result of (a) any legislation which gives effect to the EU Banking Reforms in the Kingdom of Spain differing in any respect from the EU Banking Reforms (including if the EU Banking Reforms are not implemented in full in the Kingdom of Spain), or (b) the official interpretation or application of the EU Banking Reforms as implemented in the Kingdom of Spain (including any interpretation or pronouncement by any relevant court, tribunal or authority) differing in any respect from the manner in which the EU Banking Reforms have been reflected herein.

“TLAC/MREL Eligible Instrument” means an instrument that complies with the TLAC/MREL Requirements.

“TLAC/MREL Requirements” means the total loss-absorbing capacity requirements and/or minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities applicable to Banco Santander and/or the Group under the Applicable Banking Regulations.

General

The debt securities are not deposits and are not insured or guaranteed by the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other government agency of the United States, Spain or any other jurisdiction.

The debt securities will be direct, unconditional and unsecured debt obligations of Banco Santander. The indentures do not limit the amount of debt securities that Banco Santander may issue. Banco Santander may issue debt securities in one or more series. The relevant prospectus supplement and any related issuer free writing prospectus for any particular series of debt securities will describe the terms of the offered debt securities, including but not limited to, some or all of the following terms:

 

   

whether they are senior preferred debt securities, senior non preferred debt securities or subordinated debt securities;

 

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the rank of such senior preferred debt securities, senior non preferred debt securities or subordinated debt securities if different from that set forth in this prospectus;

 

   

with respect to the subordinated debt securities, whether the payment of interest can be deferred, whether the payment of principal can be deferred, the subordination terms, if different from those set forth in this prospectus, and the redemption terms and the events of default applicable to each series of the subordinated debt securities, if different from those set forth in this prospectus;

 

   

with respect to the senior non preferred debt securities, the redemption terms and the events of default applicable to each series of the senior non preferred debt securities, if different from those set forth in this prospectus;

 

   

their specific designation, authorized denomination and aggregate principal amount (and any limitations of such aggregated principal amount);

 

   

the price or prices at which they will be issued;

 

   

the date or maturity of the debt securities;

 

   

the interest rate or rates, or how to calculate the interest rate or rates;

 

   

the date or dates from which interest, if any, will accrue or the method, if any, by which such date or dates will be determined;

 

   

whether payments are subject to certain conditions that relate to our financial condition, including our capital ratios;

 

   

the times and places at which any interest payments are payable;

 

   

any modifications or additions to mandatory or optional redemption, including the amount of any premium;

 

   

any modifications or additions to the events of default with respect to the debt securities offered;

 

   

any provisions relating to conversion or exchange for other securities issued by us;

 

   

the currency or currencies in which they are denominated and in which Banco Santander will make any payments;

 

   

any index used to determine the amount of any payments on the debt securities;

 

   

any restrictions that apply to the offer, sale and delivery of the debt securities and the exchange of debt securities of one form for debt securities of another form;

 

   

whether and under what circumstances, if other than those described in this prospectus, Banco Santander will pay additional amounts on the debt securities and whether, and on what terms, if other than those described in this prospectus, Banco Santander may redeem the debt securities following those developments;

 

   

the clearing system in which such debt securities will be settled and cleared; and

 

   

any listing on a securities exchange.

Holders of debt securities shall have no voting rights except those described under the heading “—Modification and Waiver” below.

Payments of Interest

Banco Santander will make any payments of interest and principal on any particular series of debt securities on the dates and, in the case of payments of interest, at the rate or rates, that Banco Santander sets out in, or that are determined by the method of calculation described in, the relevant prospectus supplement. All payments in

 

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respect of the debt securities will be subject in all cases to any fiscal or other laws and regulations applicable thereto in the place of payment (including FATCA, any regulations or agreements thereunder, any official interpretation thereof, any intergovernmental agreements with respect thereto, or any law implementing an intergovernmental agreement or any regulations or official interpretations relating thereto), but without prejudice to the provisions described in “—Additional Amounts” below.

Status of the Debt Securities

Senior preferred debt securities

Unless the relevant prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the payment obligations of Banco Santander under the senior preferred debt securities of any series on account of principal constitute direct, unconditional, unsubordinated and unsecured obligations (créditos ordinarios) of Banco Santander and, upon the insolvency of Banco Santander (and unless they qualify as subordinated claims (créditos subordinados) pursuant to Article 92.1º or 92.3º to 92.7º of the Spanish Insolvency Law), but subject to any other ranking that may apply as a result of any mandatory provision of law (or otherwise), such payment obligations in respect of principal rank (i) pari passu among themselves and with any Senior Higher Priority Liabilities (as defined below) and (ii) senior to (x) any Senior Non Preferred Liabilities (as defined below) and (y) any present and future subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander in accordance with Article 92 of the Spanish Insolvency Law.

Claims of holders of senior preferred debt securities in respect of interest accrued but unpaid as of the commencement of any insolvency procedure in respect of Banco Santander shall constitute subordinated claims (créditos subordinados) against Banco Santander ranking in accordance with the provisions of Article 92.3º of the Spanish Insolvency Law and no further interest shall accrue from the date of the declaration of insolvency of Banco Santander.

The obligations of Banco Santander under the senior preferred debt securities are subject to the Bail-in Power.

Senior Non Preferred Debt Securities

Unless the relevant prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the payment obligations of Banco Santander under the senior non preferred debt securities of any series on account of principal constitute direct, unconditional, unsubordinated and unsecured senior non preferred obligations (créditos ordinarios no preferentes) of Banco Santander and, in accordance with Additional Provision 14.2º of Law 11/2015, but subject to any other ranking that may apply as a result of any mandatory provision of law (or otherwise), upon the insolvency of Banco Santander (and unless they qualify as subordinated claims (créditos subordinados) pursuant to Articles 92.1º or 92.3º to 92.7º of the Spanish Insolvency Law), such payment obligations in respect of principal rank (i) pari passu among themselves and with any Senior Non Preferred Liabilities, (ii) junior to the Senior Higher Priority Liabilities (and, accordingly, upon the insolvency of Banco Santander, the claims in respect of principal under the senior non preferred debt securities will be met after payment in full of the Senior Higher Priority Liabilities) and (iii) senior to any present and future subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander in accordance with Article 92 of the Spanish Insolvency Law.

Claims of holders of senior non preferred debt securities in respect of interest accrued but unpaid as of the commencement of any insolvency procedure in respect of Banco Santander shall constitute subordinated claims (créditos subordinados) against Banco Santander ranking in accordance with the provisions of Article 92.3º of the Spanish Insolvency Law and no further interest shall accrue from the date of the declaration of insolvency of Banco Santander.

The obligations of Banco Santander under the senior non preferred debt securities are subject to the Bail-in Power.

 

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“Senior Higher Priority Liabilities” means the unsubordinated and unsecured obligations (créditos ordinarios) of Banco Santander (which will include, among others, the senior preferred debt securities), other than the Senior Non Preferred Liabilities.

“Senior Non Preferred Liabilities” means any unsubordinated and unsecured senior non preferred obligations (créditos ordinarios no preferentes) of Banco Santander under Additional Provision 14.2º of Law 11/2015 (including any senior non preferred debt securities) and any other obligations which, by law and/or by their terms, and to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank pari passu with the Senior Non Preferred Liabilities.

Subordinated Debt Securities

Unless the relevant prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the payment obligations of Banco Santander under the subordinated debt securities on account of principal constitute direct, unconditional, unsecured and subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander according to Article 92.2º of the Spanish Insolvency Law and, in accordance with Additional Provision 14.3º of Law 11/2015, but subject to any other ranking that may apply as a result of any mandatory provision of law (or otherwise), upon the insolvency of Banco Santander (unless they qualify as subordinated claims (créditos subordinados) pursuant to Articles 92.3º to 92.7º of the Spanish Insolvency Law) rank for so long as the obligations of Banco Santander in respect of the subordinated debt securities constitute Tier 2 Instruments:

 

  (i)

pari passu among themselves and with (i) all other claims for principal in respect of Tier 2 Instruments which are not subordinated obligations under Articles 92.3º to 92.7º of the Spanish Insolvency Law, and (ii) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank pari passu with Banco Santander’s obligations under the relevant subordinated debt securities;

 

  (ii)

junior to (i) any unsubordinated obligations (créditos ordinarios) of Banco Santander (including any Senior Non Preferred Liabilities), (ii) any subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander under Article 92.1º of the Spanish Insolvency Law, (iii) any claim for principal in respect of Senior Subordinated Liabilities which are not subordinated obligations under Articles 92.3º to 92.7º of the Spanish Insolvency Law and (iv) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank senior to Banco Santander’s obligations under the relevant subordinated debt securities; and

 

  (iii)

senior to (i) any claims for principal in respect of Additional Tier 1 Instruments of Banco Santander, (ii) any subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) under Articles 92.3º to 92.7º of the Spanish Insolvency Law and (iii) any other subordinated obligations (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander which by law and/or by their terms, to the extent permitted by Spanish law, rank junior to the obligations of Banco Santander under the relevant subordinated debt securities.

Banco Santander agrees with respect to any series of subordinated debt securities and each holder of subordinated debt securities of any series, by his or her acquisition of a subordinated debt security, will be deemed to have agreed to the above described subordination. Each such holder will be deemed to have irrevocably waived his or her rights of priority which would otherwise be accorded to him or her under the laws of Spain, to the extent necessary to effectuate the subordination provisions of the subordinated debt security. In addition, each holder of subordinated debt securities of any series by his or her acquisition of the securities authorizes and directs the applicable trustee on his or her behalf to take such action as may be necessary or appropriate to effectuate the subordination of the relevant subordinated debt securities as provided in the subordinated indenture and as summarized herein and appoints the applicable trustee his or her attorney-in-fact for any and all such purposes.

Claims of holders of subordinated debt securities in respect of interest accrued but unpaid as of the commencement of any insolvency procedure in respect of Banco Santander shall constitute subordinated claims

 

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(créditos subordinados) against Banco Santander ranking in accordance with the provisions of Article 92.3º of the Spanish Insolvency Law and no further interest shall accrue from the date of the declaration of insolvency of Banco Santander.

The obligations of Banco Santander under the subordinated debt securities are subject to the Bail-in Power.

“Senior Subordinated Liabilities” means any contractually subordinated obligation (créditos subordinados) of Banco Santander according to Article 92.2º of the Spanish Insolvency Law, ranking as subordinated debt which is not an Additional Tier 1 Instrument or a Tier 2 Instrument (deuda subordinada que no sea capital adicional de nivel 1 o 2) under Additional Provision 14.3º(a) of Law 11/2015.

Additional Amounts

Unless otherwise specified in the relevant prospectus supplement, all amounts payable (whether in respect of principal, redemption amount, interest or otherwise) in respect of any series of debt securities will be made free and clear of and without withholding or deduction for or on account of any present or future taxes, duties, assessments or governmental charges (collectively, the “Taxes”) of whatever nature imposed or levied by or on behalf of the Kingdom of Spain or any political subdivision thereof or any authority or agency therein or thereof having power to tax, unless the withholding or deduction of such Taxes, is required by law. In that event, Banco Santander shall pay such additional amounts (“Additional Amounts”) as will result in receipt by the holders of the debt securities of the particular series of such amounts as would have been received by them had no such withholding or deduction been required.

However, Banco Santander shall not be required to pay any Additional Amounts in respect of any debt securities:

 

  (i)

to, or to a third party on behalf of, a holder if the holder or the beneficial owner of debt securities is liable for such Taxes, in respect of such debt securities by reason of his having some connection with Spain other than (i) the mere holding of such debt security or (ii) the receipt of any payment in respect of such debt security; or

 

  (ii)

to, or to a third party on behalf of, a holder or a beneficial owner in respect of whose series of debt securities Banco Santander does not receive such information as may be required in order to comply with the applicable Spanish tax reporting obligations, including but not limited to the receipt in a timely manner of a duly executed and completed certificate in accordance with Law 10/2014 and Royal Decree 1065/2007, as amended, and any implementing legislation or regulation; or

 

  (iii)

to, or to a third party on behalf of, a holder or a beneficial owner of debt securities in respect of whom Banco Santander does not receive such information concerning such holder’s or beneficial owner’s identity and tax residence as may be required in order to comply with the procedures that may be implemented to comply with the interpretation of Royal Decree 1065/2007 eventually made by the Spanish tax authorities; or

 

  (iv)

presented for payment (where presentation is required) more than 30 days after the Relevant Date, except to the extent that the relevant holder would have been entitled to such Additional Amounts on presenting the same for payment on the expiry of such period of 30 days; or

 

  (v)

in relation to any estate, inheritance, gift, sales, transfer or similar taxes; or

 

  (vi)

to, or to a third party on behalf of, individuals resident for tax purposes in the Kingdom of Spain if the Spanish tax authorities determine that payments made to such individuals are not exempt from withholding tax and require a withholding to be made; or

 

  (vii)

to, or to a third party on behalf of, a Spanish-resident legal entity subject to Spanish corporation tax if the Spanish tax authorities determine that the debt securities of such series do not comply

 

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  with exemption requirements specified in the Reply to a Consultation of the Directorate General for Taxation (Dirección General de Tributos) dated 27 July 2004 and require a withholding to be made; or

 

  (viii)

where the withholding or deduction is required pursuant to an agreement described in Section 1471(b) of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), or otherwise imposed pursuant to Sections 1471 through 1474 of the Code (“FATCA”), any regulations or agreements thereunder, any official interpretations thereof, any intergovernmental agreements with respect thereto (including the intergovernmental agreement between the United States and Spain on the implementation of FATCA), or any law implementing an intergovernmental agreement or any regulations or official interpretations relating thereto; or

 

  (viii)

in the case of any combination of items listed in (i) through (viii) above.

Additional Amounts will also not be paid with respect to any payment to a holder who is a fiduciary, a partnership, a limited liability company or person other than the sole beneficial owner of that payment, to the extent that payment would be required by the laws of Spain (or any political subdivision thereof) to be included in the income, for tax purposes, of a beneficiary or settlor with respect to the fiduciary, a member of that partnership, an interest holder in that limited liability company or a beneficial owner who would not have been entitled to the Additional Amounts had it been the holder.

For the purposes of (iv) above, the “Relevant Date” means, in respect of any payment, the date on which such payment first becomes due and payable, but if the full amount of the moneys payable has not been received by the Trustee on or prior to such due date, it means the first date on which, the full amount of such moneys having been so received and being available for payment to holders of debt securities, notice to that effect shall have been duly given to the holders of the relevant series of debt securities in accordance with the indenture.

Unless the context otherwise requires, any reference in this “Additional Amounts” section to “principal” shall include any premium payable, or Redemption Amount and any other amounts in the nature of principal payable pursuant to the relevant indenture and “interest” shall include all amounts payable described under “—Payments of Interest” above and any other amounts in the nature of interest payable under the relevant indenture.

As used in this “Additional Amounts” section, the term “Redemption Amount” means, as appropriate, the Maturity Redemption Amount, Early Redemption Amount (Tax), Early Redemption Amount (Capital Disqualification Event), Early Redemption Amount (Call), Early Redemption Amount (Put) and Early Termination Amount or such other amount in the nature of a redemption amount as may be specified in, or determined in accordance with the provisions of, the relevant prospectus supplement.

Except where the context requires otherwise, any reference in the prospectus supplement to payment of principal of or interest on a debt security shall be deemed to include any Additional Amounts payable with respect thereto.

Additional Issuances

Banco Santander may, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of any series, issue additional debt securities of such series having the same ranking and same interest rate, maturity date, redemption terms and other terms as the debt securities of such series described in the relevant prospectus supplement except for the price to the public, original interest accrual date, issue date and first interest payment date, provided however that such additional debt securities will not have the same CUSIP, ISIN or other identifying number as the outstanding debt securities of the relevant series unless the additional debt securities are fungible with the outstanding debt securities of the relevant series for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Any such additional debt securities, together with the debt securities of the relevant series offered by the relevant prospectus supplement,

 

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will constitute a single series of securities under the relevant indenture. There is no limitation on the amount of debt securities that Banco Santander may issue under the relevant indentures.

Redemption and Repurchase

Early Redemption for Taxation Reasons

Unless otherwise specified in the relevant prospectus supplement, the following shall apply if, in relation to the debt securities of any series, (i) as a result of any change in, or amendment to, the laws or regulations of Spain or of any political subdivision thereof or any authority or agency therein or thereof having power to tax or in the interpretation or administration of any such laws or regulations which becomes effective on or after the date of issue of the first issued debt securities of such series or any earlier date specified in the relevant prospectus supplement, Banco Santander shall determine that (a) it would be required to pay additional amounts as described in “—Additional Amounts” above or (b) it would not be entitled to claim a deduction in computing tax liabilities in Spain in respect of any interest to be paid on the next interest payment date on such series of debt securities or the value of such deduction to Banco Santander would be materially reduced or (c) the applicable tax treatment of the debt securities of such series changes in a material way that was not reasonably foreseeable at the issue date and (ii) such circumstances are evidenced by the delivery by Banco Santander to the Trustee of a certificate signed by two directors of Banco Santander stating that such circumstances prevail and describing the facts leading thereto, an opinion of independent legal advisers of recognized standing to the effect that such circumstances prevail and, in the case of senior non preferred debt securities, a copy of the Supervisory Permission for the redemption, if and as required, or, in the case of subordinated debt securities, a copy of the Regulator’s consent for the redemption. In any such case Banco Santander may, at its option and having given no less than 15 nor more than 60 days’ notice (ending, in the case of debt securities which bear interest at a floating rate, on a day upon which interest is payable) to the holders of the debt securities of such series in accordance with the terms described under “—Notices” below (which notice shall be irrevocable), redeem in whole, but not in part, the outstanding debt securities of such series (in the case of subordinated debt securities and senior non preferred debt securities in accordance with the requirements of Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time) at their early tax redemption amount (the “Early Redemption Amount (Tax)”) (which shall be their principal amount or at such other Early Redemption Amount (Tax) as may be specified in or determined as described in the relevant prospectus supplement), together with accrued interest (if any) thereon; provided, however, that (i) in the case of (a) above, no such notice of redemption may be given earlier than 90 days (or, in the case of debt securities which bear interest at a floating rate a number of days which is equal to the aggregate of the number of days falling within the then current interest period applicable to the debt securities of such series plus 60 days) prior to the earliest date on which Banco Santander would be obliged to pay such additional amounts were a payment in respect of the debt securities of such series then due and (ii) in the case of senior non preferred debt securities, subordinated debt securities or senior preferred debt securities where the TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event has been specified as applicable in the relevant prospectus supplement only, redemption for taxation reasons may only take place in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time and subject to Banco Santander obtaining, with respect to the senior non preferred debt securities or, if applicable, the senior preferred debt securities of such series, the prior Supervisory Permission therefor, if and as required, or with respect to the subordinated debt securities of such series, the prior consent of the Regulator.

Early Redemption of Senior Debt Securities for a TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event

Unless otherwise specified in the relevant prospectus supplement, if, in relation to senior non preferred debt securities of any series or senior preferred debt securities where the TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event has been specified as applicable in the relevant prospectus supplement only, a TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event has occurred and is continuing, then Banco Santander may, at its option and having given not less than 15 nor more than 60 days’ notice (ending, in the case of the relevant securities which bear interest at a floating rate, on a day upon which interest is payable) to the holders of the relevant securities in accordance with the terms

 

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described under “—Notices” below (which notice shall be irrevocable and shall specify the date for redemption) and a concurrent copy thereof to the Trustee, elect to redeem in whole but not in part the outstanding securities of such series at their principal amount, together with any accrued and unpaid interest thereon to (but excluding) the date fixed for redemption (the “Early Redemption Amount (TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event)”).

Redemption on the basis of a TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event is subject to Banco Santander obtaining prior Supervisory Permission if and as required under Applicable Banking Regulations and may only take place in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time.

Early Redemption of Subordinated Debt Securities for Capital Disqualification Event

Unless otherwise specified in the relevant prospectus supplement, if, in relation to subordinated debt securities of any series, (i) there is a Capital Disqualification Event and (ii) such circumstances are evidenced by the delivery by Banco Santander to the Trustee of a certificate signed by two directors of Banco Santander stating that the said circumstances prevail and describing the facts leading thereto and a copy of the Regulator’s consent to the redemption, Banco Santander may, at its option and having given no less than 15 nor more than 60 days’ notice (ending, in the case of subordinated debt securities which bear interest at a floating rate, on a day upon which interest is payable) to the holders of the subordinated debt securities of such series in accordance with the terms described under “—Notices” below (which notice shall be irrevocable), redeem in whole but not in part the outstanding subordinated debt securities of such series in accordance with the requirements of Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time) at their early capital disqualification event redemption amount (the “Early Redemption Amount (Capital Disqualification Event)”) (which shall be their principal amount or such other Early Redemption Amount (Capital Disqualification Event) as may be specified in or determined in the relevant prospectus supplement), together with any accrued and unpaid interest thereon to (but excluding) the date fixed for redemption; provided, however, that the Regulator consents to redemption of the subordinated debt securities of such series.

Redemption for regulatory reasons is subject to the prior consent of the Regulator if and as required under Applicable Banking Regulations and may only take place in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time.

Optional Early Redemption (Call)

Unless otherwise specified in the relevant prospectus supplement, Banco Santander may, upon the expiration of the appropriate notice (described below) and subject to such conditions as may be specified in the relevant prospectus supplement, redeem in whole (but not, unless and to the extent that the relevant prospectus supplement specifies otherwise, in part) the debt securities of such series at their call early redemption amount (the “Early Redemption Amount (Call)”) (which shall be their principal amount or such other Early Redemption Amount (Call) as may be specified in or determined in the relevant prospectus supplement), together with any accrued interest (if any) thereon to (but excluding) the date or dates fixed for redemption.

In the case of senior non preferred debt securities, subordinated debt securities or senior preferred debt securities where the TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event has been specified as applicable in the relevant prospectus supplement only, redemption at the option of Banco Santander will be subject to the prior consent of the Regulator and/or the Relevant Resolution Authority if and as required under Applicable Banking Regulations and may only take place in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time.

Partial Redemption

If the debt securities of any series are to be redeemed in part only on any date in accordance with “—Optional Early Redemption (Call)” above, the debt securities to be redeemed will be selected not more than 60 days nor less than 15 days prior to such redemption date by the Trustee pro rata to their principal amounts, or

 

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by lot or by such method as the Trustee deems fair and appropriate, provided that the amount redeemed in respect of the debt securities of such series shall be equal to the minimum authorized denomination or an integral multiple thereof, subject always to compliance with all applicable laws and the requirements of any clearing system on which the debt securities of such series may be cleared and of any listing authority, stock exchange and/or quotation system on which the debt securities of such series may be listed and/or quoted. In the case of debt securities issued in global form, DTC shall select Book-Entry Interests in such debt securities as described under “—Form of Securities; Book-Entry System” below. The Trustee shall not be liable for selections made by it in accordance with this paragraph or for selections made by DTC. No debt securities of $2,000 or less can be redeemed in part.

In the case of senior non preferred debt securities and subordinated debt securities partial redemption will be subject to the prior consent of the Regulator and/or the Relevant Resolution Authority if and as required under Applicable Banking Regulations and may only take place in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time.

Optional Early Redemption (Put) of Senior Preferred Debt Securities

Unless otherwise specified in the relevant prospectus supplement, Banco Santander shall, upon the exercise of the relevant option by a holder of senior preferred debt securities of any series, redeem the senior preferred debt securities of such series on the date or the dates specified in the relevant prospectus supplement at the put early redemption amount (the “Early Redemption Amount (Put)”) (which shall be the principal amount or such other Early Redemption Amount (Put) as may be specified in or determined in the relevant prospectus supplement), together with accrued interest (if any) thereon. In order to exercise such option, the holder of the senior preferred debt securities of such series must, not less than 60 days before the date so specified (or such other period as may be specified in the relevant prospectus supplement), deposit a duly completed redemption notice in the form which is available from the specified office of the Trustee specifying the aggregate principal amount in respect of which such option is exercised (which must be the minimum denomination specified in the relevant prospectus supplement or an integral multiple thereof). Such notice must also be delivered in accordance with the requirements of the applicable clearing system. No option exercised may be withdrawn (except as provided in the relevant indenture).

The Early Redemption (Put) shall not apply in the case of senior non preferred debt securities or subordinated debt securities of any series and holders of senior non preferred debt securities or subordinated debt securities of any series may not redeem the senior non preferred debt securities or subordinated debt securities of such series prior to the maturity date of such series.

A holder of any series of senior preferred debt securities may not exercise such option in respect of any series of senior preferred debt securities which is the subject of an exercise by Banco Santander of its option to redeem such series of senior preferred debt securities under “—Early Redemption for Taxation Reasons” or “—Optional Early Redemption (Call)” above.

Notice of Redemption

For purposes of this section “—Redemption and Repurchase”, the appropriate notice to be given by Banco Santander to the Trustee and the holders of the debt securities of such series, shall be signed by two duly authorized officers of Banco Santander and shall specify:

 

   

the series of debt securities subject to redemption;

 

   

whether such series of debt securities is to be redeemed in whole or in part only and, if in part only, the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities series which is to be redeemed, except in the case of “—Early Redemption for Taxation Reasons”, “—Early Redemption of Subordinated Debt Securities for Capital Disqualification Event” and “—Early Redemption of Senior Debt Securities for a TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event”, which must be redeemed in full;

 

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the due date for such redemption which shall be a Business Day, which shall be not less than 15 days nor more than 60 days (or such lesser period as may be specified in the relevant prospectus supplement) after the date on which such notice is validly given and which is, in the case of debt securities which bear interest at a floating rate, a date upon which interest is payable; and

 

   

the Early Redemption Amount (Tax), Early Redemption Amount (TLAC/MREL Disqualification Event), Early Redemption Amount (Capital Disqualification Event), Early Redemption Amount (Call) or Early Redemption Amount (Put), as applicable, at which the debt securities of such series are to be redeemed.

Any such notice shall be irrevocable, and the delivery thereof shall oblige Banco Santander to make the redemption therein specified (unless the Bail-in Power is exercised by the Relevant Resolution Authority before the occurrence of such redemption).

Repurchase of Debt Securities

Banco Santander and any of its subsidiaries or any third party designated by any of them, may at any time repurchase debt securities in the open market or otherwise and at any price.

In the case of senior non preferred debt securities and subordinated debt securities of any series, the repurchase of the relevant securities of such series by Banco Santander or any of its subsidiaries shall take place in accordance with Applicable Banking Regulations in force at the relevant time and will be subject to the prior consent of the Regulator and/or the Relevant Resolution Authority, if and as required.

Modification and Waiver

Modification

Banco Santander and the Trustee may make certain modifications and amendments of the applicable indenture with respect to any series of debt securities without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of that series, including for, but not limited to, any of the following purposes:

 

   

to evidence the succession of another corporation to Banco Santander and the assumption by any such successor of the covenants of Banco Santander under the relevant indenture and in the debt securities of any series;

 

   

to add to the covenants of Banco Santander for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities (and, if such covenants are to be for the benefit of less than all series of debt securities, stating that such covenants are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series) or to surrender any right or power conferred upon Banco Santander under the relevant indenture;

 

   

to add any additional Events of Default;

 

   

to change or eliminate any of the provisions of the relevant indenture, or any supplemental indenture, provided that any such change or elimination shall become effective only when there is no outstanding debt security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture that is entitled to the benefit of such provision or as to which such supplemental indenture would apply;

 

   

to secure the debt securities of any series;

 

   

to change any place of payment under certain circumstances, so long as a place of payment as required by the relevant indenture is maintained;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, to correct or supplement any provision in the relevant indenture which may be defective or inconsistent with any other provision of the relevant indenture or in any supplemental indenture;

 

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to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under the relevant indenture by a successor Trustee with respect to the debt securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the relevant indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts under the relevant indenture by more than one Trustee, pursuant to the requirements of the relevant indenture;

 

   

to change or eliminate any provision of the relevant indenture so as to conform with the current provisions or any future provisions of the Trust Indenture Act;

 

   

with respect to any debt security (including a global security), to amend any such debt security to conform to the description of the terms of such debt security in the prospectus, prospectus supplement, product supplement, pricing supplement or any other similar offering document related to the offering of such debt security.

In addition to the permitted amendments described in the preceding paragraph, Banco Santander and the Trustee may amend or supplement the relevant indenture or the debt securities of any series and the related supplemental indenture without the consent of any holders of the debt securities of such series to conform the provisions of the relevant indenture to this “Description of Debt Securities” section in this registration statement and the applicable prospectus supplement.

Banco Santander may make other modifications and amendments with the consent of the holder or holders of not less than a majority in aggregate outstanding principal amount of the debt securities of the series outstanding under the indenture that are affected by the modification or amendment, voting as one class. However, Banco Santander may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holder of each debt security affected that would:

 

   

change the stated maturity of the principal amount of any subordinated debt security;

 

   

reduce the principal amount of or the interest rates, or any premium payable upon the redemption of, or any missed payments, with respect to any debt security;

 

   

change our (or any successor’s) obligation to pay Additional Amounts;

 

   

change the currency of payment;

 

   

impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment due and payable;

 

   

reduce the percentage in aggregate principal amount of outstanding debt securities of the series necessary to modify or amend the indenture or to waive compliance with certain provisions of the relevant indenture and any Senior Preferred Debt Security Event of Default, Senior Non Preferred Debt Security Event of Default or Subordinated Debt Security Event of Default (as such terms are defined below and described in the relevant prospectus supplement);

 

   

modify the subordination provisions or the terms of our obligations in respect of the due and punctual payment of the amounts due and payable on the debt securities in a manner adverse to the holders; or

 

   

modify the above requirements.

In addition, material variations in the terms and conditions of debt securities of any series, including modifications relating to subordination, redemption, an Senior Preferred Debt Security Event of Default, a Senior Non Preferred Debt Security Event of Default or Subordinated Debt Security Event of Default, (as those terms are defined under “—Events of Default and Defaults; Limitations of Remedies” below), may require the non-objection from, or consent of, the Regulator or its successor.

 

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Events of Default and Defaults; Limitation of Remedies

Senior Preferred Debt Security Event of Default

Unless the relevant prospectus supplement provides otherwise, a “Senior Preferred Debt Security Event of Default” with respect to any series of senior preferred debt securities shall result if:

 

  (i)

Non-payment: default is made in the payment of any interest or principal due in respect of the senior preferred debt securities of that series or any of them and such default continues for a period of seven days (or such other period as may be specified in the relevant prospectus supplement); or

 

  (ii)

Breach of other obligations: Banco Santander fails to perform or observe any of its other obligations under or in respect of the senior preferred debt securities of such series or the senior preferred debt securities indenture and (except in any case where such failure is incapable of remedy when no such continuation as is hereinafter mentioned will be required) the failure continues for a period of 30-days next following the service by the Trustee on Banco Santander of a notice requiring the same to be remedied; or

 

  (iii)

Winding up: any order is made by any competent court or resolution passed for the winding up, dissolution or liquidation of Banco Santander (except in any such case for the purpose of reconstruction or amalgamation or a merger or spin-off or any other structural modification (modificación estructural) which has been previously approved by the holders of at least a majority of the outstanding principal amount of the senior preferred debt securities of that series or a merger with, or spin-off or other structural modification into, another institution in this case even without being approved by holders of the senior preferred debt securities of such series, provided that any entity that survives or is created as a result of such merger, spin-off or other structural modification is given a rating by an internationally recognized rating agency at least equal to the then current rating of Banco Santander at the time of such transaction); or

 

  (iv)

Cessation of business: Banco Santander ceases or threatens to cease to carry on the whole or a substantial part of its business (except in any such case for the purpose of reconstruction or amalgamation or a merger or spin-off or any other structural modification (modificación estructural) which has been previously approved by the holders of at least a majority of the outstanding principal amount of the senior preferred debt securities of that series or a merger with, or spin-off or other structural modification into, another financial institution in each such case even without being approved by holders of the senior preferred debt securities of such series, provided that any entity that survives or is created as a result of such merger, spin-off or other structural modification is given a rating by an internationally recognized rating agency at least equal to the then current rating of Banco Santander at the time of such transaction), or Banco Santander stops or threatens to stop payment of, or is unable to, or admits in writing inability to, pay, its debts (or any class thereof) as they fall due, or is deemed unable to pay its debts pursuant to or for the purposes of any applicable law, or is adjudicated or found bankrupt or insolvent; or

 

  (v)

Insolvency proceedings: (a) proceedings are initiated against Banco Santander under any applicable liquidation, insolvency, composition, reorganization or other similar laws, or an application made for the appointment of an administrative or other receiver, manager, administrator or other similar official, or an administrative or other receiver, manager, administrator or other similar official is appointed, in relation to Banco Santander or in relation to the whole or a part of the undertaking or assets of either of them, or an encumbrancer takes possession of the whole or a part of the undertaking or assets of either of them, or a distress, execution, attachment, sequestration or other process is levied, enforced upon, sued or put in force against the whole or a part of the undertaking or assets or any of them and (b) in any case is not discharged within 14 days; or

 

  (vi)

Arrangements with creditors: Banco Santander initiates or consents to judicial proceedings relating to itself under any applicable liquidation, insolvency, composition, reorganization or other

 

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  similar laws or makes a conveyance or assignment for the benefit of, or enters into any composition or other arrangement with, its creditors generally (or any class of its creditors).