Prospectus Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5) (424b5)

Date : 08/23/2019 @ 9:02PM
Source : Edgar (US Regulatory)
Stock : Medicinova Inc (MNOV)
Quote : 8.0  0.12 (1.52%) @ 12:59AM
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Prospectus Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5) (424b5)

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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-233201

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(to the Prospectus dated August 22, 2019)

 

LOGO

$75,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into an at market issuance sales agreement, or sales agreement, with B. Riley FBR, Inc., or B. Riley FBR, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000 from time to time to and/or through B. Riley FBR, as sales agent or principal, pursuant to this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

Our common stock is listed on The NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “MNOV” and on the Jasdaq Market of the Tokyo Securities Exchange under the code “4875.” The last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Market on August 22, 2019 was $8.81 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). B. Riley FBR will act as a sales agent on a best efforts basis using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between B. Riley FBR and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

The compensation to B. Riley FBR for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be up to 3.5% of the gross proceeds from each sale. We have also agreed to reimburse B. Riley FBR for certain of its expenses. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, B. Riley FBR will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of B. Riley FBR will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to B. Riley FBR with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. See “Plan of Distribution” for more information about these arrangements.

 

 

Before buying shares of our common stock, you should carefully consider the risk factors described in “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement and page 5 of the accompanying prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

B. Riley FBR

The date of this prospectus supplement is August 23, 2019.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

Prospectus Supplement

  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-1  

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

     S-2  

THE OFFERING

     S-6  

RISK FACTORS

     S-7  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-8  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-10  

DILUTION

     S-11  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     S-12  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-14  

EXPERTS

     S-14  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-14  

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

     S-15  

 

     Page  

Prospectus

  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     2  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES AND GUARANTEES

     13  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     26  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     28  

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

     29  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     32  

LEGAL MATTERS

     35  

EXPERTS

     35  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     35  

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

     36  

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document is in two parts. The first part is the prospectus supplement, including the documents incorporated by reference, which describes the specific terms of this offering. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference, provides more general information. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. We urge you to carefully read this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and the documents incorporated herein and therein, before buying any of the securities being offered under this prospectus supplement. This prospectus supplement may add to, update or change information contained in the accompanying prospectus. To the extent that any statement that we make in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with statements made in the accompanying prospectus or any documents incorporated by reference therein, the statements made in this prospectus supplement will be deemed to modify or supersede those made in the accompanying prospectus and such documents incorporated by reference therein. You should also read and consider the information contained in the documents identified under the headings “Incorporation of Certain Documents by Reference” and “Where You Can Find More Information.”

You should rely only on the information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus supplement, and the accompanying prospectus. We have not, and B. Riley FBR has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. You should not rely on any unauthorized information or representation. This prospectus supplement is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, and only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the applicable document and that any information we have incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, or any sale of a security.

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, and the information incorporated herein and therein by reference includes trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus are the property of their respective owners.

All references in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus to “MediciNova,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” or similar references refer to MediciNova, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis, except where the context otherwise requires or as otherwise indicated.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our securities. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. If you invest in our securities, you are assuming a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors.”

About MediciNova, Inc.

Our Business

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on acquiring and developing novel, small molecule therapeutics for the treatment of serious diseases with unmet medical needs and a commercial focus on the U.S. market. Our current strategy is to focus our development activities on MN-166 (ibudilast) for neurological disorders such as progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, degenerative cervical myelopathy, glioblastoma, and substance dependenc and addiction (e.g., methamphetamine dependence, opioid dependence, and alcohol dependence), and MN-001 (tipelukast) for fibrotic diseases such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Our pipeline also includes MN-221 (bedoradrine) for the treatment of acute exacerbation of asthma and MN-029 (denibulin) for solid tumor cancers.

MN-166 (ibudilast) is currently in development for several different neurological diseases as described below.

 

   

Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: We completed a Phase 2b clinical trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), in which positive safety and neuroprotective efficacy indicators were observed. The data from this trial indicated that MN-166 (ibudilast) may have potential in the treatment of progressive MS.

We partnered with investigators on a Phase 2b clinical trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) in primary progressive and secondary progressive MS which was conducted by NeuroNEXT and funded by the National Institute of Health’s (NIH) National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS). This progressive MS trial, known as SPRINT-MS, completed randomization of 255 subjects in 2015, which exceeded the goal of 250 subjects that were planned for participation. In October 2017, we announced the presentation of positive top-line results from the SPRINT-MS Phase 2b clinical trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) in progressive MS. The trial achieved both primary endpoints of whole brain atrophy and safety and tolerability. MN-166 (ibudilast) demonstrated a statistically significant 48% reduction in the rate of progression of whole brain atrophy compared to placebo (p=0.04) as measured by MRI analysis using brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) and there was not an increased rate of serious adverse events in the MN-166 (ibudilast) group compared to the placebo group. In February 2018, we announced the presentation of positive clinical efficacy trends from this trial regarding the important secondary endpoint of confirmed disability progression. MN-166 (ibudilast) demonstrated a 26% reduction in the risk of confirmed disability progression compared to placebo (hazard ratio = 0.74), as measured by EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale). Results of the SPRINT-MS Phase 2b clinical trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) in progressive MS were published in the New England Journal of Medicine in August 2018.



 

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The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Fast Track designation for the development of MN-166 (ibudilast) for the treatment of patients with progressive MS.

 

   

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): We initiated a clinical trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the second half of 2014, and this trial was completed during the second half of 2017. In December 2017, we announced positive top-line results from this trial. The trial achieved the primary endpoint of safety and tolerability. In addition, there was a higher rate of responders on the ALSFRS-R total score in the MN-166 (ibudilast) group compared to the placebo group. The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) total score measures the functional activity of an ALS subject. In July 2018, we announced data from ad-hoc subgroup analyses in ALS subjects who had either bulbar onset or upper limb onset. In September 2018, we received feedback from the FDA regarding our Phase 3 clinical development plan for MN-166 (ibudilast) in ALS. In January 2019, we received a Notice of Allowance from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office for a pending patent application which covers the combination of MN-166 (ibudilast) and riluzole for the treatment of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases.

We have collaborated with Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) to conduct a clinical trial to study the effects of MN-166 (ibudilast) on reducing brain microglial activation in ALS subjects which can be monitored by a biomarker. This ongoing clinical trial, which we refer to as the ALS / Biomarker study, will also evaluate several clinical outcomes. In July 2018, we announced that the ALS / Biomarker study was fully enrolled.

The FDA has granted Fast Track designation to MN-166 (ibudilast) for the treatment of ALS as well as Orphan-Drug designation for the treatment of ALS, which will provide seven years of marketing exclusivity if it is approved for ALS. The European Commission also granted Orphan Medicinal Product Designation for MN-166 (ibudilast) for the treatment of ALS.

 

   

Substance Dependence and Addiction: In the area of addiction, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded a Phase 2 clinical trial studying the use of MN-166 (ibudilast) for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. In collaboration with the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), this clinical trial commenced in 2013 and enrollment was completed in September 2017. In March 2018, we announced that this trial did not meet the primary endpoint of methamphetamine abstinence confirmed via urine drug screens during the final two weeks of treatment. In November 2017, we announced a collaboration with Oregon Health & Science University to initiate a biomarker study for evaluating MN-166 (ibudilast) in methamphetamine use disorder and this trial is ongoing.

Investigators at Columbia University and the New York State Psychiatric Institute (NYSPI) previously completed a Phase 1b/2a clinical trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) in opioid withdrawal that was funded by NIDA. Investigators at Columbia University and the NYSPI also conducted a NIDA-funded, Phase 2a clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of MN-166 (ibudilast) in the treatment of patients addicted to prescription opioids or heroin. In March 2016, we announced that positive findings from the results of this completed study in opioid dependence were presented at the Behavior, Biology and Chemistry: Translational Research in Addiction Meeting.

Researchers at UCLA were granted approval and funding by the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) for a clinical trial to evaluate MN-166 (ibudilast) for the treatment of alcohol dependence. This clinical trial has been completed and results were presented at the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP)’s 54th Annual Meeting in December 2015. In May 2018, we announced a new NIDA-funded clinical trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) in alcohol dependence and withdrawal in collaboration with researchers at UCLA and this trial is ongoing. In August 2018, we announced a new NIAAA-funded Phase 2b clinical trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) which will evaluate



 

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heavy drinking days in subjects with alcohol dependence in collaboration with researchers at UCLA and this trial is ongoing.

 

   

Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: In March 2018, we announced plans to initiate a clinical trial to evaluate MN-166 (ibudilast) in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, which is funded by the University of Sydney Concord Cancer Centre in Australia, and this trial is ongoing.

 

   

Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: In August 2018, we announced plans to initiate a clinical trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) in degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) in collaboration with the University of Cambridge. The trial is funded by a grant from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) in the United Kingdom (UK) and is ongoing.

 

   

Glioblastoma: We have initiated clinical development to evaluate MN-166 (ibudilast) for the treatment of glioblastoma. In June 2017, we announced positive results from an animal model study that examined the potential clinical efficacy of MN-166 (ibudilast) for the treatment of glioblastoma. These results were presented at the 2017 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting. In May 2018, we announced that the Investigational New Drug Application (IND) for MN-166 (ibudilast) for treatment of glioblastoma was accepted and opened with the FDA. In October 2018, we announced that the FDA granted orphan-drug designation to MN-166 (ibudilast) as adjunctive therapy to temozolomide for the treatment of glioblastoma. In January 2019, we announced the initiation of enrollment in a clinical trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) in combination with temozolomide (TMZ, Temodar- ®) for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston.

MN-001 (tipelukast) is currently in development for fibrotic diseases including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which are described below.

 

   

Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): We announced positive results of MN-001 (tipelukast) in two different NASH mouse models in 2014 and we opened the IND (Investigational New Drug) application for MN-001 (tipelukast) for the treatment of NASH with the FDA in 2015. The FDA subsequently granted Fast Track designation to MN-001 (tipelukast) for the treatment of patients with NASH with fibrosis. We then initiated a clinical trial to investigate MN-001 (tipelukast) for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in NASH and NAFLD patients. In April 2018, we announced that we would terminate this trial early after positive results from an interim analysis in which MN-001 (tipelukast) significantly reduced mean serum triglycerides, a primary endpoint. This data was presented at the International Liver Congress 2018, the 53rd annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) in Paris, France in April 2018.

 

   

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF): In 2014, we announced positive results of MN-001 (tipelukast) in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. The FDA subsequently granted Orphan-Drug designation to MN-001 (tipelukast) for treatment of IPF which will provide seven years of marketing exclusivity if MN-001 (tipelukast) is approved for IPF. The FDA granted Fast Track designation to MN-001 (tipelukast) for the treatment of patients with IPF in September 2015. We then initiated a Phase 2 clinical trial of MN-001 (tipelukast) to treat IPF and this trial is currently enrolling patients.

We completed a Phase 2 clinical trial of MN-221 (bedoradrine) for the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma treated in the emergency room and conducted an End-of-Phase 2 meeting with the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October 2012. In that meeting, the FDA identified the risk/benefit profile of MN-221 (bedoradrine) as a focal point for further development and advised that a clinical outcome, such as a reduction in hospitalizations, would need to be a pivotal trial primary endpoint. We believe the appropriate clinical development for MN-221 (bedoradrine) would involve conducting dose regimen and acute exacerbations of asthma trial design optimization studies prior to commencing pivotal trials. We are working to identify a partner for financial support before further clinical development is commenced.



 

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We have acquired licenses to MN-166 (ibudilast), MN-001 (tipelukast), MN-221 (bedoradrine), and MN-029 (denibulin) for the development of these product candidates. We have pursued development of these product candidates in various indications including progressive MS, ALS, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, degenerative cervical myelopathy, glioblastoma, various addictions, NASH and NAFLD, IPF, acute exacerbations of asthma, and solid tumor cancers.

Company and Other Information

We were incorporated in the State of Delaware in September 2000. Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “MNOV” and also currently on the Jasdaq Market of the Tokyo Securities Exchange under the code “4875,” although there is a possibility that by the beginning of 2020, our common stock will only trade on the Nasdaq Global Market. Our principal executive offices are located at 4275 Executive Square, Suite 300, La Jolla, CA 92037. Our telephone number is (858) 373-1500. Our website is www.medicinova.com, which includes links to reports we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus and should not be considered part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us pursuant to this prospectus

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000.

 

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

Up to 51,612,214 shares, assuming the sale of 8,513,053 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $8.81 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Market on August 22, 2019. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the actual sales prices under this offering.

 

Manner of offering

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through or to B. Riley FBR, Inc., as sales agent or principal. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-12.

 

Use of proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund our research and development efforts, and for general corporate purposes, including working capital and other general and administrative purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-10.

 

NASDAQ Global Market symbol

MNOV

 

Tokyo Securities Exchange code

4875

 

Risk factors

This investment involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement as well as the other information included in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a discussion of factors you should consider carefully before making an investment decision.

The number of shares of our common stock shown above to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 43,099,161 shares outstanding as of June 30, 2019 and excludes as of such date:

 

   

6,826,193 shares of common stock reserved for the exercise of options outstanding at a weighted average exercise price of $5.61;

 

   

2,262,592 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our stock incentive plan;

 

   

204,477 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our employee stock purchase plan; and

The number of shares to be outstanding after this offering also excludes the following item issued subsequent to June 30, 2019: 285,320 shares of common stock issued pursuant to our prior at-the-market sales program.



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described below and those under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, which have been filed with the SEC and are incorporated by reference in this prospectus, as well as any updates thereto contained in subsequent filings with the SEC or any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being registered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or a part of your investment. Moreover, the risks described are not the only risks that we face. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations.

Risks Related to this Offering

Sales of our common stock in this offering, or the perception that such sales may occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to fall.

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock for aggregate gross proceeds of up to $75,000,000 from time to time in connection with this offering. The issuance and sale from time to time of these new shares of common stock, or our ability to issue these new shares of common stock in this offering, could have the effect of depressing the market price of our common stock.

Our management team will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from this offering.

Our management will use its discretion to direct the net proceeds from this offering. We intend to use all of the net proceeds, together with cash on hand, for research and development and general corporate purposes. General corporate purposes may include working capital, capital expenditures, development costs, strategic investments or possible acquisitions. Our management’s judgments may not result in positive returns on your investment and you will not have an opportunity to evaluate the economic, financial or other information upon which our management bases its decisions.

If you purchase the common stock sold in this offering, you will experience immediate dilution in your investment. You may experience further dilution if we issue additional equity securities in future fundraising transactions.

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming we sell 8,513,053 shares in this offering at an assumed offering price of $8.81 per share, and after deducting the estimated offering expenses payable by us in this offering, you will experience immediate dilution of $6.272 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2019 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. The exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants may result in further dilution of your investment. See the section entitled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering.

We do not anticipate declaring any cash dividends on our common stock. Investors in this offering may never obtain a return on their investment.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock and do not plan to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Our current policy is to retain all funds and earnings for use in the operation and expansion of our business. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be the sole source of gain for the foreseeable future for holders of our common stock.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. These statements relate to future events or to our future operating or financial performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performances or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

Inability to raise additional capital if needed;

 

   

Inability to generate revenues from product sales to continue business operations;

 

   

Inability to develop and commercialize our product candidates;

 

   

Failure or delay in completing clinical trials or obtaining Food and Drug Administration or foreign regulatory approval for our product candidates in a timely manner;

 

   

Unsuccessful clinical trials stemming from clinical trial designs, failure to enroll a sufficient number of patients, undesirable side effects and other safety concerns;

 

   

Inability to demonstrate sufficient efficacy of product candidates;

 

   

Reliance on the success of our MN-166 (ibudilast) and MN-001 (tipelukast) product candidates;

 

   

Delays in commencement or completion of clinical trials or suspension or termination of clinical trials;

 

   

Loss of our licensed rights to develop and commercialize a product candidate as a result of the termination of the underlying licensing agreement;

 

   

Competitors may develop products rendering our product candidates obsolete and noncompetitive;

 

   

Inability to successfully attract partners and enter into collaborations on acceptable terms;

 

   

Dependence on third parties to conduct clinical trials and to manufacture product candidates;

 

   

Dependence on third parties to market and distribute products;

 

   

Our product candidates, if approved, may not gain market acceptance or obtain adequate coverage for third party reimbursement;

 

   

Disputes or other developments concerning our intellectual property rights;

 

   

Actual and anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;

 

   

Price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock markets;

 

   

Litigation or public concern about the safety of our potential products;

 

   

International trade or foreign exchange restrictions, increased tariffs, foreign currency exchange;

 

   

High quality material for our products may become difficult to obtain or expensive;

 

   

Strict government regulations on our business;

 

   

Regulations governing the production or marketing of our product candidates;

 

   

Loss of, or inability to attract, key personnel; and

 

   

Economic, political, foreign exchange and other risks associated with international operations.

 

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In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “predicts,” “potential” and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and are based on assumptions and subject to risks and uncertainties. Given these uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. We discuss many of these risks in greater detail under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus supplement and in our SEC filings. Also, these forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the date of the document containing the applicable statements.

You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements.

You should rely only on the information contained, or incorporated by reference, in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and B. Riley FBR has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. The securities offered under this prospectus are not being offered in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, as applicable, or that any information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of the document so incorporated by reference. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect new information or future events or developments. Thus, you should not assume that our silence over time means that actual events are bearing out as expressed or implied in such forward-looking statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes, including support for our continuing research and development of our product candidates and research programs, clinical trials, commercialization activities and business development activities. We may use a portion of the net proceeds for the acquisitions of businesses, products, technologies or licenses that are complementary to our business, although we have no present commitments or agreements to do so.

The amounts and timing of the expenditures may vary significantly, depending upon numerous factors, including our proprietary research and programs and our clinical trials as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. Accordingly, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds and investors will be relying upon the judgment of our management regarding the application of these proceeds. We reserve the right to change the use of these proceeds.

Pending the application of the net proceeds as described above, we intend to invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term, interest-bearing, marketable securities.

 

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DILUTION

Our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2019 was $58,781,370, or $1.364 per share of common stock. Net tangible book value per share is calculated by subtracting our total liabilities from our total tangible assets, which is total assets less intangible assets, and dividing this amount by the number of shares of common stock outstanding. After giving effect to the sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $75,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $8.81 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Market on August 22, 2019, and after deducting estimated offering commissions and expenses payable by us, our net tangible book value as of June 30, 2019 would have been $131,006,370, or $2.538 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in the net tangible book value of $1.174 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate and substantial dilution in net tangible book value of $6.272 per share to new investors. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

Assumed offering price per share

      $ 8.81  

Net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2019

   $ 1.364     

Increase per share attributable to new investors

   $ 1.174     

As-adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering

      $ 2.538  

Net dilution per share to new investors

      $ 6.272  

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 8,513,053 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $8.81 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Market on August 22, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of $75,000,000. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $8.81 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $75,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in an increase to our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $2.582 and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $7.228 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $8.81 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $75,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in a decrease to our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $2.486 and a decrease in the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $5.324, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

The calculations above are based on 43,099,161 shares outstanding as of June 30, 2019 and excludes as of such date:

 

   

6,826,193 shares of common stock reserved for the exercise of options outstanding at a weighted average exercise price of $5.61;

 

   

2,262,592 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our stock incentive plan;

 

   

204,477 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our employee stock purchase plan; and

The number of shares to be outstanding after this offering also excludes the following item issued subsequent to June 30, 2019: 285,320 shares of common stock issued pursuant to our prior at-the-market sales program.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into an at market issuance sales agreement, or sales agreement, with B. Riley FBR, Inc., or B. Riley FBR, under which we may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $75,000,000 from time to time through or to B. Riley FBR, as sales agent or principal. B. Riley FBR may sell the common stock by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act.

Each time we wish to issue and sell common stock under the sales agreement, we will notify B. Riley FBR of the number or dollar value of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales are anticipated to be made, and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. Once we have so instructed B. Riley FBR, unless B. Riley FBR declines to accept the terms of such notice, B. Riley FBR has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of B. Riley FBR under the sales agreement to sell our common stock are subject to a number of customary conditions that we must meet.

Settlement for shares of our common stock will occur on the second trading day following the date on which the sale was made. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and B. Riley FBR may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

We will pay B. Riley FBR a commission of up to 3.5% of the gross proceeds from each sale. We also agreed to reimburse B. Riley FBR for its legal expenses up to $10,000 in the aggregate. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, B. Riley FBR will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act as amended, and the compensation of B. Riley FBR will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to B. Riley FBR with respect to certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation payable to B. Riley FBR under the terms of the sales agreement, will be up to approximately $150,000.

The offering of our common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the termination of the sales agreement as described therein. We and B. Riley FBR may each terminate the sales agreement at any time upon ten days’ prior notice.

This summary of the material provisions of the sales agreement does not purport to be a complete statement of its terms and conditions. A copy of the sales agreement is filed with the SEC and is incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement is a part. See “Where You Can Find More Information” below.

To the extent required by Regulation M under the Exchange Act, B. Riley FBR will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.

B. Riley FBR and its affiliates have in the past and may in the future provide various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees.

 

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In addition, the sales agreement provides that we will not (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or would reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any of our securities to facilitate the sale or resale of common stock, (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase common stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the common stock under the sales agreement other than B. Riley FBR or (iii) engage in solicitations of sales in Japan in a manner that would not be exempt from registration or qualification requirements of the offering regulations under Japanese securities laws.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the common stock offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be passed upon for us by Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP, San Diego, California. Certain legal matters will be passed upon for B. Riley FBR, Inc. by Duane Morris LLP LLP, New York, New York.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018 and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement have been so incorporated in reliance on the reports of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and do not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document. Because we are subject to the information and reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the operation of the Public Reference Room.

 

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INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information from other documents that we file with them, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Information contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and information that we file with the SEC in the future and incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings (other than Current Reports on Form 8-K furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus supplement and before the sale of all the securities covered by this prospectus supplement:

 

   

our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, filed on February 13, 2019 (File No. 001-33185-19597501);

 

   

our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarters ended March 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, filed on April  25, 2019 and July 25, 2019, respectively (File Nos. 001-33185-19767649 and 001-33185-19974634, respectively);

 

   

our current reports on Form 8-K filed on March 12, 2019 (File No. 001-33185- 19675770), April 25, 2019 (File No. 001-33185-19767861), June 11, 2019 (File No. 001-33185-19891729) and July 25, 2019 (File No. 001-33185-19973194);

 

   

our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A filed on April 26, 2019, in connection with our 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (File No. 001-33185-19772626); and

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A as filed with the SEC on December 5, 2006 pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act (File No. 001-33185- 061257707).

You can request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

MediciNova, Inc.

4275 Executive Square, Suite 300

San Diego, CA 92037

Attn: Investor Relations

(858) 373-1500

 

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PROSPECTUS

 

 

LOGO

$200,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Guarantees of Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

 

 

We may offer and sell from time to time, in one or more series or issuances and on terms that we will determine at the time of the offering, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, up to an aggregate amount of $200,000,000.

We will provide specific terms of any offering in a supplement to this prospectus. Any prospectus supplement may also add, update, or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or issuer free writing prospectus relating to a particular offering as well as the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus before you purchase any of the securities offered hereby.

These securities may be offered and sold in the same offering or in separate offerings; to or through underwriters, dealers, and agents; or directly to purchasers. The names of any underwriters, dealers, or agents involved in the sale of our securities, their compensation and any over-allotment options held by them will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. None of our securities may be sold without delivery of the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of those securities. See “Plan of Distribution.”

Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “MNOV.” On August 8, 2019, the last reported sale price for our common stock was $8.97 per share. We will provide information in any applicable prospectus supplement regarding any listing of securities other than shares of our common stock on any securities exchange.

 

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES SIGNIFICANT RISKS. SEE “RISK FACTORS” BEGINNING ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT BEFORE INVESTING IN ANY SECURITIES.

 

 

NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

The date of this prospectus is August 22, 2019


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Table of Contents

 

     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     2  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES AND GUARANTEES

     13  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     26  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     28  

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

     29  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     32  

LEGAL MATTERS

     35  

EXPERTS

     35  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     35  

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

     36  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf process, we may, from time to time, sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total amount of $200,000,000.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may include a discussion of any risk factors or other special considerations that apply to those securities. The prospectus supplement may also add to, update or change information contained in the prospectus and, accordingly, to the extent inconsistent, information in this prospectus is superseded by the information in the prospectus supplement.

The prospectus supplement to be attached to the front of this prospectus may describe, as applicable: the terms of the securities offered; the initial public offering price; the price paid for the securities; net proceeds; and the other specific terms related to the offering of the securities.

You should only rely on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement or issuer free writing prospectus relating to a particular offering. No person has been authorized to give any information or make any representations in connection with this offering other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and any related issuer free writing prospectus in connection with the offering described herein and therein, and, if given or made, such information or representations must not be relied upon as having been authorized by us. Neither this prospectus nor any prospectus supplement nor any related issuer free writing prospectus shall constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy offered securities in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offering or solicitation. This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits.

You should read the entire prospectus and any prospectus supplement and any related issuer free writing prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or any related issuer free writing prospectus, before making an investment decision. Neither the delivery of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or any issuer free writing prospectus nor any sale made hereunder shall under any circumstances imply that the information contained or incorporated by reference herein or in any prospectus supplement or issuer free writing prospectus is correct as of any date subsequent to the date hereof or of such prospectus supplement or issuer free writing prospectus, as applicable. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any document incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the applicable documents, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of securities. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary description about us and our business highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated in this prospectus by reference. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before buying securities in this offering. You should carefully read this entire prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, including each of the documents incorporated herein or therein by reference, before making an investment decision. As used in this prospectus, “we,” “us,” “MediciNova” and “our” refer to MediciNova, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

About MediciNova, Inc.

Overview

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on acquiring and developing novel, small molecule therapeutics for the treatment of serious diseases with unmet medical needs and a commercial focus on the U.S. market. Our current strategy is to focus our development activities on MN-166 (ibudilast) for neurological disorders such as progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, degenerative cervical myelopathy, glioblastoma, and substance dependence and addiction (e.g., methamphetamine dependence, opioid dependence, and alcohol dependence), and MN-001 (tipelukast) for fibrotic diseases such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Our pipeline also includes MN-221 (bedoradrine) for the treatment of acute exacerbation of asthma and MN-029 (denibulin) for solid tumor cancers.

We have incurred significant net losses since our inception. As of June 30, 2019, we had an accumulated deficit of $364.7 million and expect to incur substantial net losses for the next several years as we continue to develop certain of our existing product development programs, and over the long-term if we expand our research and development programs and acquire or in-license products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our own.

Our goal is to build a sustainable biopharmaceutical business through the successful development of differentiated products for the treatment of serious diseases with unmet medical needs in high-value therapeutic areas. Key elements of our strategy are as follows:

 

   

Pursue the development of MN-166 (ibudilast) for multiple potential indications with the support of non-dilutive financings.

We intend to advance our diverse MN-166 (ibudilast) program through a combination of investigator-sponsored clinical trials, trials funded through government grants or other grants, and trials funded by us. In addition to providing drug supply and regulatory support, we have funded portions of some of the consortium-sponsored trials. For example, we contributed financially to the Secondary and Primary Progressive Ibudilast NeuroNEXT Trial in Multiple Sclerosis (SPRINT-MS) Phase 2b clinical trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) for the treatment of progressive MS, which was primarily funded by the NIH. In addition, we contributed financially to the clinical trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) for the treatment of ALS as well as the ongoing ALS / Biomarker study. We intend to pursue additional strategic alliances to help support further clinical development of MN-166 (ibudilast).

 

   

Pursue the development of MN-001 (tipelukast) for fibrotic diseases.

We intend to advance development of MN-001 (tipelukast) through a variety of means, which may include investigator-sponsored trials with or without grant funding as well as trials funded by us.

 

   

Consider strategic partnerships with one or more leading pharmaceutical companies to complete late-stage product development and successfully commercialize our products.

We develop and maintain relationships with pharmaceutical companies that are therapeutic category leaders. Upon completion of proof-of-concept Phase 2 clinical trials, we intend to discuss strategic

 

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alliances with leading pharmaceutical companies who seek late-stage product candidates, such as MN-166 (ibudilast), MN-001 (tipelukast), MN-221 (bedoradrine) and MN-029, which could support further clinical development and product commercialization.

Depending on decisions we may make as to further clinical development, we may seek to raise additional capital. We may also pursue potential partnerships and potential acquirers of license rights to our programs in markets outside the United States.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in the State of Delaware in September 2000. Our principal executive offices are located at 4275 Executive Square, Suite 300, La Jolla, CA 92037. Our telephone number is (858) 373-1500. Our website is www.medicinova.com, which includes links to reports we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus and should not be considered part of this prospectus.

The Securities We May Offer

We may offer up to $200,000,000 of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and warrants in one or more offerings and in any combination, including in units from time to time. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. A prospectus supplement, which we will provide each time we offer securities, will describe the specific amounts, prices and terms of these securities.

Common Stock

Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters to be voted upon by the stockholders, and there are no cumulative rights. Subject to any preferential rights of any outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably the dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by the board of directors out of funds legally available therefor. If there is a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, holders of our common stock would be entitled to share in our assets remaining after the payment of liabilities and any preferential rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock is described in greater detail in this prospectus under “Description of Capital Stock—Common Stock.”

Preferred Stock

Under the terms of our restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.

Each series of preferred stock, if issued, will be more fully described in the particular prospectus supplement that will accompany this prospectus, including redemption provisions, rights in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, voting rights and rights to convert into common stock. We have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock, nor are any shares of our preferred stock presently outstanding. Preferred stock is described in greater detail in this prospectus under “Description of Capital Stock—Preferred Stock.”

Debt Securities

The debt securities may be senior or subordinated in right of payment. For any particular debt securities we offer, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the title and series of the debt securities, the aggregate principal amount and the original issue price; the ranking, whether senior or subordinated; the stated maturity;

 

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the redemption terms, if any; the rate or manner of calculating the rate and the payment dates for interest; the amount or manner of calculating the amount payable at maturity and whether that amount may be paid by delivering cash, securities or other property; the terms on which the debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for common stock or other securities of MediciNova, or any other entity, if any; and any other specific terms. We will issue the debt securities under an indenture, as described in “Description of Debt Securities and Guarantees.”

Warrants

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities.

The warrants will be evidenced by warrant certificates issued under one or more warrant agreements, which are contracts between us and an agent for the holders of the warrants. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants under “Description of Warrants.” We urge you, however, to read the prospectus supplements and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of warrants being offered, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. Specific warrant agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement which includes this prospectus.

Units

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other classes of securities issued by us as described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Units are described in greater detail in this prospectus under “Description of Units.”

 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in our securities. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto, all of which are incorporated herein by reference, and may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future and by information contained in any prospectus supplement related to a particular offering. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, each prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus and each prospectus supplement contain certain statements that constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The words “anticipate,” “expect,” “believe,” “goal,” “plan,” “intend,” “estimate,” “may,” “will,” and similar expressions and variations thereof are intended to identify forward-looking statements, but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. Those statements appear in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated herein and therein by reference, particularly in the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Business,” and include statements regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of the Company and management that are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions.

This prospectus, any prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement also contain statements that are based on the current expectations of our company and management. You are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, and that actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors.

Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. The risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated or implied in our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those set forth above under the section entitled “Risk Factors” and in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained in or incorporated by reference into the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Except as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States and the rules and regulations of the SEC, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein after we distribute this prospectus, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will use the net proceeds from the sale of securities offered by this prospectus for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other purposes, working capital, capital expenditures, other corporate expenses and acquisitions of assets, licenses, products, technologies or businesses. The timing and amount of our actual expenditures will be based on many factors, including cash flows from operations and the anticipated growth of our business. As a result, unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds of the offerings. Pending their ultimate use, we intend to invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

We may offer under this prospectus up to $200,000,000 of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and warrants in one or more offerings and in any combination, including in units from time to time as described below. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. A prospectus supplement, which we will provide each time we offer securities, will describe the specific amounts, prices and terms of these securities. Each time we offer a type or series of securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities.

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following information describes our common stock and preferred stock, as well as certain provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws. This description is only a summary. You should also refer to our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, which have been filed with the SEC as exhibits to our registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part.

General

Our authorized capital stock consists of 100,000,000 shares of common stock, with a $0.001 par value per share, and 3,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with a $0.01 par value per share, all of which shares of preferred stock are undesignated. Our board of directors may establish the rights and preferences of the preferred stock from time to time. As of August 7, 2019, there were 43,357,242 shares of common stock issued and outstanding, held of record by 17 stockholders, although we believe that there may be a significantly larger number of beneficial owners of our common stock. We derived the number of stockholders by reviewing the listing of outstanding common stock recorded by our transfer agent as of August 7, 2019.

Common Stock

The holders of common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters to be voted upon by the stockholders. The holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably such dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by the board of directors out of funds legally available, subject to preferences that may be applicable to preferred stock, if any, then outstanding. In the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, the holders of common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities, subject to prior distribution rights of preferred stock, if any, then outstanding. The common stock has no preemptive or conversion rights or other subscription rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. All outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and non-assessable.

The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Our common stock is listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “MNOV.” The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC. Its address is 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219, and its telephone number is (718) 921-8200.

Preferred Stock

The following description of preferred stock and the description of the terms of any particular series of preferred stock that we choose to issue hereunder and that will be set forth in the related prospectus supplement are not complete. These descriptions are qualified in their entirety by reference to our restated certificate of

 

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incorporation and the certificate of designation relating to any series. The rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of the preferred stock of each series will be fixed by the certificate of designation relating to that series. The prospectus supplement also will contain a description of certain United States federal income tax consequences relating to the purchase and ownership of the series of preferred stock that is described in the prospectus supplement.

Under the terms of our restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock. There are no restrictions presently on the repurchase or redemption of any shares of our preferred stock.

The prospectus supplement for a series of preferred stock will specify:

 

   

the maximum number of shares;

 

   

the designation of the shares;

 

   

the annual dividend rate, if any, whether the dividend rate is fixed or variable, the date or dates on which dividends will accrue, the dividend payment dates, and whether dividends will be cumulative;

 

   

the price and the terms and conditions for redemption, if any, including redemption at our option or at the option of the holders, including the time period for redemption, and any accumulated dividends or premiums;

 

   

the liquidation preference, if any, and any accumulated dividends upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

any sinking fund or similar provision, and, if so, the terms and provisions relating to the purpose and operation of the fund;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion or exchange of shares of any other class or classes of our capital stock or any series of any other class or classes, or of any other series of the same class, or any other securities or assets, including the price or the rate of conversion or exchange and the method, if any, of adjustment;

 

   

the voting rights; and

 

   

any or all other preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights, privileges or qualifications, limitations or restrictions.

The issuance of preferred stock will affect, and may adversely affect, the rights of holders of common stock. It is not possible to state the actual effect of the issuance of any shares of preferred stock on the rights of holders of common stock until the board of directors determines the specific rights attached to that preferred stock. The effects of issuing preferred stock could include one or more of the following:

 

   

restricting dividends on the common stock;

 

   

diluting the voting power of the common stock;

 

   

impairing the liquidation rights of the common stock; or

 

   

delaying or preventing changes in control or management of our company.

We have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock nor are any shares of our preferred stock presently outstanding. Preferred stock will be fully paid and nonassessable upon issuance.

Effect of Certain Provisions of our Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Provisions of our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of us. These provisions, which

 

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are summarized below, may have the effect of discouraging takeover bids. These provisions are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with an unfriendly or unsolicited acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging a proposal to acquire us because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.

Undesignated Preferred Stock. The authority of our board of directors to issue preferred stock could potentially be used to discourage attempts by third parties to obtain control of our company through a merger, tender offer, proxy contest, or otherwise by making it more difficult or more costly to obtain control of our company. Our board of directors may issue preferred stock with voting rights or conversion rights that, if exercised, could adversely affect the voting power of the holders of common stock.

Limits on Ability of Stockholders to Call a Special Meeting. Our restated certificate of incorporation, as amended and our amended and restated bylaws generally provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by the Chairman of the board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer or by resolution of the board of directors. Stockholders are not permitted to call a special meeting or require our board of directors to call a special meeting.

Limits on Stockholder Action by Written Consent. Any action required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders must be taken at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent.

Classified Board of Directors. Our board of directors is divided into three classes, one class of which is elected each year by our stockholders. The directors in each class serve for a three-year term. A third party may be discouraged from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us as it is more difficult and time consuming for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors on a classified board of directors.

Requirements for Advance Notification of Stockholder Nominations and Proposals. Our amended and restated bylaws establish advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of our board of directors or a committee of our board of directors. However, our amended and restated bylaws may have the effect of precluding the conduct of certain business at a meeting if the proper procedures are not followed. These provisions may also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.

No Cumulative Voting. The Delaware General Corporation Law provides that stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless our restated certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws do not expressly provide for cumulative voting.

Size of Board and Vacancies. Our restated certificate provides that the number of directors on our board of directors is fixed exclusively by our board of directors. Newly created directorships resulting from any increase in our authorized number of directors or any vacancies in the board of directors resulting from death, resignation or other cause (including removal from office by a vote of the stockholders) may be filled only by a majority vote of the directors based on the total number of designated directors, though less than a quorum, or by the sole remaining director. The directors so chosen shall hold office for a term expiring at the next annual meeting of stockholders, and until their respective successors are elected, except in the case of the death, incapacity, resignation or removal of any director.

Amendments of Governance Documents. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that the affirmative vote of the holders of at least sixty-six and two-thirds (6623%) of our voting stock then outstanding is required to amend certain provisions relating to the number, term, election and removal of our directors, the filling of our board vacancies, the calling of special meetings of stockholders, and the indemnification of directors.

 

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Limitations on Liability, Indemnification of Officers and Directors and Insurance.

The Delaware General Corporation Law (DGCL) authorizes corporations to limit or eliminate the personal liability of directors to corporations and their stockholders for monetary damages for breaches of directors’ fiduciary duties as directors, subject to certain exceptions, by provision of the corporation’s certificate of incorporation. Our restated certificate of incorporation contains a provision eliminating the personal liability of our directors to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL. In addition, restated certificate of incorporation includes provisions that require us to indemnify, to the fullest extent allowable under the DGCL, our directors and officers for monetary damages for actions taken as our director or officer, or for serving at our request as a director or officer or another position at another corporation or enterprise, as the case may be. Our restated certificate of incorporation also provides that we must advance reasonable expenses to our directors and officers, subject to our receipt of an undertaking from the indemnified party as may be required under the DGCL.

We are also expressly authorized by the DGCL to carry directors’ and officers’ insurance to protect us, our directors, officers and certain employees for some liabilities. The limitation of liability and indemnification and advancements provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, respectively, may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against directors for breach of their fiduciary duties. These provisions may also have the effect of reducing the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and officers, even though such an action, if successful, might otherwise benefit us and our stockholders. However, the provision in our restated certificate of incorporation eliminating the personal liability of our directors to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL does not limit or eliminate our rights, or those of any stockholder, to seek non-monetary relief such as injunction or rescission in the event of a breach of a director’s fiduciary duties, including the duty of care. The indemnification provisions will not alter the liability of directors under the federal securities laws. In addition, your investment may be adversely affected to the extent that, in a derivative or direct suit, we pay the litigation costs of our directors and officers and the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and officers pursuant to these indemnification and advancements provisions.

We expect to maintain standard policies of insurance that provide coverage (i) to our directors and officers against loss arising from claims made by reason of breach of duty or other wrongful act and (ii) to us with respect to indemnification and advancements payments that we may make to such directors and officers.

We have entered into an indemnification agreement with each of our officers and directors. These agreements require us to indemnify these individuals to the fullest extent permitted under Delaware law against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to us, and to advance expenses incurred as a result of any proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified. We believe that the limitation of liability provision in our restated certificate of incorporation and the indemnification agreements will facilitate our ability to continue to attract and retain qualified individuals to serve as directors and officers.

Insofar as the above described indemnification provisions permit indemnification of directors, officers or persons controlling us for liability arising under the Securities Act, we understand that in the opinion of the SEC, this indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law regulating corporate takeovers. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the person became an interested stockholder unless:

 

   

prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

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upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder, (1) shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers and (2) shares owned by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

 

   

at or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 6623% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.

In general, Section 203 defines business combination to include the following:

 

   

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

   

any sale, lease, exchange, mortgage, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of either the assets or outstanding stock of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

 

   

subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

   

any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

   

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines interested stockholder as an entity or person who, together with affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.

The provisions of Delaware law and our restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in our management. It is possible that these provisions may make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.

Registration Rights

Certain holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to contractual rights to require us to register such shares under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act). These rights are provided under the terms of our amended and restated registration rights agreement. We will pay all expenses relating to any such registration, other than underwriting discounts and selling commissions. The registration rights terminate with respect to any holder if all of the following conditions are met: (a) as reflected on our books and records, such holder (together with its affiliates) holds less than 1% of our outstanding common stock (on an as-if-converted to common stock basis), (b) our securities trade on a national securities exchange or list on a national automatic quotation system, in each case, located in the United States, and (c) all shares of common stock issued or issuable upon conversion of the registrable securities held by such holder (and its affiliates) either (i) may be sold pursuant to Rule 144 promulgated under the Securities Act during any ninety (90) day period or (ii) have ceased to be outstanding.

 

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Piggyback Registration Rights. If we propose to register any of our securities under the Securities Act either for our own account or for the account of other stockholders, the holders of shares having registration rights will, subject to certain exceptions, be entitled to include their shares in our registration statement. These piggyback registration rights are subject to specified conditions and limitations, including the right of the underwriters to limit the number of shares included in any such registration statement under certain circumstances, but not below 25% of the total number of shares covered by the registration statement without the consent of more than 50% of the holders of registrable securities.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES AND GUARANTEES

We may issue debt securities in one or more distinct series. This section summarizes the material terms of the debt securities that are expected to be common to all series. Most of the financial terms and other specific material terms, as well as any material U.S. federal income tax consequences, of any series of debt securities that we offer will be described in a prospectus supplement or term sheet to be attached to this prospectus. Since the terms of specific debt securities may differ from the general information provided below, you should read both this prospectus and the relevant prospectus supplement or term sheet and rely on information in the prospectus supplement or term sheet that supersedes any contrary or inconsistent information below.

As required by federal law for all bonds and notes of companies that are publicly offered, the debt securities will be governed by a document called an “indenture.” An indenture is a contract between us and a financial institution acting as trustee on your behalf. The trustee has two main roles. First, the trustee can enforce your rights against us if we default. There are some limitations on the extent to which the trustee acts on your behalf, described in the second paragraph under “Events of Default.” Second, the trustee performs certain administrative duties for us.

Senior or subordinated debt securities will be issued by us under an indenture or indentures (including any supplemental indentures, the “indenture”), between us, as issuer, and a trustee identified in the relevant prospectus supplement (the “trustee”). The debt securities may be guaranteed by one or more of our subsidiaries.

The indenture will be subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended (the “TIA”). The terms “we,” “our,” “us,” and “MediciNova” when used to refer to an issuer of securities, means MediciNova, Inc.

Because this section is a summary, it does not describe every aspect of the debt securities and the indenture. We urge you to read the indenture because it, and not this description, defines your rights as a holder of debt securities. For example, in this section, we use capitalized words to signify terms that are specifically defined in the indenture. Some of the definitions are repeated in this prospectus, or in the relevant prospectus supplement, but for the rest you will need to read the indenture. See “Where You Can Find More Information” for information on how to locate the indenture and any supplemental indentures that may be filed.

General Provisions of the Indenture

Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement or term sheet for a particular series, the debt securities covered by this prospectus will be direct, unsecured obligations of MediciNova. Any senior securities will be unsecured and will rank equally with all other unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness of MediciNova. Any subordinated securities will be unsecured and will be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment in full of the senior indebtedness of MediciNova, as more fully described in a prospectus supplement or term sheet.

The indenture provides that any debt securities proposed to be sold under this prospectus and an attached prospectus supplement or term sheet (“offered debt securities”) and any debt securities issuable upon the exercise of debt warrants or upon conversion or exchange of other offered securities (“underlying debt securities”), as well as other debt securities, may be issued under the indenture in one or more series. Any secured indebtedness of ours will rank ahead of the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness.

You should read the prospectus supplement or term sheet for the material terms of the offered debt securities and any underlying debt securities, including the following:

 

   

the title of the debt securities and whether the debt securities will be senior securities or subordinated securities of MediciNova;

 

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the total principal amount of the debt securities of the series and any limit on such total principal amount;

 

   

if not the principal amount of the debt securities, the portion of the principal amount payable upon acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities or how this portion will be determined;

 

   

the date or dates, or how the date or dates will be determined or may be extended, when the principal of the debt securities will be payable;

 

   

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, that the debt securities will bear, if any, or how the rate or rates will be determined, the date or dates from which any interest will accrue or how the date or dates will be determined, the interest payment dates, any record dates for these payments, whether payments of interest will be made in cash or in kind and the basis upon which interest will be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

   

any optional redemption provisions;

 

   

any sinking fund or other provisions that would obligate us to repurchase or otherwise redeem the debt securities;

 

   

the form in which we will issue the debt securities and whether we will have the option of issuing debt securities in “certificated” form;

 

   

if other than U.S. dollars, the currency or currencies in which the debt securities are denominated and/or payable;

 

   

whether the amount of payments of principal, premium or interest, if any, on the debt securities will be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method (which index, formula or method may be based, without limitation, on one or more currencies, commodities, equity indices or other indices), and how these amounts will be determined;

 

   

the place or places, if any, other than or in addition to The City of New York, of payment, transfer, conversion and/or exchange of the debt securities;

 

   

if other than minimum denominations of $2,000 or any integral multiple of $1,000 above the minimum denomination in the case of registered securities issued in certificated form, the denominations in which the offered debt securities will be issued;

 

   

if the provisions of Article Fourteen of the indenture described under “defeasance” are not applicable and any provisions in modification of, in addition to or in lieu of any of these provisions;

 

   

whether and under what circumstances we will pay additional amounts, as contemplated by Section 1010 of the indenture, in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem the debt securities rather than pay the additional amounts (and the terms of this option);

 

   

whether the debt securities are subordinated and the terms of such subordination;

 

   

any provisions granting special rights to the holders of the debt securities upon the occurrence of specified events;

 

   

any changes or additions to the Events of Default or covenants contained in the applicable indenture;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities and the applicable terms and conditions;

 

   

whether the debt securities are guaranteed; and

 

   

any other material terms of the debt securities.

For purposes of this prospectus, any reference to the payment of principal of or premium or interest, if any, on the debt securities will include additional amounts if required by the terms of the debt securities.

 

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The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder from time to time. Debt securities issued under the indenture when a single trustee is acting for all debt securities issued under the indenture are called the “indenture securities.” The indenture also provides that there may be more than one trustee thereunder, each with respect to one or more different series of indenture securities. See “—Resignation of Trustee” below. At a time when two or more trustees are acting under the indenture, each with respect to only certain series, the term “indenture securities” means the one or more series of debt securities with respect to which each respective trustee is acting. In the event that there is more than one trustee under the indenture, the powers and trust obligations of each trustee described in this prospectus will extend only to the one or more series of indenture securities for which it is trustee. If two or more trustees are acting under the indenture, then the indenture securities for which each trustee is acting would be treated as if issued under separate indentures.

The indenture does not contain any provisions that give you protection in the event we issue a large amount of debt, we repurchase a significant amount of equity or effect a recapitalization, or we are acquired by another entity.

We refer you to the applicable prospectus supplement or term sheet for information with respect to any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the Events of Default or our covenants that are described below, including any addition of a covenant or other provision providing event risk or similar protection.

We have the ability to issue indenture securities with terms different from those of indenture securities previously issued and, without the consent of the holders thereof, to reopen a previous issue of a series of indenture securities and issue additional indenture securities of that series unless the reopening was restricted when that series was created. Any additional indenture securities, together with all other outstanding indenture securities of that series, will constitute a single series of indenture securities under the indenture.

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement or term sheet, the debt securities will be denominated in U.S. dollars and all payments on the debt securities will be made in U.S. dollars.

Payment of the purchase price of the debt securities must be made in immediately available funds.

The authorized denominations of debt securities denominated in U.S. dollars will be a minimum denomination of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 above the minimum denomination. The authorized denominations of foreign currency notes will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or term sheet.

Interest and Interest Rates

Each debt security will begin to accrue interest from the date it is originally issued. The related prospectus supplement or term sheet will describe the method of determining the interest rate.

Interest on the debt securities other than in global form denominated in U.S. dollars will be paid by check mailed on an interest payment date to the persons entitled thereto to the addresses of such holders as they appear in the security register or, at our option, by wire transfer to a bank account maintained by the holder. The principal of, and premium, if any, and, if other than an interest payment date, interest on debt securities denominated in U.S. dollars, together with interest accrued and unpaid thereon, due on the maturity date will be paid in immediately available funds upon surrender of such debt securities at the corporate trust office of the trustee in The City of New York, or, at our option, by wire transfer of immediately available funds to an account with a bank designated at least 15 calendar days prior to the maturity date by the applicable registered holder, provided the particular bank has appropriate facilities to receive these payments and the particular note is presented and surrendered at the office or agency maintained by us for this purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, The City of New York, in time for the trustee to make these payments in accordance with its normal procedures.

 

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Payment and Paying Agents

We will pay interest to the person listed in the trustee’s records as the owner of the debt security at the close of business on a particular day in advance of each regularly scheduled date for interest, even if that person no longer owns the debt security on the interest due date. That day, typically set at a date approximately two weeks prior to the interest due date, is called the “record date.” Because we will pay all the interest for an interest period to the holders on the record date, holders buying and selling debt securities must work out between themselves the appropriate purchase price. The most common manner is to adjust the sales price of the debt securities to prorate interest fairly between buyer and seller based on their respective ownership periods within the particular interest period. This prorated interest amount is called “accrued interest.”

Payments on Global Securities

We will make payments on a global security in accordance with the applicable policies of the depositary as in effect from time to time. Under those policies, we will make payments directly to the depositary, or its nominee, and not to any indirect holders who own beneficial interests in the global security. An indirect holder’s right to those payments will be governed by the rules and practices of the depositary and its participants.

Payments on Certificated Debt Securities

We will make payments on a certificated debt security as follows. We will pay interest that is due on an interest payment date by check mailed on the interest payment date to the holder at his or her address shown on the trustee’s records as of the close of business on the regular record date. We will make payments of principal and premium, if any, duly and punctually to the office of the trustee.

Alternatively, if the holder asks us to do so, we may pay any amount that becomes due on the debt security by wire transfer of immediately available funds to an account at a bank in New York City, on the due date. To request payment by wire, the holder must give the trustee or other paying agent appropriate transfer instructions at least 15 calendar days before the requested wire payment is due. In the case of any interest payment due on an interest payment date, the instructions must be given by the person who is the holder on the relevant regular record date. Any wire instructions, once properly given, will remain in effect unless and until new instructions are given in the manner described above. In addition, see the description under “Interest and Interest Rates.”

Material Covenants

Consolidation, Merger, Sale or Conveyance. The indenture provides that we may not consolidate with or merge into any other entity or convey, transfer or lease our properties and assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety to any entity, unless:

 

   

we are the continuing corporation or the successor or transferee entity, if other than us, is a corporation, partnership, limited liability company or trust organized and existing under the laws of the United States, any state thereof or the District of Columbia and expressly assumes our obligations under the debt securities and the indenture pursuant to a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the trustee, the due and punctual payment of the principal of, any premium on and any interest on, all of our outstanding debt securities and the performance of every covenant and obligation in the indenture to be performed or observed by us;

 

   

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Event of Default, as defined in the indenture, and no event which, after notice or lapse of time or both, would become an Event of Default, has happened and is continuing; and

 

   

certain other conditions specified in the indenture are met, which may include our delivery to the trustee of an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each in the form required by the indenture and stating that such consolidation, merger, conveyance, transfer or lease and, if a supplemental indenture is required in connection with such transaction, such supplemental indenture complies with the foregoing provisions relating to such transaction.

 

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In case of any such consolidation, merger, conveyance or transfer, the successor entity will succeed to and be substituted for us as obligor on the debt securities with the same effect as if it had been named in the indenture as issuer and, except in the case of a lease, all of our obligations under the indenture will terminate.

Restrictions on Liens

We will not, and will not permit any Restricted Subsidiary to, create, incur, issue, assume or guarantee any indebtedness for money borrowed secured by a Mortgage (“Secured Debt”) upon any Operating Property or any shares of stock or indebtedness for borrowed money of any Restricted Subsidiary, whether owned at the date of the indenture or thereafter acquired, without effectively providing concurrently that the debt securities of each series then outstanding under the indenture are secured equally and ratably with or, at our option, prior to such Secured Debt so long as such Secured Debt shall be so secured.

The foregoing restriction shall not apply to, and there shall be excluded from Secured Debt in any computation under such restriction, Secured Debt secured by:

 

  (1)

mortgages on any property, shares of stock or indebtedness for borrowed money of any corporation existing at the time such corporation becomes a Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (2)

mortgages on property or shares of stock existing at the time of acquisition of such property or stock by us or a Restricted Subsidiary or existing as of the original date of the applicable indenture;

 

  (3)

mortgages to secure the payment of all or any part of the price of acquisition, construction or improvement of such property or stock by us or a Restricted Subsidiary, or to secure any Secured Debt incurred by us or a Restricted Subsidiary, prior to, at the time of, or within 360 days after, the later of the acquisition or completion of construction (including any improvements on an existing property), which Secured Debt is incurred for the purpose of financing all or any part of the purchase price thereof or construction of improvements thereon; provided, however, that, in the case of any such acquisition, construction or improvement, the Mortgage shall not apply to any property theretofore owned by us or a Restricted Subsidiary, other than, in the case of any such construction or improvement, any theretofore substantially unimproved real property on which the property or improvement so constructed is located;

 

  (4)

mortgages securing Secured Debt of a Restricted Subsidiary owing to us or to another Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (5)

mortgages on property of a corporation existing at the time such corporation is merged into or consolidated with us or a Restricted Subsidiary or at the time of a sale, lease or other disposition of the properties of a corporation or firm as an entirety or substantially as an entirety to us or a Restricted Subsidiary;

 

  (6)

mortgages on property of us or a Restricted Subsidiary in favor of the United States or any state thereof, or any department, agency or instrumentality or political subdivision of the United States or any state thereof, or in favor of any other country or any political subdivision thereof, or any department, agency or instrumentality of such country or political subdivision, to secure partial progress, advance or other payments pursuant to any contract or statute or to secure any indebtedness incurred for the purpose of financing all or any part of the purchase price or the cost of construction of the property subject to such Mortgages;

 

  (7)

any extension, renewal or replacement (or successive extensions, renewals or replacements) in whole or in part of any Mortgage referred to in clauses (1) through (6) above and (9) below; provided, however, that the principal amount of Secured Debt so secured shall not exceed the principal amount of Secured Debt so secured at the time of such extension, renewal or replacement, and that such extension, renewal or replacement shall be limited to all or a part of the property which secured the Mortgage so extended, renewed or replaced (plus improvements and construction on such property);

 

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  (8)

mortgages upon any Operating Property, or any transfer or disposition of any Operating Property, that is created or implemented as a necessary component of a bond for title transaction, payment in lieu of tax agreement or other tax incentive vehicle designed to provide us or any Subsidiary with certain ad valorem property tax savings or other incentive savings; or

 

  (9)

mortgages to secure Hedging Obligations entered into in the ordinary course of business to purchase any raw material or other commodity or to hedge risks or reduce costs with respect to the interest rate, currency or commodity exposure of us or any Restricted Subsidiary of ours and not for speculative purposes.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, we and any one or more our Restricted Subsidiaries may, however, without securing any debt securities, create, incur, issue, assume or guarantee Secured Debt secured by a Mortgage if, after giving effect to the transaction, the aggregate of the Secured Debt then outstanding (not including Secured Debt permitted under the above exceptions) does not exceed 15% of our Consolidated Net Tangible Assets as shown on our financial statements as of the end of the fiscal year preceding the date of determination.

“Capital Lease Obligations” means indebtedness represented by obligations under a lease that is required to be capitalized for financial reporting purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The amount of indebtedness will be the capitalized amount of the obligations determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles consistently applied.

“Commodity Agreement” means any forward contract, commodity swap, commodity option or other financial agreement or arrangement relating to, or the value of which is dependent upon fluctuations in commodity prices.

“Consolidated Net Tangible Assets” means our consolidated total assets as reflected in our most recent balance sheet preceding the date of determination prepared in accordance with GAAP consistently applied, less

 

   

current liabilities, excluding current maturities of long-term debt and Capital Lease Obligations, and

 

   

goodwill, tradenames, trademarks, patents, unamortized debt discount and expense and other similar intangible assets prepared in accordance with GAAP, but excluding any investments in permits or licenses issued, granted or approved by the Federal Communications Commission.

“Currency Agreement” means any foreign exchange contract, currency swap agreement or other similar agreement with respect to currency values.

“GAAP” means U.S. generally accepted accounting principles set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession that are applicable at the date of any relevant calculation or determination.

“Hedging Obligations” of any Person means the obligations of such Person pursuant to any Interest Rate Agreement, Currency Agreement, Commodity Agreement or derivative contract entered into to hedge interest rate risk, currency exchange risk, and commodity price risk.

“Interest Rate Agreement” means any interest rate swap agreement, interest rate cap agreement or other financial agreement or arrangement with respect to exposure to interest rates.

“Mortgage” or “Mortgages” means any mortgage, pledge, lien, security interest or other encumbrances upon any Operating Property or any shares of stock or on indebtedness for borrowed money of any Restricted Subsidiary (whether such Operating Property, shares of stock or indebtedness for borrowed money are now owned or hereafter acquired).

 

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“Operating Property” means each plant or facility of ours or a Restricted Subsidiary located within the United States, except any such plant or facility which our Board of Directors by resolution reasonably determines not to be of material importance to the total business conducted by us and our Restricted Subsidiaries.

“Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

“Restricted Subsidiary” means any Subsidiary of us (i) substantially all of the property of which is located, or substantially all of the business of which is carried on, within the United States, and (ii) which owns or is the lessee of any Operating Property, other than any Subsidiary of us that we designate as an “unrestricted subsidiary” in accordance with the procedure and criteria set forth in a supplemental indenture.

“Subsidiary” means (1) any corporation of which at least a majority of the outstanding stock having by the terms thereof ordinary voting power for the election of directors of such corporation (irrespective of whether or not at the time stock of any other class or classes of such corporation shall have or might have voting power by reason of the happening of any contingency) is at the time directly or indirectly owned by the us or by one or more other Subsidiaries and (2) any other Person in which we or one or more other Subsidiaries, directly or indirectly, at the date of determination, (x) own at least a majority of the outstanding ownership interests or (y) have the power to elect or direct the election of, or to appoint or approve the appointment of, at least the majority of the directors, trustees or managing members of, or other persons holding similar positions with, such Person.

Restrictions on Sale and Leaseback Transactions

We will not, and will not permit any Restricted Subsidiary to, enter into any Sale and Leaseback Transaction unless:

 

  (1)

we or such Restricted Subsidiary would be entitled to create, incur, issue, assume or guarantee indebtedness secured by a Mortgage upon such property at least equal in amount to the Attributable Debt in respect of such arrangement without equally and ratably securing the debt securities; provided, however, that from and after the date on which such arrangement becomes effective, the Attributable Debt in respect of such arrangement shall be deemed, for all purposes described under “—Restrictions on Liens” above, to be Secured Debt subject to the provisions of the covenants described therein;

 

  (2)

since the original date of the indenture and within a period commencing twelve months prior to the consummation of such Sale and Leaseback Transaction and ending twelve months after the consummation of such Sale and Leaseback Transaction, we or any Restricted Subsidiary, as the case may be, has expended or will expend for the Operating Property an amount equal to (A) the net proceeds of such Sale and Leaseback Transaction, and we elect to designate such amount as a credit against such Sale and Leaseback Transaction, or (B) a part of the net proceeds of such Sale and Leaseback Transaction and we elect to designate such amount as a credit against such Sale and Leaseback Transaction and apply an amount equal to the remainder of the net proceeds as provided in the following paragraph; or

 

  (3)

such Sale and Leaseback Transaction does not come within the exceptions provided by the first paragraph above under “—Restrictions on Sale and Leaseback Transactions” and we do not make the election permitted by the second paragraph under “—Restrictions on Sale and Leaseback Transactions” or make such election only as to a part of such net proceeds, in either of which events we shall apply an amount in cash equal to the Attributable Debt in respect of such arrangement (less any amount elected under the second paragraph under “—Restrictions on Sale and Leaseback Transactions”) to the retirement, within 360 days of the effective date of any such arrangement, of indebtedness for borrowed money of we or any Restricted Subsidiary (other than indebtedness for borrowed money of MediciNova which is subordinated to the debt securities) which by its terms matures at or is extendible

 

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  or renewable at the sole option of the obligor without requiring the consent of the obligees to a date more than twelve months after the date of the creation of such indebtedness for borrowed money (it being understood that such retirement may be made by prepayment of such indebtedness for borrowed money, if permitted by the terms thereof, as well as by payment at maturity, and that at our option and pursuant to the terms of the indenture, such indebtedness may include the debt securities).

“Attributable Debt” means the present value (discounted at the interest rate inherent in the lease, compounded annually) of the obligation of a lessee for net rental payments during the remaining term of any lease (including any period for which such lease has been extended).

“Sale and Leaseback Transaction” means any arrangement with any person providing for the leasing by us or any Restricted Subsidiary of any Operating Property, whether such Operating Property is now owned or hereafter acquired (except for temporary leases for a term, including renewals at the option of the lessee, of not more than three years and except for leases between us and a Restricted Subsidiary or between Restricted Subsidiaries), which property has been or is to be sold or transferred by us or such Restricted Subsidiary to such person with the intention of taking back a lease of such property.

Events of Default

An event of default with respect to the debt securities of any series is defined in the indenture as:

 

  (a)

default for 30 days in payment of any interest on the debt securities of such series when it becomes due and payable;

 

  (b)

default in payment of principal of or any premium on the debt securities of such series at maturity or upon redemption or repayment when the same becomes due and payable;

 

  (c)

default in the deposit of any principal payment into a sinking fund, when and as due by the terms of any debt security of such series;

 

  (d)

default by us in the performance, or breach of any other covenant contained in the applicable indenture for the benefit of the debt securities of such series that has not been remedied by the end of a period of 90 days after notice is given as specified in the indenture;

 

  (e)

default in the payment of principal or an acceleration of other indebtedness for borrowed money of MediciNova where the aggregate principal amount with respect to which the default or acceleration has occurred exceeds $25 million and such acceleration has not been rescinded or annulled or such indebtedness repaid within a period of 30 days after written notice to us by the trustee or to us and the trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities under the indenture, provided that if any such default is cured, waived, rescinded or annulled, then the event of default by reason thereof would be deemed not to have occurred; and

 

  (f)

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency and reorganization of MediciNova.

The indenture provides that:

 

   

if an event of default described in clause (a), (b), (c), (d) or (e) above has occurred and is continuing, either the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of the applicable series may declare the principal amount (or, if any of the debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities or indexed securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of the debt securities then outstanding, and any accrued and unpaid interest through the date of such declaration, to be due and payable immediately;

 

   

upon certain conditions such declarations may be annulled and past defaults (except for defaults in the payment of principal of, or any premium or interest on the debt securities and in compliance with certain covenants) may be waived by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of the applicable series; and

 

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if an event of default described in clause (f) occurs and is continuing, then the principal amount of all debt securities issued under the indenture, together with any accrued interest through the occurrence of such event, shall become and be due and payable immediately, without any declaration or other act by the trustee or any other holder.

Under the indenture, the trustee must give to the holders of debt securities of any series notice of all uncured defaults known to it with respect to the debt securities of such series within 90 days after such a default occurs (the term default to include the events specified above without notice or grace periods); provided that, except in the case of default in the payments of principal of or any premium or interest on any of the debt securities of such series, the trustee will be protected in withholding such notice if it in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the best interest of the holders of such debt securities.

No holder of any debt securities may institute any action under the indenture unless:

 

   

such holder has given the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default with respect to the debt securities;

 

   

the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of the applicable series have requested the trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such event of default;

 

   

such holder or holders have offered the trustee such reasonable indemnity as the trustee may require;

 

   

the trustee has failed to institute an action for 60 days thereafter; and

 

   

no inconsistent direction has been given to the trustee during such 60–day period by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of such debt securities.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of any series will have the right, subject to certain limitations, to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of such series. The indenture provides that, if an event of default occurs and is continuing, the trustee, in exercising its rights and powers under the indenture, will be required to use the degree of care of a prudent man in the conduct of his own affairs. The indenture further provides that the trustee shall not be required to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties under the indenture unless it has reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such risk or liability is reasonably assured to it.

We must furnish to the trustee within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year a statement signed by an officer thereof to the effect that a review of our activities during such year and our performance under the indenture and the terms of the debt securities has been made, and, to the knowledge of the signatories based on such review, we have complied with all conditions and covenants of the indenture or, if we are in default, specifying such default.

Modification of the Indenture

We and the trustee may, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities issued under such indenture, enter into supplemental indentures for, among others, one or more of the following purposes:

 

   

to evidence the succession of another corporation to us and the assumption by such successor of its obligations under the indenture and the debt securities;

 

   

to add covenants of MediciNova or surrender any of its rights, or add any rights for the benefit of the holders of debt securities;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, omission, defect or inconsistency in such indenture;

 

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to establish the form or terms of any other series of debt securities, including any subordinated securities;

 

   

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

 

   

to evidence and provide the acceptance of any successor trustee with respect to the debt securities or one or more other series of debt securities under the indenture or to facilitate the administration of the trusts thereunder by one or more trustees in accordance with the indenture; and

 

   

to provide any additional events of default;

 

   

to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of the indentures in respect of one or more series of debt securities, provided that any such addition, change or elimination, shall become effective only when there is no security outstanding of any series created prior to the adoption of such addition, change or elimination;

 

   

to make any provisions with respect to the optional conversion rights of holders, including providing for the conversion of the debt securities into any other security or securities of ours, provided that such provisions are not adverse to the interests of the holders of any debt securities then outstanding;

 

   

to add any guarantee of one or more series of the debt securities; or

 

   

to supplement any of the provisions of the indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the defeasance and discharge of any series of debt securities pursuant to the indenture; provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of debt securities of such series and any related coupons or any other series of securities in any material respect.

With certain exceptions, the indenture or the rights of the holders of the debt securities may be modified by us and the trustee with the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities then outstanding affected thereby, but no such modification may be made without the consent of the holder of each outstanding note affected thereby that would:

 

   

change the maturity of the principal of, or any premium on, or any installment of principal of or interest on any debt securities, or reduce the principal amount or any premium or the rate or manner of calculating interest or any premium payable upon redemption or repayment of any debt securities, or change the dates or periods for any redemption or repayment or change any place of payment where, or the coin or currency in which, any principal, premium or interest is payable, or impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the maturity thereof (or, in the case of redemption or repayment, on or after the redemption or repayment date);

 

   

reduce the percentage in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities, the consent whose holders is required for any such modification, or the consent of whose holders is required for any waiver of compliance with certain provisions of the indenture or certain defaults thereunder and their consequences provided for in the indenture; or

 

   

modify any of the provisions of certain sections of the indenture, including the provisions summarized in this paragraph, except to increase any such percentage or to provide that certain other provisions of the indenture cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each of the outstanding debt securities affected thereby.

Defeasance

The following provisions will be applicable to each series of debt securities unless we state in the applicable prospectus supplement or term sheet that the provisions of covenant defeasance and full defeasance will not be applicable to that series.

 

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Covenant Defeasance

Under current United States federal tax law, we can make the deposit described below and be released from some of the restrictive covenants in the indenture under which the particular series was issued. This is called “covenant defeasance.” In that event, you would lose the protection of those restrictive covenants but would gain the protection of having money and government securities set aside in trust to repay your debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following:

 

   

deposit in trust for the benefit of all holders of such debt securities a combination of money and government or government agency debt securities or bonds in the relevant currency that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of such series in the relevant currency on their various due dates; and

 

   

deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that, under current United States federal income tax law, we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities of such series any differently than if we did not make the deposit and just repaid such debt securities ourselves at maturity.

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you can still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit or the trustee is prevented from making payment. In fact, if one of the remaining Events of Default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities became immediately due and payable, there might be a shortfall. Depending on the event causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

Full Defeasance

If there is a change in United States federal tax law, as described below, we can legally release ourselves from all payment and other obligations on the debt securities of a particular series (called “full defeasance”) if we put in place the following other arrangements for you to be repaid:

 

   

we must deposit in trust for the benefit of all holders of the debt securities of such series a combination of money and government or government agency debt securities or bonds in the relevant currency that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of such series in the relevant currency on their various due dates; and

 

   

we must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion confirming that there has been a change in current United States federal tax law or an Internal Revenue Service ruling that allows us to make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities of such series any differently than if we did not make the deposit and just repaid such debt securities ourselves at maturity. Under current United States federal tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities of such series would be treated as though we paid you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds at the time the cash and debt securities or bonds were deposited in trust in exchange for your debt securities and you would recognize gain or loss on your debt securities at the time of the deposit.

If we ever did accomplish full defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities of such series. You could not look to us for repayment in the unlikely event of any shortfall. Conversely, the trust deposit would most likely be protected from claims of our lenders and other creditors if we ever became bankrupt or insolvent.

Covenant defeasance and full defeasance are both subject to certain conditions, such as no default or event of default occurring and continuing, and no breach of any material agreement.

Discharge of the Indenture

We may satisfy and discharge our obligations under the indenture by delivering to the trustee for cancellation all outstanding debt securities or by depositing with the trustee or the paying agent after the debt

 

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securities have become due and payable, whether at stated maturity, or any redemption or repayment date, or otherwise, cash sufficient to pay all of the outstanding debt securities and paying all other sums payable under the indenture.

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees and Stockholders

No recourse for the payment of the principal of or premium, if any, or interest on any debt security or any coupons appertaining thereto, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, and no recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the indenture or in any supplemental indenture, or in any debt security or any coupons appertaining thereto, or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, shall be had against any director, officer, employee, or stockholder as such, past, present or future, of ours or any of our affiliates or any successor person, either directly or through us or any of our affiliates or any successor person, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that all such liability is hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of the indenture and the issue of the debt securities.

Governing Law

New York law will govern the indenture and the debt securities.

Form, Exchange and Transfer of Certificated Debt Securities

If registered debt securities cease to be issued in book–entry form, they will be issued:

 

   

only in fully registered certificated form,

 

   

without interest coupons, and

 

   

unless we indicate otherwise in the prospectus supplement or term sheet, in a minimum denomination of $2,000 and amounts above the minimum denomination that are integral multiples of $1,000.

Holders may exchange their certificated debt securities of smaller denominations or combined into fewer debt securities of larger denominations, as long as the total principal amount is not changed.

Holders may exchange or transfer their certificated debt securities at the office of the trustee. We have appointed the trustee to act as our agent for registering debt securities in the names of holders transferring debt securities. We may appoint another entity to perform these functions or perform them ourselves.

Holders will not be required to pay a service charge to transfer or exchange their certificated securities, but they may be required to pay any tax or other governmental charge associated with the transfer or exchange. The transfer or exchange will be made only if our transfer agent is satisfied with the holder’s proof of legal ownership.

If we have designated additional transfer agents for your debt security, they will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement or term sheet. We may appoint additional transfer agents or cancel the appointment of any particular transfer agent. We may also approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts.

If any certificated debt securities of a particular series are redeemable and we redeem less than all the debt securities of that series, we may block the transfer or exchange of those debt securities during the period beginning 15 days before the day we mail the notice of redemption and ending on the day of that mailing, in order to freeze the list of holders to prepare the mailing. We may also refuse to register transfers or exchanges of any certificated debt securities selected for redemption, except that we will continue to permit transfers and exchanges of the unredeemed portion of any debt security that will be partially redeemed.

 

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If a registered debt security is issued in book–entry form, only the depositary will be entitled to transfer and exchange the debt security as described in this subsection, since it will be the sole holder of the debt security.

Resignation of Trustee

The trustee may resign or be removed at any time with respect to one or more series of indenture securities provided that a successor trustee is appointed to act with respect to these series. In the event that two or more persons are acting as trustee with respect to different series of indenture securities under the indenture, each of the trustees will be a trustee of a trust separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee.

The Trustee Under the Indenture

The trustee may be one of a number of banks with which we maintain ordinary banking relationships and from which we may obtain credit facilities and lines of credit in the future. The trustee may also serve as trustee under other indentures under which we are the obligor in the future.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of our preferred stock, common stock, debt securities or any combination thereof. Warrants may be issued independently or together with our preferred stock, common stock or debt securities and may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants. The warrant agent will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants. This summary of certain provisions of the warrants is not complete. For the terms of a particular series of warrants, you should refer to the prospectus supplement for that series of warrants and the warrant agreement for that particular series.

The prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants to purchase such securities will describe the terms of the warrants, including the following:

 

   

the title of the warrants;

 

   

the offering price for the warrants, if any;

 

   

the aggregate number of warrants;

 

   

the designation and terms of the securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and any securities issued with the warrants will be separately transferable;

 

   

whether the warrants will be issued in registered form or bearer form;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the number and basic terms of the securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a warrant and the exercise price for the warrants;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and expire;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

 

   

the antidilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

 

   

the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the warrants;

 

   

any provisions with respect to the holder’s right to require us to repurchase the warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including procedures, and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled:

 

   

to vote, consent or receive dividends;

 

   

receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or

 

   

exercise any rights as stockholders of us.

 

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Holders of warrants to purchase debt securities will not be entitled to payments of principal of, or any premium or interest on, the debt securities purchasable on exercise, or to exercise any of the rights of the holders of such debt securities until such warrant is exercised.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

Holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent.

Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

Each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.

The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

 

   

the title of the series of units;

 

   

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

   

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

   

a discussion of certain United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and

 

   

any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units

To the extent applicable, each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.

We, any unit agents and any of their agents may treat the registered holder of any unit certificate as an absolute owner of the units evidenced by that certificate for any purpose and as the person entitled to exercise the rights attaching to the units so requested, despite any notice to the contrary. See “Legal Ownership of Securities.”

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

We may terminate a global security or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not legal holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

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For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so.

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

   

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

   

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

   

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

   

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a legal holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

   

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

   

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, known as DTC, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “—Special Situations When A Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

Special Considerations For Global Securities

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

 

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If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

   

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

   

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

 

   

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

   

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

   

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security. We and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security. We and the trustee also do not supervise the depositary in any way;

 

   

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

 

   

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities. There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

Special Situations When A Global Security Will Be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

A global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

   

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

   

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

   

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus (1) to or through underwriters or dealers, (2) directly to purchasers, including our affiliates, (3) through agents, or (4) through a combination of any these methods. The securities may be distributed at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, market prices prevailing at the time of sale, prices related to the prevailing market prices, or negotiated prices. The prospectus supplement will include the following information:

 

   

the terms of the offering;

 

   

the names of any underwriters or agents;

 

   

the name or names of any managing underwriter or underwriters;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities;

 

   

the net proceeds from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any delayed delivery arrangements;

 

   

any underwriting discounts, commissions and other items constituting underwriters’ compensation;

 

   

any initial public offering price;

 

   

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any commissions paid to agents.

Sale through underwriters or dealers

If underwriters are used in the sale, the underwriters will acquire the securities for their own account, including through underwriting, purchase, security lending or repurchase agreements with us. The underwriters may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions. Underwriters may sell the securities in order to facilitate transactions in any of our other securities (described in this prospectus or otherwise), including other public or private transactions and short sales. Underwriters may offer securities to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions, and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all the offered securities if they purchase any of them. The underwriters may change from time to time any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers. The prospectus supplement will include the names of the principal underwriters the respective amount of securities underwritten, the nature of the obligation of the underwriters to take the securities and the nature of any material relationship between an underwriter and us.

If dealers are used in the sale of securities offered through this prospectus, we will sell the securities to them as principals. They may then resell those securities to the public at varying prices determined by the dealers at the time of resale. The prospectus supplement will include the names of the dealers and the terms of the transaction.

Direct sales and sales through agents

We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus directly. In this case, no underwriters or agents would be involved. Such securities may also be sold through agents designated from time to time. The prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities and will describe any commissions payable to the agent by us. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, any agent will agree to use its reasonable best efforts to solicit purchases for the period of its appointment.

We may sell the securities directly to institutional investors or others who may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any sale of those securities. The terms of any such sales will be described in the prospectus supplement.

 

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Delayed delivery contracts

If the prospectus supplement indicates, we may authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers from certain types of institutions to purchase securities at the public offering price under delayed delivery contracts. These contracts would provide for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The contracts would be subject only to those conditions described in the prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the commission payable for solicitation of those contracts.

Market making, stabilization and other transactions

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, each series of offered securities will be a new issue and will have no established trading market. We may elect to list any series of offered securities on an exchange. Any underwriters that we use in the sale of offered securities may make a market in such securities, but may discontinue such market making at any time without notice. Therefore, we cannot assure you that the securities will have a liquid trading market.

Any underwriter may also engage in stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Rule 104 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase the underlying security in the open market for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the securities. Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions.

Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when the securities originally sold by the syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction to cover syndicate short positions. Stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would be in the absence of the transactions. The underwriters may, if they commence these transactions, discontinue them at any time.

Derivative transactions and hedging

We, the underwriters or other agents may engage in derivative transactions involving the securities. These derivatives may consist of short sale transactions and other hedging activities. The underwriters or agents may acquire a long or short position in the securities, hold or resell securities acquired and purchase options or futures on the securities and other derivative instruments with returns linked to or related to changes in the price of the securities. In order to facilitate these derivative transactions, we may enter into security lending or repurchase agreements with the underwriters or agents. The underwriters or agents may effect the derivative transactions through sales of the securities to the public, including short sales, or by lending the securities in order to facilitate short sale transactions by others. The underwriters or agents may also use the securities purchased or borrowed from us or others (or, in the case of derivatives, securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives) to directly or indirectly settle sales of the securities or close out any related open borrowings of the securities.

Electronic auctions

We may also make sales through the Internet or through other electronic means. Since we may from time to time elect to offer securities directly to the public, with or without the involvement of agents, underwriters or dealers, utilizing the Internet or other forms of electronic bidding or ordering systems for the pricing and allocation of such securities, you should pay particular attention to the description of that system we will provide in a prospectus supplement.

Such electronic system may allow bidders to directly participate, through electronic access to an auction site, by submitting conditional offers to buy that are subject to acceptance by us, and which may directly affect the price or other terms and conditions at which such securities are sold. These bidding or ordering systems may

 

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present to each bidder, on a so-called “real-time” basis, relevant information to assist in making a bid, such as the clearing spread at which the offering would be sold, based on the bids submitted, and whether a bidder’s individual bids would be accepted, prorated or rejected.

Upon completion of such an electronic auction process, securities will be allocated based on prices bid, terms of bid or other factors. The final offering price at which securities would be sold and the allocation of securities among bidders would be based in whole or in part on the results of the Internet or other electronic bidding process or auction.

General information

Agents, underwriters, and dealers may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification by us against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP, San Diego, California.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 and for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2018 and management’s assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 incorporated by reference in this Prospectus have been so incorporated in reliance on the reports of BDO USA, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. You may also read and copy any document we file at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the Public Reference Room. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, including any amendments to those reports, and other information that we file with or furnish to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act can also be accessed free of charge through the Internet. These filings will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933 relating to the offering of these securities. The registration statement, including the attached exhibits, contains additional relevant information about us and the securities. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement. You can obtain a copy of the registration statement, at prescribed rates, from the SEC at the address listed above. The registration statement and the documents referred to below under “Incorporation by Reference” are also available on our Internet website, www.medicinova.com. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus the information on our website, and you should not consider it to be a part of this prospectus.

 

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INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference into this prospectus certain information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below that we have previously filed with the SEC (excluding any portions of any Form 8-K that are not deemed “filed” pursuant to the General Instructions of Form 8-K):

 

   

our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, filed on February 13, 2019 (File No. 001-33185-19597501);

 

   

our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarters ended March 31, 2019 and June 30, 2019, filed on April  25, 2019 and July 25, 2019, respectively (File Nos. 001-33185-19767649 and 001-33185-19974634, respectively);

 

   

our current reports on Form 8-K filed on March 12, 2019 (File No. 001-33185-19675770), April 25, 2019 (File No. 001-33185-19767861), June 11, 2019 (File No. 001-33185-19891729) and July 25, 2019 (File No. 001-33185-19973194);

 

   

our definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A filed on April 26, 2019, in connection with our 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (File No. 001-33185-19772626); and

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A as filed with the SEC on December 5, 2006 pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act (File No. 001-33185-061257707).

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the completion or termination of the offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information deemed furnished and not filed with the SEC. Any statements contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference into this prospectus is deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, or in a subsequently filed document also incorporated by reference herein, modifies or supersedes that statement.

This prospectus may contain information that updates, modifies or is contrary to information in one or more of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus or the date of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, at no cost to the requester, a copy of any and all of the information that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

Requests for such documents should be directed to:

MediciNova, Inc.

Attn: Investor Relations

4275 Executive Square, Suite 300

La Jolla, California 92037

(858) 373-1500

 

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You may also access the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus through our website at www.medicinova.com. Except for the specific incorporated documents listed above, no information available on or through our website shall be deemed to be incorporated in this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

 

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$75,000,000

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

B. Riley FBR

 

 

August 23, 2019

 

 

 

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